WorldWideScience

Sample records for flow pattern transition

  1. Gas liquid flow at microgravity conditions - Flow patterns and their transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukler, A. E.; Fabre, J. A.; Mcquillen, J. B.; Vernon, R.

    1987-01-01

    The prediction of flow patterns during gas-liquid flow in conduits is central to the modern approach for modeling two phase flow and heat transfer. The mechanisms of transition are reasonably well understood for flow in pipes on earth where it has been shown that body forces largely control the behavior observed. This work explores the patterns which exist under conditions of microgravity when these body forces are suppressed. Data are presented which were obtained for air-water flow in tubes during drop tower experiments and Learjet trajectories. Preliminary models to explain the observed flow pattern map are evolved.

  2. Flow pattern transition accompanied with sudden growth of flow resistance in two-dimensional curvilinear viscoelastic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Yatou, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    We find three types of steady solutions and remarkable flow pattern transitions between them in a two-dimensional wavy-walled channel for low to moderate Reynolds (Re) and Weissenberg (Wi) numbers using direct numerical simulations with spectral element method. The solutions are called "convective", "transition", and "elastic" in ascending order of Wi. In the convective region in the Re-Wi parameter space, the convective effect and the pressure gradient balance on average. As Wi increases, the elastic effect becomes suddenly comparable and the first transition sets in. Through the transition, a separation vortex disappears and a jet flow induced close to the wall by the viscoelasticity moves into the bulk; The viscous drag significantly drops and the elastic wall friction rises sharply. This transition is caused by an elastic force in the streamwise direction due to the competition of the convective and elastic effects. In the transition region, the convective and elastic effects balance. When the elastic eff...

  3. Flow pattern transition accompanied with sudden growth of flow resistance in two-dimensional curvilinear viscoelastic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatou, Hiroki

    2010-09-01

    We numerically find three types of steady solutions of viscoelastic flows and flow pattern transitions between them in a two-dimensional wavy-walled channel for low to moderate Weissenberg (Wi) and Reynolds (Re) numbers using a spectral element method. The solutions are called "convective," "transition," and "elastic" in ascending order of Wi. In the convective region in the Wi-Re parameter space, convective effect and pressure gradient balance on average. As Wi increases, elastic effect becomes comparable, and the first transition sets in. Through the transition, a separation vortex disappears, and a jet flow induced close to the wall by the viscoelasticity moves into the bulk; the viscous drag significantly drops, and the elastic wall friction rises sharply. This transition is caused by an elastic force in the streamwise direction due to the competition of the convective and elastic effects. In the transition region, the convective and elastic effects balance. When the elastic effect becomes greater than the convective effect, the second transition occurs but it is relatively moderate. The second transition seems to be governed by the so-called Weissenberg effect. These transitions are not sensitive to driving forces. By a scaling analysis, it is shown that the stress component is proportional to the Reynolds number on the boundary of the first transition in the Wi-Re space. This scaling coincides well with the numerical result.

  4. Flow pattern transition accompanied with sudden growth of flow resistance in two-dimensional curvilinear viscoelastic flows

    OpenAIRE

    Yatou, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    We find three types of steady solutions and remarkable flow pattern transitions between them in a two-dimensional wavy-walled channel for low to moderate Reynolds (Re) and Weissenberg (Wi) numbers using direct numerical simulations with spectral element method. The solutions are called "convective", "transition", and "elastic" in ascending order of Wi. In the convective region in the Re-Wi parameter space, the convective effect and the pressure gradient balance on average. As Wi increases, th...

  5. Flow patterns and their transition characteristicsof the air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with asudden-changed cross-section area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns in upstream and downstream straight tubes of sudden-changedareas in ahorizontal straight pipe were experimentally examined. Both sudden-expansioncross-section (SECS)and sudden-contraction cross-section (SCCS) were investigated. The flow pattern mapsupstream anddownstream were delineated and compared with those in straight tubes with uniformcross-sections.The effects of the SECS and SCCS on flow patterns were discussed and analyzed.Furthermore, flowpattern transition mechanisms resulting in occurrences of different flow patternswere simplydiscussed and some transition criteria for the flow pattern transitions were deduced byusing the non-dimensionlized analysis method.

  6. Interfacial wave patterns and their transitions in gas-liquid two-phase flow through horizontal ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The interfacial wave patterns and their transition characteristics in gas-liquid two-phase flow through rectangular and circular horizontal conduits are investigated.The interfacial waves were traced and recorded by using conductance probes.With the experimental observation and the analysis,some kinds of different interfacial waves were distinguished and dfined,and then the interfacial wave patterns were given,which were compared with previous results.The interfacial wave transition mechanism between each interfacial wave pattern was discussed and a set of transition equations were presented to predict the interfacial wave pattern transitions.The repdictive results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Reorganization of ice sheet flow patterns in Arctic Canada and the mid-Pleistocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsnider, Kurt A.; Miller, Gifford H.

    2010-07-01

    Evidence for the evolution of Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) basal thermal regime patterns during successive glaciations is poorly preserved in the geologic record. Here we explore a new approach to constrain the distribution of cold-based ice across central Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic over many glacial-interglacial cycles by combining till geochemistry and cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) data. Parts of the landscaped with geomorphic evidence for limited glacial erosion are covered by till characterized by high chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and CRN concentrations requiring complicated burial-exposure histories. Till from regions scoured by glacial erosion have CIA values indistinguishable from local bedrock and CRN concentrations that can be explained by simple exposure following deglaciation. CRN modeling results based on these constraints suggest that the weathered tills were deposited by 1.9 to 1.2 Ma, and by that time the fiorded Baffin Island coastline must have developed close to its modern configuration as piracy of ice flow by the most efficient fiord systems resulted in a major shift in the basal thermal regime across the northeastern LIS. The resultant concentration of ice flow in fewer outlet systems may help explain the cause of the mid-Pleistocene transition from 41- to 100-kyr glacial cycles.

  8. Characterization of flow pattern transitions for horizontal liquid-liquid pipe flows by using multi-scale distribution entropy in coupled 3D phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Zong, Yan-Bo; Wang, Hong-Mei; Yan, Cong; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal oil-water two-phase flows often exist in many industrial processes. Uncovering the dynamic mechanism of the flow pattern transition is of great significance for modeling the flow parameters. In this study we propose a method called multi-scale distribution entropy (MSDE) in a coupled 3D phase space, and use it to characterize the flow pattern transitions in horizontal oil-water two-phase flows. Firstly, the proposed MSDE is validated with Lorenz system and ARFIMA processes. Interestingly, it is found that the MSDE is dramatically associated with the cross-correlations of the coupled time series. Then, through conducting the experiment of horizontal oil-water two-phase flows, the upstream and downstream flow information is collected using a conductance cross-correlation velocity probe. The coupled cross-correlated signals are investigated using the MSDE method, and the results indicate that the MSDE is an effective tool uncovering the complex dynamic behaviors of flow pattern transitions.

  9. Characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of five refrigerants in horizontal circular small tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamitran, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Choi, Kwang-Il [Graduate School, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Oh, Jong-Taek [Department of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Hrnjak, Pega [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, ACRC, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    An experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of R-22, R-134a, R-410A, R-290 and R-744 in horizontal small stainless steel tubes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mm inner diameters is presented. Experimental data were obtained over a heat flux range of 5-40 kW/m{sup 2}, mass flux range of 50-600 kg/(m{sup 2} s), saturation temperature range of 0-15 C, and quality up to 1.0. Experimental data were evaluated with Wang et al. and Wojtan et al. [Wang, C.C., Chiang, C.S., Lu, D.C., 1997. Visual observation of two-phase flow pattern of R-22, R-134a, and R-407C in a 6.5-mm smooth tube. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 15, 395-405; Wojtan, L., Ursenbacher, T., Thome, J.R., 2005. Investigation of flow boiling in horizontal tubes: part I - a new diabatic two-phase flow pattern map. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 48, 2955-2969.] flow pattern maps. The effects of mass flux, heat flux, saturation temperature and inner tube diameter on the pressure drop of the working refrigerants are reported. The experimental pressure drop was compared with the predictions from some existing correlations. A new two-phase pressure drop model that is based on a superposition model for two-phase flow boiling of refrigerants in small tubes is presented. (author)

  10. Interfacial-tension-force model for the wavy stratified liquid-liquid flow pattern transition: The usage of two different approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcelo Souza; Rodriguez, Oscar Mauricio Hernandez

    2016-06-01

    The study of the hydrodynamic stability of flow patterns is important in the design of equipment and pipelines for multiphase flows. The maintenance of a particular flow pattern becomes important in many applications, e.g., stratified flow pattern in heavy oil production avoiding the formation of emulsions because of the separation of phases and annular flow pattern in heat exchangers which increases the heat transfer coefficient. Flow maps are drawn to orientate engineers which flow pattern is present in a pipeline, for example. The ways how these flow maps are drawn have changed from totally experimental work, to phenomenological models, and then to stability analysis theories. In this work an experimental liquid-liquid flow map, with water and viscous oil as work fluids, drawn via subjective approach with high speed camera was used to compare to approaches of the same theory: the interfacial-tension-force model. This theory was used to drawn the wavy stratified flow pattern transition boundary. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches of the interfacial-tension-force model for transition boundaries of liquid-liquid flow patterns: (i) solving the wave equation for the wave speed and using average values for wave number and wave speed; and (ii) solving the same equation for the wave number and then using a correlation for the wave speed. The results show that the second approach presents better results.

  11. Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, M.; Chao, D.

    1999-01-01

    Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.

  12. Flow-induced arrest of spatiotemporal chaos and transition to a stationary pattern in the Gray-Scott model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debojyoti

    2015-11-01

    We examine the prototypical Gray-Scott model, which mimics cubic autocatalytic reaction with linear decay of the autocatalyst, to model the kinetics of a reaction-diffusion system subjected to advective streamline flow. For a proper choice of boundary conditions and parameter space, the system admits wave-induced spatiotemporal chaos in the absence of flow. We show that flow above a critical value leads to an arrest of the spatiotemporal chaos due to a change in the instability from absolute to convective type. Furthermore, stationary spatial structures are borne out of a second successive bifurcation for yet another critical flow value. The theoretical formulations are corroborated by extensive numerical simulation of the full reaction-diffusion-advection system in one dimension.

  13. Investigation on flow patterns and transition characteristics in a tube-bundle channel%管束通道内沸腾两相流特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向文元; 吕永红; 赵桂生

    2012-01-01

    Tube-bundle channels have been widely used in condenser-evaporator and other industrial heat-exchange equipments. The characteristics of two-phase flow patterns and their transitions for refrigerant R-113 through a vertical tube-bundle channel are experimentally investigated using high-speed camera. Experiments show that there are four main flow patterns in the tube-bundle channel, which are bubbly flow, bubbly-churn flow,churn flow and annular flow. And in the same cross-section of tube-bundle channels,it is shown that there might be different flow patterns in different subchannels. The flow pattern transitions exhibit unsynchronized in different subchannels. On the basis of experimental research, the flow pattern map is drawn and analyses are made on the comparison of differences between boiling flow patterns in a circular tube and those in a tube-bundle channel.%以R113为工质,采用高速动态分析仪对垂直管束通道内的沸腾两相流型及其转变特性进行了实验研究.对管束狭窄通道内沸腾两相流型进行划分,并与圆管内的两相流型进行比较,在此基础上对通道几何形状及物理参数对管束通道内沸腾两相流型及其转变特性的影响进行分析,为进一步对管束通道内流型判定、沸腾换热及阻力压降的研究奠定了基础.

  14. Flow visualization of swept wing boundary layer transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpieri, J.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the flow visualization of the transition pattern occurring on a swept wing in a subsonic flow is presented. This is done by means of fluorescent oil flow technique and boundary layer hot-wire scans. The experiment was performed at Reynolds number of 2:15 . 106 and at angle of attack of

  15. Transition in particle-laden flows

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkenberg, J Joy

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of laminar to turbulent transition of particle laden flows. When a flow becomes turbulent, the drag increases one order of magnitude compared to a laminar flow, therefore, much research is devoted to understand and influence the transition. Previous research at the Linne Flow Centre at KTH has concentrated on the understanding of the bypass transition process of single-phase fluids. Though there are still questions, the principles of this process are now, more o...

  16. Investigation of Turbulent Laminar Patterns in Poiseuille-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios

    2014-11-01

    Laminar-turbulent intermittency has recently been observed in the transitional regime of pipe ... and plane Couette flow .... While many works focus on behavior of these patterns in plane Couette flow, little attention has been paid to Poiseuille flow and transition from Couette to Poiseuille flow. In this study, we investigate behavior of turbulent laminar patterns in Poiseuille-Couette flow, including pure Poiseuille and Couette flows at two limits. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to simulate a Poiseuille-Couette channel at a size of 16 πh × 2h × 2 πh (corresponding to a resolution of 512 × 129 × 128 in x, y and z directions), with periodic boundary condition applied in the x and z directions (h is half of the channel height). The Reynolds number is 300, and the flow is at transitional regime in all simulations. Behavior of laminar turbulent patterns as the flow goes from Couette to Poiseuille flow will be presented in details. This would shed some light on the effect of different types of flow on these patterns, as well as how these patterns vary from fully Poiseuille flow to fully Couette flow.

  17. Two Phase Flow Mapping and Transition Under Microgravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Masood; Chao, David F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, recent microgravity two-phase flow data for air-water, air-water-glycerin, and air- water-Zonyl FSP mixtures are analyzed for transition from bubbly to slug and from slug to annular flow. It is found that Weber number-based maps are inadequate to predict flow-pattern transition, especially over a wide range of liquid flow rates. It is further shown that slug to annular flow transition is dependent on liquid phase Reynolds number at high liquid flow rate. This effect may be attributed to growing importance of liquid phase inertia in the dynamics of the phase flow and distribution. As a result a new form of scaling is introduced to present data using liquid Weber number based on vapor and liquid superficial velocities and Reynolds number based on liquid superficial velocity. This new combination of the dimensionless parameters seem to be more appropriate for the presentation of the microgravity data and provides a better flow pattern prediction and should be considered for evaluation with data obtained in the future. Similarly, the analysis of bubble to slug flow transition indicates a strong dependence on both liquid inertia and turbulence fluctuations which seem to play a significant role on this transition at high values of liquid velocity. A revised mapping of data using a new group of dimensionless parameters show a better and more consistent description of flow transition over a wide range of liquid flow rates. Further evaluation of the proposed flow transition mapping will have to be made after a wider range of microgravity data become available.

  18. Experiments on Transitional Subaqueous Density Flows and Resulting Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaal, Z. D.; Parker, G.

    2016-12-01

    Much remains unknown regarding the sedimentary deposits of submarine gravity flows. Flows with large concentrations of suspended sediment may transition from a more turbulent to a more coherent flow type. Such transitional flows may be produced when turbulence becomes suppressed due to entrainment of cohesive sediment or from flow deceleration. Argillaceous sandstones and linked turbidite-debrites are types of submarine sediment deposits in a category known as hybrid event beds, and are interpreted to be emplaced by transitional regime flows (Talling, 2007; Davis, 2009; Haughton, 2009; Hodgson, 2009; Sumner, 2009; Baas, 2011; Lee, 2013; and Talling, 2013). Here we report on the physical modelling of such transitional flows. The sediment consists of mixtures of non-cohesive silica flour with a median grain size of 30 microns and kaolin clay with a median size of 4 microns. These sediments were mixed in ratios including 100%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 30% and 0% kaolin. Total volume concentration of the input slurry varied from 0.01 to 0.2, allowing coverage of wide range of transitional flow types. The flow passed over a 4.9-m-long bed with a slope of 7 degrees, and continued another 4.9 m over a horizontal bed before exiting the tank. Measurements of flow velocity profiles, flow concentrations, deposit geometry, and deposit grain-size distributions were conducted. The results of experiments help us to better understand the rheology, and to determine the structure and patterns of deposits including argillaceous sandstones.

  19. The Effect of Sudden Change in Pipe Diameter on Flow Patterns of Air-Water Two-Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns upstream and downstream of a sudden-contraction cross-section in a vertical straight pipe were presented. By comparing with flow patterns in uniform croes-section vertical tubes, the effect of the sudden change in pipe diameter on flow patterns was analyzed. Flow pattern transition mechanisms were discussed and transition criteria for flow pattern transitions were deduced accordingly using the dimensional analysis.

  20. Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn

    2015-11-01

    In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.

  1. Instabilities of flows and transition to turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Tapan K

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Instability and TransitionIntroductionWhat Is Instability?Temporal and Spatial InstabilitySome Instability MechanismsComputing Transitional and Turbulent FlowsFluid Dynamical EquationsSome Equilibrium Solutions of the Basic EquationBoundary Layer TheoryControl Volume Analysis of Boundary LayersNumerical Solution of the Thin Shear Layer (TSL) EquationLaminar Mixing LayerPlane Laminar JetIssues of Computing Space-Time Dependent FlowsWave Interaction: Group Velocity and Energy FluxIssues of Space-Time Scale Resolution of FlowsTemporal Scales in Turbulent FlowsComputing Time-Averag

  2. State Transitions of Black Hole Accretion Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢炬甫; 潘刘彬

    2001-01-01

    We show that the thermal instability-triggered transition from the state of the Shakura-Sunyaev disc to the state of the advection-dominated accretion flow is possible for black hole accretion flows composed of two-temperature plasma with bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation and Comptonization.

  3. Flow pattern in reverse-flow centrifugal separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, W; Hoffmann, AC; Boot, PJAJ; Udding, A; Dries, HWA; Ekker, A; Kater, J

    2002-01-01

    Experimental flow patterns, determined by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) for two types of reverse-flow centrifugal separators, are presented. The flow patterns in (a) a conventional cylinder-on-cone cyclone with tangential inlet and (b) a swirl tube with vane-generated swirl and a cylindrical body a

  4. Simple models for shear flow transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Dwight

    2011-11-01

    I will discuss recent developments in modeling transitional shear flows with simple two-variable models. Both pipe flow and plane Couette flow are considered. The essential insight is that most large-scale features of these shear flows can be traced to a change from excitability to bistability in the local dynamics. Models are presented in two variables, turbulence intensity and mean shear. A PDE model of pipe flow captures the essence of the puff-slug transition as a change from excitability to bistability. Extended models with turbulence as deterministic transient chaos or multiplicative noise reproduce almost all large-scale features of transitional pipe flow. In particular they capture metastable localized puffs, puff splitting, slugs, localized edge states, a continuous transition to sustained turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency (directed percolation), and a subsequent increase in turbulence fraction towards uniform, featureless turbulence. A model that additionally takes into account the symmetries of plane Couette flow reproduces localized turbulence and periodic turbulent-laminar bands.

  5. Coherent structures in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Leo H. O.; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Smits, Alexander J.

    2016-06-01

    Transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated experimentally using a temporally resolved dual-plane particle image velocimetry approach, at a Reynolds number of 3440. The flow is analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition and it is shown that the flow can be divided into two regions: a pseudolaminar region governed by the presence of azimuthally steady traveling waves, and turbulent slugs. The evolution of the structures within the slugs is identified by using the temporally resolved data along with the dual-plane velocity field. These structures are shown to be remarkably similar to the large-scale motions found in fully turbulent flows, with a streamwise and spatiotemporal extent about four pipe radii. The transition between structures is characterized by the detachment and decay of an old structure and the initiation of a new structure at the wall.

  6. Climatology of local flow patterns around Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Recently a method has been developed to classify local-scale flow patterns from the wind measurements at a dense network of stations. It was found that in the MISTRAL area around Basel a dozen characteristic flow patterns occur. However, as the dense network of stations ran only during one year, no reliable climatology can be inferred from these data, especially the annual cycle of the flow patterns is not well determined from a single year of observations. As there exist several routinely operated stations in and near the MISTRAL area, a method was searched to identify the local flow patterns from the observations at the few routine stations. A linear discriminant analysis turned out to be the best method. Based of data from 11 stations which were simultaneously operated during 1990-1995 a six-year climatology of the flow patterns could be obtained. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  7. Experiments on the transition from stratified to slug flow in multiphase pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, Olav

    2004-12-01

    Severe slugging is reported from some field operations, where an increase in the production rate leads to a transition from steady stratified flow to slug flow in the pipeline. The slugs can be longer than anticipated for hydrodynamic slugging and the flow transients can then be a limitation for the production capacity. The objective was to perform a study on the flow pattern transition from stratified to slug flow. A particular point of interest was the possible occurrence of metastable flow and large initial slugs at elevated pressures. New data have been acquired in an experimental investigation of the transition from stratified to slug flow in horizontal and near-horizontal pipes at atmospheric and pressurised conditions. The experiments were performed with two-phase gas liquid and three-phase gas-liquid-liquid flows. Two flow facilities were used the NTNU Multiphase Flow Laboratory (short flow loop) and the SINTEF Multi-phase Flow Laboratory (long flow loop). Hold-up and pressure drop were measured, and flow patterns were determined visually and by evaluation of hold-up time traces. The following parameters were varied: 1) Inlet flow condition by variation of inlet pipe inclination. 2) System pressure (gas density). 3) Test section inclination (horizontal and near-horizontal). 4) Water cut. 5) Gas and liquid flow rates. 6) Pipe length. Slug flow or stratified flow was introduced upstream to promote either early or delayed transition to slug flow in the test section. A time series analysis was performed on the hold-up time traces, and average and distribution slug characteristics are reported, e.g. slug frequency, bubble propagation velocity, slug fraction, slug length, and growth rate. The results have been compared with steady state model predictions. The work consists of the following parts. 1) An initial study was performed at atmospheric air-water conditions in a short pipe. 2) Experiments at atmospheric and elevated pressures were performed in the medium

  8. Wetting transition on patterned surfaces: transition states and energy barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiqing

    2014-03-18

    We study the wetting transition on microstructured hydrophobic surfaces. We use the string method [J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 164103; J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 134105] to accurately compute the transition states, the energy barriers, and the minimum energy paths for the wetting transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state. Numerical results are obtained for the wetting of a hydrophobic surface textured with a square lattice of pillars. It is found that the wetting of the solid substrate occurs via infiltration of the liquid in a single groove, followed by lateral propagation of the liquid front. The propagation of the liquid front proceeds in a stepwise manner, and a zipping mechanism is observed during the infiltration of each layer. The minimum energy path for the wetting transition goes through a sequence of intermediate metastable states, whose wetted areas reflect the microstructure of the patterned surface. We also study the dependence of the energy barrier on the drop size and the gap between the pillars.

  9. Arterial secondary blood flow patterns visualized with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Jens Munk

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first quantification and visualisation of secondary flow patterns with vector flow ultrasound. The first commercial implementation of the vector flow method Transverse Oscillation was used to obtain in-vivo, 2D vector fields in real-time. The hypothesis of this study...

  10. Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L

    2009-11-01

    Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases-free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams-occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.

  11. Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.

    2009-11-01

    Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases—free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams—occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.

  12. Phase transitions in contagion processes mediated by recurrent mobility patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Balcan, Duygu; 10.1038/nphys1944

    2011-01-01

    Human mobility and activity patterns mediate contagion on many levels, including the spatial spread of infectious diseases, diffusion of rumors, and emergence of consensus. These patterns however are often dominated by specific locations and recurrent flows and poorly modeled by the random diffusive dynamics generally used to study them. Here we develop a theoretical framework to analyze contagion within a network of locations where individuals recall their geographic origins. We find a phase transition between a regime in which the contagion affects a large fraction of the system and one in which only a small fraction is affected. This transition cannot be uncovered by continuous deterministic models due to the stochastic features of the contagion process and defines an invasion threshold that depends on mobility parameters, providing guidance for controlling contagion spread by constraining mobility processes. We recover the threshold behavior by analyzing diffusion processes mediated by real human commutin...

  13. Unraveling flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    From climatology to biofluidics, the characterization of complex flows relies on computationally expensive kinematic and kinetic measurements. In addition, such big data are difficult to handle in real time, thereby hampering advancements in the area of flow control and distributed sensing. Here, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised characterization of flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning. Specifically, we apply the isometric feature mapping (Isomap) to experimental video data of the wake past a circular cylinder from steady to turbulent flows. Without direct velocity measurements, we show that manifold topology is intrinsically related to flow regime and that Isomap global coordinates can unravel salient flow features.

  14. Unraveling flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Tauro

    Full Text Available From climatology to biofluidics, the characterization of complex flows relies on computationally expensive kinematic and kinetic measurements. In addition, such big data are difficult to handle in real time, thereby hampering advancements in the area of flow control and distributed sensing. Here, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised characterization of flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning. Specifically, we apply the isometric feature mapping (Isomap to experimental video data of the wake past a circular cylinder from steady to turbulent flows. Without direct velocity measurements, we show that manifold topology is intrinsically related to flow regime and that Isomap global coordinates can unravel salient flow features.

  15. Algebraic disturbances and their consequences in rotating channel flow transition

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Sharath; Pier, Benoît; Govindarajan, Rama

    2016-01-01

    It is now established that subcritical mechanisms play a crucial role in the transition to turbulence of non-rotating plane shear flows. The role of these mechanisms in rotating channel flow is examined here in the linear and nonlinear stages. Distinct patterns of behaviour are found: the transient growth leading to nonlinearity at low rotation rates $Ro$, a highly chaotic intermediate $Ro$ regime, a localised weak chaos at higher $Ro$, and complete stabilization of transient disturbances at very high $Ro$. At very low $Ro$, the transient growth amplitudes are close to those for non-rotating flow, but Coriolis forces already assert themselves by producing distinct asymmetry about the channel centreline. Nonlinear processes are then triggered, in a streak-breakdown mode of transition. The high $Ro$ regimes do not show these signatures, here the leading eigenmode emerges as dominant in the early stages. Elongated structures plastered close to one wall are seen at higher rotation rates. Rotation is shown to redu...

  16. Turbulent patterns in wall-bounded flows: a Turing instability?

    CERN Document Server

    Manneville, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In their way to/from turbulence, plane wall-bounded flows display an interesting transitional regime where laminar and turbulent oblique bands alternate, the origin of which is still mysterious. In line with Barkley's recent work about the pipe flow transition involving reaction-diffusion concepts, we consider plane Couette flow in the same perspective and transform Waleffe's classical four-variable model of self-sustaining process into a reaction-diffusion model. We show that, upon fulfillment of a condition on the relative diffusivities of its variables, the featureless turbulent regime becomes unstable against patterning as the result of a Turing instability. A reduced two-variable model helps us to delineate the appropriate region of parameter space. An {\\it intrinsic} status is therefore given to the pattern's wavelength for the first time. Virtues and limitations of the model are discussed, calling for a microscopic support of the phenomenological approach.

  17. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  18. Time Irreversibility from Time Series for Analyzing Oil-in-Water Flow Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We first experimentally collect conductance fluctuation signals of oil-in-water two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. Then we detect the flow pattern asymmetry character from the collected signals with multidimensional time irreversibility and multiscale time irreversibility index. Moreover, we propose a novel criterion, that is, AMSI (average of multiscale time irreversibility, to quantitatively investigate the oil-in-water two-phase flow pattern dynamics. The results show that AMSI is sensitive to the flow pattern evolution that can be used to predict the flow pattern transition and bubble coalescence.

  19. Interactive visualization and analysis of transitional flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory P; Calo, Victor M; Gaither, Kelly P

    2008-01-01

    A stand-alone visualization application has been developed by a multi-disciplinary, collaborative team with the sole purpose of creating an interactive exploration environment allowing turbulent flow researchers to experiment and validate hypotheses using visualization. This system has specific optimizations made in data management, caching computations, and visualization allowing for the interactive exploration of datasets on the order of 1TB in size. Using this application, the user (co-author Calo) is able to interactively visualize and analyze all regions of a transitional flow volume, including the laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regions. The underlying goal of the visualizations produced from these transitional flow simulations is to localize turbulent spots in the laminar region of the boundary layer, determine under which conditions they form, and follow their evolution. The initiation of turbulent spots, which ultimately lead to full turbulence, was located via a proposed feature detection condition and verified by experimental results. The conditions under which these turbulent spots form and coalesce are validated and presented.

  20. Experimental investigation of flow pattern and sediment deposition in rectangular shallow reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthieu DUFRESNE; Benjamin J.DEWALS; Sébastien ERPICUM; Pierre ARCHAMBEAU; Michel PIROTTON

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental investigation of flow pattern, preferential regions of deposition and trap efficiency as a function of the length of rectangular shallow reservoirs. Four flow patterns were identified (from longer to shorter reservoirs): an asymmetric flow with two reattachment points, an asymmetric flow with one reattachment point, an unstable flow, and a symmetric flow without any reattachment point. Using dye visualizations, the median value and the temporal variability of the reattachment lengths were precisely measured for the asymmetric flows. For each stable flow, sediment tests with plastic particles were carried out. The regions of deposition on the bed of the reservoir were clearly a function of the flow pattern. The transition from an asymmetric flow pattern to a symmetric flow pattern was responsible for an abrupt decrease of the trap efficiency; a number of regression laws were discussed to take it into account.

  1. Analyzing highway flow patterns using cluster analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, Wendy; van Berkum, Eric C.; Pfliegl, R.

    2005-01-01

    Historical traffic patterns can be used for the prediction of traffic flows, as input for macroscopic traffic models, for the imputation of missing or erroneous data and as a basis for traffic management scenarios. This paper investigates the determination of historical traffic patterns by means of

  2. Dynamics of a two-phase flow through a minichannel: Transition from churn to slug flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Grzegorz; Litak, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    The churn-to-slug flow bifurcations of two-phase (air-water) flow patterns in a 2mm diameter minichannel were investigated. With increasing a water flow rate, we observed the transition of slugs to bubbles of different sizes. The process was recorded by a digital camera. The sequences of light transmission time series were recorded by a laser-phototransistor sensor, and then analyzed using the recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). Due to volume dependence of bubbles velocities, we observed the formation of periodic modulations in the laser signal.

  3. EFFECT OF SURFACTANT ON TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS OF WATER-GAS IN CAPILLARY TUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Flow patterns of liquid-gas two-phase flow were experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in both vertical and horizontal capillary tubes having inner diameters of 1.60 mm. The working liquid was the mixture of water and Sodium Dodecyl Benzoyl Sulfate (SDBS). The working gas was Nitrogen. For the water/SDBS mixture-gas flow in the vertical capillary tube, flow-pattern transitions occurred at lower flow velocities than those for the water-gas flow in the same tube. For the water/SDBS mixture-gas flow in the horizontal capillary tube, surface tension had little effect on the bubbly-intermittent transition and had only slight effect on the plug-slug and slug-annular transitions. However, surface tension had significant effect on the wavy stratified flow regime. The wavy stratified flow regime of water/SDBS mixture-gas flow expanded compared with that of water-gas.

  4. FLOW PATTERNS AND FORCE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAMINAR FLOW PAST FOUR CYLINDERS IN DIAMOND ARRANGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Lin; LIN Yu-feng; LU Hong

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical investigation of cross-flow past four circular cylinders in a diamond arrangement at Reynolds number of 200 is carried out. With the spacing ratios ( L/D ) ranging from 1.2 to 5.0, the flow patterns can be classified into three basic regimes. The critical spacing ratio for the transition from narrow gap flow pattern to vortex impingement flow pattern around the cylinders is found to be L/D = 3.0, while a single bluff-body flow pattern is observed at L/D = 1.2. The relationship between the three-dimensional flow patterns and force characteristics around the four cylinders shows that the variation of forces and Strouhal numbers against L/D are generally governed by these three kinds of flow patterns. It is concluded that the spacing ratio has important effects on the development of the free shear layers about the cylinders and hence has significant effects on the force and pressure characteristics of the four cylinders with different spacing ratios.

  5. The relationship between void waves and flow regime transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Drew, D.A.; Kalkach-Navarro, S.; Park, J.W.

    1992-12-31

    The results of an extensive experimental and analytical study on the relationship between void waves and flow regime transition are presented, in particular, the bubbly/slug flow regime transition. It is shown that void wave instability signals a flow regime transition.

  6. FLOW PATTERN AND PRESSURE LOSS OF OIL-WATER TWO-PHASE FLOW IN HORIZONTAL STEEL PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; YAN Da-fan; ZHAO Jing-mei; AN Wei-jie; YAN Da-chun

    2005-01-01

    Experimental Study on oil-water two-phase flow patterns and pressure loss was conducted on a horizontal steel pipe loop with 26.1mm inner diameter and 30m total length.The working fluids are white oil, diesel oil and tap water.Several instruments, including a new type of liquid-probe are successfully integrated to identify 7 different flow patterns.The characteristics of the flow patterns and the transition process were observed and depicted in this paper.Investigation revealed that the pressure loss was mainly depended on the flow patterns.

  7. Geometrical effects on the airfoil flow separation and transition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-25

    We present results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of incompressible flow over two airfoils, NACA-4412 and NACA-0012-64, to investigate the effects of the airfoil geometry on the flow separation and transition patterns at Re=104 and 10 degrees incidence. The two chosen airfoils are geometrically similar except for maximum camber (respectively 4%C and 0 with C the chord length), which results in a larger projection area with respect to the incoming flow for the NACA-4412 airfoil, and a larger leeward surface curvature at the leading edge for the NACA-0012-64 airfoil. The governing equations are discretized using an energy conservative fourth-order spatial discretization scheme. An assessment on the two-point correlation indicates that a spanwise domain size of 0.8C is sufficiently large for the present simulations. We discuss flow separation at the airfoil leading edge, transition of the separated shear layer to three-dimensional flow and subsequently to turbulence. Numerical results reveal a stronger adverse pressure gradient field in the leading edge region of the NACA-0012-64 airfoil due to the rapidly varying surface curvature. As a result, the flow experiences detachment at x/C=0.08, and the separated shear layer transition via Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism occurs at x/C=0.29 with fully developed turbulent flow around x/C=0.80. These flow development phases are delayed to occur at much downstream positions, respectively, observed around x/C=0.25, 0.71 and 1.15 for the NACA-4412 airfoil. The turbulent intensity, measured by the turbulent fluctuations and turbulent Reynolds stresses, are much larger for NACA-0012-64 from the transition onset until the airfoil trailing edge, while turbulence develops significantly downstream of the trailing edge for the NACA-4412 airfoil. For both airfoils, our DNS results indicate that the mean Reynolds stress u\\'u\\'/U02 reaches its maximum value at a distance from the surface approximately equal to the displacement

  8. Using Wilson flow to study the SU(3) deconfinement transition

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Saumen; Lytle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of Wilson flow to study the deconfinement transition in SU(3) gauge theory. We use the flowed Polyakov loop as a renormalized order parameter for the transition, and use it to renormalize the Polyakov loop. We also study the flow properties of the electric and magnetic gluon condensates, and demonstrate that the difference of the flowed operators shows rapid change across the transition point.

  9. Fast Radial Flows in Transition Disk Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A; Andrews, Sean M

    2013-01-01

    Protoplanetary "transition" disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival ALMA data on the transition disk HD 142527, and uncover evidence for free-fal...

  10. Dynamic Transition and Pattern Formation in Taylor Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian MA; Shouhong WANG

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to study both dynamic and structural transitions of the Taylor-Couette flow,by using the dynamic transition theory and geometric theory of incompressible flows developed recently by the authors.In particular,it is shown that as the Taylor number crosses the critical number,the system undergoes either a continuous or a jump dynamic transition,dictated by the sign of a computable,nondimensional parameter R.In addition,it is also shown that the new transition states have the Taylor vortex type of flow structure,which is structurally stable.

  11. Phase transition and bistable phenomenon of granular flows down a chute with successive turnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guo-Cheng; Liu, Qi-Yi [School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hu, Mao-Bin, E-mail: humaobin@ustc.edu.cn [School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song [School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the granular flow down a chute with two successive turnings, which play the role of bottlenecks for the granular flow system and determine the granular flow state in main section between them. With the increase of main section width D, phase transition from dilute to dense granular flow is observed: When the main section width D is small (large), the granular flow at upper (lower) bottleneck is dense and the granular flow is dilute (dense) in the main section. More interestingly, a bistable region is exhibited, in which either dilute flow or dense flow may occur and continue for the entire run. In this region, the packing in the reservoir will affect initial flow rate and then affect the flow pattern. This study can be viewed as a paradigm for the jamming and unjamming transitions under shear due to gravity.

  12. Turbulent-laminar patterns in plane Poiseuille flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tuckerman, Laurette S; Schrobsdorff, Hecke; Schneider, Tobias M; Gibson, John F

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent-laminar banded patterns in plane Poiseuille flow are studied via direct numerical simulations in a tilted and translating computational domain using a parallel version of the pseudospectral code Channelflow. 3D visualizations via the streamwise vorticity of an instantaneous and a time-averaged pattern are presented, as well as 2D visualizations of the average velocity field and the turbulent kinetic energy. Simulations for Reynolds numbers descending from 2300 to 700 show the gradual development from uniform turbulence to a pattern with wavelength 20 half-gaps near Re=1900, to a pattern with wavelength 40 near Re=1300 and finally to laminar flow near Re=800. These transitions are tracked quantitatively via diagnostics using the amplitude and phase of the Fourier transform and its probability distribution. The propagation velocity of the pattern is approximately that of the mean flux and is a decreasing function of Reynolds number. Examination of the time-averaged flow shows that a turbulent band is ...

  13. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. I. Linear stability analysis and basic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K

    2001-06-01

    An asymptotic interface equation for directional solidification near the absolute stability limit is extended by a nonlocal term describing a shear flow parallel to the interface. In the long-wave limit considered, the flow acts destabilizing on a planar interface. Moreover, linear stability analysis suggests that the morphology diagram is modified by the flow near onset of the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Via numerical analysis, the bifurcation structure of the system is shown to change. Besides the known hexagonal cells, structures consisting of stripes arise. Due to its symmetry-breaking properties, the flow term induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern, once the instability has become active. The drift velocity is measured numerically and described analytically in the framework of a linear analysis. At large flow strength, the linear description breaks down, which is accompanied by a transition to flow-dominated morphologies which is described in the following paper. Small and intermediate flows lead to increased order in the lattice structure of the pattern, facilitating the elimination of defects. Locally oscillating structures appear closer to the instability threshold with flow than without.

  14. Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.

  15. FLOW PATTERNS AND DAMAGE OF DIKE OVERTOPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaiyuth CHINNARASRI; Tawatchai TINGSANCHALI; Sutat WEESAKUL; Somchai WONGWISES

    2003-01-01

    Damage of a dike may result in severe damage and suffering. To reduce downstream damage and loss of life, it is important to study the process of breaching of the damaged dike. It is not possible to understand the damage process without a clear understanding of the flow patterns encountered. In the present study, data obtained from nine experimental runs are analyzed. The flow patterns and progressive damage of dike overtopping are investigated. Two types of phenomena at the dike surface:erosion; and erosion and sliding, are observed during the overtopping event. Four stages of dike damage can be distinguished. The degradation rate of the dike crest is found to be dependent on the downstream slope of the dike. The degradation rate is higher when the downstream slope is steeper.

  16. Symmetry-induced pinning-depinning transition of a subharmonic wave pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Jeremías; Ortega, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G; Falcón, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    The stationary to drifting transition of a subharmonic wave pattern is studied in the presence of inhomogeneities and drift forces as the pattern wavelength is comparable with the system size. We consider a pinning-depinning transition of stationary subharmonic waves in a tilted quasi-one-dimensional fluidized shallow granular bed driven by a periodic air flow in a small cell. The transition is mediated by the competition of the inherent periodicity of the subharmonic pattern, the asymmetry of the system, and the finite size of the cell. Measurements of the mean phase velocity of the subharmonic pattern are in good agreement with those inferred from an amplitude equation, which takes into account asymmetry and finite-size effects of the system, emphasizing the main ingredients and mechanism of the transition.

  17. Metropolitanization:China’s Transitioning Urbanization Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amid larger institutional transitions,China has seen rapid urbanization stimulated by the marketization and new industrialization in the country.Now facing a series of new challenges,the traditional mode of urbanization needs to be changed.History has proven that metropolitanization is a necessary stage of urban development;under the circumstances of China’s current industrialization,metropolitanization emerges as the primary direction in China’s transitioning urbanization.This paper suggests certain measures for boosting metropolitanization and urbanization transition in China.

  18. PATTERN OF TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-03-03

    Mar 3, 2004 ... cancer of the urinary tract and transitional cell carcinoma accounts for ... Ndaguatha in a review of urinary bladder cancers in ... (ERBBI), EGFR (ERBB2), MYC and SRC. Their ..... Schairer, C., Harge, P., Hoover, R. N., et al.

  19. Characteristic flow patterns generated by macrozoobenthic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, M.; Graf, G.

    2009-02-01

    A laboratory flume channel, equipped with an acoustic Doppler flow sensor and a bottom scanning laser, was used for detailed, non-intrusive flow measurements (at 2 cm s - 1 and 10 cm s - 1 ) around solitary biogenic structures, combined with high-resolution mapping of the structure shape and position. The structures were replicates of typical macrozoobenthic species commonly found in the Mecklenburg Bight and with a presumed influence on both, the near-bed current regime and sediment transport dynamics: a worm tube, a snail shell, a mussel, a sand mound, a pit, and a cross-stream track furrow. The flow was considerably altered locally by the different protruding structures (worm tube, snail, mussel and mound). They reduced the horizontal approach velocity by 72% to 79% in the wake zone at about 1-2 cm height, and the flow was deflected around the structures with vertical and lateral velocities of up to 10% and 20% of the free-stream velocity respectively in a region adjacent to the structures. The resulting flow separation (at flow Reynolds number of about 4000 and 20,000 respectively) divided an outer deflection region from an inner region with characteristic vortices and the wake region. All protruding structures showed this general pattern, but also produced individual characteristics. Conversely, the depressions (track and pit) only had a weak influence on the local boundary layer flow, combined with a considerable flow reduction within their cavities (between 29% and 53% of the free-stream velocity). A longitudinal vortex formed, below which a stagnant space was found. The average height affected by the structure-related mass flow rate deficit for the two velocities was 1.6 cm and 1.3 cm respectively (80% of height and 64%) for the protruding structures and 0.6 cm and 0.9 cm (90% and 127% of depth) for the depressions. Marine benthic soft-bottom macrozoobenthos species are expected to benefit from the flow modifications they induce, particularly in terms of

  20. Tweaks to Turing Patterns, Wavelength Transitions in CDIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Delora; Pruc, Emily; Dolnik, Milos; Epstein, Irving

    2015-03-01

    Alan Turing predicted that stationary patterns could arise from a uniform steady state in a system through the processes of reaction and diffusion. Beyond the Turing instability, there exist spatially periodic states with different wavelengths. Pattern transitions, including those transitions to patterns of differing wavelengths are of interest in reaction-diffusion systems including ecological systems with patterned biomass prone to desertification. We study pattern transitions in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid (CDIMA) system which is the prototypical system for the study of Turing patterns in chemical systems. Additions of selected halides (bromides and chlorides) to the system in its patterned state have led to the observation of up to a five fold increase in wavelength. With the concentration of these halides as bifurcation parameter we observe that these large wavelength patterns are bistable with the uniform steady state. We explore the pattern wavelength selection of this system. Wavelength halving and super lattice structure formation result from transitions between patterns of different wavelengths.

  1. Instabilities of uniform filtration flows with phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'Ichev, A. T.; Tsypkin, G. G.

    2008-10-01

    New mechanisms of instability are described for vertical flows with phase transition through horizontally extended two-dimensional regions of a porous medium. A plane surface of phase transition becomes unstable at an infinitely large wavenumber and at zero wavenumber. In the latter case, the unstable flow undergoes reversible subcritical bifurcations leading to the development of secondary flows (which may not be horizontally uniform). The evolution of subcritical modes near the instability threshold is governed by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation. Two examples of flow through a porous medium are considered. One is the unstable flow across a water-bearing layer above a layer that carries a vapor-air mixture under isothermal conditions in the presence of capillary forces at the phase transition interface. The other is the vertical flow with phase transition in a high-temperature geothermal reservoir consisting of two high-permeability regions separated by a low-permeability stratum.

  2. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Pacific Transition Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Pacific Transition teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  3. Animating streamlines with repeated asymmetric patterns for steady flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Kuo; Liu, Zhanping; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-01-01

    Animation provides intuitive cueing for revealing essential spatial-temporal features of data in scientific visualization. This paper explores the design of Repeated Asymmetric Patterns (RAPs) in animating evenly-spaced color-mapped streamlines for dense accurate visualization of complex steady flows. We present a smooth cyclic variable-speed RAP animation model that performs velocity (magnitude) integral luminance transition on streamlines. This model is extended with inter-streamline synchronization in luminance varying along the tangential direction to emulate orthogonal advancing waves from a geometry-based flow representation, and then with evenly-spaced hue differing in the orthogonal direction to construct tangential flow streaks. To weave these two mutually dual sets of patterns, we propose an energy-decreasing strategy that adopts an iterative yet efficient procedure for determining the luminance phase and hue of each streamline in HSL color space. We also employ adaptive luminance interleaving in the direction perpendicular to the flow to increase the contrast between streamlines.

  4. Spatial Pattern of City Network in Transitional China Based on the Population Flows in“Chunyun”Period%春运人口流动透视的转型期中国城市网络结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏冶; 修春亮; 刘志敏; 陈伟

    2016-01-01

    The space of flows theory proposed by Manuel Castells has given birth to the network perspective of city network. In contrast with the traditional perspective of urban system which is based on the central place theory, city network perspective pays more attention to the interactions and linkages between cities and re-gions. Thus, the city network is becoming one of the new and hot topics in the field of urban geography.“Chu-nyun”is a well-known socio-economic phenomenon unique to transitional China, which refers to a blooming of population flows during the Spring Festival, or refers to the period when the blooming happens. Previously, the real population flows data in“Chunyun”were difficult to obtain. The situation had not changed until the“Big data on human migration during the spring festival from Baidu map”(“Baidu migration data”in short) came up. The big data were gathered from the locations provided by hundreds of millions smart phone users through Location Based Service (LBS) Baidu map data source, and was published in the form of interactive heat map that displays people’s travel routes in China during the Chunyun period. Based on Baidu migration data, using degree of external linkages, dominant flows and network-based rank-size analysis, the spatial pat-tern of city network in transitional China was studied in this article. The study process certificates that Baidu mi-gration data is indeed a high quality data sources for the study of city network, and has turned up some interest-ing results:1) The distribution of external linkage degree of cities in China follows Zipf’s law, but differs from the ideal Pareto distribution. 2) The factor of spatial distance and city level play key roles in the formation of ur-ban network of China, and ensure the hierarchy and regularity of the network. 3) The spatial distribution of core linkages in the city network could be summarized as“Three-horizontal&Two-longitudinal”, which almost co

  5. On laminar-turbulent transition in nanofluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzey, D. V.; Zhigarev, V. A.; Pryazhnikov, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents experimental data on the laminar-turbulent transition in the nanofluid flow in the pipe. The transition in the flows of such fluids is shown to have lower Reynolds numbers than in the base fluid. The degree of the flow destabilization increases with an increase in concentration of nanoparticles and a decrease in their size. On the other hand, in the turbulent flow regime, the presence of particles in the flow leads to the suppression of smallscale turbulent fluctuations. The correlation of the measured viscosity coefficient of considered nanofluids is presented.

  6. Criterion of Turbulent Transition in Pressure Driven Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2012-11-01

    It has been found from numerical simulations and experiments that velocity inflection could result in turbulent transition in viscous parallel flows. However, there are exceptions, for example, in the plane Poiseuille-Couette flow. Thus, whether velocity inflection necessarily leads to turbulent transition is still not clear. To-date, there is still no consensus on the physics of turbulence transition in the scientific community. In this study, the mechanism of turbulent transition is investigated using the energy gradient method. It is found that the transition to turbulence from a laminar flow depends on the magnitudes of the energy gradient function and the energy of the disturbance imposed (including both the amplitude and the frequency). Our study further reveals that the criterion of turbulent transition is different in pressure and shear driven flows. In pressure driven parallel flows, it is found that the necessary and sufficient condition of turbulent transition is the existence of an inflection point on the velocity profile. This criterion is found to be consistent with the available experimental data and numerical simulation results. On contrast, velocity inflection in shear driven flows does not necessarily lead to turbulent transition.

  7. MICROGRAVITY EXPERIMENTS OF TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS ABOARD MIR SPACE STATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建福; 解京昌; 林海; 胡文瑞; A.V. Ivanov; A.Yu. Belyaev

    2001-01-01

    A first experimental study on two-phase flow patterns at a long-term,steady microgravity condition was conducted on board the Russian Space Station "MIR" in August 1999. Carbogal and air are used as the liquid and the gas phase,respectively. Bubble, slug, slug-annular transitional, and annular flows are observed.A new region of annular flow with lower liquid superficial velocity is discovered,and the region of the slug-annular transitionalfiow is wider than that observed by experiments on board the parabolic aircraft. The main patterns are bubble, slug annular transitional and annular flows based on the experiments on board MIR space station. Some influences on the two-phase flow patterns in the present experiments are discussed.

  8. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. II. Morphologies and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K

    2001-06-01

    In the preceding paper, we have established an interface equation for directional solidification under the influence of a shear flow parallel to the interface. This equation is asymptotically valid near the absolute stability limit. The flow, described by a nonlocal term, induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern due to its symmetry-breaking properties. We find that at not-too-large flow strengths, the transcritical nature of the transition to hexagonal patterns shows up via a hexagonal modulation of the stripe pattern even when the linear instability threshold of the flowless case has not yet been attained. When the flow term is large, the linear description of the drift velocity breaks down and transitions to flow-dominated morphologies take place. The competition between flow-induced and diffusion-induced patterns (controlled by the temperature gradient) leads to new phenomena such as the transition to a different lattice structure in an array of hexagonal cells. Several methods to characterize the morphologies and their transitions are investigated and compared. In particular, we consider two different ways of defining topological defects useful in the description of patterns and we discuss how they are related to each other.

  9. Numerical simulation of transition in wall-bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiser, Leonhard; Zang, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    The current status of numerical simulation techniques for the transition to turbulence in incompressible channel and boundary-layer flows is surveyed, and typical results are presented graphically. The focus is on direct numerical simulations based on the full nonlinear time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations without empirical closure assumptions for prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Topics addressed include the vibrating ribbon problem, space and time discretization, initial and boundary conditions, alternative methods based on the triple-deck approximation, two-dimensional channel and boundary-layer flows, three-dimensional boundary layers, wave packets and turbulent spots, compressible flows, transition control, and transition modeling.

  10. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray or segregated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis

    2015-11-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').

  11. Chaotic jam and phase transition in traffic flow with passing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, T

    1999-08-01

    The lattice hydrodynamic model is presented to take into account the passing effect in one-dimensional traffic flow. When the passing constant gamma is small, the conventional jamming transition occurs between the uniform traffic and kink density wave flows. When passing constant gamma is larger than the critical value, the jamming transitions occur from the uniform traffic flow, through the chaotic density wave flow, to the kink density wave flow, with an increasing delay time. The chaotic region increases with passing constant gamma. The neutral stability line is derived from the linear stability analysis. The neutral stability line coincides with the transition line between the uniform traffic and density wave flows. The modified Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the kink jam is derived for small values of gamma by use of a nonlinear analysis.

  12. Flow transitions in model Czochralski GaAs melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-xian; LI Ming-wei

    2006-01-01

    The flow and heat transfer of molten GaAs during Czochralski growth are studied with a time-dependent and three-dimensional turbulent flow model. A transition from axisymmetric flow to non-axisymmetric flow and then back to axisymmetric flow again with increasing the crucible rotation rate is predicted. In the non-axisymmetric regime, the thermal wave induced by the combination of coriolis force, buoyancy and viscous force in the GaAs melt is predicted for the first time. The thermal wave is confirmed to be baroclinic thermal wave. The origin of the transition to non-axisymmetric flow is baroclinic instability. The critical parameters for the transitions are presented, which are quantitatively in agreement with Fein and Preffer's experimental results. The calculated results can be taken as a reference for the growth of GaAs single-crystal of high quality.

  13. Transition of spatiotemporal patterns in neuronal networks with chemical synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Li, Jiajia; Du, Mengmeng; Lei, Jinzhi; Wu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    In mammalian neocortex plane waves, spiral and irregular waves appear alternately. In this paper, we study the transition of spatiotemporal patterns in neuronal networks in which neurons are coupled via two types of chemical synapses: fast excitatory synapse and fast inhibitory synapse. Our results indicate that the fast excitatory synapse connection is easier to induce regular spatiotemporal patterns than fast inhibitory synapse connection, and the mechanism is discussed through bifurcation analysis of a single neuron. We introduce the permutation entropy as a measure of network firing complexity to study the mechanisms of formation and transition of spatiotemporal patterns. Our calculations show that the spatiotemporal pattern transitions are closely connected to a sudden decrease in the firing complexity of neuronal networks, and the neuronal networks with fast excitatory synapses have higher firing complexity than those with fast inhibitory synapses.

  14. Ring Counter Based ATPG for Low Transition Test Pattern Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begam, V M Thoulath; Baulkani, S

    2015-01-01

    In test mode test patterns are applied in random fashion to the circuit under circuit. This increases switching transition between the consecutive test patterns and thereby increases dynamic power dissipation. The proposed ring counter based ATPG reduces vertical switching transitions by inserting test vectors only between the less correlative test patterns. This paper presents the RC-ATPG with an external circuit. The external circuit consists of XOR gates, full adders, and multiplexers. First the total number of transitions between the consecutive test patterns is determined. If it is more, then the external circuit generates and inserts test vectors in between the two test patterns. Test vector insertion increases the correlation between the test patterns and reduces dynamic power dissipation. The results prove that the test patterns generated by the proposed ATPG have fewer transitions than the conventional ATPG. Experimental results based on ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits show 38.5% reduction in the average power and 50% reduction in the peak power attained during testing with a small size decoding logic.

  15. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe) flow to a free surface (open channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high

  16. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep

  17. Scaling analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho

    1993-01-01

    A scaling analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern in microgravity, based on the dominant physical mechanism, was carried out with the goal of predicting the gas-liquid two-phase flow regime in a pipe under conditions of microgravity. The results demonstrated the effect of inlet geometry on the flow regime transition. A comparison of the predictions with existing experimental data showed good agreement.

  18. Visualized study on specific points on demand curves and flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Junfeng [CNNC Key Laboratory on Reactor Thermo-Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Huang Yanping, E-mail: hypgroup@163.com [CNNC Key Laboratory on Reactor Thermo-Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wang Yanlin [CNNC Key Laboratory on Reactor Thermo-Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Specific points on the demand curve and flow patterns are visually studied. > Bubbly, churn, and annular flows were observed. > Onset of flow instability and bubbly-churn transition occurs at the same time. > The evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined. - Abstract: A simultaneous visualization and measurement study on some specific points on demand curves, such as onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of significant void (OSV), onset of flow instability (OFI), and two-phase flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, was carried out. New experimental approaches were adopted to identify OSV and OFI in a narrow rectangular channel. Under experimental conditions, the ONB could be predicted well by the Sato and Matsumura model. The OSV model of Bowring can reasonably predict the OSV if the single-side heated condition is considered. The OFI was close to the saturated boiling point and could be described accurately by Kennedy's correlation. The two-phase flow patterns observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn, and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed. The OFI always occurred when the bubbles at the channel exit began to coalesce, which corresponded to the beginning of the bubbly-churn transition in flow patterns. Finally, the evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel.

  19. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  20. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  1. On the transition to turbulence of wall-bounded flows in general, and plane Couette flow in particular

    CERN Document Server

    Manneville, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The main part of this contribution to the special issue of EJM-B/Fluids dedicated to Patrick Huerre outlines the problem of the subcritical transition to turbulence in wall-bounded flows in its historical perspective with emphasis on plane Couette flow, the flow generated between counter-translating parallel planes. Subcritical here means discontinuous and direct, with strong hysteresis. This is due to the existence of nontrivial flow regimes between the global stability threshold Re_g, the upper bound for unconditional return to the base flow, and the linear instability threshold Re_c characterized by unconditional departure from the base flow. The transitional range around Re_g is first discussed from an empirical viewpoint ({\\S}1). The recent determination of Re_g for pipe flow by Avila et al. (2011) is recalled. Plane Couette flow is next examined. In laboratory conditions, its transitional range displays an oblique pattern made of alternately laminar and turbulent bands, up to a third threshold Re_t beyo...

  2. Study of the Transition Flow Regime using Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    This NASA Cooperative Agreement presents a study of the Transition Flow Regime Using Monte Carlo Methods. The topics included in this final report are: 1) New Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) procedures; 2) The DS3W and DS2A Programs; 3) Papers presented; 4) Miscellaneous Applications and Program Modifications; 5) Solution of Transitional Wake Flows at Mach 10; and 6) Turbulence Modeling of Shock-Dominated Fows with a k-Enstrophy Formulation.

  3. Local Reynolds number and thresholds of transition in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, JianJun; Chen, ShiYi; Su, WeiDong

    2013-02-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations reveal that the onset of turbulence in plane-Poiseuille flow and plane-Couette flow has some similar stages separated with different threshold Reynolds numbers. Based on these observations and the energy equation of a disturbed fluid element, a local Reynolds number Re L is derived to represent the maximum ratio of the energy supplement to the energy dissipation in a cross section. It is shown that along the sequence of transition stages, which include transient localized turbulence, "equilibrium" localized turbulence, spatially intermittent but temporally persistent turbulence and uniform turbulence, the corresponding thresholds of Re L for plane-Couette flow, Hagen-Poiseuille flow and plane-Poiseuille flow are consistent, indicating that the critical (threshold) states during the laminar-turbulent transition are determined by the local properties of the base flow and are independent of global features, such as flow geometries (pipe or channel) and types of driving forces (shear driving or pressure driving).

  4. Subcritical transition to turbulence in plane channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, S. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A linear three dimensional mechanism for the transition of plane Poiseuille flows to turbulence is presented which provides good agreement with experimental observations. The mechanism is based on the evolution of states within a band of quasi-equilibria which slowly approach the stable upper branch solutions for the evolution of flow energy but which are strongly unstable to infinitesimal three-dimensional disturbances. Numerical simulation has shown that if two-dimensional flow persists long enough for the three-dimensional perturbations to attain finite amplitude, the resulting three dimensional flow quickly develops a turbulent character with nonperiodic behavior, and thus transition can be predicted from knowledge of the initial two- and three-dimensional energies and time scales. The mechanism predicts transition to turbulence at Reynolds numbers greater than 1000, as observed in experiments, and implies higher threshold three-dimensional energies in plane Couette flow.

  5. Streamline topology: Patterns in fluid flows and their bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Using dynamical systems theory, we consider structures such as vortices and separation in the streamline patterns of fluid flows. Bifurcation of patterns under variation of external parameters is studied using simplifying normal form transformations. Flows away from boundaries, flows close to fixed...

  6. Towards a model of large scale dynamics in transitional wall-bounded flows

    CERN Document Server

    Manneville, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A system of simplified equations is proposed to govern the feedback interactions of large-scale flows present in laminar-turbulent patterns of transitional wall-bounded flows, with small-scale Reynolds stresses generated by the self-sustainment process of turbulence itself modeled using an extension of Waleffe's approach (Phys. Fluids 9 (1997) 883-900), the detailed expression of which is displayed as an annex to the main text.

  7. Experimental Study on EHD Flow Transition in a Small Scale Wire-plate ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrohydrodynamic (EHD flow induced by the corona discharge was experimentally investigated in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The ESP was a narrow horizontal Plexiglas box (1300 mm×60 mm×60 mm. The electrode set consisted of a single wire discharge electrode and two collecting aluminum plate electrodes. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV method was used to visualize the EHD flow characteristics inside the ESP seeded with fine oil droplets. The influence of applied voltage (from 8 kV to 10 kV and primary gas flow (0.15 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s on the EHD flow transition was elucidated through experimental analysis. The formation and transition of typical EHD flows from onset to the fully developed were described and explained. Experimental results showed that the EHD flow patterns change depends on the gas velocity and applied voltage. EHD flow starts with flow streamlines near collecting plates bending towards the wire electrode, forming two void regions. An oscillating jet forming the downstream appeared and moved towards the wire electrode as voltage increased. For higher velocities (≥0.2 m/s, the EHD transition became near wire phenomenon with a jet-like flow structure near the wire, forming a void region behind the wire and expanding as voltage increased. Fully developed EHD secondary flow in the form of counter-rotating vortices appeared upstream with high applied voltage.

  8. Experimental Study on EHD Flow Transition in a Small Scale Wire-plate ESP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xie, Zhenqiang; Xu, Binggui; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xu

    2016-06-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow induced by the corona discharge was experimentally investigated in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The ESP was a narrow horizontal Plexiglas box (1300 mm×60 mm×60 mm). The electrode set consisted of a single wire discharge electrode and two collecting aluminum plate electrodes. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method was used to visualize the EHD flow characteristics inside the ESP seeded with fine oil droplets. The influence of applied voltage (from 8 kV to 10 kV) and primary gas flow (0.15 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s) on the EHD flow transition was elucidated through experimental analysis. The formation and transition of typical EHD flows from onset to the fully developed were described and explained. Experimental results showed that the EHD flow patterns change depends on the gas velocity and applied voltage. EHD flow starts with flow streamlines near collecting plates bending towards the wire electrode, forming two void regions. An oscillating jet forming the downstream appeared and moved towards the wire electrode as voltage increased. For higher velocities (≥0.2 m/s), the EHD transition became near wire phenomenon with a jet-like flow structure near the wire, forming a void region behind the wire and expanding as voltage increased. Fully developed EHD secondary flow in the form of counter-rotating vortices appeared upstream with high applied voltage.

  9. Collapse of Flow: Probing the Order of the Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Stöcker, Horst

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to $50 A$ GeV: here the hydrodynamic model has predicted the collapse of the $v_1$-flow at $\\sim 10 A$ GeV and of the $v_2$-flow at $\\sim 40 A$ GeV. In the latter case, this has recently been observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy, we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density $\\rho_B$.

  10. Flow transition within an evaporating binary mixture sessile drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, John R E; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Sefiane, Khellil

    2011-05-20

    The flow field along the base of an evaporating ethanol-water droplet and its evolution time was measured by particle image velocimetry. Three stages are revealed, a first stage dominated by multiple vortices, a second transition stage characterized by a remarkable spike in outward flow not previously identified, and a third stage dominated by outward flow identical to that found for pure water. Stage I is thought to be driven by surface tension gradients arising from local concentration variation. The spike in outward flow is explained in terms of a transition corresponding to almost total depletion of ethanol. An exponential decay in vorticity during the transition stage is explained in terms of ethanol diffusion from the bulk to the interface. We speculate on the existence of a zero-concentration wave propagating from the apex to the contact line corresponding to the final total depletion of ethanol.

  11. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow in liquid filled microtubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, K. V.; Adrian, R. J.

    2004-05-01

    The transition to turbulent flow is studied for liquids of different polarities in glass microtubes having diameters between 50 and 247 µm. The onset of transition occurs at Reynolds numbers of ~1,800 2,000, as indicated by greater-than-laminar pressure drop and micro-PIV measurements of mean velocity and rms velocity fluctuations at the centerline. Transition at anomalously low values of Reynolds number was never observed. Additionally, the results of more than 1,500 measurements of pressure drop versus flow rate confirm the macroscopic Poiseuille flow result for laminar flow resistance to within -1% systematic and ±2.5% rms random error for Reynolds numbers less than 1,800.

  12. Hysteresis and the transition between axisymmetric flow and wave flow in the baroclinic annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Butler, Karen A.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model is employed to establish the transitions between axisymmetric flow and wave flow in the rotating, differentially heated annulus experiments of Fein for both rigid lid and free surface cases. It is shown that, for most of the transitions, the method of computing a steady axisymmetric flow and then testing its linear stability to wave disturbance results in good agreement with the experiments. Implications for the investigation of the dynamics of the earth's atmosphere are considered.

  13. Multistability and dynamic transitions of intracellular Min protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fabai; Halatek, Jacob; Reiter, Matthias; Kingma, Enzo; Frey, Erwin; Dekker, Cees

    2016-06-08

    Cells owe their internal organization to self-organized protein patterns, which originate and adapt to growth and external stimuli via a process that is as complex as it is little understood. Here, we study the emergence, stability, and state transitions of multistable Min protein oscillation patterns in live Escherichia coli bacteria during growth up to defined large dimensions. De novo formation of patterns from homogenous starting conditions is observed and studied both experimentally and in simulations. A new theoretical approach is developed for probing pattern stability under perturbations. Quantitative experiments and simulations show that, once established, Min oscillations tolerate a large degree of intracellular heterogeneity, allowing distinctly different patterns to persist in different cells with the same geometry. Min patterns maintain their axes for hours in experiments, despite imperfections, expansion, and changes in cell shape during continuous cell growth. Transitions between multistable Min patterns are found to be rare events induced by strong intracellular perturbations. The instances of multistability studied here are the combined outcome of boundary growth and strongly nonlinear kinetics, which are characteristic of the reaction-diffusion patterns that pervade biology at many scales.

  14. Flow regime transition criteria for two-phase flow in a vertical annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J. Enrique, E-mail: bolivar@emc.uji.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I., Campus de Riu Sec, 12071 Castellon (Spain); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Flow regime transition model is presented for two-phase flows in a vertical annulus. > The transition criteria is easy to be implemented in computational codes. > Final equations do not need experimental input. > New developed model shows better predicting capabilities than existing correlations. > New developed model shows good predicting capabilities in boiling flow. - Abstract: In this work, a new flow regime transition model is proposed for two-phase flows in a vertical annulus. Following previous works, the flow regimes considered are bubbly (B), slug (S) or cap-slug (CS), churn (C) and annular (A). The B to CS transition is modeled using the maximum bubble package criteria of small bubbles. The S to C transition takes place for small annulus perimeter flow channels and it is assumed to occur when the mean void fraction over the entire region exceeds that over the slug-bubble section. If the annulus perimeter is larger that the distorted bubble limit the cap-slug flow regime will be considered since in these conditions it is not possible to distinguish between cap and partial-slug bubbles. The CS to C transition is modeled using the maximum bubble package criteria. However, this transition considers the coalescence of cap and spherical bubbles in order to take into account the flow channel geometry. Finally, the C to A transition is modeled assuming two different mechanisms, (a) flow reversal in the liquid film section along large bubbles; (b) destruction on liquid slugs or large waves by entrainment or deformation. In the S to C and C to A flow regime transitions the annulus flow channel is considered as a rectangular flow channel with no side walls. In all the modeled transitions the drift-flux model is used to obtain the final correlations. The final equations for every flow regime transition are easy to be implemented in computational codes and not experimental input is needed. The prediction accuracy of the newly developed model has been

  15. Short-range dynamics and prediction of mesoscale flow patterns in the MISTRAL field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O.; Kaufmann, P.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In a limited area of about 50 km by 50 km with complex topography, wind measurements on a dense network were performed during the MISTRAL field experiment in 1991-1992. From these data the characteristic wind fields were identified by an automated classification method. The dynamics of the resulting twelve typical regional flow patterns is studied. It is discussed how transitions between the flow patterns take place and how well the transition probabilities can be described in the framework of a Markov model. Guided by this discussion, a variety of prediction models were tested which allow a short-term forecast of the flow pattern type. It is found that a prediction model which uses forecast information from the synoptic scale has the best forecast skill. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  16. Bypass transition and subcritical turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zammert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Plane Poiseuille flow shows turbulence at a Reynolds number that is lower than the critical one for the onset of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The transition to turbulence follows the same route as the by-pass transition in boundary layers, i.e. finite amplitude perturbations are required and the flow is dominated by downstream vortices and streaks in the transitional regime. In order to relate the phenomenology in plane Poiseuille flow to our previous studies of plane Couette flow (Kreilos & Eckhardt, 2012), we study a symmetric subspace of plane Poiseuille flow in which the bifurcation cascade stands out clearly. By tracing the edge state, which in this system is a travelling wave, and its bifurcations, we can trace the formation of a chaotic attractor, the interior crisis that increase the phase space volume affected by the flow, and the ultimate transition into a chaotic saddle in a crisis bifurcation. After the boundary crisis we can observe transient chaos with exponentially distributed lifetimes.

  17. Large-eddy simulation of transitional channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Zang, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    A large-eddy simulation (LES) of transition in plane channel flow was carried out. The LES results were compared with those of a fine direct numerical simulation (DNS), and with those of a coarse DNS that uses the same mesh as the LES, but does not use a residual stress model. While at the early stages of transition, LES and coarse DNS give the same results: the presence of the residual stress model was found to be necessary to predict accurately mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles during the late stages of transition (after the second spike stage). The evolution of single Fourier modes is also predicted more accurately by the LES than by the DNS. As small scales are generated, the dissipative character of the residual stress starts to reproduce correctly the energy cascade. As transition progresses, the flow approaches its fully developed turbulent state, the subgrid scales tend towards equilibrium, and the model becomes more accurate.

  18. Two-phase flow patterns characteristics analysis based on image and conductance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Jin, Ningde; Wang, Chun; Wang, Jinxiang

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern, the two-phase flow monitoring system composed of high-speed dynamic camera and Vertical Multi-Electrode Array conductance sensor (VMEA) was utilized to shoot dynamic images and acquire the conductance fluctuating signals of 5 typical vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in a 125mm i.d. upward pipe. Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was used to extract four time-varying characteristic parameter indices which represented different flow image texture structures and also Lempel-Ziv complexity of them were calculated. Then the transition of flow structure and flow property were comprehensively analyzed, combining the result derived from image information with recurrence plots (RPs) and Lempel-Ziv complexity of conductance fluctuating signals. The study showed that the line texture structure of RPs enabled to indicate flow pattern characteristics; the flow image texture structure characteristic parameters sequence described the variance of flow structure and dynamical complexity of different flow patterns.

  19. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  20. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175

    2009-01-01

    We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  1. DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in

  2. TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS IN A 90° BEND AT MICROGRAVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianfu; K.S.GABRIEL

    2004-01-01

    Bends are widely used in pipelines carrying single- and two-phase fluids in both ground and space applications. In particular, they play more important role in space applications due to the extreme spatial constraints. In the present study, a set of experimental data of two-phase flow patterns and their transitions in a 90° bend with inner diameter of 12.7 mm and curvature radius of 76.5 mm at microgravity conditions are reported. Gas and liquid superficial velocities are found to range from (1.0 ~ 23.6)m/s for gas and (0.09 ~ 0.5)m/s for liquid, respectively. Three major flow patterns,namely slug, slug-annular transitional, and annular flows, are observed in this study. Focusing on the differences between flow patterns in bends and their counterparts in straight pipes, detailed analyses of their characteristics are made. The transitions between adjoining flow patterns are found to be more or less the same as those in straight pipes, and can be predicted using Weber number models satisfactorily.The reasons for such agreement are carefully examined.

  3. Correlation between permeability and groundwater flow patterns in carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Lee, J.; Park, Y.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater flow in carbonate rocks is controlled by many factors such as degree of fracture and pore development, weathering and diagenesis. Among these factors, fracture is main factor and can form main flow path. Also, flow patterns in carbonate area are decided by these factors. This study was performed to understand factors controlling permeability and flow patterns in carbonate area and to evaluate correlation between permeability and flow patterns. Data used in this study were collected from many literatures and these data were analyzed and evaluated using graphic and statistical analysis. In many carbonate areas, branching conduit patterns were dominant. Of these areas, permeability was relatively high in areas where moving distance of flow was short and hydraulic gradient was steep. This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2009201030001A).

  4. Stability and transitions of the second grade Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Saadet; Şengül, Taylan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we consider the stability and transitions for the Poiseuille flow of a second grade fluid which is a model for non-Newtonian fluids. We restrict our attention to perturbation flows in an infinite pipe with circular cross section that are independent of the axial coordinate. We show that unlike the Newtonian (ɛ = 0) case, in the second grade model (ɛ > 0 case), the time independent base flow exhibits transitions as the Reynolds number R exceeds the critical threshold Rc = 8.505ɛ - 1 / 2 where ɛ is a material constant measuring the relative strength of second order viscous effects compared to inertial effects. At R =Rc, we find that the transition is either continuous or catastrophic and a small amplitude, time periodic flow with 3-fold azimuthal symmetry bifurcates. The time period of the bifurcated solution tends to infinity as R tends to Rc. Our numerical calculations suggest that for low ɛ values, the system prefers a catastrophic transition where the bifurcation is subcritical. We also show that there is a Reynolds number RE with RE flow is globally stable and attracts any initial disturbance with at least exponential speed. We show that the gap between RE and Rc vanishes quickly as ɛ increases.

  5. Hydrogeologic unit flow characterization using transition probability geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norman L; Walker, Justin R; Carle, Steven F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for applying the transition probability geostatistics method for stochastic simulation to a MODFLOW model. Transition probability geostatistics has some advantages over traditional indicator kriging methods including a simpler and more intuitive framework for interpreting geologic relationships and the ability to simulate juxtapositional tendencies such as fining upward sequences. The indicator arrays generated by the transition probability simulation are converted to layer elevation and thickness arrays for use with the new Hydrogeologic Unit Flow package in MODFLOW 2000. This makes it possible to preserve complex heterogeneity while using reasonably sized grids and/or grids with nonuniform cell thicknesses.

  6. Numerical investigation of transition critical Reynolds number of channel flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming

    2015-11-01

    Two critical Reynolds numbers are mentioned in investigation of laminar-turbulent transition. One is instability critical Reynolds number from linear stability theory (LST). The other is transition critical Reynolds number at which transition occurs in reality, which is significantly lower than the former in general. The determination of transition critical Reynolds number is of important practical significance in some engineering problems. Theoretical method has not been proposed for its determination, so it has to depend on experiments. However, for some flows with important practical significance, such as hypersonic boundary layer, transition critical Reynolds number cannot be determined by experiments in current situation. In this paper, transition critical Reynolds number of incompressible channel flow is determined by direct numerical simulations (DNS). It is found as Re =1114, which agrees with experimental data. In subsequent paper, transition critical Reynolds number of boundary layer will be investigation by the similar method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11202147, 11332007, 11172203, and 91216111) and the Specialized Research Fund (New Teacher Class) for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20120032120007).

  7. The flow patterning capability of localized natural convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling-Ting; Chao, Ling

    2016-09-14

    Controlling flow patterns to align materials can have various applications in optics, electronics, and biosciences. In this study, we developed a natural-convection-based method to create desirable spatial flow patterns by controlling the locations of heat sources. Fluid motion in natural convection is induced by the spatial fluid density gradient that is caused by the established spatial temperature gradient. To analyze the patterning resolution capability of this method, we used a mathematical model combined with nondimensionalization to correlate the flow patterning resolution with experimental operating conditions. The nondimensionalized model suggests that the flow pattern and resolution is only influenced by two dimensionless parameters, and , where Gr is the Grashof number, representing the ratio of buoyancy to the viscous force acting on a fluid, and Pr is the Prandtl number, representing the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity. We used the model to examine all of the flow behaviors in a wide range of the two dimensionless parameter group and proposed a flow pattern state diagram which suggests a suitable range of operating conditions for flow patterning. In addition, we developed a heating wire with an angular configuration, which enabled us to efficiently examine the pattern resolution capability numerically and experimentally. Consistent resolutions were obtained between the experimental results and model predictions, suggesting that the state diagram and the identified operating range can be used for further application.

  8. Experimental investigation of transitional flow in a toroidal pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnen, J; Hof, B; Kuhlmann, H

    2015-01-01

    The flow instability and further transition to turbulence in a toroidal pipe (torus) with curvature (tube-to-coiling diameter) 0.049 is investigated experimentally. The flow inside the toroidal pipe is driven by a steel sphere fitted to the inner pipe diameter. The sphere is moved with constant azimuthal velocity from outside the torus by a moving magnet. The experiment is designed to investigate curved pipe flow by optical measurement techniques. Using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler velocimetry and pressure drop measurements, the flow is measured for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1000 to 15000. Time- and space-resolved velocity fields are obtained and analysed. The steady axisymmetric basic flow is strongly influenced by centrifugal effects. On an increase of the Reynolds number we find a sequence of bifurcations. For Re=4075 a supercritical bifurcation to an oscillatory flow is found in which waves travel in the streamwise direction with a phase velocity slightly faster than the mean...

  9. Transition to turbulence for flows without linear criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masato

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that plane Couette flow (PCF) and pipe flow (PF) are linearly stable against arbitrary three-dimensional perturbations at any finite Reynolds number, so that transitions from the basic laminar states, if they exist, must be abrupt. Due to this lack of linear criticality, weakly nonlinear analysis does not work in general and numerical approaches must be resorted to. It is only recently that non-trivial nonlinear states for these flows have been discovered numerically at finite Reynolds number as solutions bifurcating from infinity. The onset of turbulence in a subcritical transition is believed to be related to the appearance of steady/travelling wave states caused by disturbances of finite amplitude that take the flows out of the basin of attraction of the laminar state in phase space. In this paper, we introduce other flows that, in a similar way to PCF and PF, exhibit no linear critical point for the laminar states, namely flow in a square duct and sliding Couette flow in an annulus with a certain range of gap ratio. We shall show our recent numerical investigations on these flows where nonlinear travelling wave states are found for the first time by a homotopy approach. We believe that these states constitute the skeleton around which a time-dependent trajectory in the phase space is organized and help in understanding non-equilibrium turbulent processes.

  10. A transit-time flow meter for measuring milliliter per minute liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Canqian; Kymmel, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    A transit-time flow meter, using periodic temperature fluctuations as tracers, has been developed for measuring liquid flow as small as 0.1 ml/min in microchannels. By injecting square waves of heat into the liquid flow upstream with a tiny resistance wire heater, periodic temperature fluctuations...... are generated downstream. The fundamental frequency phase shift of the temperature signal with respect to the square wave is found to be a linear function of the reciprocal mean velocity of the fluid. The transit-time principle enables the flow meter to have high accuracy, better than 0.2%, and good linearity....... This flow meter will be used to measure and control the small liquid flow in microchannels in flow injection analysis. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  11. Patterned nonadhesive surfaces: superhydrophobicity and wetting regime transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-02-19

    Nonadhesive and water-repellent surfaces are required for many tribological applications. We study mechanisms of wetting of patterned superhydrophobic Si surfaces, including the transition between various wetting regimes during microdroplet evaporation in environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and for contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements. Wetting involves interactions at different scale levels: macroscale (water droplet size), microscale (surface texture size), and nanoscale (molecular size). We propose a generalized formulation of the Wenzel and Cassie equations that is consistent with the broad range of experimental data. We show that the contact angle hysteresis involves two different mechanisms and how the transition from the metastable partially wetted (Cassie) state to the homogeneously wetted (Wenzel) state depends upon droplet size and surface pattern parameters.

  12. The role of hillslopes in stream flow response: connectivity, flow path, and transit time

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K. J.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Subsurface flow from hillslopes is widely recognized as an important contributor to stream flow generation; however, processes that control how and when hillslopes connect to streams remain unclear. Much of the difficulty in deciphering hillslope response in the stream is due to riparian zone modulation of these inputs. We investigated stream and hillslope runoff dynamics in a 10 ha catchment in the western Cascades of Oregon where the riparian zone has been removed by debris flows, providing an unambiguous hillslope hydrologic signal to the stream channel. Water transit time was used as a framework to develop a conceptual stream flow generation model for the small basin. We based our conceptualization on observations of hydrometric, stable isotope, and applied tracer responses and computed transit times for multiple runoff components using a simple linear systems model. Event water mean transit times (8 to 34 h) and rapid breakthrough from applied hillslope tracer additions, demonstrated that contributing areas extend far upslope during events. Despite rapid hillslope transport processes during events, vadose zone water and runoff mean transit times during non-storm conditions were greater than the timescale of storm events. Vadose zone water mean transit times ranged between 10 and 25 days. Hillslope seepage and catchment baseflow mean transit times were between 1 and 2 years. We describe a conceptual model that captures variable physical flow pathways and transit times through changing antecedent wetness conditions that illustrate the different stages of hillslope and stream connectivity.

  13. Passenger Flow Forecast Algorithm for Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao Wei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To exactly forecast the urban rail transit passenger flow, a multi-level model combining neural network and Kalman filter was proposed. Firstly, ELAN neural network model was introduced to implement a preliminary forecast of the passenger flow. Then the Kalman filter was used to correct the preliminary forecast results, so as to further improve the accuracy. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, the passenger flow in Shanghai subway transport hub was observed and simulated. Experimental results showed that the proposed multi-level model reduced error by about 0.8% and had better actual effect compared with any single algorithm.

  14. Stability and transition of attachment-line flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Moving vehicles, such as submarines and airplanes, are surrounded by a thin boundary layer in which the relative uid velocity drops rapidly to zero close to the solid walls of the vehicle. The transition of such boundary layers from laminar into turbulent flow is an interesting phenomenon. Moreover,

  15. Stability and transition of attachment-line flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, Ruerd Sybren

    1998-01-01

    Moving vehicles, such as submarines and airplanes, are surrounded by a thin boundary layer in which the relative uid velocity drops rapidly to zero close to the solid walls of the vehicle. The transition of such boundary layers from laminar into turbulent flow is an interesting phenomenon. Moreover

  16. Phase transition in the SRG flow of nuclear interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Timoteo, Varese S; Szpigel, S

    2016-01-01

    We use a chiral interaction at N3LO in the 1S0 channel of the nucleon- nucleon interaction in order to investigate the on-shell transition along the similarity renormalization group flow towards the infrared limit. We find a crossover at a scale that depends on the number of grid points used to discretise the momentum space.

  17. Patterns and instability of grannular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borzsonyi, Tamas [NON LANL; Mcelwaine, Jim N [U. CAMBRIDGE

    2009-01-01

    Dense granular flows are often observed to become unstable and form inhomogeneous structures in nature or industry. Although recently significant advances have been made in understanding simple flows, instabilities are often not understood in detail. We present experimental and numerical results that show the formation of longitudinal stripes. These arise from instability of the uniform flowing state of granular media on a rough inclined plane. The form of the stripes depends critically on the mean density of the flow with a robust form of stripes at high density that consists of fast sliding plug-like regions (stripes) on top of highly agitated boiling material -- a configuration reminiscent of the Leidenfrost effect when a droplet of liquid lifted by its vapor is hovering above a hot surface.

  18. Advances in transitional flow modeling applications to helicopter rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of numerical methods and validation processes for predicting transitional flows based on the Langtry–Menter local correlation-based transition model, integrated with both one-equation Spalart–Allmaras (S–A) and two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models. A comparative study is presented to combine the respective merits of the two coupling methods in the context of predicting the boundary-layer transition phenomenon from fundamental benchmark flows to realistic helicopter rotors. The book will of interest to industrial practitioners working in aerodynamic design and the analysis of fixed-wing or rotary wing aircraft, while also offering advanced reading material for graduate students in the research areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), turbulence modeling and related fields.

  19. Friction factor of annular Poiseuille flow in a transitional regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ishida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Annular Poiseuille flows in a transitional regime were investigated by direct numerical simulations with an emphasis on turbulent statistics including the friction factor that are affected by the presence of large-scale transitional structures. Five different radius ratios in the range of 0.1–0.8 and several friction Reynolds numbers in the range of 48–150 were analyzed to consider various flow states accompanied by characteristic transitional structures. Three characteristic structures, namely, turbulent–laminar coexistence referred to as “(straight puff,”“helical puff,” and “helical turbulence” were observed. The selection of the structures depends on both the radius ratio and the Reynolds number. The findings indicated that despite the transitional state with a turbulent–laminar coexistence, the helical turbulence resulted in a friction factor that was as high as the fully turbulent value. In contrast, with respect to the occurrence of streamwise-finite transitional structures, such as straight/helical puffs, the friction factor decreased in a stepwise manner toward a laminar level. The turbulent statistics revealed asymmetric distributions with respect to the wall-normal direction wherein the profiles and magnitudes were significantly influenced by the occurrence of transitional structures.

  20. Flow patterns of natural convection in an air-filled vertical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakitani, Shunichi

    1998-08-01

    Flow patterns of two-dimensional natural convection in a vertical air-filled tall cavity with differentially heated sidewalls are investigated. Numerical simulations based on a finite difference method are carried out for a wide range of Rayleigh numbers and aspect ratios from the onset of the steady multicellular flow, through the reverse transition to the unicellular pattern, to the unsteady multicellular flow. For aspect ratios (height/width) from 10 to 24, the various cellular structures characterized by the number of secondary cells are clarified from the simulations by means of gradually increasing Rayleigh number to 106. Unsteady multicellular solutions are found in some region of Rayleigh numbers less than those at which the reverse transition has occurred.

  1. The Physics of Flow Instability and Turbulent Transition in Shear Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, H S

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the physics of flow instability and turbulent transition in shear flows is studied by analyzing the energy variation of fluid particles under the interaction of base flow with a disturbance. It is shown that it is the transverse energy gradient that leads to the disturbance amplification while the disturbance is damped by the energy loss due to viscosity along the streamline. For the first time, a theory derived strictly from physics, is used to show that the flow instability under finite amplitude disturbance leads to turbulent transition. It is also shown that flow instability in shear flows is a nonlinear phenomenon and it has a threshold related to the disturbance amplitude. The mechanism for velocity inflection and hairpin vortex formation are explained with reference to analytical results. The inverse Reynolds number dependence of the disturbance threshold, observed in recent experiments, is well explained. Following from this analysis, it can be demonstrated that the critical value of th...

  2. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  3. Patterns of the turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Arnaud; Talioua, Abdessamad; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    We are interested in the study of the transition to turbulence in the Taylor-Couette flow, the flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. Once the geometry is fixed, the flow is controlled by the inner and outer Reynolds numbers and present a large variety of flow regimes. In counter-rotation, the transition is characterized by a succession of more or less turbulent flow regimes: intermittency with turbulent spots, spiral turbulence, featureless turbulence. For larger values of the inner Reynolds number, turbulent Taylor roll re-emerge from the featureless turbulence and remain for very large values of the Reynolds numbers. Bifurcations between different turbulent rolls states are even observed in the ultimate turbulence regime. Nevertheless the transition from the featureless turbulence to the turbulent rolls still requires a detailed study and the mechanism which causes and sustains turbulent spots or turbulent spirals remains unknown. In this study we present new experimental information on the organization of the flow for the different regimes with turbulence. The experiments are conducted in a Taylor-Couette flow with η = 0 . 8 . Stereo-Particle Image Velocimetry measurements and visualizations of the different flow regimes are realized and discussed. This work was supported by the ANR TRANSFLOW - ANR-13-BS09-0025.

  4. Predictable patterns in planetary transit timing variations and transit duration variations due to exomoons

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Placek, Ben; Angerhausen, Daniel; Agol, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present new ways to identify single and multiple moons around extrasolar planets using planetary transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs). For planets with one moon, measurements from successive transits exhibit a hitherto undescribed pattern in the TTV-TDV diagram, originating from the stroboscopic sampling of the planet's orbit around the planet-moon barycenter. This pattern is fully determined and analytically predictable after three consecutive transits. The more measurements become available, the more the TTV-TDV diagram approaches an ellipse. For planets with multiple moons in orbital mean motion resonance (MMR), like the Galilean moons, the pattern is much more complex and addressed numerically in this report. Exomoons in MMR can also form closed, predictable TTV-TDV figures if the drift of the moons' pericenters is sufficiently slow. We find that MMR exomoons produce loops in the TTV-TDV diagram and that the number of these loops is equal to the order of the MMR, or t...

  5. Flow-pattern switching in a Motored Spark Ignition Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Preeti S; Gupta, Saurabh; Kuo, Tang-Wei; Reuss, David L; Sick, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic-to-cycle variability, CCV, of intake-jet flow in an optical engine was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV), revealing the possibility of two different flow patterns. A phase-dependent proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis showed that one or the other flow pattern would appear in the average flow, sampled from test to test or sub-sampled within a single test; each data set contained individual cycles showing one flow pattern or the other. Three-dimensional velocity data from a large-eddy simulation (LES) of the engine showed that the PIV plane was cutting through a region of high shear between the intake jet and another large flow structure. Rotating the measurement plane 10{\\deg} revealed one or the other flow structure observed in the PIV measurements. Thus, it was hypothesized that cycle-to-cycle variations in the swirl ratio result in the two different flow patterns in the PIV plane. Having an unambiguous metric to reveal large-scale flow CCV, causes for this variability were ex...

  6. Umbilical blood flow patterns directly after birth before delayed cord clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, I; Roest, A A W; Wallace, E; Ten Harkel, A D J; Haak, M C; Morley, C J; Hooper, S B; te Pas, A B

    2015-03-01

    Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) affects the cardiopulmonary transition and blood volume in neonates immediately after birth. However, little is known of blood flow in the umbilical vessels immediately after birth during DCC. The objective is to describe the duration and patterns of blood flow through the umbilical vessels during DCC. Arterial and venous umbilical blood flow was measured during DCC using Doppler ultrasound in uncomplicated term vaginal deliveries. Immediately after birth, the probe was placed in the middle of the umbilical cord, pattern and duration of flow in vein and arteries were evaluated until cord clamping. Thirty infants were studied. Venous flow: In 10% no flow was present, in 57% flow stopped at 4:34 (3:03-7:31) (median (IQR) min:sec) after birth, before the cord was clamped. In 33%, flow continued until cord clamping at 5:13 (2:56-9:15) min:sec. Initially, venous flow was intermittent, increasing markedly during large breaths or stopping and reversing during crying, but then became continuous. Arterial flow: In 17% no flow was present, in 40% flow stopped at 4:22 (2:29-7:17) min:sec, while cord pulsations were still palpable. In 43% flow continued until the cord was clamped at 5:16 (3:32-10:10) min:sec. Arterial flow was pulsatile, unidirectional towards placenta or bidirectional to/from placenta. In 40% flow became continuous towards placenta later on. During delayed umbilical cord clamping, venous and arterial umbilical flow occurs for longer than previously described. Net placental transfusion is probably the result of several factors of which breathing could play a major role. Umbilical flow is unrelated to cessation of pulsations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelder, T. H.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Larned, S. T.; Sauquet, E.; Pella, H.; Catalogne, C.

    2013-07-01

    Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero flow) in each year of record (FREQ; yr-1), and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days). These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr-1), and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days). Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period in their record. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times series (FREQ and DUR) and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used random forest (RF) models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35). Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also catchment area, shape

  8. Flow Pattern and Heat Transfer Behavior of Boiling Two—Phase flow in Inclined Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuDezhang; OuyangNing

    1992-01-01

    Movable Electrical Conducting Probe (MECP),a kind of simple and reliable measuring transducer,used for predicting full-flow-path flow pattern in a boiling vapor/liquid two-phase flow is introduced in this paper when the test pipe is set at different inclination angles,several kinds of flow patterns,such as bubble,slug,churn,intermittent,and annular flows,may be observed in accordance with the locations of MECP.By means of flow pattern analysis,flow fleld numerical calculations have been carried out,and heat transfer coeffcient correlations along full-flow-path derived.The results show that heat transfer performance of boiling two-phase flow could be significanfly augmanted as expected in some flow pattern zones.The results of the investigation,measuring techniques and conclusions contained in this paper would be a useful reference in foundational research for prediction of flow pattern and heat transfer behavior in boiling two-phase flow,as well as for turbine vane liquid-cooling design.

  9. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2013-07-01

    We study C 2 weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  10. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2012-01-01

    We study $C^{2}$ weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  11. Subcritical transition to turbulence in planar shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, S. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    The two-dimensional steady and time dependent properties of plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows are analyzed using iterative techniques and full numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the finite-amplitude two-dimensional states investigated are strongly unstable to very small three-dimensional perturbations. It is also shown, through full numerical simulation, that this explosive secondary instability can explain the subcritical transitions that occur in real flows. Finally, it is shown that the three-dimensional instability can be analyzed by a linear stability analysis of a two-dimensional flow consisting of the basic parallel flow and a steady (or quasi-steady) finite-amplitude two-dimensional cellular motion.

  12. Noise-Induced Phase Transition in Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIKe-Ping; GAOZi-You

    2004-01-01

    One of the dynamic phases of the traffic flow is the traffic jam. It appears in traffic flow when the vehicle density is larger than the critical value. In this paper, a new method is presented to investigate the traffic jam when the vehicle density is smaller than the critical value. In our method, we introduce noise into the traffic system after sufficient transient time. Under the effect of noise, the traffic jam appears, and the phase transition from free to synchronized flow occurs in traffic flow. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstrate that there exist a broad range of lower densities at which the noise effect leading to traffic jam can be observed.

  13. Following analytically stages of transition in Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    A possible explanation for transition in Couette flow is the mechanism of transient growth (TG). Accordingly, a small disturbance can achieve a significant non-modal TG and trigger nonlinear mechanisms before its eventual decay owing to viscosity. The linear optimal disturbance achieving the maximal growth consists of a pair of streamwise independent counter-rotating vortices (CVPs) which create spanwise-varying streamwise streaks. These may become unstable with respect to infinitesimal disturbances. It is shown that four decaying normal modes, obtained analytically, are sufficient to follow the linear TG mechanism. A secondary linear stability analysis of the modified base-flow (Couette flow with streaks) is conducted using Floquet theory for the spanwise periodic base-flow. The predictions of the stability analysis are compared with direct numerical simulations using the ``Channelflow'' code. It is shown analytically that the inclusion of nonlinear interactions between the base-flow and the CVPs is required in order to predict instability. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the generation of a `strong' inflectional point is more important than obtaining maximal growth. The minimal number of modes enables us to follow analytically several key stages of the transition process.

  14. WAKE PATTERNS OF FLOW PAST A PAIR OF CIRCULAR CYLINDERS IN SIDE-BY-SIDE ARRANGEMENTS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A flow past two side-by-side identical circular cylinders was numerically investigated with the unstructured spectral element method. From the computational results at various non-dimensional distances between cylinder centers T/D and the Reynolds number Re, a total of nine kinds of wake patterns were observed: four steady wake patterns, including single bluff-body steady pattern, separated double-body steady pattern and transition steady pattern for sub-critical Reynolds numbers and biased steady pattern for super-critical Reynolds numbers, and five unsteady wake patterns, including single bluff-body periodic pattern, biased quasi-steady pattern, quasi-periodic (flip-flopping) pattern, in-phase-synchronized pattern and anti-phase-synchronized pattern. Time evolution of lift and drag coefficients corresponding to each unsteady wake pattern was given.

  15. The pattern of CP asymmetries in b→s transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalla, Gerhard; Hiller, Gudrun; Nir, Yosef; Raz, Guy

    2005-09-01

    New CP violating physics in b→s transitions will modify the CP asymmetries in B decays into final CP eigenstates (phiKS, η'KS, π0KS, ωKS, ρ0KS and ηKS) from their Standard Model values. In a model independent analysis, the pattern of deviations can be used to probe which Wilson coefficients get a significant contribution from the new physics. We demonstrate this idea using several well-motivated models of new physics, and apply it to current data.

  16. Predictable patterns in planetary transit timing variations and transit duration variations due to exomoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael; Placek, Ben; Angerhausen, Daniel; Agol, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We present new ways to identify single and multiple moons around extrasolar planets using planetary transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs). For planets with one moon, measurements from successive transits exhibit a hitherto undescribed pattern in the TTV-TDV diagram, originating from the stroboscopic sampling of the planet's orbit around the planet-moon barycenter. This pattern is fully determined and analytically predictable after three consecutive transits. The more measurements become available, the more the TTV-TDV diagram approaches an ellipse. For planets with multiple moons in orbital mean motion resonance (MMR), like the Galilean moon system, the pattern is much more complex and addressed numerically in this report. Exomoons in MMR can also form closed, predictable TTV-TDV figures, as long as the drift of the moons' pericenters is sufficiently slow. We find that MMR exomoons produce loops in the TTV-TDV diagram and that the number of these loops is equal to the order of the MMR, or the largest integer in the MMR ratio. We use a Bayesian model and Monte Carlo simulations to test the discoverability of exomoons using TTV-TDV diagrams with current and near-future technology. In a blind test, two of us (BP, DA) successfully retrieved a large moon from simulated TTV-TDV by co-authors MH and RH, which resembled data from a known Kepler planet candidate. Single exomoons with a 10% moon-to-planet mass ratio, like to Pluto-Charon binary, can be detectable in the archival data of the Kepler primary mission. Multi-exomoon systems, however, require either larger telescopes or brighter target stars. Complementary detection methods invoking a moon's own photometric transit or its orbital sampling effect can be used for validation or falsification. A combination of TESS, CHEOPS, and PLATO data would offer a compelling opportunity for an exomoon discovery around a bright star.

  17. Particle Tracking Velocimetry in Transitional Plane Couette Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, B.; Holzner, B.; Kinzel, M.; Liberzon, A.; Tsinober, A.

    Plane Couette flow has the peculiar property that transition to turbulence occurs despite the fact that its laminar profile is linearly stable. For high enough Reynolds numbers small amplitude perturbations are enough to initiate the growth of turbulent spots. Such spots have been subject to investigation for a few decades, see e.g. [1, 2]. In addition, it has been observed that around transitional Reynolds numbers laminar and turbulent regions can co-exist if this Reynolds number is approached from the turbulent side, e.g., [3, 4]. For both cases, distinct interfaces divide the regimes between turbulent and non turbulent flow. It is our main interest to study the evolution of such interfaces similar to the work of [5] where the shear free case with inhomogeneous forcing by an oscillating grid has been investigated in detail.

  18. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  19. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Hellum, Aren M.

    2014-10-01

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  20. Large scale flows in transitional plane Couette flow: a key ingredient of the spot growth mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Couliou, M

    2015-01-01

    Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a new experimental plane Couette flow, we investigate the dynamics of turbulent patches invading formerly laminar flows. We evidence experimentally for the first time in this geometry the existence of large scale flows. These flows appear as soon as laminar and turbulent domains coexist. Spectral analysis is used to study the dynamical evolution of these large scales as well as that of the small scales associated with turbulence. We show that large-scale flows grow before turbulent spots develop and we point out the crucial role they play in the growth mechanism and possibly also in the emergence of organised patterns.

  1. Spatio-temporal flow pattern observations using bio-inspired hair flow sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, Ahmad; Hmeidi, Sarah; Krijnen, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    In nature, sensing is a fundamental property of virtually all living creatures. For many insects airflow patterns, as observed by means of their hair-sensors, carry highly valuable information exposing the sources of these flows. Flow-sensor arrays can be used to extract spatio-temporal flow fields

  2. Scale invariance of subsurface flow patterns and its limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, S.; Winkler, G.; Birk, S.

    2016-05-01

    Preferential flow patterns in the subsurface are of great importance for the availability and the quality of water resources. However, knowledge of their spatial structure is still behind their importance, so that understanding the nature of preferential flow patterns is a major issue in subsurface hydrology. Comparing the statistics of river catchment sizes and spring discharges, we found that the morphology of preferential subsurface flow patterns is probably scale invariant and similar to that of dendritic river networks. This result is not limited to karstic aquifers where the occurrence of dendritic structures has been known at least qualitatively for a long time. The scale invariance even seems to be independent of the lithology of the aquifer. However, scale invariance of river patterns seems to be only limited by the continental scale, while scale invariance of subsurface flow patterns breaks down at much smaller scales. The upper limit of scale invariance in subsurface flow patterns is highly variable. We found a range from thousands of square kilometers for limestone aquifers down to less than 1 km2 in the weathered zone and debris accumulations of crystalline rocks.

  3. Altered doppler flow patterns in cirrhosis patients: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpour, Pooya; Lall, Chandana; Houshyar, Roozbeh; Helmy, Mohammad; Yang, Albert; Ward, Garrett; Goodwin, Scott C. [Dept. of Radiology, University of California Irvine, Orange (United States); Choi, Joon Il [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Doppler ultrasonography of the hepatic vasculature is an integral part of evaluating precirrhotic and cirrhotic patients. While the reversal of the portal venous flow is a well-recognized phenomenon, other flow patterns, although not as easily understood, may play an important role in assessing the disease status. This article discusses the different characteristic flow patterns observed from the portal vein, hepatic artery, and hepatic vein in patients with liver cirrhosis or related complications and procedures. Knowledge of these different flow patterns provides additional information that may reinforce the diagnosis of cirrhosis, help in staging, and offer prognostic information for determining the direction of therapy. Doppler ultrasonography is invaluable when liver transplantation is being considered and aids in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  4. Subcritical Transition to Turbulence in Couette-Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesfreid, Jose Eduardo; Klotz, Lukasz

    2016-11-01

    We study the subcritical transition to turbulence in the plane Couette-Poiseuille shear flow with zero mean advection velocity. Our experimental configuration consists on one moving wall of the test section (the second one remains stationary), which acts like a driving force for the flow, imposing linear streamwise velocity profile (Couette) and adverse pressure gradient in the streamwise direction (Poiseuille) at the same time. This flow, which had only been studied theoretically up to now, is always linearly stable. The transition to turbulence is forced by a very well controlled finite-size perturbation by injection, into the test section, of a water jet during a very short time. Using PIV technique, we characterized quantitatively the initial development of the triggered turbulent spot and compared its energy evolution with the theoretical predictions of the transient growth theory. In addition, we show results concerning the importance of nonlinearities, when waviness of streaks in streamwise direction induced self-sustained process in the turbulent spot. We also measured precisely the large-scale flow which is generated around the turbulent spot and studied its strength as a function of the Reynolds number.

  5. Noise-Induced Phase Transition in Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You

    2004-01-01

    One of the dynamic phases of the traffic flow is the traffic jam. It appears in traffic flow when the vehicledensity is larger than the critical value. In this paper, a new method is presented to investigate the traffic jam when thevehicle density is smaller than the critical value. In our method, we introduce noise into the traffic system after sufficienttransient time. Under the effect of noise, the traffic jam appears, and the phase transition from tree to synchronized flowoccurs in traffic flow. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstratethat there exist a broad range of lower densities at which the noise effect leading to traffic jam can be observed.

  6. Criticality of flow transition behind two side-by-side elliptic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y. F.; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.; Yang, W. C.; Hsieh, Chih-Min

    2012-03-01

    In this study, near-critical bifurcations of low Reynolds number (Re) flows past a pair of elliptic cylinders in the side-by-side arrangement are numerically investigated, and onsets of several distinct transition scenarios are addressed. A nested Cartesian-grid formulation, in combination with an effective immersed boundary method and a two-step fractional-step procedure, has been adopted to simulate the flows. The transition scenarios associated with various periodic, quasi-periodic, and biased flows, their bifurcation characteristics, corresponding critical Reynolds numbers, and phase-portraits are exploited to better understand the governing physics. From the global point of view, there appear variety of flow patterns within the investigated parameter space, 40 ⩽ Re ⩽ 300, 0.2 ⩽ G ⩽ 3.0 (G being the gap-ratio of the cylinders), and 1.5 ⩽ A ⩽ 3 (A is the cylinder aspect-ratio), which include, symmetric vortex shedding mode, semi-single/twin vortex street formations, asymmetric/deflected flows, stationary/biased flip-flopped-type vortex shedding, weakly-chaotic flows, and in-phase/anti-phase vortex synchronizations. We numerically present these flows by tuning Re quasi-stationary, and provide a broader understanding of the entire transition process. A comprehensive analysis of effects of Reynolds number, the gap-ratio, and the angle of incidence on different flow-induced forces on the cylinders is included in this regard. On the other hand, our simulated wakes with various non-zero incidence-angles are found to reveal a rich variety of instability induced weakly synchronized physical evolution characteristics, which remained virtually unexplored.

  7. Antecedents of transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Kwon, Josephine A; Lorenz, Frederick O; Oshri, Assaf

    2017-07-14

    This study examined (a) transition patterns from adolescent-specific depressive symptom trajectory classes to young adult-specific trajectory classes (N = 537; 15-26 years) and (b) identified risk factors associated with these transition patterns. The latent classes and transition analyses identified three transitional patterns of depressive symptom trajectories, including a deteriorating pattern (8.2%), a recovering pattern (22.5%), and a consistently low pattern (69.3%). Additionally, the results showed that contextual risk factors (i.e., negative economic events, negative romantic relationships, and low college enrolment rates) in the transition period to young adulthood were more positively associated with deteriorated or recovered transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories than with the consistently low transition patterns even after taking into account the effects of adolescent risk factors. The identification of dynamic transition patterns in depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood and risk factors provide useful tools for preventive and intervention efforts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Heterogeneous trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood have been reported. Psychosocial characteristics differentiate trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. What does this study add? Dynamic transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories are found between adolescence and young adulthood. Life experiences in the transition period are uniquely associated with the transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories even after adjusting the effects of adolescent characteristics. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Decreased sleep stage transition pattern complexity in narcolepsy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the complexity of the nocturnal sleep stage sequence in central disorders of hypersomnolence (CDH), with the hypothesis that narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) might exhibit distinctive sleep stage sequence organization and complexity. Seventy-nine NT1 patients, 22 narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), 22 idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), and 52 patients with subjective hypersomnolence (sHS) were recruited and their nocturnal sleep was polysomnographically recorded and scored. Group between-stage transition probability matrices were obtained and compared. Patients with NT1 differed significantly from all the other patient groups, the latter, in turn, were not different between each other. The individual probability of the R-to-N2 transition was found to be the parameter showing the difference of highest significance between the groups (lowest in NT1) and classified patients with or without NT1 with an accuracy of 78.9% (sensitivity 78.5% and specificity 79.2%), by applying a cut-off value of 0.15. The main result of this study is that the structure of the sleep stage transition pattern of hypocretin-deficient NT1 patients is significantly different from that of other forms of CDH and sHS, with normal hypocretin levels. The lower probability of R-to-N2 transition occurrence in NT1 appears to be a reliable polysomnographic feature with potential application at the individual level, for supportive diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical modeling of microchannel gas flows in the transition flow regime via cascaded lattice Boltzmann method

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    As a numerically accurate and computationally efficient mesoscopic numerical method, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has achieved great success in simulating microscale rarefied gas flows. In this paper, an LB method based on the cascaded collision operator is presented to simulate microchannel gas flows in the transition flow regime. The Bosanquet-type effective viscosity is incorporated into the cascaded lattice Boltzmann (CLB) method to account for the rarefaction effects. In order to gain accurate simulations and match the Bosanquet-type effective viscosity, the combined bounce-back/specular-reflection scheme with a modified second-order slip boundary condition is employed in the CLB method. The present method is applied to study gas flow in a microchannel with periodic boundary condition and gas flow in a long microchannel with pressure boundary condition over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. The predicted results, including the velocity profile, the mass flow rate, and the non-linear pressure deviatio...

  10. Tissue geometry patterns epithelial-mesenchymal transition via intercellular mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Esther W.; Chen, Qike K.; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotypic change in which epithelial cells detach from their neighbors and become motile. Whereas soluble signals such as growth factors and cytokines are responsible for stimulating EMT, here we show that gradients of mechanical stress define the spatial locations at which EMT occurs. When treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, cells at the corners and edges of square mammary epithelial sheets expressed EMT markers, whereas those in the center did not. Changing the shape of the epithelial sheet altered the spatial pattern of EMT. Traction force microscopy and finite element modeling demonstrated that EMT-permissive regions experienced the highest mechanical stress. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A was localized to the nuclei of cells located in high-stress regions, and inhibiting cytoskeletal tension or MRTF-A expression abrogated the spatial patterning of EMT. These data suggest a causal role for tissue geometry and endogenous mechanical stresses in the spatial patterning of EMT. PMID:20336666

  11. The Helical Oscillating Heat Pipe: Flow Pattern Behaviour Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sriudom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the effect of evaporator temperature, pitch distance, and working fluid on the internal flow pattern and the heat transfer characteristics of the helical oscillating heat pipe. A Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 2.4 mm was used to study the flow pattern in the evaporator section. The pitch distance varied at 1, 1.5, and 2 cm. Water and R-123 were used as working fluid with a filling ratio of 80% by total volume. In the evaporator section, the water temperature varied at 60, 75, and 90°C to supply heat to the heat pipe. In the condenser section, air with a temperature of 25°C was used as heat sink. From the results, it was found that 4 internal flow patterns, bubble flow, slug flow, annular flow, and stratified wavy flow, were observed in the evaporator section for both working fluids. The heat transfer rate decreased when the pitch distance was increased from 1 to 2 cm. The maximum heat flux was 2,132.6 and 1,773.4 W/m2 for the working fluid of R-123 and water, respectively. Both occurred at a pitch distance of 1 cm and an evaporator temperature of 90°C.

  12. Infrared thermography of transition due to isolated roughness elements in hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, F.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; Cardone, G.

    2016-02-01

    Boundary layer transition in high-speed flows is a phenomenon that despite extensive research over the years is still extremely hard to predict. The presence of protrusions or gaps can lead to an accelerated laminar-to-turbulent transition enhancing the thermal loads and the skin friction coefficient. In the current investigation, inverse heat transfer measurements using infrared thermography are performed on the flow past different roughness geometries in the form of cylinders and diamond at free stream Mach number equal to 7.5, h/δ ranging between 0.5 and 0.9 (where h is the roughness height and δ is the boundary layer thickness), and Reθ ranging between 1305 and 2450. The roughness elements are positioned on a 5° ramp placed at zero angle of attack. The measurements indicate that the roughness geometry influences the transitional pattern while the frontal area influences both the transition location and the maximum value of the Stanton number along the centreline. Moreover, there is a strong connection between the streamwise centreline Stanton number and the spreading of the wake width. In particular, the transition process is characterized by an approximately constant wake width. Differently, the wake width spreads at the location where the streamwise centreline Stanton number reaches the turbulent level. This point corresponds to a local maximum of the wake amplitude defined as one half of the maximum spanwise variation of the Stanton number.

  13. Noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid flow using an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Mechanical failure-which is the primary cause of CSF shunt malfunction-is not readily diagnosed, and the specific reasons for mechanical failure are not easily discerned. Prior attempts to measure CSF flow noninvasively have lacked the ability to either quantitatively or qualitatively obtain data. To address these needs, this preliminary study evaluates an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor in pediatric and adult patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs). One goal was to confirm the stated accuracy of the sensor in a clinical setting. A second goal was to observe the sensor's capability to record real-time continuous CSF flow. The final goal was to observe recordings during instances of flow blockage or lack of flow in order to determine the sensor's ability to identify these changes. METHODS A total of 5 pediatric and 11 adult patients who had received EVDs for the treatment of hydrocephalus were studied in a hospital setting. The primary EVD was connected to a secondary study EVD that contained a fluid-filled pressure transducer and an in-line transit time flow sensor. Comparisons were made between the weight of the drainage bag and the flow measured via the sensor in order to confirm its accuracy. Data from the pressure transducer and the flow sensor were recorded continuously at 100 Hz for a period of 24 hours by a data acquisition system, while the hourly CSF flow into the drip chamber was recorded manually. Changes in the patient's neurological status and their time points were noted. RESULTS The flow sensor demonstrated a proven accuracy of ± 15% or ± 2 ml/hr. The flow sensor allowed real-time continuous flow waveform data recordings. Dynamic analysis of CSF flow waveforms allowed the calculation of the pressure-volume index. Lastly, the sensor was able to diagnose a blocked catheter and distinguish between the blockage and lack of flow. CONCLUSIONS The Transonic flow sensor accurately measures CSF output within ± 15% or ± 2 ml

  14. Patterning electrohydrodynamic flows with conductive obstacles in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Tyrone F.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Barrett, Louis C.; Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Harnett, Cindy K.; Skulan, Andrew J.

    2005-03-01

    Flow patterns with both recirculating and unidirectional characteristics are useful for controlled mixing and pumping within microfluidic devices. We have developed a fabrication process that converts injection-molded polymer chips into devices that demonstrate induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO) effects (1,2) in AC fields. Polymeric insulating posts are coated with metal to produce a nonuniform zeta potential under an applied electric field. Induced flows are analyzed by particle image velocimetry. Stable, recirculating flow patterns are discussed, along with their potential to produce well-characterized and reversible streamlines for on-chip mixing in chemical separation and synthesis devices. Asymmetric conductive features can bias the flow direction, generating unidirectional pumping in an AC field. This pumping approach will be discussed in comparison with DC electrokinetic pumps we have studied.

  15. Patterns of inward FDI in economies in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán KALOTAY

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the contribution of foreign direct investment to structural change in various groups of economies in transition: new European Union member countries (including Bulgaria and Romania, South-East Europe (excluding Bulgaria and Romania, and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It comes to the conclusion that foreign direct investment has had the deepest impact on structural change in new EU members, and the smallest (in fact negative impact in the Russian Federation. This is related to differences in timing of investment flows (they started earlier in new EU members; other subregions caught up later on, as well as the sectoral composition of FDI. It also has to be noted that the FDI of new EU member countries, especially in automotive production and electronics proved to be more vulnerable to the crisis of 2008–2009 than FDI in other transition economies. It remains to be seen if these countries in turn will be able to benefit fast from the post-crisis recovery.

  16. Recurrence patterns of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Mi-hyun; Cho, Kyung-Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); E-mail: choihj@amc.seoul.kr

    2012-10-15

    Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is widely accepted as an effective imaging modality in monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence after radical cystectomy. Elucidating the pattern of bladder cancer recurrence on CT can increase the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose To evaluate the recurrence patterns of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and the factors associated with cancer recurrence. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 66.55 years; range, 32-86 years) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and radical cystectomy were included in this study. The presence, site, and time of tumor recurrence were recorded retrospectively by two radiologists in a consensus fashion. The association of tumor recurrence and tumor factors (T stage, lymph node metastasis, nuclear grade, and tumor diameter) were also evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier statistics. Results Tumor recurrence occurred in 60 patients (40.3%) with a mean time of 14 months (range, 1-64 months). The sites of recurrence included the operation site (n = 20), lymph node (n = 20), bone (n = 11), liver (n = 6), lung (n = 5), upper urinary tract (n = 4), colon (n = 3), adrenal gland (n = 2), peritoneum (n = 1), abdominal wall (n = 1), psoas muscle (n = 1), and penile skin (n = 1). Tumor recurrence was found to be associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder recur more frequently at the operation site and lymph node, and T-stage and lymph node metastasis are closely associated with tumor recurrence.

  17. Experimental study on two-phase gas-liquid flow patterns at normal and reduced gravity conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies have been performed for horizontal two-phase air-water flows at nor-mal and reduced gravity conditions in a square cross-section channel. The experiments at reducedgravity are conducted on board the Russian IL-76 reduced gravity airplane. Four flow patterns, namelybubble, slug, slug-annular transition and annular flows, are observed depending on the liquid and gassuperficial velocities at both conditions. Semi-theoretical Weber number model is developed to includethe shape influence on the slug-annular transition. It is shown that its prediction is in reasonable agree-ment with the experimental slug-annular transition under both conditions. For the case of two-phasegas-liquid flow with large value of the Froude number, the drift-flux model can predict well the observedboundary between bubble and slug flows.

  18. Regionalization of patterns of flow intermittence from gauging station records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Snelder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in flow intermittence is important for effective river management. The duration and frequency of zero-flow periods are associated with the ecological characteristics of rivers and have important implications for water resources management. We used daily flow records from 628 gauging stations on rivers with minimally modified flows distributed throughout France to predict regional patterns of flow intermittence. For each station we calculated two annual times series describing flow intermittence; the frequency of zero-flow periods (consecutive days of zero flow in each year of record (FREQ; yr−1, and the total number of zero-flow days in each year of record (DUR; days. These time series were used to calculate two indices for each station, the mean annual frequency of zero-flow periods (mFREQ; yr−1, and the mean duration of zero-flow periods (mDUR; days. Approximately 20% of stations had recorded at least one zero-flow period in their record. Dissimilarities between pairs of gauges calculated from the annual times series (FREQ and DUR and geographic distances were weakly correlated, indicating that there was little spatial synchronization of zero flow. A flow-regime classification for the gauging stations discriminated intermittent and perennial stations, and an intermittence classification grouped intermittent stations into three classes based on the values of mFREQ and mDUR. We used random forest (RF models to relate the flow-regime and intermittence classifications to several environmental characteristics of the gauging station catchments. The RF model of the flow-regime classification had a cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.47, indicating fair performance and the intermittence classification had poor performance (cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.35. Both classification models identified significant environment-intermittence associations, in particular with regional-scale climate patterns and also

  19. Insensitivity of Global Neolithic Transition Patterns On Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, K. W.

    Aiming to assess the relative importance of climate events on human history through- out the Holocene here a recently build model is employed. In the model 196 world regions are resolved which mainly differ in their food extraction potential (FEP) and potential number of agricultures. Both regional features are estimated using exist- ing vegetation maps. An array of state variables describes farming to foraging ratio, domestication success, technological and organizational development and population density. Deterministic rules for their time evolution are derived from a growth func- tion, an adaptation principle and a diffusion submodel. Overall model validity can be demonstrated by a striking similarity of simulated patterns and archaeological evi- dence. It is demonstrated that abrupt as well as smooth climatic changes, induced by FEP modifications, do not significantly affect development trajectories of Neolithic communities or global transition patterns. The stability of this result is tested through conducting numerical experiments based on massive parameter variation. However, population density always reacts sensitively, leading to the emergence of distinct mi- gration waves. An in-depth analysis of the differential model behavior provides new arguments in the face of recent or established theories linking climatic factors with human development.

  20. Flow Patterns and Thermal Drag in Supersonic Duct Flow with Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-YuanGuo; Zhi-HongLiu

    1994-01-01

    The supersonic duct flow with fixed back pressure to stagnation pressure ratio Pb/P0 under heating is investigated analytically.A “Flow Pattern Diagram” Which consists of six pattern zones is developed.By this diagram the actual flow state in supersonic duct flow system can be determined conveniently when Pb/Po and heating intensity are knows.It is impossible for flow with heavy heating to become supersonic,even though the pressure ratio is much smaller than the critical pressure ratio,Based on the analogy between viscous effect and heating effect a thermal drag factor has een defined.which can predict the flow property variation due to heating and the relaive importance of viscous effect and heating effect.

  1. A Stochastic Description of Transition Between Granular Flow States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional granular flow in a channel with small exit is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We Erstly define a key area near the exit, which is considered to be the choke area of the system. Then we observe the time variation of the local packing fraction and flow rate in this area for several fixed inflow rate, and find that these quantities change abruptly when the transition from dilute How state to dense Bow state happens. A relationship between the local flow rate and the local packing fraction in the key area is also given. The relationship is a continuous function under the fixed particle number condition, and has the characteristic that the flow rate has a maximum at a moderate packing fraction and the packing fraction is terminated at a high value with negative slope. By use of the relationship, the properties of the How states under the fixed inflow rate condition are discussed in detail, and the discontinuities and the complex time variation behavior observed in the preexisting works are naturally explained by a stochastic process.

  2. Flowing Foam: T1 events and solid-liquid transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennin, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Flowing aqueous foam is found in many applications ranging from oil recovery, to fire fighting, to spreading shaving cream. Aqueous foam consists of gas bubbles with liquid walls. One of the striking features of foam is that despite being composed entirely of fluids, its mechanical properties are either those of a solid (elastic response) or fluid (viscous flow), depending on the nature of the applied stress and strains. We study the transition between these two regimes using a model foam system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts are a single layer of bubbles floating on the air-water surface. This allows us to track the motion of all the bubbles during flow. In this talk, we will present two main results. First, we will discuss the observation of the coexistence between a solid-like and fluid-like state during flow. Second, we will discuss the role played by nonlinear, topological rearrangements, known as T1 events, in determining the mechanical response of the system.

  3. Temporal and spatial intermittencies within channel flow turbulence near transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Anubhav; Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D.

    2017-02-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of plane Poiseuille flow are performed in an extended domain at friction Reynolds numbers ranging from 70 to 100. In minimal domains, turbulence in this Reynolds number range displays substantial intermittency that is associated with chaotic movement of turbulent trajectories between lower and upper branch invariant solutions known as exact coherent states (ECS). The present work aims to address the relationship between temporal dynamics in minimal channels and spatiotemporal dynamics in extended domains. Both temporal and spatial analyses of the turbulent velocity fields are performed, the latter using image analysis methods. These analyses partition the flow characteristics into low-, intermediate- and high-drag classes; we present the differences between flows fields in these classes in terms of simple quantities like mean velocity, wall shear stress, and flow structures. The temporal and spatial analysis methods, although completely independent of one another, yield very similar results for both low- and high-drag regions. In particular, the conditional mean profiles in regions of low drag closely resemble those found in low-drag temporal intervals in the minimal channel. Finally, we address the possibility of similarities between turbulence and exact coherent states in two ways: (1) comparing wall shear stress in localized patches the size of minimal channels in large domains with those in actual minimal channel and (2) comparing conditional mean velocity profiles during low-drag events with mean profiles from lower branch ECS. These analyses show that both the local near-wall flow structure in the low-drag patches of the large domain and the conditional mean profiles in the region y+≲30 resemble those of a lower branch minimal domain ECS. In summary, the results presented here suggest that spatiotemporal intermittency in transitional channel flow turbulence is related to temporal intermittency, and by extension to the

  4. Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B

    1981-01-01

    In a consecutive group of 56 stroke patients the regional cerebral blood flow was measured within 84 hours after stroke. A 254 multidetector scintillation camera and the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection method was used to study rCBF. Typical rCBF-patterns are described and compared to the findings...

  5. Modeling of the expiratory flow pattern of spontaneously breathing cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, D; van der Grinten, CPM; Bogaard, JM; van der Ent, CK; Luijendijk, SCM

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed describing the entire expiratory flow pattern during spontaneous, tidal breathing in the absence of expiratory muscle activity. It provides estimates for the time constants of the respiratory System (tauRS(model)) and of the decay of continuing inspiratory muscle a

  6. Linking Pattern Formation and Alternative Stable States: Ecohydrologic Thresholds and Critical Transitions in the Everglades Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, J. B.; Ross, M. S.; Sah, J. P.; Isherwood, E.; Cohen, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial patterning occurs in a variety of ecosystems, and is important for the functional properties of landscapes; for testing spatial models of ecological processes; and as an indicator of landscape condition and resilience. Theory suggests that regular patterns arise from coupled local- and landscape-scale feedbacks that can also create multiple stable landscape states. In the Florida Everglades, hydrologic modification has degraded much of the historically-extensive ridge-slough landscape, a patterned peatland mosaic with distinct, flow-parallel patches. However, in the Everglades and in general, the hypothesis that patterned landscapes have homogeneous alternative states has little direct empirical support. Here we use microtopographic and vegetative heterogeneity, and their relation to hydrologic conditions, to infer the existence of multiple landscape equilibria and identify the hydrologic thresholds for critical transitions between these states. Dual relationships between elevation variance and water depth, and bi-modal distributions of both elevation variance and plant community distinctness, are consistent with generic predictions of multiple states, and covariation between these measures suggests that microtopography is the leading indicator of landscape degradation. Furthermore, a simple ecohydrologic multiple-state model correctly predicts the hydrologic thresholds for persistence of distinct ridges and sloughs. Predicted ridge-slough elevation differences and their relation to water depth are much greater than observed in the contemporary Everglades, but correspond closely with historical observations of pre-drainage conditions. These multiple lines of evidence represent the broadest and most direct support for the link between regular spatial pattern and landscape-scale alternative states in any ecosystem, and suggest that other patterned landscapes could undergo sudden collapse in response to changing environmental conditions. Hydrologic thresholds

  7. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  8. Buoyancy effect on the flow pattern and the thermal performance of an array of circular cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Fornarelli, Francesco; Oresta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we found, by means of numerical simulations, a transition in the oscillatory character of the flow field for a particular combination of buoyancy and spacing in an array of six circular cylinders at a Reynolds number of 100 and Prandtl number of 0.7. The cylinders are iso-thermal and they are aligned with the Earth acceleration (g). According to the array orientation, an aiding or an opposing buoyancy is considered. The effect of natural convection with respect to the forced convection is modulated with the Richardson number, Ri, ranging between -1 and 1. Two values of center to center spacing (s=3.6d - 4d) are considered. The effects of buoyancy and spacing on the flow pattern in the near and far field are described. Several transitions in the flow patterns are found and a parametric analysis of the dependence of the force coefficients and Nusselt number with respect to the Richardson number is reported. For Ri=-1, the change of spacing ratio from 3.6 to 4 induces a transition in the standard d...

  9. Flow Visualization and Pattern Formation in Vertically Falling Liquid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Malamataris, Nikolaos

    2008-11-01

    Analytical results of a low-dimensional two equation h-q model and results of a direct numerical simulation of the transient two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations are presented for vertically falling liquid films along a solid wall. The numerical study aims at the elucidation of the hydrodynamics of the falling film. The analytical study aims at the calculation of the parameter space where pattern formation occurs for this flow. It has been found that when the wave amplitude exceeds a certain magnitude, flow reversal occurs in the film underneath the minimum of the waves [1]. The instantaneous vortical structures possess two hyperbolic points on the vertical wall and an elliptic point in the film. As the wave amplitude increases further, the elliptic point reaches the free surface of the film and two more hyperbolic points are formed in the free surface that replace the elliptic point. Between the two hyperbolic points on the free surface, the streamwise component of velocity is negative and the film is divided into asymmetric patterns of up and down flows. Depending on the value of the Kapitza number, these patterns are either stationary or oscillatory. Physical reasons for the influence of the Kapitza number on pattern formation are given. Movies are shown where the pattern formation is demonstrated. [1] N.A.Malamataris and V.Balakotaiah (2008), AIChE J., 54(7), p. 1725-1740

  10. Importance of vegetation, topography and flow paths for water transit times of base flow in alpine headwater catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Mueller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mean transit time (MTT of water in a catchment gives information about storage, flow paths, sources of water and thus also about retention and release of solutes in a catchment. To our knowledge there are only a few catchment studies on the influence of vegetation cover changes on base flow MTTs. The main changes in vegetation cover in the Swiss Alps are massive shrub encroachment and forest expansion into formerly open habitats. Four small and relatively steep headwater catchments in the Swiss Alps (Ursern Valley were investigated to relate different vegetation cover to water transit times. Time series of water stable isotopes were used to calculate MTTs. The high temporal variation of the stable isotope signals in precipitation was strongly dampened in stream base flow samples. MTTs of the four catchments were 70 to 102 weeks. The strong dampening of the stable isotope input signal as well as stream water geochemistry points to deeper flow paths and mixing of waters of different ages at the catchments' outlets. MTTs were neither related to topographic indices nor vegetation cover. The major part of the quickly infiltrating precipitation likely percolates through fractured and partially karstified deeper rock zones, which increases the control of bedrock flow paths on MTT. Snow accumulation and the timing of its melt play an important role for stable isotope dynamics during spring and early summer. We conclude that, in mountainous headwater catchments with relatively shallow soil layers, the hydrogeological and geochemical patterns (i.e. geochemistry, porosity and hydraulic conductivity of rocks and snow dynamics influence storage, mixing and release of water in a stronger way than vegetation cover or topography do.

  11. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-05-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the /sup 133/Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness.

  12. Transitions in insect respiratory patterns are controlled by changes in metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, H L; Bradley, T J

    2010-05-01

    We examined the respiratory patterns of Rhodnius prolixus and Gromphadorhina portentosa as metabolic rates varied with temperature to determine whether insects transition from discontinuous (DGC), cyclical and continuous respiration as a response to increasing aerobic demand. Using flow through respirometry we: (1) determined the effects of temperature on metabolic rate; (2) objectively defined periods of spiracular closure; (3) observed whether there was a correlation between metabolic rate and length of spiracular closure. At low temperatures both species exhibit lengthy periods of spiracular closure reflecting a discontinuous respiratory pattern. As metabolic rate increased, periods of spiracular closure decreased and insects displayed a more cyclical pattern of respiration. As metabolic rates increased even further under the highest experimental temperatures, periods of spiracular closure decreased even more and a continuous respiratory pattern was employed by both species. Our results suggest that the three described respiratory patterns in insects are not distinct but are instead a continuum of respiratory responses driven by the metabolic demand experienced by the insect.

  13. Comparison of detection pattern of HCC by ferumoxide-enhanced MRI and intratumoral blood flow pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itou, Naoki; Kotake, Fumio [Tokyo Medical Coll., Ami, Ibaraki (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital; Saitou, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kimihiko

    2000-08-01

    We compared the detection rate and pattern of ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Fe-MRI) with the intratumoral blood flow pattern determined by CT angiography (CTA) and CT portography (CTAP) in 124 nodes (34 cases) diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or borderline HCC, based on the clinical course. Sequences to obtain a T1-weighted images (T1W), proton density-weighted images (PDW), T2-weighted images (T2W), T2*-weighted images (T2*W) were used in Fe-MRI. In nodes shown to be hypervascular on CTA, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 69.7%. In nodes shown to be avascular by CTAP, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 67.3%. These rates were higher than with other flow patterns. In nodes showing high signal intensity (HSI) on any sequences, arterial blood flow was increased and portal blood flow decreased in comparison with nodes without high signal intensity. All nodes showing HSI, both on Fe-MRI T2W and T2*W, were hypervascular on CTA, and portal blood flow was absent on CTAP. Nodes showing HSI on both T2*W and T2W were considered to have greater arterial blood flow and decreased portal blood flow compared with nodes appearing as HSI on T2*W, but only as iso- or low signal intensity on T2W (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05). (author)

  14. Modelling of transit-time ultrasonic flow meters under multi-phase flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simurda, Matej; Duggen, Lars; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    A pseudospectral model for transit time ultrasonic flowmeters under multiphase flow conditions is presented. The method solves first order stress-velocity equations of elastodynamics, with acoustic media being modelled by setting shear modulus to zero. Additional terms to account for the effect...... of the background flow are included. Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation scheme allowing the use of the Fast Fourier transform. The method is compared against analytical solutions and experimental measurements. Additionally, a study of clamp-on and in-line ultrasonic flowmeters operating...

  15. Two-phase flow patterns for flow condensation in small-diameter tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two-phase flow patterns have been observed visually to investigate the effects of tube diameter, mass flux and tube inclination on flow condensation in small-diameter tubes. For horizontal or inclined small-diameter tubes, gravity-domination is decreased by shear stress and surface tension on phase change interface, which weakens the stratification of condensate and vapor flow due to the action of gravity perpendicular to flow direction. As decreasing the tube diameter from 5.79 mm to 2.18 mm, the annular or sub-annular flows become prevailing in flow regime map. The existing flow regime maps for macro scale cannot predict the experimental data in the present study.

  16. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW PATTERNS IN PLANAR JETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional spatial developing turbulent planar jets with different velocity ratios of jet fluid to co-flow fluid at the inlet section are simulated with large eddy simulation give detailed information of transient behaviors of coherent structures in turbulent jets and depict how the velocity ratios will affect the evolution of coherent structures. The motion of small-scale structures is described by the standard Smagorinsky SGS model. Transport equation of passive scalar is also solved in order to perform numerical visualization of flow field. Transient distributions of velocity are obtained at different evolution periods of turbulent jets. Evolutions of coherent structures in flow field are also given in this paper as well as the comparison of flow patterns among three different velocity ratios.``

  17. Extensional Flow-Induced Dynamic Phase Transitions in Isotactic Polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jianzhu; Wang, Zhen; Su, Fengmei; Ji, Youxin; Yang, Haoran; Chang, Jiarui; Ali, Sarmad; Li, Xiangyang; Li, Liangbin

    2016-09-01

    With a combination of fast extension rheometer and in situ synchrotron radiation ultra-fast small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, flow-induced crystallization (FIC) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is studied at temperatures below and above the melting point of α crystals (Tmα). A flow phase diagram of iPP is constructed in strain rate-temperature space, composing of melt, non-crystalline shish, α and α&β coexistence regions, based on which the kinetic and dynamic competitions among these four phases are discussed. Above Tmα , imposing strong flow reverses thermodynamic stabilities of the disordered melt and the ordered phases, leading to the occurrence of FIC of β and α crystals as a dynamic phase transition. Either increasing temperature or stain rate favors the competiveness of the metastable β over the stable α crystals, which is attributed to kinetic rate rather than thermodynamic stability. The violent competitions among four phases near the boundary of crystal-melt may frustrate crystallization and result in the non-crystalline shish winning out.

  18. Flow behaviour and transitions in surfactant-laden gas-liquid vertical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Chakraborty, Sourojeet; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to elucidate the effect of surfactant additives on vertical gas-liquid counter-current pipe flows. Two experimental campaigns were undertaken, one with water and one with a light oil (Exxsol D80) as the liquid phase; in both cases air was used as the gaseous phase. Suitable surfactants were added to the liquid phase up to the critical micelle concentration (CMC); measurements in the absence of additives were also taken, for benchmarking. The experiments were performed in a 32-mm bore and 5-m long vertical pipe, over a range of superficial velocities (liquid: 1 to 7 m/s, gas: 1 to 44 m/s). High-speed axial- and side-view imaging was performed at different lengths along the pipe, together with pressure drop measurements. Flow regime maps were then obtained describing the observed flow behaviour and related phenomena, i.e., downwards/upwards annular flow, flooding, bridging, gas/liquid entrainment, oscillatory film flow, standing waves, climbing films, churn flow and dryout. Comparisons of the air-water and oil-water results will be presented and discussed, along with the role of the surfactants in affecting overall and detailed flow behaviour and transitions; in particular, a possible mechanism underlying the phenomenon of flooding will be presented. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  19. Spray flow-network flow transition of binary Lennard-Jones particle system

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime

    2010-07-01

    We simulate gas-liquid flows caused by rapid depressurization using a molecular dynamics model. The model consists of two types of Lennard-Jones particles, which we call liquid particles and gas particles. These two types of particles are distinguished by their mass and strength of interaction: a liquid particle has heavier mass and stronger interaction than a gas particle. By simulations with various initial number densities of these particles, we found that there is a transition from a spray flow to a network flow with an increase of the number density of the liquid particles. At the transition point, the size of the liquid droplets follows a power-law distribution, while it follows an exponential distribution when the number density of the liquid particles is lower than the critical value. The comparison between the transition of the model and that of models of percolation is discussed. The change of the average droplet size with the initial number density of the gas particles is also presented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mean flow of turbulent-laminar patterns in plane Couette flow

    CERN Document Server

    Barkley, D; Barkley, Dwight; Tuckerman, Laurette S.

    2007-01-01

    A turbulent-laminar banded pattern in plane Couette flow is studied numerically. This pattern is statistically steady, is oriented obliquely to the streamwise direction, and has a very large wavelength relative to the gap. The mean flow, averaged in time and in the homogeneous direction, is analysed. The flow in the quasi-laminar region is not the linear Couette profile, but results from a non-trivial balance between advection and diffusion. This force balance yields a first approximation to the relationship between the Reynolds number, angle, and wavelength of the pattern. Remarkably, the variation of the mean flow along the pattern wavevector is found to be almost exactly harmonic: the flow can be represented via only three cross-channel profiles as U(x,y,z) = U_0(y) + U_c(y) cos(kz) + U_s(y) sin(kz). A model is formulated which relates the cross-channel profiles of the mean flow and of the Reynolds stress. Regimes computed for a full range of angle and Reynolds number in a tilted rectangular periodic compu...

  1. Experimental study for the stratified to slug flow regime transition mechanism of gas-oil two-phase flow in horizontal pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical relations that predict the transition from a stratified pattern to a slug pattern,including a onedimensional wave model that contains less empiricism than the commonly used Taitel-Dukler model,and the ideal model for stratified flow for the gas-liquid flow in horizontal pipes are presented.Superficial velocities of each phase,as the onset of slugging occurs,were predicted,and theoretical analysis was conducted on the stratified to slug flow regime transition.The friction,existing between the fluid and pipe wall,and on the interface of two phases,was especially taken into account.A theoretical model was applied to an experiment about air-oil two-phase flow in a 50 mm horizontal pipe.The effect of pipe diameter on the transition was also studied.The results show that this approach gives a reasonable prediction over the whole range of flow rates,and better agreement has been achieved between predicted and measured critical parameters.

  2. Information flow during the quantum-classical transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIC) (Argentina); Martin, M.T., E-mail: mtmartin@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)] [Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Zunino, L., E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.a [Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (IFISC) CSIC-UIB, Campus Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)] [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata - CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina)] [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-04-12

    We have exhaustively investigated the classical limit of the semi-classical evolution with reference to a well-known model that represents the interaction between matter and a given field. In this Letter we approach this issue by recourse to a new statistical quantifier called the 'symbolic transfer entropy' [T. Schreiber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 461; M. Staniek, K. Lehnertz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 158101]. We encounter that the quantum-classical transition gets thereby described as the sign reversal of the dominating direction of the information flow between classical and quantal variables. This can be considered as an evidence of the physical useful of this new statistical quantifier.

  3. Effect of a flow-corrective insert on the flow pattern in a pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tu, Jiyuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne 3083, VIC (Australia); Jiang, Shengyao, E-mail: shengyaojiang@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effect of an insert on improving flow uniformity and eliminating stagnant zone is studied. • Three values concerned with the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence are used. • Outlet diameter is a critical parameter that determines balancing mechanism of the insert. • Height/location is varied to let the insert work in unbalanced region and avoid adverse effect. - Abstract: A flow-corrective insert is adopted in the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to improve flow performance of the pebble flow for the first time. 3D discrete element method (DEM) modeling is employed to study this slow and dense granular flow. It is verified that locating a properly designed insert in the bed can help transform unsatisfactory flow field to the preferred flow pattern for pebble bed reactors. Three characteristic values on the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence of pebble flow are defined to evaluate uniformity of the overall flow field quantitatively. The results demonstrate that the pebble bed equipped with an insert performs better than normal beds from all these three aspects. Moreover, based on numerical experiments, several universal tips for insert design on height, location and outlet diameter are suggested.

  4. Evoluton of polygonal fracture patterns in lava flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, A; Degraff, J M

    1988-01-29

    Cooling-induced fractures, also known as columnar joints, divide basaltic lava flows into prismatic columns with polygonal cross sections. The regularity and symmetry of the fracture patterns have long fascinated naturalists. In view of the recent selection of two candidate nuclear waste sites in areas where polygonally fractured volcanic rocks are located, a better understanding of the fracture patterns is required. Field data indicate that the tetragonal networks at flow surfaces evolve systematically to hexagonal networks as the joints grow inward during solidification of lava. This evolution occurs by the gradual change of most orthogonal intersections to nonorthogonal intersections of about 120 degrees. The surface features and intersection geometries of columnar joints show that joint segments at any given level form sequentially yet harmoniously.

  5. Influence of boundaries on pattern selection in through-flow

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, D R; Lücke, M; Müller, H W; Kamps, M; Schmitz, R

    1996-01-01

    The problem of pattern selection in absolutely unstable open flow systems is investigated by considering the example of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The spatiotemporal structure of convection rolls propagating downstream in an externally imposed flow is determined for six different inlet/outlet boundary conditions. Results are obtained by numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations and by comparison with the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau amplitude equation. A unique selection process is observed being a function of the control parameters and the boundary conditions but independent of the history and the system length. The problem can be formulated in terms of a nonlinear eigen/boundary value problem where the frequency of the propagating pattern is the eigenvalue. PACS: 47.54.+r, 47.20.Bp, 47.27.Te, 47.20.Ky

  6. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群; 刘业进

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  7. The transition to turbulence in parallel flows: transition to turbulence or to regular structures

    CERN Document Server

    Pomeau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scenario for the formation of localized turbulent spots in transition flows, which is known as resulting from the subcritical character of the transition. We show that it is not necessary to add 'by hand" a term of random noise in the equations, in order to describe the existence of long wavelength fluctuations as soon as the bifurcated state is beyond the Benjamin-Feir instability threshold. We derive the instability threshold for generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation which displays subcriticality. Beyond and close to the Benjamin-Feir threshold we show that the dynamics is mainly driven by the phase of the complex amplitude which obeys Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation while the fluctuations of the modulus are smaller and slaved to the phase (as already proved for the supercritical case). On the opposite, below the Benjamin-Feir instability threshold, the bifurcated state does loose the randomness associated to turbulence so that the transition becomes of the mean-field type as in noiseless ...

  8. Local Flow Regime Transition Criteria of Gas-Liquid Two-phase Flow in Vertical Upward Tube with a Horizontal Rod%垂直上升管内有水平柱体时气液两相局部流型转变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志华; 杨燕华; 刘磊; 周芳德

    2006-01-01

    The upward multiphase cross flow and heat transfer in the vertical tube may occur in oil production and chemical facilities. In this study, the local flow patterns of an upward gas-water two phase cross flow in a vertical tube with a horizontal rod have been investigated with an optical probe and the digital high speed video system. The local flow patterns are defined as the bubble, slug, churn and annular flow patterns. Optical probe signals are analyzed in terms of probability density function, and it is proved that the local flow patterns can be recognized by this method. The transition mechanisms between the different flow patterns have been analyzed and the corresponding transitional models are proposed. Finally, local flow pattern maps of the upward gas-water two-phase flow in the vertical tube with a horizontal rod are constructed.

  9. Microscopic Current Flow Patterns in Nanoscale Quantum Point Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Na; Bushong, Neil; Hatcher, Ryan; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2006-03-01

    Transport in nanoscale conductors has been studied extensively mainly using the stationary scattering approach. However, the dynamical nature of transport, and in particular, the flow patterns of the microscopic current through a nanoscale junction, have remained poorly understood. We apply a novel time-dependent transport approach [1], which combines closed and finite geometries with time-dependent density functional theory,to study current flow patterns in nanoscale quantum point contacts [2]. The results of both atomistic and jellium calculations show that surface charges form dynamically at the junction-electrode interfaces in both abrupt and adiabatic junctions. The curr ent exhibits some characteristics of a classical hydrodynamic liquid but also displays unique patterns arising from the interaction with the surface charges. We also investigate the effect of the flow velocity, charge density, and lattice structures on the electron dynamics. If time permits we also discuss the effects of the viscosity of the electron liquid [3]. Work supported by DOE (DE-FG02-05ER46204). [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] N. Bushong, N. Sai and, M. Di Ventra, Nano Lett. (in press). [3] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale, and M. Di Ventra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005 ).

  10. Aging and transmitral flow pattern in patients with systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Yukari; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Ezumi, Tomoko; Hadano, Yasuyuki; Akagawa, Eizo; Hashimoto, Ryo; Kunichika, Hideki; Murata, Kazuya; Hinoda, Yuji; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    2006-12-01

    Currently, the transmitral flow (TMF) pattern is routinely recorded as the first step in the assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. In young, healthy subjects, it is known that the early diastolic flow (E wave) of TMF is larger than the late diastolic flow (A wave). The E/A ratio then gradually decreases with age. This change in the pattern of TMF can be expected to occur earlier in patients with systemic hypertension than in healthy subjects. However, data pertaining to this matter are limited for Japanese patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changing pattern of TMF with age in Japanese patients with systemic hypertension. A database of echocardiographic examination reports was surveyed. A total of 553 patients with systemic hypertension (HT group) and 394 patients without hypertension or organic heart disease (control group) were included in this study. The patients were subdivided according to age, after which the E/A ratio was compared for different patient categories and age groups. The E/A ratio gradually decreased with age in the control group, and the mean value of E/A was <1 in the sixth decade. On the other hand, the E/A ratio rapidly decreased and was <1 in the fifth decade in the HT group. In patients in the HT group, the E/A ratio decreased about a decade earlier compared with patients in the control group.

  11. LDA - Measurements of Transitional Flows Induced by a Square Rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.; Durst, F.; Stoots, Carl Marcel; Condie, Keith Glenn; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2002-03-01

    New fundamental measurements are presented for the transition process in flat plate boundary layers downstream of two-dimensional square ribs. By use of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and a large Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) flow system, data for wall-normal fluctuations and Reynolds stresses were obtained in the near wall region to y+<0.1 in addition to the usual mean streamwise velocity component and its fluctuation. By varying velocity and rib height, the experiment investigated the following range of conditions: k+ = 5.5 to 21, 0.3flows where the mean velocity profile still showed laminar behavior.

  12. Flow Pattern Identification of Horizontal Two-Phase Refrigerant Flow Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    of several flow patterns which may include bubbly, plug, slug, stratified-wavy, and annular flows [17]. Here, previous work is extended by including...liquid (εf) alone. Since non- linear electric field responses may generate values outside the normalizedElectrode Insulation Measurement Volume 1 2 3 8 7...this work, the linear back projection algorithm was used in the software provided by the instrumentmanufacturer for the tomographic reconstruction

  13. Transition between trickle flow and pulse flow in a cocurrent gas-liquid trickle-bed reactor at elevated pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, W.J.A.; Mechielsen, S.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of reactor pressure in the range of 0.2–2.0 MPa on the transition between the trickle-flow and the pulse-flow regime has been investigated for the non-foaming water—nitrogen and aqueous 40% ethyleneglycol—nitrogen systems. Most models and flow charts which are all based on atmospheric

  14. Noise induced pattern formation of oscillation growth in traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Treiber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Noise is able to induce diverse patterns in physical and interdisciplinary extended systems. This Letter investigates the role of noise in pattern formation of traffic flow, which is a typical self-driven system far from equilibrium. We demonstrate that noise is necessary to correctly describe the observed spatiotemporal dynamics of growing traffic oscillation in the car following process. A heuristic analysis qualitatively explains the concave growth of the oscillation amplitude along the vehicles of a platoon. Based on this analysis, we propose a simple car-following model containing indifference regions and acceleration noise described by Brownian motion which reproduces well the experimental and empirical observations. Our study indicates that noise might also play an important role in pattern formation in other biological or socio-economic systems that are subject to stochasticity.

  15. Validation of transit-time flowmetry for chronic measurements of regional blood flow in resting and exercising rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amaral

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to validate the transit-time technique for long-term measurements of iliac and renal blood flow in rats. Flow measured with ultrasonic probes was confirmed ex vivo using excised arteries perfused at varying flow rates. An implanted 1-mm probe reproduced with accuracy different patterns of flow relative to pressure in freely moving rats and accurately quantitated the resting iliac flow value (on average 10.43 ± 0.99 ml/min or 2.78 ± 0.3 ml min-1 100 g body weight-1. The measurements were stable over an experimental period of one week but were affected by probe size (resting flows were underestimated by 57% with a 2-mm probe when compared with a 1-mm probe and by anesthesia (in the same rats, iliac flow was reduced by 50-60% when compared to the conscious state. Instantaneous changes of iliac and renal flow during exercise and recovery were accurately measured by the transit-time technique. Iliac flow increased instantaneously at the beginning of mild exercise (from 12.03 ± 1.06 to 25.55 ± 3.89 ml/min at 15 s and showed a smaller increase when exercise intensity increased further, reaching a plateau of 38.43 ± 1.92 ml/min at the 4th min of moderate exercise intensity. In contrast, exercise-induced reduction of renal flow was smaller and slower, with 18% and 25% decreases at mild and moderate exercise intensities. Our data indicate that transit-time flowmetry is a reliable method for long-term and continuous measurements of regional blood flow at rest and can be used to quantitate the dynamic flow changes that characterize exercise and recovery

  16. The pattern of accretion flow onto Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Czerny, M M T K D B

    2006-01-01

    The material accreting onto Sgr A* most probably comes from the nearby stars. We analyze the pattern of this flow at distances of a fraction of a parsec and we argue that the net angular momentum of this material is low but non-negligible, and the initially supersonic disk accretion changes into subsonic flow with constant angular momentum. Next we estimate the flow parameters at a distance $R_{BHL}$ from the black hole and we argue that for the plausible parameter range the accretion flow is non-stationary. The inflow becomes supersonic at distance of $\\sim 10^4 R_g$ but the solution does not continue below the horizon and the material piles up forming a torus, or a ring, at a distance of a few up to tens of Schwarzchild radii. Such a torus is known to be unstable and may explain strong variability of the flow in Sgr A*. Our considerations show that the temporary formation of such a torus seems to be unavoidable. Our best fitting model predicts a rather large accretion rate of around $4 \\cdot 10^{-6} M_{\\odo...

  17. Towards a new pattern of transition to adulthood?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Second Demographic TransitionRecent theories about social and demographic change, such as individualization and the Second Demographic Transition, embed the notion of a convergence towards a specific ideal-typical pathway to adulthood, which we define as late, protracted and complex. After a discuss

  18. Gas exchange pattern transitions in the workers of the harvester termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder, Isabelle M; Duncan, Frances D

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary genesis and the current adaptive significance of the use of the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) for respiration by insects is the subject of intense debate. Years of research have resulted in several leading hypotheses, one of which is the emergent-property hypothesis. This hypothesis states that DGC is an emergent property or consequence of interactions between the O2 and CO2 set points that regulate spiracular function, i.e. opening and closing. Workers of the harvester termite, Hodotermes mossambicus were selected as a model to test this hypothesis. The respiratory patterns of major workers, investigated using flow-through respirometry, were obtained at 100% relative humidity (RH) under varying temperature to evaluate the assumptions of the emergent-property hypothesis. Metabolic rate, measured as VCO2 increased significantly after 15 °C. As VCO2 increased in response to increasing temperature and activity, the gas exchange pattern displayed by workers transitioned to a continuous gas exchange. A true DGC, defined as showing all three phases and a coefficient of variation value close to 2, was not expressed under the experimental conditions. The conclusion drawn from this study of termite workers is that changes in respiratory patterns are most likely an emergent property of the insects' nervous and respiratory system.

  19. Quantitative investigation of the transition process in Taylor-Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xin Cheng; Kim, Hyoung Bum Kim [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Dong [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2013-02-15

    The transition process from circular Couette flow to Taylor vortex flow regime was experimentally investigated by measuring the instantaneous velocity vector fields at the annular gap flow region between two concentric cylinders. The proper orthogonal decomposition method, vorticity calculation, and frequency analysis were applied in order to analyze the instantaneous velocity fields to identify the flow characteristics during the transition process. From the results, the kinetic energy and corresponding reconstructed velocity fields were able to detect the onset of the transition process and the alternation of the flow structure. The intermittency and oscillation of the vortex flows during the transition process were also revealed from the analysis of the instantaneous velocity fields. The results can be a measure of identifying the critical Reynolds number of the Taylor-Couette flow from a velocity measurement method.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow Dynamic Patterns and Volumetric Flow Penetrations in the Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in the flow channel over the porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery with serpentine flow field design. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic fl...

  1. Two-phase flow patterns in adiabatic and diabatic corrugated plate gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, A.-E.; Kabelac, S.; de Vries, B.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations for two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop can be improved considerably, when they are adapted to specific flow patterns. As plate heat exchangers find increasing application as evaporators and condensers, there is a need for flow pattern maps for corrugated plate gaps. This contribution presents experimental results on flow pattern investigations for such a plate heat exchanger background, using an adiabatic visualisation setup as well as a diabatic setup. Three characteristic flow patterns were observed in the considered range of two-phase flow: bubbly flow, film flow and slug flow. The occurrence of these flow patterns is a function of mass flux, void fraction, fluid properties and plate geometry. Two different plate geometries having a corrugation angle of 27° and 63°, respectively and two different fluids (water/air and R365mfc liquid/vapor) have been analysed. A flow pattern map using the momentum flux is presented.

  2. Numerical investigation of direct laminar-turbulent transition in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygier, Michael; Grigoriev, Roman

    2015-11-01

    A direct transition from laminar to turbulent flow has recently been discovered experimentally in the small-gap Taylor-Couette flow with counter-rotating cylinders. The subcritical nature of this transition is a result of relatively small aspect ratio, Γ = 5 . 26 for large Γ the transition is supercritical and involves an intermediate stable state (Coughlin & Marcus, 1996) - interpenetrating spirals (IPS). We investigate this transition numerically to probe the dynamics in regimes inaccessible to experiments for a fixed Reo = - 1000 by varying Rei . The numerics reproduce all the experimentally observed features and confirm the hysteretic nature of the transition. As Rei is increased, the laminar flow transitions to turbulence, with an unstable IPS state mediating the transition, similar to the Tollmien-Schlichting waves in plane Poiseuille flow. As Rei is decreased, turbulent flow transitions to a stable, temporally chaotic IPS state. This IPS state further transitions to either laminar or turbulent flow as Rei is decreased or increased. The stable IPS state is reminiscent of the pre-turbulent chaotic states found numerically in plane Poiseuille flow (Zammert & Eckhardt, 2015), but previously never observed experimentally.

  3. Experimental study of flow patterns and pressure drops of heavy oil-water-gas vertical flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-mao; ZHONG Hai-quan; LI Ying-chuan; LIU Zhong-neng; WANG Qi

    2014-01-01

    A stainless steel apparatus of 18.5 m high and 0.05 m in inner diameter is developed, with the heavy oil from Lukeqin Xinjiang oil field as the test medium, to carry out the orthogonal experiments for the interactions between heavy oil-water and heavy oil-water-gas. With the aid of observation windows, the pressure drop signal can be collected and the general multiple flow patterns of heavy oil-water-gas can be observed, including the bubble, slug, churn and annular ones. Compared with the conventional oil, the bubble flows are identified in three specific flow patterns which are the dispersed bubble (DB), the bubble gas-bubble heavy oil go(B-B), and the bubble gas-intermittent heavy oilgo(B-I). The slug flows are identified in two specific flow patterns which are the intermittent gas-bubble heavy oilgo(I-B)and the intermittent gas-intermittent heavy oilgo(I-I). Compared with the observa- tions in the heavy oil-water experiment, it is found that the conventional models can not accurately predict the pressure gradient. And it is not water but heavy oil and water mixed phase that is in contact with the tube wall. So, based on the principle of the energy con- servation and the kinematic wave theory, a new method is proposed to calculate the frictional pressure gradient. Furthermore, with the new friction gradient calculation method and a due consideration of the flow characteristics of the heavy oil-water-gas high speed flow, a new model is built to predict the heavy oil-water-gas pressure gradient. The predictions are compared with the experiment data and the field data. The accuracy of the predictions shows the rationality and the applicability of the new model.

  4. Patterns, Instabilities, Colors, and Flows in Vertical Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Wojcik, Ewelina; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Foams find use in many applications in daily life, industry and biology. Examples include beverages, firefighting foam, cosmetics, foams for oil recovery and foams formed by pollutants. Foams are collection of bubbles separated by thin liquid films that are stabilized against drainage by the presence of surfactant molecules. Drainage kinetics and stability of the foam are strongly influenced by surfactant type, addition of particles, proteins and polymers. In this study, we utilize the thin film interference colors as markers for identifying patterns, instabilities and flows within vertical foam films. We experimentally study the emergence of thickness fluctuations near the borders and within thinning films, and study how buoyancy, capillarity and gravity driven instabilities and flows, are affected by variation in bulk and interfacial physicochemical properties dependent on the choice of constituents.

  5. Controlling radial fingering patterns in miscible confined flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Yao; Huang, C-W; Wang, L-C; Miranda, José A

    2010-11-01

    Injection-driven immiscible flow in radial Hele-Shaw cells results in highly ramified patterns if the injection rate is constant in time. Likewise, time-dependent gap immiscible flow in lifting Hele-Shaw cells leads to intricate morphologies if the cell's gap width grows exponentially with time. Recent studies show that the rising of these complex fingered structures can be controlled by properly adjusting the injection rate, and the time-dependent gap width. We investigate the effectiveness of these control strategies assuming that the fluids involved are miscible. Despite the absence of surface tension effects, intensive numerical simulations support the stabilizing role of these controlling protocols. Splitting, merging and competition of fingers are all inhibited. The sensitivity of the system to changes in the initial conditions and Péclet numbers is also discussed.

  6. Intracardiac flow patterns in early embryonic life. A reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Manasek, F; Arcilla, R A

    1983-09-01

    Microangiography, using methylene blue injected at eight vitelline vein sites, was performed on 156 developing chick embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stages 14-22. Two stream patterns were observed. Type A coursed sequentially through the dorsal portion of the sinus venosus, the cranial segments of the primitive atrium and atrioventricular canal, the ventral parts of the primitive ventricle and conus cordis, and, finally, the left branchial arches. Type B coursed through the ventral portion of the sinus venosus, the caudal segments of the primitive atrium and atrioventricular canal, the dorsal parts of the primitive ventricle and conus cordis, and, finally, the right branchial arches. Both streams flowed in parallel fashion in the conus cordis. At Hamburger-Hamilton stages 17-18, the dye stream from the right lateral vitelline vein was chiefly type A, whereas that from the left lateral vitelline vein was type B. At Hamburger-Hamilton stages 19-22, those patterns reversed, i.e., the right lateral vitelline vein stream ran as type B, whereas the left lateral vitelline vein stream assumed type A pattern. The cranial-caudal relationship of the two streams at the primitive atrium and atrioventricular canal is not consistent with the hypothesis that these streams separately expand the future right atrium and left atrium. Their parallel direction at the conus cordis does not support the theory that spiral septation is initiated by two spiral streams. The longitudinal separation of the two streams at and beyond the branchial arches also argues against aortico-pulmonary septation as a consequence of flow streaming. Our observations do not support the traditional flow-molding theory.

  7. Clogging transition of many-particle systems flowing through bottlenecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel, Iker; Parisi, Daniel Ricardo; Hidalgo, Raúl Cruz; Lozano, Celia; Janda, Alvaro; Gago, Paula Alejandra; Peralta, Juan Pablo; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; Pugnaloni, Luis Ariel; Clément, Eric; Maza, Diego; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Garcimartín, Angel

    2014-12-01

    When a large set of discrete bodies passes through a bottleneck, the flow may become intermittent due to the development of clogs that obstruct the constriction. Clogging is observed, for instance, in colloidal suspensions, granular materials and crowd swarming, where consequences may be dramatic. Despite its ubiquity, a general framework embracing research in such a wide variety of scenarios is still lacking. We show that in systems of very different nature and scale -including sheep herds, pedestrian crowds, assemblies of grains, and colloids- the probability distribution of time lapses between the passages of consecutive bodies exhibits a power-law tail with an exponent that depends on the system condition. Consequently, we identify the transition to clogging in terms of the divergence of the average time lapse. Such a unified description allows us to put forward a qualitative clogging state diagram whose most conspicuous feature is the presence of a length scale qualitatively related to the presence of a finite size orifice. This approach helps to understand paradoxical phenomena, such as the faster-is-slower effect predicted for pedestrians evacuating a room and might become a starting point for researchers working in a wide variety of situations where clogging represents a hindrance.

  8. Active dry granular flows: Rheology and rigidity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkov, Anton; Claudin, Philippe; Clément, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    The constitutive relations of a dense granular flow composed of self-propelling frictional hard particles are investigated by means of DEM numerical simulations. We show that the rheology, which relates the dynamical friction μ and the volume fraction ϕ to the inertial number I, depends on a dimensionless number A , which compares the active force to the confining pressure. Two liquid/solid transitions —in the Maxwell rigidity sense— are observed. As soon as the activity is turned on, the packing becomes an “active solid” with a mean number of particle contacts larger than the isostatic value. The quasi-static values of μ and ϕ decrease with A . At a finite value of the activity At , corresponding to the isostatic condition, a second “active rigidity transition” is observed beyond which the quasi-static values of the friction vanishes and the rheology becomes Newtonian. For A>At , we provide evidence for a highly intermittent dynamics of this “active fluid”.

  9. Clogging transition of many-particle systems flowing through bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel, Iker; Parisi, Daniel Ricardo; Hidalgo, Raúl Cruz; Lozano, Celia; Janda, Alvaro; Gago, Paula Alejandra; Peralta, Juan Pablo; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; Pugnaloni, Luis Ariel; Clément, Eric; Maza, Diego; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Garcimartín, Angel

    2014-12-04

    When a large set of discrete bodies passes through a bottleneck, the flow may become intermittent due to the development of clogs that obstruct the constriction. Clogging is observed, for instance, in colloidal suspensions, granular materials and crowd swarming, where consequences may be dramatic. Despite its ubiquity, a general framework embracing research in such a wide variety of scenarios is still lacking. We show that in systems of very different nature and scale -including sheep herds, pedestrian crowds, assemblies of grains, and colloids- the probability distribution of time lapses between the passages of consecutive bodies exhibits a power-law tail with an exponent that depends on the system condition. Consequently, we identify the transition to clogging in terms of the divergence of the average time lapse. Such a unified description allows us to put forward a qualitative clogging state diagram whose most conspicuous feature is the presence of a length scale qualitatively related to the presence of a finite size orifice. This approach helps to understand paradoxical phenomena, such as the faster-is-slower effect predicted for pedestrians evacuating a room and might become a starting point for researchers working in a wide variety of situations where clogging represents a hindrance.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  11. Transition to turbulence in wall-bounded flows: Where do we stand?

    CERN Document Server

    Manneville, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, we recall the specificities of the transition to turbulence in wall-bounded flows and present recent achievements in the understanding of this problem. The transition is abrupt with laminar-turbulent coexistence over a finite range of Reynolds numbers, the transitional range. The archetypical cases of Poiseuille pipe flow and plane Couette flow are first reviewed at the phenomenological level, together with a few other flow configurations. Theoretical approaches are then examined with particular emphasis on the existence of special nontrivial solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations at finite distance from laminar flow. Dynamical systems theory is most appropriate to analyze their role, in particular with respect to the transient character of turbulence in the lower transitional range. The extensions needed to deal with the prominent spatiotemporal features of the transition are then discussed. Turbulence growth/decay in terms of statistical physics of many-body systems and the relevance of dir...

  12. Experimental scaling law for the subcritical transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoult, Grégoire; Aider, Jean-Luc; Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    We present an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a plane Poiseuille flow. Using a well-controlled perturbation, we analyze the flow by using extensive particle image velocimetry and flow visualization (using laser-induced fluorescence) measurements, and use the deformation of the mean velocity profile as a criterion to characterize the state of the flow. From a large parametric study, four different states are defined, depending on the values of the Reynolds number and the amplitude of the perturbation. We discuss the role of coherent structures, such as hairpin vortices, in the transition. We find that the minimal amplitude of the perturbation triggering transition scales asymptotically as Re(-1).

  13. A preliminary design study on an acoustic muffler for the laminar flow transition research apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    An acoustic muffler design of a research tool for studying laminar flow and the mechanisms of transition, the Laminar Flow and Transition Research Apparatus (LFTRA) is investigated. Since the presence of acoustic pressure fluctuations is known to affect transition, low background noise levels in the test section of the LFTRA are mandatory. The difficulties and tradeoffs of various muffler design concepts are discussed and the most promising candidates are emphasized.

  14. Flow Patterns at the Interface Between Free Flow and Sediment Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Zanello, Francesca; Pokrajac, Dubravka; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Bedload transport phenomena in rivers and reservoirs are driven by the flow pattern that develops at the interface between free flow and sediment bed. This is a very difficult area to investigate, due to heterogeneous flow which is often restricted to small length scales and hard to resolve with measuring instruments. Yet its interpretation is of prime interest for the understanding of the mass and momentum exchange between the free flow and the sediment. When dealing with the sediment transport triggering mechanism, most studies focus on the flow that develops above the bed, while the characteristics of the flow inside the bed are usually extrapolated from above or simply neglected. This approach yields an incomplete picture of what happens at the interface. Motivated by this, we propose a study where a free-surface flow tops a permeable bed composed of layers of equally-sized spherical beads. The physics of this configuration, originally analyzed with an experimental setup at the University of Aberdeen, was only partially understood, due to the difficulties in measuring velocity and pressure inside the pores. With a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) we resolve the velocity and pressure fields in both the free flow and inside the porous bed. The no-slip boundary along the beads' surface is imposed using immersed boundaries, which also allows to compute the force exerted by the flow. We observe the development of momentum exchange between free flow and the porous bed, which activates turbulence penetrations that affect the pores closer to the surface of the permeable bed, and has two important consequences. First, the streamwise velocity in these pores is lower than that in the lower layers, a fact that challenges the usual assumption of a monotonically decreasing velocity profile within the bed. Secondly, the turbulence penetration generates an extra fluctuating component in the sphere lift forces whose role for the initiation of their movement is still not clear.

  15. Flow Patterns and Thermal Drag in a One-Dimensional Inviscid Channel with Heating or Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    In this paper investigations on the flow patterns and the thermal drag phenomenon in one -dimensional inviscid channel flow with heating or cooling are described and discussed:expressions of flow rate ratio and thermal drag coefficient for different flow patterns and its physical mechanism are presented.

  16. Physics of Transitional Shear Flows Instability and Laminar–Turbulent Transition in Incompressible Near-Wall Shear Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Boiko, Andrey V; Grek, Genrih R; Kozlov, Victor V

    2012-01-01

    Starting from fundamentals of classical stability theory, an overview is given of the transition phenomena in subsonic, wall-bounded shear flows. At first, the consideration focuses on elementary small-amplitude velocity perturbations of laminar shear layers, i.e. instability waves, in the simplest canonical configurations of a plane channel flow and a flat-plate boundary layer. Then the linear stability problem is expanded to include the effects of pressure gradients, flow curvature, boundary-layer separation, wall compliance, etc. related to applications. Beyond the amplification of instability waves is the non-modal growth of local stationary and non-stationary shear flow perturbations which are discussed as well. The volume continues with the key aspect of the transition process, that is, receptivity of convectively unstable shear layers to external perturbations, summarizing main paths of the excitation of laminar flow disturbances. The remainder of the book addresses the instability phenomena found at l...

  17. Effects of tumors on inhaled pharmacologic drugs: I. Flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonen, T B; Guan, X

    2001-01-01

    Lung carcinomas are now the most common form of cancer. Clinical data suggest that tumors are found preferentially in upper airways, perhaps specifically at carina within bifurcations. The disease can be treated by aerosolized pharmacologic drugs. To enhance their efficacies site-specific drugs must be deposited selectively. Since inhaled particles are transported by air, flow patterns will naturally affect their trajectories. Therefore, in Part I of a systematic investigation, we focused on tumor-induced effects on airstreams, in Part II (the following article [p. 245]), particle trajectories were determined. To facilitate the targeted delivery of inhaled drugs, we simulated bifurcations with tumors on carinas using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package (FIDAP) with a Cray T90 supercomputer and studied effects of tumor sizes and ventilatory parameters on localized flow patterns. Critical tumor sizes existed; e.g., tumors had dominant effects when r/R > or = 0.8 for bifurcation 3-4 and r/R > or = 0.6 for bifurcation 7-8 (r = tumor radius and R = airway radius). The findings suggest that computer modeling is a means to integrate alterations to airway structures caused by diseases into aerosol therapy protocols.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow Dynamic Patterns and Volumetric Flow Penetrations in the Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Xinyou; Alexander, J Iwan D; Savinell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in the flow channel over the porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery with serpentine flow field design. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. However, the volumetric flow penetration within the porous electrode beneath the flow channel through the integration of interface flow velocity reveals that this value is identical under both ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic flow inlet boundary conditions. The volumetric flow penetrations under the advection effects of flow channel and landing/rib are estimated. The maximum current density achieved in the flow battery can be predicted based on the 100% amount of electrolyte flow reactant ...

  19. Decoding complex flow-field patterns in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophel, Thomas B; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of research on visual working memory. Whereas early studies have focused on the role of lateral prefrontal cortex in the storage of sensory information, this has been challenged by research in humans that has directly assessed the encoding of perceptual contents, pointing towards a role of visual and parietal regions during storage. In a previous study we used pattern classification to investigate the storage of complex visual color patterns across delay periods. This revealed coding of such contents in early visual and parietal brain regions. Here we aim to investigate whether the involvement of visual and parietal cortex is also observable for other types of complex, visuo-spatial pattern stimuli. Specifically, we used a combination of fMRI and multivariate classification to investigate the retention of complex flow-field stimuli defined by the spatial patterning of motion trajectories of random dots. Subjects were trained to memorize the precise spatial layout of these stimuli and to retain this information during an extended delay. We used a multivariate decoding approach to identify brain regions where spatial patterns of activity encoded the memorized stimuli. Content-specific memory signals were observable in motion sensitive visual area MT+ and in posterior parietal cortex that might encode spatial information in a modality independent manner. Interestingly, we also found information about the memorized visual stimulus in somatosensory cortex, suggesting a potential crossmodal contribution to memory. Our findings thus indicate that working memory storage of visual percepts might be distributed across unimodal, multimodal and even crossmodal brain regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. THE FLOW PATTERNS OF BUBBLE PLUME IN AN MBBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shi-rong; CHENG Wen; WANG Meng; CHEN Chen

    2011-01-01

    The flow patterns of the gas-liquid two-phase flow in a Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor(MBBR)have a critical effect upon the mass transfer by the convection.Bubble plumes promote unsteadily fluctuating two-phase flows during the aeration.This article studies the unsteady structure of bubble plumes through experiments.The time-serial bubble plume images in various cases of the tank are analyzed.The Recursive Cross Correlation-Particle Image Velocimetry(RCC-PIV)is used to calculate the velocities in those cases,and then the time-serial vortex,the total turbulence intensity,the time-serial streamline are obtained.It is shown that the aspect ratio and the void fraction are the dominant factors influencing the unsteady structure of bubble plumes.When the aspect ratio is unity and the void fraction is high,the bubble plumes see a symmetrical vortex structure with a long residence time,which is beneficial for optimizing the aeration system and enhancing the applied range of bubble plumes.

  1. Modelling socio-technical transition patterns and pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bergman (Noam); A. Haxeltine (Alex); L. Whitmarsh (Lorraine); J. Köhler (Jonathan); M.P. Schilperoord (Michel); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe report on research that is developing a simulation model for assessing systemic innovations, or 'transitions', of societal systems towards a more sustainable development. Our overall aim is to outline design principles for models that can offer new insights into tackling persistent

  2. Trickle/pulse flow regime transition in downflow packed tower involving foaming liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodhi Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most of past studies in foaming trickle bed reactors aimed at the improvement of efficiency and operational parameters leads to high economic advantages. Conventionally most of the industries rely on frequently used gas continuous flow (GCF where operational output is satisfactory but not yields efficiently as in pulsing flow (PF and foaming pulsing flow (FPF. Hydrodynamic characteristics like regime transitions are significantly influenced by foaming nature of liquid as well as gas and liquid flow rates. This study’s aim was to demonstrate experimentally the effects of liquid flow rate, gas flow rates and liquid surface tension on regime transition. These parameters were analyzed for the air-aqueous Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and air-water systems. More than 240 experiments were done to obtain the transition boundary for trickle flow (GCF to foaming pulsing flow (PF/FPF by use excessive foaming 15-60 ppm surfactant compositions. The trickle to pulse flow transition appeared at lower gas and liquid flow rates with decrease in liquid surface tension. All experimental data had been collected and drawn in the form of four different transitional plots which are compared and drawn by using flow coordinates proposed by different researchers. A prominent decrease in dynamic liquid saturation was observed especially during regime transitional change. The reactor two phase pressure evident a sharp rise to verify the regime transition shift from GCF to PF/FPF. Present study reveals, the regime transition boundary significantly influenced by any change in hydrodynamic as well as physiochemical properties including surface tension.

  3. Validation of a 1-mm transit time flow probe and the potential for use in microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian T; Elberg, Jens J; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a prototype transit time ultrasound flow probe (Medi-Stim Butterfly Flowmeter BF 2004) of only 1 mm and to evaluate its potential for use in microsurgery. Knowledge of the ability of this kind of system to measure flow in small vessels and at small flow...

  4. Zinc intake and dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province, China: consequences of nutrition transition

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Jiangsu Province is an economically booming area in East China, where soil zinc concentrations are low. Nutrition transition to a dietary pattern with more animal source foods may have improved zinc intake in this area. However, such a transition may also have increased the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as hypertension and obesity. Investigation of dietary patterns in relation to undernutrition and overnutrition could help to better address both problems. Object...

  5. Zinc intake and dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province, China: consequences of nutrition transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Jiangsu Province is an economically booming area in East China, where soil zinc concentrations are low. Nutrition transition to a dietary pattern with more animal source foods may have improved zinc intake in this area. However, such a transition may also have increased

  6. Zinc intake and dietary pattern in Jiangsu Province, China: consequences of nutrition transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Jiangsu Province is an economically booming area in East China, where soil zinc concentrations are low. Nutrition transition to a dietary pattern with more animal source foods may have improved zinc intake in this area. However, such a transition may also have increased

  7. Patterning of ultrathin polymethylmethacrylate films by in-situ photodirecting of the Marangoni flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashnikov, Roman; Fitl, Premysl; Svorcik, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2017-02-01

    Laser heating and Marangoni flow result in the formation of surface structures with different geometries and shape on thin polymer films. By laser beam irradiation combined with a sample movement the solid polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films are heated and undergo phase transition which leads to a material flow. Since the laser beam has a non-linear distribution of energy, the PMMA film is heated inhomogeneously and a surface tension gradient in a lateral direction is introduced. During this procedure additional phenomena such as "reversible" or cyclic polymer flow also take place. The careful choice of experimental conditions enables the preparation of patterns with sophisticated geometries and with hierarchical pattern organization. Depending on initial PMMA film thickness and speed of the sample movement line arrays are created, which can subsequently be transformed into the crimped lines or system of circular holes. In addition, the introduction of a constant acceleration in the sample movement or a laser beam distortion enables the preparation of regularly crimped lines, ordered hexagonal holes or overlapped plates.

  8. Calibration of the 7—Equation Transition Model for High Reynolds Flows at Low Mach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia, S.; Leble, V.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The numerical simulation of flows over large-scale wind turbine blades without considering the transition from laminar to fully turbulent flow may result in incorrect estimates of the blade loads and performance. Thanks to its relative simplicity and promising results, the Local-Correlation based Transition Modelling concept represents a valid way to include transitional effects into practical CFD simulations. However, the model involves coefficients that need tuning. In this paper, the γ—equation transition model is assessed and calibrated, for a wide range of Reynolds numbers at low Mach, as needed for wind turbine applications. An aerofoil is used to evaluate the original model and calibrate it; while a large scale wind turbine blade is employed to show that the calibrated model can lead to reliable solutions for complex three-dimensional flows. The calibrated model shows promising results for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows, even if cross-flow instabilities are neglected.

  9. Characterization of the flow pattern of a gas/solids flow in a downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, P.; Wirth, K.E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    The downer reactor is discussed in literature as a new type of gas/solids reactor. Due to the cocurrent movement of gas and solids in direction of gravity, it is expected that a narrow residence time distribution and a flow regime close to plug flow can be established in this reactor. Recent studies show, that the gas/solids distributor on the top of the downer mainly influences the flow conditions. However, the influence of the physical properties of the solids and the plant setup on the flow behavior is still ambiguous. Therefore, experimental investigations concerning the local and cross-sectional solids distribution have been carried out under different operating conditions (variation of superficial gas velocity and solids circulation rate) and with different solids (glass beads, d{sub p}=60 {mu}m and d{sub p}=130 {mu}m). An X-ray computed tomography system has been used to obtain the solids concentration distribution in the entire cross-section at different axial positions of the downer. Pressure profiles can provide additional information about the overall behavior of the gas/solids flow. Results show a significant influence of the entrance conditions of the gas/solids flow on the flow pattern in the region below the gas/solids distributor. After a significant length, depending on solids properties and superficial gas velocity, similar flow behavior can be noticed for different entrance conditions. Superficial gas velocity not only influences the entrance length, but also the solids distribution in the entire cross-section of the downer. (orig.)

  10. Spontaneous phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow in traffic on a single-lane highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, H M; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow complexity comes from the car-following and lane-changing behavior. Based on empirical data for individual vehicle speeds and time headways measured on a single-lane highway section, we have studied the traffic flow properties induced by pure car-following behavior. We have found that a spontaneous sudden drop in velocity could happen in a platoon of vehicles when the velocity of the leading vehicle is quite high (~70 km/h). In contrast, when the velocity of the leading vehicle in a platoon slows down, such a spontaneous sudden drop of velocity has not been observed. Our finding indicates that traffic breakdown on a single-lane road might be a phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow (F→S transition). We have found that the flow rate within the emergent synchronized flow can be either smaller or larger than the flow rate in the free flow within which the synchronized flow propagates. Our empirical findings support Kerner's three-phase theory in which traffic breakdown is associated with an F→S transition.

  11. A comparative study on the flow over an airfoil using transitional turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Mou; Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the simulation of the flow over NREL S826 airfoil under a relatively low Reynolds number (Re = 1 × 105 ) using the CFD solvers OpenFoam and ANSYS Fluent. The flow is simulated using two different transition models, γ − Reθ and k − kL − ω model, and the results are examined...... against the k − ω SST model without transitional formulations. By comparing the simulations with the available experimental data, we find that the using the transitional model can effectively improve the flow prediction, especially the drag coefficient results, before the stall....

  12. Simulation of Flow Pattern around Inclined Bridge Group Pier using FLOW-3D Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihesadat Jafari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bridges are certainly one of the most important structures but costly service elements in a transport system. The bridges are very required to access the damaged areas in emergency situations such as floods and earthquakes. Scour around the foundations of bridge piers exposed to the flowing water than can destroy the bridge itself is a subject of major concern. Flow pattern is known as responsible for all changes in stream bed. Any obstacle in the channel can form new flow patterns causing additional shear stress exerted on the bed than the equilibrium condition of the absence of the obstacle. Appropriate shaping of flow pattern and proper selecting of pier geometry and the location of bridge piers can be one of the proper methods in reduction of scour amount which is the main subject of the present study. Materials and Methods: Inclined bridge group pier is a type of bridges with modern geometry based on development in building technology of structures. Many of these bridges have been built all around the world and the 8th bridge built crossing the Karun River in Ahvaz is a sample of the Iranian ones considered in this research. Hydrodynamic behavior of flow is investigated around the inclined bridge group pier settled on foundation using the FLOW-3D numerical model. Inclined bridge group pier investigated in this study, includes two rectangular piers which are 2.5 cm long and 3.5 cm wide and set in an angle of 28 degree on rectangular foundation which is 16 cm long and 10 cm wide and installed in three different foundation levels namely at, above and below the bed levels. The physical model of prototype pier considered in this study was constructed to the scale of 1:190 of the Ahvaz 8th bridge. In order to verify the accuracy of the numerical model, velocity data obtained from image processing technique were used. Results and Discussion: Due to non- linearity and interactions between various phenomena involved, flow pattern

  13. Roughness Induced Boundary Layer Transition in Incompressible Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Q.; Schrijer, F.J.; Scarano, F.

    2015-01-01

    The fluid dynamics process leading to laminar-turbulent transition behind an isolated roughness element is investigated in the incompressible regime using particle image velocimetry. The study covers the effect of roughness size and geometry on the promotion of transition. The measurement domain cov

  14. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLOW PATTERNS IN DIFFERENT PUMP INTAKE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Jie-min; WANG Ben-cheng; YU Ling-hui; LI Yok-sheung; TANG Ling

    2012-01-01

    A 3-D numerical model for pump intake is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations with the RNG k-εturbulence model and the VOF method to simulate the free surface.The applicability of the proposed model is validated by a test case of non-symmetric pump-intake bay.The predicted locations,structures and shapes of all vortices are in good agreement with those observed in experiments,though with some differences in vorticity strengths.The flow pattern and the efficiency of five types of pump intake systems are studied.The discharge and the velocity uniformity of the intake system are used as indices to evaluate its performance.

  15. A probabilistic approach to quantifying spatial patterns of flow regimes and network-scale connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Silvia; Alessi Celegon, Elisa; Fanton, Pietro; Botter, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The temporal variability of river flow regime is a key feature structuring and controlling fluvial ecological communities and ecosystem processes. In particular, streamflow variability induced by climate/landscape heterogeneities or other anthropogenic factors significantly affects the connectivity between streams with notable implication for river fragmentation. Hydrologic connectivity is a fundamental property that guarantees species persistence and ecosystem integrity in riverine systems. In riverine landscapes, most ecological transitions are flow-dependent and the structure of flow regimes may affect ecological functions of endemic biota (i.e., fish spawning or grazing of invertebrate species). Therefore, minimum flow thresholds must be guaranteed to support specific ecosystem services, like fish migration, aquatic biodiversity and habitat suitability. In this contribution, we present a probabilistic approach aiming at a spatially-explicit, quantitative assessment of hydrologic connectivity at the network-scale as derived from river flow variability. Dynamics of daily streamflows are estimated based on catchment-scale climatic and morphological features, integrating a stochastic, physically based approach that accounts for the stochasticity of rainfall with a water balance model and a geomorphic recession flow model. The non-exceedance probability of ecologically meaningful flow thresholds is used to evaluate the fragmentation of individual stream reaches, and the ensuing network-scale connectivity metrics. A multi-dimensional Poisson Process for the stochastic generation of rainfall is used to evaluate the impact of climate signature on reach-scale and catchment-scale connectivity. The analysis shows that streamflow patterns and network-scale connectivity are influenced by the topology of the river network and the spatial variability of climatic properties (rainfall, evapotranspiration). The framework offers a robust basis for the prediction of the impact of

  16. Diffusion-induced periodic transition between oscillatory modes in amplitude-modulated patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaodong; He, Yuxiu; Wang, Shaorong; Gao, Qingyu, E-mail: gaoqy@cumt.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Epstein, Irving R., E-mail: epstein@brandeis.edu [Department of Chemistry and Volen Center for Complex Systems, MS 015, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454-9110 (United States); Wang, Qun [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2014-06-15

    We study amplitude-modulated waves, e.g., wave packets in one dimension, overtarget spirals and superspirals in two dimensions, under mixed-mode oscillatory conditions in a three-variable reaction-diffusion model. New transition zones, not seen in the homogeneous system, are found, in which periodic transitions occur between local 1{sup N−1} and 1{sup N} oscillations. Amplitude-modulated complex patterns result from periodic transition between (N − 1)-armed and N-armed waves. Spatial recurrence rates provide a useful guide to the stability of these modulated patterns.

  17. Study of pattern transition in nanopatterned Si(100) produced by impurity-assisted low-energy ion-beam erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyiloth Vayalil, Sarathlal; Gupta, Ajay; Roth, Stephan V.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, formation of self-organized Si nanostructures induced by pure Fe incorporation during normal incidence low-energy (1keV) Ar^+ ion bombardment is presented. It has been observed that the incorporation of Fe affects the evolution of the surface topography. The addition of Fe generates pronounced nanopatterns, such as dots, ripples and combinations of dots and ripples. The orientation of the ripple wave vector of the patterns formed is found to be in a direction normal to the Fe flow. The nanoripples with wavelength of the order of 39 nm produced is expected to be the lowest wavelength of the patterns reported on ion-beam-eroded structures under the incorporation of metallic impurities as per our knowledge. From the AFM and GISAXS analysis, it has been confirmed that the ripples formed are asymmetric in nature. The effect of the concentration of the Fe on morphological transition of the patterns has been studied using Rutherford backscattering measurements.

  18. Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows

    CERN Document Server

    Manneville, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Contrasting with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with inflection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and turbulent domains at intermediate Reynolds numbers, well below the range where (viscous) instabilities can show up. There can even be no unstable mode at all, as for plane Couette flow (pCf) or for Poiseuille pipe flow (Ppf) that currently are the subject of intense research. Though the mechanisms involved in the transition to turbulence in wall flows are now better understood, statistical properties of the transition itself are yet unsatisfactorily assessed. A review of the situation is given. An alternative to the temporal theory of the transition to turbulence in terms of chaotic transients in such globally subcritical flows is proposed, which invokes spatio-temporal intermittence and the ...

  19. Patterns of Social Support in the Middle Childhood to Early Adolescent Transition: Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Mary J.; Levitt, Jerome; Bustos, Gaston L.; Crooks, Noel A.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Milevsky, Avidan

    2005-01-01

    Children's social networks often include close family members, extended family members, and friends, but little is known about interindividual differences in the patterning of support from these sources. In this study, we used person-oriented analyses to differentiate patterns of support for children undergoing the transition to adolescence.…

  20. BASIC FLOW PATTERNS AND OPTIMUM HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF A SUCTION BOX OF PUMPING STATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method based on 3-D turbulence flow was applied to simulate the flow pattern in suction boxes of six different types.In light of the computational results, the basic flow patterns in the boxes were revealed and a theoretical method to optimize hydraulically design of the suction box is developed.The box geometrical parameters, which influence the flow pattern in the box, could be optimized.The optimum criteria for the hydraulic design of the suction boxes of six types established, respectively.Furthermore, a summarization is given here based on the classification of the basic flow patterns in order to systematically understand the hydraulic design of suction boxes.

  1. The Evolution of Elliptic Flow Under First Order Phase Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯启春; 王清尚; 刘剑利; 任延宇; 张景波; 霍雷

    2012-01-01

    Elliptic flow for non-central Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV is investigated with a 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamic model. We analyze the softening effect by the velocity along the axis. The contribution of the elliptic flow from the QGP phase, mixed phase and hadron gas phase is studied. The relation between the sound horizon and evolution of the elliptic flow is discussed.

  2. SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF FLOW PATTERN IN CROSS-CORRUGATED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guan-min; TIAN Mao-cheng; ZHOU Shou-jun

    2006-01-01

    Using numerical methodology, the flow fields between two corrugated plates with different values of the corrugation inclination angle β were simulated.The simulation results directly indicate that β affects the flow pattern between corrugated plates, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental results reported by interrelated literature.The results show that the flow pattern between the two plates changes from "double cross-flow" to "zigzag flow" with the increase in β.The reason for the effect on the flow pattern between the two corrugated plates was discussed from the view of the variation of momentum in the direction of corrugation with the variation in β.

  3. Plastic flow pattern and its effect in friction stir welding of A2024 and A1060

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-jing; ZHANG Zhong-ke; LI Jing; DA Chao-bing

    2006-01-01

    During the friction stir welding (FSW), the property of the welding joint is highly affected by the plastic and viscous flow behavior of the softened material. The flow pattern of the welded material was examined through observing the microstructural distribution of friction stir welded joints between dissimilar 2024 and 1060 aluminum alloy. The experimental results show that the flow patterns of material at different locations in the weld are different and can be divided into four layers along the thickness direction: surface flow layer influenced by the shoulder of the tool, in which the material tends to flow as integrity; horizontal flow layer influenced by the surface flow layer, in which the material of surface flow layer enters and flows forwards under the advancing force of the tool; vertical flow layer (plastic flow area induced by stirring of the pin), in which the flow pattern is complex and onion rings can often be observed; unstirred bottom layer because of the length of the pin being shorter than the thickness of the plates. The effect of plastic flow on welding quality was further investigated. The study suggests that welding quantity is significantly influenced by the flow pattern and defects always appear in horizontally lamellar flow region because of the complex flow pattern.

  4. Transitions in a magnetized quasi-laminar spherical Couette Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kaprzyk, C; Seilmayer, M; Stefani, F

    2016-01-01

    First results of a new spherical Couette experiment are presented. The liquid metal flow in a spherical shell is exposed to a homogeneous axial magnetic field. For a Reynolds number Re=1000, we study the effect of increasing Hartmann number Ha. The resulting flow structures are inspected by ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. With a weak applied magnetic field, we observe an equatorially anti-symmetric jet instability with azimuthal wave number m=3. As the magnetic field strength increases, this instability vanishes. When the field is increased further, an equatorially symmetric return flow instability arises. Our observations are shown to be in good agreement with linear stability analysis and non-linear flow simulations.

  5. Wettability transition of plasma-treated polystyrene micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the wettability transition of plasma-treated polystyrene (PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns. The micro/nano pillars were prepared using hot embossing on silicon microporous template and alumina nanoporous template, which were fabricated by ultraviolet (UV lithography and inductive coupled plasma (ICP etching, and two-step anodic oxidation, respectively. The results indicate that the combination of micro/nano patterning and plasma irradiation can easily regulate wettabilities of PS surfaces, i.e. from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity, or from hydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity. During the wettability transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity there is only mild hydrophilicity loss. After plasma irradiation, moreover, the wettability of PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns is more stable than that of flat PS surfaces. The observed wettability transition and wettability stability of PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns are new phenomena, which may have potential in creating programmable functional polymer surfaces.

  6. An Exploration of Transition Experiences Shaping Student Veteran Life Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Brian Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions offer transformative opportunities for veterans transitioning from military service. Veteran-specific cultural supports in educational environments offer participation in occupations and development of skills needed to complete educational goals. However, veterans experience complex life circumstances atypical from…

  7. Gas-Kinetic Computational Algorithms for Hypersonic Flows in Continuum and Transitional Regimes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project explores two gas-kinetic computational algorithms for simulation of hypersonic flows in both continuum and transitional regimes. One is the...

  8. Localisation of flow separation and transition over a pitching NACA0012 airfoil at transitional Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, Daniel

    Previous research at RMC has cataloged the occurrence of limit cycle oscillations at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers for an elastically mounted aeroelastic airfoil. These oscillations were attributed to boundary layer separation and the formation of a laminar separation bubble. For this thesis, an instrumented and motor-driven oscillating airfoil rig was designed and fabricated for the purpose of investigating the boundary layer of a NACA-0012 airfoil. The oscillating airfoil was driven by a servo motor to mimic the observed aeroelastic pitching with a sinusoid of matched amplitude and frequency. Hot-wire anemometry was used to investigate the near wake of the new motor-driven airfoil and compare it with the aeroelastic experiment. A chord-wise array of hot-film sensors captured the boundary layer state during the airfoil pitching oscillation. A novel analysis technique is introduced; A sliding window (in time) cross-correlation of adjacent sensors was used to detect dynamic laminar separation. Wind tunnel tests were performed at static angles-of-attack, for quasi-static very low frequency sweeps to verify the technique, and for selected cases of oscillations obtained with the aeroelastic rig. The new detection method was verified against the existing static techniques of phase reversal signature detection and signal cross-correlation by comparing quasi-static and static results. A map of the laminar separation bubble was produced for fixed angles of attack as well as for the pitching airfoil. The presence of a laminar separation was linked to the occurrence and characteristics of the limit cycle oscillations. Keywords: laminar separation, NACA0012, hot-film, hot-wire, anemometry, transitional flow, aeroelasticity.

  9. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  10. Jamming transitions and the effect of interruption probability in a lattice traffic flow model with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhu, Poonam; Gupta, Arvind Kumar

    2015-03-01

    A new lattice hydrodynamic model is proposed by considering the interruption probability effect on traffic flow with passing and analyzed both theoretically and numerically. From linear and non-linear stability analysis, the effect of interruption probability on the phase diagram is investigated and the condition of existence for kink-antikink soliton solution of mKdV equation is derived. The stable region is enhanced with interruption probability and the jamming transition occurs from uniform flow to kink flow through chaotic flow for higher and intermediate values of non-interruption effect of passing. It is also observed that there exists conventional jamming transition between uniform flow and kink flow for lower values of non-interruption effect of passing. Numerical simulations are carried out and found in accordance with the theoretical findings which confirm that the effect of interruption probability plays an important role in stabilizing traffic flow when passing is allowed.

  11. Special Course on Stability and Transition of Laminar Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    to stabilize the flow, and flows with convex velocity profiles thus appeared to be stable. In a review of 30 years of effort, Noether (1921) wrote... Noether , F. 1921 Das Turbulenzproblem, ZAMM, Vol. 1, pp. 125-138. Obremskl, H.T., Morkovln, M.V. and Landahl, M.T. 1969

  12. Flux-dependent percolation transition in immiscible two-phase flows in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Thomas; Hansen, Alex; Oren, Pål-Eric

    2009-03-01

    Using numerical simulations, we study immiscible two-phase flow in a pore network reconstructed from Berea sandstone under flow conditions that are statistically invariant under translation. Under such conditions, the flow is a state function which is not dependent on initial conditions. We find a second-order phase transition resembling the phase inversion transition found in emulsions. The flow regimes under consideration are those of low surface tension-hence high capillary numbers Ca-where viscous forces dominate. Nevertheless, capillary forces are imminent, we observe a critical stage in saturation where the transition takes place. We determine polydispersity critical exponent tau=2.27+/-0.08 and find that the critical saturation depends on how fast the fluids flow.

  13. Factors Influencing the Disturbed Flow Patterns Downstream of Curved Atherosclerotic Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyue Liu

    2008-01-01

    Pulsatile blood flows in curved atherosclerotic arteries are studied by com-puter simulations. Computations are carried out with various values of physiological parameters to examine the effects of flow parameters on the disturbed flow patterns downstream of a curved artery with a stenosis at the inner wall. The numerical re-sults indicate a strong dependence of flow pattern on the blood viscosity and inlet flow rate, while the influence of the inlet flow profile to the flow pattem in downstream is negligible.

  14. Dynamic thermal-hydraulic modeling and stack flow pattern analysis for all-vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Xiong, Binyu

    2014-08-01

    The present study focuses on dynamic thermal-hydraulic modeling for the all-vanadium flow battery and investigations on the impact of stack flow patterns on battery performance. The inhomogeneity of flow rate distribution and reversible entropic heat are included in the thermal-hydraulic model. The electrolyte temperature in tanks is modeled with the finite element modeling (FEM) technique considering the possible non-uniform distribution of electrolyte temperature. Results show that the established model predicts electrolyte temperature accurately under various ambient temperatures and current densities. Significant temperature gradients exist in the battery system at extremely low flow rates, while the electrolyte temperature tends to be the same in different components under relatively high flow rates. Three stack flow patterns including flow without distribution channels and two cases of flow with distribution channels are compared to investigate their effects on battery performance. It is found that the flow rates are not uniformly distributed in cells especially when the stack is not well designed, while adding distribution channels alleviates the inhomogeneous phenomenon. By comparing the three flow patterns, it is found that the serpentine-parallel pattern is preferable and effectively controls the uniformity of flow rates, pressure drop and electrolyte temperature all at expected levels.

  15. Copepod feeding currents : flow patterns, filtration rates and energetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, LA; Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry was used to construct a quasi 3-dimensional image of the flow generated by the feeding appendages of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis. By scanning layers of flow, detailed information was obtained on flow velocity and velocity gradients. The flow around feeding T. l

  16. Physics and (patho)physiology in confined flows: from colloidal patterns to cytoplasmic rheology and sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, L.

    2015-03-01

    I will discuss a few problems that involve the interaction of fluids and solids in confined spaces. (i) Jamming in pressure-driven suspension flows that show a transition from Stokes flows to Darcy flows as the solids start to lock, as in evaporative patterning in colloids (e.g. coffee stain formation) .(ii) Jamming and clogging of red blood cells, as in sickle-cell pathophysiology, with implications for other diseases that involve jamming. (iii) The mechanical response of crowded networks of filaments bathed in a fluid, as in the cytoskeleton, that can be described by poroelasticity theory. In each case, I will show how simple theories of multiphase flow and deformation can be used to explain a range of experimental observations, while failing to account for others, along with some thoughts on how to improve them.

  17. Zonal Flow Patterns: How Toroidal Coupling Induces Phase Jumps and Shear Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Z B

    2016-01-01

    A new, frequency modulation mechanism for zonal flow pattern formation is presented. The model predicts the probability distribution function of the flow strength as well as the evolution of the characteristic spatial scale. Magnetic toroidicity-induced global phase dynamics is shown to determine the spatial structure of the flow. A key result is the observation that global phase patterning can lead to zonal flow formation in the absence of turbulence inhomogeneity.

  18. Critical behavior in the inverse to forward energy transition in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the critical transition from an inverse cascade of energy to a forward energy cascade in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow as the ratio of magnetic to mechanical forcing amplitude is varied. It is found that the critical transition is the result of two competing processes. The first process is due to hydrodynamic interactions and cascades the energy to the large scales. The second process couples small-scale magnetic fields to large-scale flows, transferring the energy back to the small scales via a nonlocal mechanism. At marginality the two cascades are both present and cancel each other. The phase space diagram of the transition is sketched.

  19. Three-dimensional evolution of flow structures in transitional circular and chevron jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional behavior of flow transition in circular and 6-chevron jets at Re = 5000 is investigated with experiments conducted on a free water jet by time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. The emphasis is on the unsteady organization of coherent flow structures, which play a

  20. A comparative study on the flow over an airfoil using transitional turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Mou; Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the simulation of the flow over NREL S826 airfoil under a relatively low Reynolds number (Re = 1 × 105 ) using the CFD solvers OpenFoam and ANSYS Fluent. The flow is simulated using two different transition models, γ − Reθ and k − kL − ω model, and the results are examined...

  1. Three-dimensional evolution of flow structures in transitional circular and chevron jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional behavior of flow transition in circular and 6-chevron jets at Re = 5000 is investigated with experiments conducted on a free water jet by time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. The emphasis is on the unsteady organization of coherent flow structures, which play a

  2. Dissolution patterns and mixing dynamics in unstable reactive flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco; Cabeza, Yoar; Carrera, Jesus

    2015-08-01

    We study the fundamental problem of mixing and chemical reactions under a Rayleigh-Taylor-type hydrodynamic instability in a miscible two-fluid system. The dense fluid mixture, which is generated at the fluid-fluid interface, leads to the onset of a convective fingering instability and triggers a fast chemical dissolution reaction. Contrary to intuition, the dissolution pattern does not map out the finger geometry. Instead, it displays a dome-like, hierarchical structure that follows the path of the ascending fluid interface and the regions of maximum mixing. These mixing and reaction hot spots coincide with the flow stagnation points, at which the interfacial mixing layer is compressed and deformed. We show that the deformation of the boundary layer around the stagnation points controls the evolution of the global scalar dissipation and reaction rates and shapes the structure of the reacted zones. The persistent compression of the mixing layer explains the independence of the mixing rate from the Rayleigh number when convection dominates.

  3. SCOUR DEPTH AND FLOW PATTERN OF ERODING PLANE JETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.KURNIAWAN; M.S.ALTINAKAR; W.H.GRAF

    2004-01-01

    Local scour may occur when a hydraulic structure is positioned in a channel with an erodible bed.Herewith investigated experimentally are the erosion and flow pattern due to a water jet passing over a channel bed at the asymptotic (final) state. The development of the scour hole, its maximum scour depth and length, are recorded and compared with available scour-depth relations. Two sets of experiments (see Table 1) were carried out. Set 1 (3 runs) was concerned with measuring the vertical instantaneous velocity distribution in the scour hole. The scour hole at the asymptotic (final) state, t ≈100 [h] was investigated. Set 2 (5 runs) was concerned with studying the physics of scouring. The scour hole at about mid-state, t ≈ 0.5 [h], was investigated; subsequently the scour-hole depth was linearly extended on the semi-log scale to 72 [h]; no velocity measurements were performed. The present data are put in context with some (popular) existing relations; recommended is a modification of some of these relations.

  4. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    Groundwater flow influences hydrochemical patterns because flow reduces mixing by diffusion, carries the chemical imprints of biological and anthropogenic changes in the recharge area, and leaches the aquifer system. Global patterns are mainly dictated by differences in the flux of meteoric water passing through the subsoil. Within individual hydrosomes (water bodies with a specific origin), the following prograde evolution lines (facies sequence) normally develop in the direction of groundwater flow: from strong to no fluctuations in water quality, from polluted to unpolluted, from acidic to basic, from oxic to anoxic-methanogenic, from no to significant base exchange, and from fresh to brackish. This is demonstrated for fresh coastal-dune groundwater in the Netherlands. In this hydrosome, the leaching of calcium carbonate as much as 15m and of adsorbed marine cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) as much as 2500m in the flow direction is shown to correspond with about 5000yr of flushing since the beach barrier with dunes developed. Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. Résumé Les écoulements souterrains influencent les différents types hydrochimiques, parce que l'écoulement réduit le mélange par diffusion, porte les marques chimiques de changements biologiques et anthropiques dans la zone d'alimentation et lessive le système aquifère. Ces types dans leur ensemble sont surtout déterminés par des différences dans le flux d'eau météorique traversant le sous-sol. Dans les "hydrosomes" (masses d'eau d'origine déterminée), les lignes marquant une évolution prograde (séquence de faciès) se développent normalement dans la direction de l'écoulement souterrain : depuis des fluctuations fortes de la

  5. Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth, created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong, were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual language within an oral culture.This photo essay introduces the author’s twenty-five year fascination with paj ntaub and documents a trip to Laos and northern Thailand in November/December 2009 to discover whether story cloths were being produced in Hmong villages in Laos or if story cloths remain a product of refugees only. The researcher also hoped tolearn whether traditional Hmong clothing is still produced and worn in the Laos, to observe how Hmong textiles are made and consumed for a tourist market, and to discover possible sources for the dramatic shift in paj ntaub visual language from symbolic abstraction to pictorial representation.

  6. Detection of Two-Phase Flow Patterns in a Vertical Minichannel Using the Recurrence Quantification Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosdorf Romuald

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-phase flow (water-air occurring in square minichannel (3x3 mm has been analysed. In the minichannel it has been observed: bubbly flow, flow of confined bubbles, flow of elongated bubbles, slug flow and semi-annular flow. The time series recorded by laser-phototransistor sensor was analysed using the recurrence quantification analysis. The two coefficients:Recurrence rate (RR and Determinism (DET have been used for identification of differences between the dynamics of two-phase flow patterns. The algorithm which has been used normalizes the analysed time series before calculating the recurrence plots.Therefore in analysis the quantitative signal characteristicswas neglected. Despite of the neglect of quantitative signal characteristics the analysis of its dynamics (chart of DET vs. RR allows to identify the two-phase flow patterns. This confirms that this type of analysis can be used to identify the two-phase flow patterns in minichannels.

  7. W-shaped soliton complexes and rogue-wave pattern transitions for the AB system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Chong

    2017-07-01

    With the help of a general Nth-order rogue wave solution in a compact determinant form for the AB system, we illuminate that, by suitably choosing the wavenumber and frequency of the background wave of the component A, W-shaped soliton complex containing a fixed number of algebraic solitons merging or separating with each other exists in the component A, and rogue-wave pattern transition between the four-petaled structure and dark structure occurs in the component B. The more complicated rogue-wave pattern transitions due to the nonlinear superposition corresponding to the higher-order four-petaled rogue waves and higher-order dark rogue waves of fundamental, triangular and circular dynamical structures up to third order are demonstrated, respectively. The spectrum properties which are related to the rogue-wave pattern transitions are revealed.

  8. Optimal forcing perturbations for regional flow patterns conditioning polar low development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jørn; Iversen, Trond; Jung, Thomas; Barkmeijer, Jan

    2013-04-01

    olar lows are short lived maritime mesoscale cyclones that develop because of processes unique to the Polar Regions. In the ice-free Nordic and Barents Seas they are associated with violent weather during wintertime and form in cold air outbreaks underneath a cold through. The longer predictability of the large-scales may provide early warnings of the potential for polar lows. We investigate the rare events when the atmosphere is highly sensitive to small external forcings that excite changes in the variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Employing a numerical weather prediction model, the period 1957-2002 is sampled for 4-day optimal forcing sensitivity patterns (FSPs). The highly sensitive events are relatively well-defined. A flow pattern resembling the negative-phase NAO is identified as a potential precursor of the most unpredictable transitions in the NAO. The least sensitive events are dominated by a coinciding cyclonic circulation. In the former there is high polar low potential (40-45%) in the northern North Atlantic but it is low south of Iceland. The least sensitive events display high potential along the storm track reaching 80% south of Iceland. The FSPs tend to either strengthen or hamper the transition toward the negative-phase NAO. The strengthened circulation makes the atmosphere favourable in 70% of the events for the formation of polar lows in the Nordic and Barents Seas with high potentials also in the North Sea. From the hampered transition we learn that in the Nordic Seas high- and low-pressure systems can produce similar levels of polar low potential. Temperature and momentum are equally important forcing variables and there are positive feedbacks between them. The forcing is dominantly in-situ and strongest in mid-troposphere. The variability is more localized and larger than the average. Close to the surface the FSPs appear influenced by the Norwegian current.

  9. Transition to turbulence in open flows: what linear and fully nonlinear local and global theories tell us

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, J.M. [Ecole Polytechnique, LadHyX-CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2004-06-01

    Mixing layers, jets, wakes, boundary layers over wings or rotating disks, Poiseuille and Couette flows are examples of open shear flows encountered in many industrial or geophysical situations. These flows develop spatially under the combined action of advection and instabilities and eventually undergo a transition to turbulence. In the eighties, the linear concepts of absolute and convective instability succeeded in predicting some aspects of open shear flow dynamics, but a description of their spatio-temporal development including nonlinear effects and secondary instabilities was lacking and even the very fact that a linear criterion describes so well strongly nonlinear flows remains mysterious. The present work reports on very recent progress elucidating open shear flow dynamics. A fully nonlinear extension of the concepts of absolute and convective instability introduced by Chomaz (Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 (1992) 1931) is recalled in connection with the broader problem of front and pattern selection. These new ideas are first illustrated on simple amplitude equations. Then the fully nonlinear concepts are applied to actual flows such as wakes and mixing layers. Furthermore, new scenarios involving secondary absolute instability are proposed and compared to the dynamics of the rotating disk and mixing layers experiment. (author)

  10. Assessment of spanwise domain size effect on the transitional flow past an airfoil

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-19

    In most large-eddy and direct numerical simulations of flow past an isolated airfoil, the flow is assumed periodic in the spanwise direction. The size of the spanwise domain is an important geometrical parameter determining whether the turbulent flow is fully developed, and whether the separation and transition patterns are accurately modeled. In the present study, we investigate the incompressible flow past an isolated NACA0012 airfoil at the angle of attack of 5 degrees and Reynolds number 5 × 104. The spanwise domain size Lz, represented by the aspect ratio AR=Lz/C where C is the airfoil chord length, is varied in the range 0.1−0.80.1−0.8. The effect of varying the normalized spanwise domain size AR is examined via direct numerical simulation (DNS) on several aspects of the turbulent flow quantities including the time-averaged and time-dependent behavior as well as the spanwise variation of the selected statistical quantities. DNS results reveal that different aspect ratios result in close predictions of the time-averaged aerodynamic quantities, and the velocity field except for a slight difference in the separation bubble. Smaller aspect ratios tend to underpredict the turbulent fluctuations near the separation point but overpredict them inside the separation bubble. Large differences are observed for multiple statistical quantities near the reattachment point, especially the turbulent kinetic energy budget terms. The leading edge separation is notably three-dimensional for simulation at AR=0.8, while remaining quasi-2D for smaller aspect ratios. The spanwise two-point correlation coefficient shows significant dependence on the position of the probe and the velocity component analyzed: small aspect ratios do not produce uncorrelated results for all the velocity components. The simulation results demonstrate that examining only a few statistical quantities may result in a misleading conclusion regarding the sufficiency of the spanwise domain size. Reliable

  11. First identification of sub- and supercritical convection patterns from ‘GeoFlow’, the geophysical flow simulation experiment integrated in Fluid Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterer, B.; Egbers, C.; Dahley, N.; Koch, S.; Jehring, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical mechanisms of thermally driven rotating fluids are important for a large number of geophysical problems, e.g. to explain the convection of the Earth's liquid outer core. Objective of the 'GeoFlow' experiment is to study stability, pattern formation, and transition to chaos of thermal convection in fluid-filled concentric, co-axially rotating spheres. This experiment is integrated in the Fluid Science Laboratory of the European COLUMBUS module on International Space Station. Fluid dynamics of the experiment was predicted with numerical simulations by means of a spectral code. In the non-rotating case the onset of convection bifurcated into steady fluid flow. Here patterns of convection showed co-existing states with axisymmetric, cubic and pentagonal modes. Transition to chaos was in the form of sudden onset. For the thermal convection in rotating spheres the onset of first instability showed an increase of modes for higher parameter regime. Transition was from steady via periodic to chaotic behaviour. Convection patterns of the experiment are observed with the Wollaston shearing interferometry. Images are in terms of interferograms with fringe patterns corresponding to special convective flows. A first glance at the images showed the classification of sub- and supercritical flow regimes. Aligned with numerical data a shift between experiment and numerical simulation was identified. Identification of convection patterns in interferograms was demonstrated for the example of a supercritical flow.

  12. Heterogeneity and Change in the Patterning of Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority: A Latent Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Darling, Nancy; Flaherty, Brian; Martinez, Maria Loreto

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the patterning of adolescents' beliefs about the legitimate domains of parental authority were modeled in 2,611 Chilean adolescents, 11-16 years old. Transitions in adolescents' belief patterns were studied over 3 years. Latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed 3 distinct patterns of beliefs--"parent control," "shared…

  13. Heterogeneity and Change in the Patterning of Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority: A Latent Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Darling, Nancy; Flaherty, Brian; Martinez, Maria Loreto

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the patterning of adolescents' beliefs about the legitimate domains of parental authority were modeled in 2,611 Chilean adolescents, 11-16 years old. Transitions in adolescents' belief patterns were studied over 3 years. Latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed 3 distinct patterns of beliefs--"parent control," "shared control," and…

  14. Heat transfer and fluid mechanics measurements in transitional boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Simon, T. W.; Buddhavarapu, J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results are presented to document hydrodynamic and thermal development of flat-plate boundary layers undergoing natural transition. Local heat transfer coefficients, skin friction coefficients and profiles of velocity, temperature and Reynolds normal and shear stresses are presented. A case with no transition and transitional cases with 0.68 percent and 2.0 percent free-stream disturbance intensities were investigated. The locations of transition are consistent with earlier data. A late-laminar state with significant levels of turbulence is documented. In late-transitional and early-turbulent flows, turbulent Prandtl number and conduction layer thickness values exceed, and the Reynolds analogy factor is less than, values previously measured in fully turbulent flows.

  15. Methodology Development of a Gas-Liquid Dynamic Flow Regime Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doup, Benjamin Casey

    Current reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, TRACE, and CATHARE, use flow regime maps or flow regime transition criteria that were developed for static fully-developed two-phase flows to choose interfacial transfer models that are necessary to solve the two-fluid model. The flow regime is therefore difficult to identify near the flow regime transitions, in developing two-phase flows, and in transient two-phase flows. Interfacial area transport equations were developed to more accurately predict the dynamic nature of two-phase flows. However, other model coefficients are still flow regime dependent. Therefore, an accurate prediction of the flow regime is still important. In the current work, the methodology for the development of a dynamic flow regime transition model that uses the void fraction and interfacial area concentration obtained by solving three-field the two-fluid model and two-group interfacial area transport equation is investigated. To develop this model, detailed local experimental data are obtained, the two-group interfacial area transport equations are revised, and a dynamic flow regime transition model is evaluated using a computational fluid dynamics model. Local experimental data is acquired for 63 different flow conditions in bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, and churn-turbulent flow regimes. The measured parameters are the group-1 and group-2 bubble number frequency, void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and interfacial bubble velocities. The measurements are benchmarked by comparing the prediction of the superficial gas velocities, determined using the local measurements with those determined from volumetric flow rate measurements and the agreement is generally within +/-20%. The repeatability four-sensor probe construction process is within +/-10%. The repeatability of the measurement process is within +/-7%. The symmetry of the test section is examined and the average agreement is within +/-5.3% at z/D = 10 and +/-3.4% at z/D = 32

  16. A study on effects of cash flow patterns and auditors’ opinions in predicting financial distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Namvar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy has been one of the most important issues among investors in stock market and there are literally different techniques for predicting bankruptcy. In this paper, we study on effects of cash flow patterns and auditors’ opinions in predicting financial distress on some 80 selected firms traded on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2005-2011. In this study, the combination of cash flow patterns represent firm’s resource allocations and operational capabilities interacted with their strategy choices. In additions, predictions about each individual cash flow components, operational, investment, financial, are derived from economic theory, which forms a basis for the life proxy. We use cash flow patterns in the decline stage and compare the results with auditors’ opinions. The results indicate that cash flow patterns could predict financial distress companies in Iran. In addition, the effective cash flow patterns in predicting financial distress is more than auditors’ feedbacks.

  17. Surfactant-driven flow transitions in evaporating droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    An evaporating droplet is a dynamic system in which flow is spontaneously generated to minimize the surface energy, dragging particles to the borders and ultimately resulting in the so-called "coffee-stain effect". The situation becomes more complex at the droplet's surface, where surface tension gradients of different nature can compete with each other yielding different scenarios. With careful experiments and with the aid of 3D particle tracking techniques, we are able to show that different types of surfactants turn the droplet's surface either rigid or elastic, which alters the evaporating fluid flow, either enhancing the classical coffee-stain effect or leading to a total flow inversion. Our measurements lead to unprecedented and detailed measurements of the surface tension difference along an evaporating droplet's surface with good temporal and spatial resolution.

  18. A numerical study of the transition to oscillatory flow in 3D lid-driven cubic cavity flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Shang-Huan; He, Jiwen; Guo, Aixia; Glowinski, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, three dimensional (3D) lid-driven cubic cavity flows have been studied numerically for various values of Reynolds number ($Re$). The numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations modeling incompressible viscous fluid flow in a cubic cavity is obtained via a methodology combining a first order accurate operator-splitting, $L^2$-projection Stokes solver, a wave-like equation treatment of the advection and finite element methods. The numerical results obtained for Re$=$400, 1000, and 3200 show a good agreement with available numerical and experimental results in literature. Simulation results predict that the critical Re$_{cr}$ for the transition from steady flow to oscillatory (a Hopf bifurcation) is somewhere in [1870, 1875] for the mesh size $h=1/96$. Via studying the flow field distortion of fluid flow at Re before and after Re$_{cr}$, the occurrence of the first pair of Taylor-G\\"ortler-like vortices is connected to the flow field distortion at the transition from steady flow to oscilla...

  19. Travel Patterns And Characteristics Of Transit Users In New York State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys, Arlington, VA (United States); Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Taylor, Rob D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This research is a detailed examination of the travel behaviors and patterns of transit users within New York State (NYS), primarily based on travel data provided by the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) in 2009 and the associated Add-on sample households purchased by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). Other data sources analyzed in this study include: NYS General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) to assist in analyzing spatial relationships for access to transit and the creation of Transit Shed geographic areas of 1, 2.5, and 5 miles from transit stop locations, LandScan population database to understand transit coverage, and Census Bureau s American Community Survey (ACS) data to examine general transit patterns and trends in NYS over time. The majority of analyses performed in this research aimed at identifying transit trip locations, understanding differences in transit usage by traveler demographics, as well as producing trip/mode-specific summary statistics including travel distance, trip duration, time of trip, and travel purpose of transit trips made by NYS residents, while also analyzing regional differences and unique travel characteristics and patterns. The analysis was divided into two aggregated geographic regions: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (NYMTC) and NYS minus NYMTC (Rest of NYS). The inclusion of NYMTC in all analysis would likely produce misleading conclusions for other regions in NYS. TRANSIT COVERAGE The NYS transit network has significant coverage in terms of transit stop locations across the state s population. Out of the 19.3 million NYS population in 2011, about 15.3 million (or 79%) resided within the 1-mile transit shed. This NYS population transit coverage increased to 16.9 million (or 88%) when a 2.5-mile transit shed was considered; and raised to 17.7 million (or 92%) when the 5-mile transit shed was applied. KEY FINDINGS Based on 2009 NHTS data, about 40% of NYMTC households used transit

  20. Travel Patterns And Characteristics Of Transit Users In New York State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys, Arlington, VA (United States); Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Taylor, Rob D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This research is a detailed examination of the travel behaviors and patterns of transit users within New York State (NYS), primarily based on travel data provided by the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) in 2009 and the associated Add-on sample households purchased by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). Other data sources analyzed in this study include: NYS General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) to assist in analyzing spatial relationships for access to transit and the creation of Transit Shed geographic areas of 1, 2.5, and 5 miles from transit stop locations, LandScan population database to understand transit coverage, and Census Bureau s American Community Survey (ACS) data to examine general transit patterns and trends in NYS over time. The majority of analyses performed in this research aimed at identifying transit trip locations, understanding differences in transit usage by traveler demographics, as well as producing trip/mode-specific summary statistics including travel distance, trip duration, time of trip, and travel purpose of transit trips made by NYS residents, while also analyzing regional differences and unique travel characteristics and patterns. The analysis was divided into two aggregated geographic regions: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (NYMTC) and NYS minus NYMTC (Rest of NYS). The inclusion of NYMTC in all analysis would likely produce misleading conclusions for other regions in NYS. TRANSIT COVERAGE The NYS transit network has significant coverage in terms of transit stop locations across the state s population. Out of the 19.3 million NYS population in 2011, about 15.3 million (or 79%) resided within the 1-mile transit shed. This NYS population transit coverage increased to 16.9 million (or 88%) when a 2.5-mile transit shed was considered; and raised to 17.7 million (or 92%) when the 5-mile transit shed was applied. KEY FINDINGS Based on 2009 NHTS data, about 40% of NYMTC households used transit

  1. Two phase flow bifurcation due to turbulence: transition from slugs to bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Grzegorz; Litak, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    The bifurcation of slugs to bubbles within two-phase flow patterns in a minichannel is analyzed. The two-phase flow (water-air) occurring in a circular horizontal minichannel with a diameter of 1 mm is examined. The sequences of light transmission time series recorded by laser-phototransistor sensor is analyzed using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. Recurrence parameters allow the two-phase flow patterns to be found. On changing the water flow rate we identified partitioning of slugs or aggregation of bubbles.

  2. Firing Patterns and Transitions in Coupled Neurons Controlled by a Pacemaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-Sheng; LU Qi-Shao; DUAN Li-Xia; WANG Qing-Yun

    2008-01-01

    @@ To reveal the dynamics of neuronal networks with pacemakers, the firing patterns and their transitions are investigated in a ring HR neuronal network with gap junctions under the control of a pacemaker. Compared with the situation without pacemaker, the neurons in the network can exhibit various firing patterns as the external current is applied or the coupling strength of pacemaker varies. The results are beneficial for understanding the complex cooperative behaviour of large neural assemblies with pacemaker control.

  3. Experimental investigation of a low-amplitude transition in pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V.; Cohen, J.

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of experiments on transition in pipe flow have been concerned with high-amplitude disturbance (of ≈ 10 % of the centerline velocity) at Reynolds numbers around 2000 and above. In this experimental study, we concentrate on the transition process in water pipe flow where the level of the disturbance is at least an order of magnitude smaller. We follow the sequence of transitional events while varying gradually the disturbance level from a laminar state to an almost fully turbulent one, using flow visualization, pressure-drop and hot-wire measurements. This is accomplished by injection of a very small diameter jet perpendicular to the main stream at a controllable flow rate, in a downstream distance where the flow is approximately fully developed. The injection flow rate normalized by the main stream rate is of O(0.001). With increasing injection flow rates the friction coefficient (λ) increases along with changes in the nature of the flow structures. The transition begins with the generation of a streamwise counter-rotating vortex pair, followed by the formation of a packet of hairpins and their breakdown. As the injection level is increased, the separation distance between two consecutive bursts (wavelength) decreases and the breakdown to turbulence begins further upstream and consequently the value of the friction coefficient λ increases. Above and below a certain threshold of the disturbance level, turbulence is either triggered or the flow is relaminarized, respectively. Finally, it is established that the evolution of the packet of hairpins is a key element during this transition scenario, and is well explained by the three-element model recently proposed by Cohen et al (2014).

  4. Latent transition models to study women's changing of dietary patterns from pregnancy to 1 year postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-04-15

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000-2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them "prudent," "health conscious Western," and "Western." Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the "prudent" class than the "health conscious Western" or the "Western" class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the "health conscious Western" class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum.

  5. GATE REGULATION SPEED AND TRANSITION PROCESS OF UNSTEADY FLOW IN CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Guang-ming; DING Zhi-liang; WANG Chang-de; YAO Xiong

    2008-01-01

    The operation methods of channel and the speed of gate regulation have great influence on the transformation of flow in water conveyance channels. Based on characteristics method, a 1-D unsteady flow numerical model for gate regulation was established in this study. The process of water flow was simulated under different boundary conditions. The influence of gate regulation speed and channel operation methods on flow transition process was analyzed. The numerical results show that under the same conditions, with increasing regulation speed of the gate, the change rates of discharge and water level increase, while the response time of channel becomes shorter, and ultimately the discharge and water level will transit to the same equilibrium states. Moreover, the flow is easier to reach stable state, if the water level in front of the sluice is kept constant, instead of behind the sluice. This study will be important to the scheme design of automatic operation control in water conveyance channels.

  6. Transitional flow analysis in the carotid artery bifurcation by proper orthogonal decomposition and particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L

    2013-07-01

    Blood flow instabilities in the carotid artery bifurcation have been highly correlated to clot formation and mobilization resulting in ischemic stroke. In this work, PIV-measured flow velocities in normal and stenosed carotid artery bifurcation models were analyzed by means of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Through POD analysis, transition to more complex flow was visualized and quantified for increasing stenosis severity. While no evidence of transitional flow was seen in the normal model, the 50%-stenosed model started to show characteristics of transitional flow, which became highly evident in the 70% model, with greatest manifestation during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. By means of a model comparison, we demonstrate two quantitative measures of the flow complexity through the power-law decay slope of the energy spectrum and the global entropy. The more complex flow in the 70%-stenosed model showed a flatter slope of energy decay (-0.91 compared to -1.34 for 50% stenosis) and higher entropy values (0.26 compared to 0.17). Finally, the minimum temporal resolution required for POD analysis of carotid artery flow was found to be 100 Hz when determined through a more typical energy-mode convergence test, as compared to 400 Hz based on global entropy values.

  7. Transition from Disorder to Order in Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new technique to investigate the dynamical transitions among the traffic phases. A type of the control signals has been designated at a given site (signal point) of the single-lane highway. Under the effect of the control signal, the velocity of the vehicle that passes the signal point will be changed periodically. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstrate that the disorder states in the deterministic NaSch traffic model can be suppressed, and the different types of periodic states would occur.

  8. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  9. POTENTIAL OF SERBIA TO GENERATE TOURISTIC FLOWS IN TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk GARACA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Generative regions are the areas that generate touristic demand. It is important to aknowledge the potential of certain countries to generate touristic flows. This is essential asset for the development of destination countries in its souroundings, as well as faraway tourism destinations. The contribution of every country to the world tourism should not be ignored, as it plays its role in the global tourism phenomenon. Serbia is a small country with many demographical and economical problems. Despite the relativelly low standard of living of its population, the significant number of Serbs travel abroad every year.. This research examine the potential of Serbia to generate tourism flows, nowdays and in the future, the main destinations of Serbian tourists, the amount of money spent by Serbians on tourism and the role that tourism have in their culture of living.

  10. Chaos control applied to coherent states in transitional flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausch, Marina; Eckhardt, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.eckhardt@physik.uni-marburg.de [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Renthof 6, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    Chaos control refers to a group of techniques by which an otherwise unstable dynamical state of a system can be maintained by small control forces. We here discuss their application to stabilizing the fixed points in a low dimensional model for shear flows. The simulations demonstrate a prototypical application of chaos control, show that control is almost always possible, and give insights into optimizing the control matrix from a design point of view.

  11. African American Late Adolescents' Relationships with Parents: Developmental Transitions and Longitudinal Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Five-year longitudinal patterns and the influence of developmental transitions on 76 middle-class African American late adolescents' (M18.43 years) relationships with parents were examined. Late adolescents were closer to mothers than to fathers. Controlling for age, late adolescent females who had left home reported less negative relationships…

  12. Coherent structures and flow topology of transitional separated-reattached flow over two and three dimensional geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabil, Hayder Azeez; Li, Xin Kai; Abdalla, Ibrahim Elrayah

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale organized motions (commonly referred to coherent structures) and flow topology of a transitional separated-reattached flow have been visualised and investigated using flow visualisation techniques. Two geometrical shapes including two-dimensional flat plate with rectangular leading edge and three-dimensional square cylinder are chosen to shed a light on the flow topology and present coherent structures of the flow over these shapes. For both geometries and in the early stage of the transition, two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls are formed downstream of the leading edge. They are observed to be twisting around the square cylinder while they stay flat in the case of the two-dimensional flat plate. For both geometrical shapes, the two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls move downstream of the leading edge and they are subjected to distortion to form three-dimensional hairpin structures. The flow topology in the flat plate is different from that in the square cylinder. For the flat plate, there is a merging process by a pairing of the Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls to form a large structure that breaks down directly into many hairpin structures. For the squire cylinder case, the Kelvin-Helmholtz roll evolves topologically to form a hairpin structure. In the squire cylinder case, the reattachment length is much shorter and a forming of the three-dimensional structures is closer to the leading edge than that in the flat plate case.

  13. Phase transition in evolution of traffic flow with scale-free property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Bo; Gao Zi-You

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the behaviour of traffic flow in traffic systems with a new model based on the NaSch model and cluster approximation of mean-field theory.The proposed model aims at constructing a mapping relationship between the microcosmic behaviour and the macroscopic property of traffic flow.Results demonstrate that scale-free phenomenon of the evolution network becomes obvious when the density value of traffic flow reaches at the critical point of phase transition from free flow to traffic congestion,and jamming is limited in this scale-fres structure.

  14. Regional patterns of cortical blood flow distinguish extraverts from introverts

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Georg; Risberg, Jarl; Warkentin, S.; Rosén, Ingmar

    1990-01-01

    Eysenck's hypothesis of higher cortical arousal in introverts was examined using regional cerebral blood flow measurement in 37 healthy subjects . The measurement was made at rest, using the133Xe-inhalation method. Estimates of gray matter flow were obtained for 32 brain regions. There was no significant evidence of personality differences in general arousal, as measured by the mean flow level, averaged over all regions. There were, however, regional differences. An overall test of the blood ...

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

    2001-08-20

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  16. Transition and Continuance in Science Production: Authorship Flow in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Nikzad; Nadjla Hariri; Fahime Babolhavaeji; Fatemeh Nooshinfard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study authorship flow in Iranian ISI articles in the field of chemistry based on Price’s model. Price divided authors in each given period in any field into four groups including newcomers, transients, continuants, and terminators. He maintained that actuarial statistics could be applied to authorship to calculate death rate and birth rate in scientific fields. A total 25,573 articles written by 59,661 Iranian chemistry authors between 1973 and 2012 were do...

  17. Subcritical transition to turbulence of a precessing flow in a cylindrical vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herault, Johann; Gundrum, Thomas; Giesecke, André; Stefani, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The transition to turbulence in a precessing cylindrical vessel is experimentally investigated. Our measurements are performed for a nearly resonant configuration with an initially laminar flow dominated by an inertial mode with azimuthal wave number m = 1 superimposed on a solid body rotation. By increasing the precession ratio, we observe a transition from the laminar to a non-linear regime, which then breakdowns to turbulence for larger precession ratio. Our measurements show that the transition to turbulence is subcritical, with a discontinuity of the wall-pressure and the power consumption at the threshold ɛLT. The turbulence is self-sustained below this threshold, describing a bifurcation diagram with a hysteresis. In this range of the control parameters, the turbulent flows can suddenly collapse after a finite duration, leading to a definitive relaminarization of the flow. The average lifetime of the turbulence increases rapidly when ɛ tends to ɛLT.

  18. The lift-up effect: the linear mechanism behind transition and turbulence in shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The formation and amplification of streamwise velocity perturbations induced by cross-stream disturbances is ubiquitous in shear flows. This disturbance growth mechanism, so neatly identified by Ellingsen and Palm in 1975, is a key process in transition to turbulence and self-sustained turbulence. In this review, we first present the original derivation and early studies and then discuss the non-modal growth of streaks, the result of the lift-up process, in transitional and turbulent shear flows. In the second part, the effects on the lift-up process of additives in the fluid and of a second phase are discussed and new results presented with emphasis on particle-laden shear flows. For all cases considered, we see the lift-up process to be a very robust process, always present as a first step in subcritical transition.

  19. Subcritical transition to turbulence of a precessing flow in a cylindrical vessel

    CERN Document Server

    Herault, Johann; Giesecke, Andre; Stefani, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The transition to turbulence in a precessing cylindrical vessel is experimentally investigated. Our measurements are performed for a { nearly-resonant} configuration with an initially laminar flow dominated by an inertial mode with azimuthal wave number $m=1$ superimposed on a solid body rotation. By increasing the precession ratio, we observe a transition from the laminar to a non-linear regime, which then breakdowns to turbulence for larger precession ratio. Our measurements show that the transition to turbulence is subcritical, with a discontinuity of the wall-pressure and the power consumption at the threshold $\\epsilon_{LT}$. The turbulence is self-sustained below this threshold, describing a bifurcation diagram with a hysteresis. In this range of the control parameters, the turbulent flows can suddenly collapse after a finite duration, leading to a definitive relaminarization of the flow. The average lifetime $\\langle \\tau \\rangle$ of the turbulence increases rapidly when $\\epsilon$ tends to $\\epsilon_{...

  20. Polynomial analysis of placental flow patterns in growth-retarded fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, W; Grab, D; Sterzik, K; Terinde, R; Wolf, A

    1993-01-01

    Correct interpretation of conspicuous blood flow velocity waveforms cannot rely solely on the evaluation of uteroplacental vascular Doppler flow patterns by means of angle-independent indices such as the resistance or pulsatility index. In addition to the degree of pulsatility, the waveform shape between the systolic and diastolic peak values is of considerable consequence. A subdivision of the total flow waveform into orthogonal polynomial components allows both pulsatility evaluation and notching to be registered, providing a higher sensitivity in identification of pathological vascular resistance. Accurate recording and assessment of the flow waveform is therefore an important qualitative criterion for the classification of Doppler flow patterns in pregnancies with reduced uteroplacental perfusion.

  1. Longitudinal cerebral blood flow and amyloid deposition: an emerging pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojkova, Jitka; Beason-Held, Lori; Zhou, Yun; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A; Ye, Weigo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Mathis, Chester A; Klunk, William E; Wong, Dean F; Resnick, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    Although cerebral amyloid deposition may precede cognitive impairment by decades, the relationship between amyloid deposition and longitudinal change in neuronal function has not been studied. The aim of this paper is to determine whether nondemented individuals with high and low amyloid burden show different patterns of longitudinal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in the years preceding measurement of amyloid deposition. Methods Twenty-eight nondemented participants (mean (SD) age at [11C] PIB 82.5(4.8) yrs; 6 mildly impaired) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent yearly resting-state [15O]H2O PET scans for up to 8 years. [11C]PIB images of amyloid deposition were acquired on average 10.8(0.8) years after the first CBF scan. [11C]PIB distribution volume ratios (DVR) of regions of interest were estimated by fitting a reference tissue model to the measured time activity curves. Based on mean cortical DVR, participants were divided into high and low [11C]PIB retention groups. Differences in longitudinal rCBF changes between high and low [11C]PIB groups were investigated by voxel-based analysis. Results Longitudinal rCBF changes differed significantly between high (n=10) and low (n=18) [11C]PIB groups (p<=0.001). Greater longitudinal decreases in rCBF in the high [11C]PIB group were seen in right anterior/mid cingulate, right supramarginal gyrus, left thalamus and midbrain bilaterally relative to the low group. Greater increases in rCBF over time in the high [11C]PIB group were found in left medial and inferior frontal gyri, right precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, and the left postcentral gyrus. Conclusion In this group of nondemented older adults, those with high [11C]PIB show greater longitudinal declines in rCBF in certain areas, representing regions with greater decrements in neuronal function. Greater longitudinal increases in rCBF are also observed in those with higher amyloid load and may represent an attempt to preserve

  2. Study of Wettability Effect on Pressure Drop and Flow Pattern of Two-Phase Flow in Rectangular Microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chi Woong; Yu, Dong In; Kim, Moo Hwan [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Wettability is a critical parameter in micro-scale two-phase system. Several previous results indicate that wettability has influential affect on two-phase flow pattern in a microchannel. However, previous studies conducted using circular microtube, which was made by conventional fabrication techniques. Although most applications for micro thermal hydraulic system has used a rectangular microchannel, data for the rectangular microchannel is totally lack. In this study, a hydrophilic rectangular microchannel was fabricated using a photosensitive glass. And a hydrophobic rectangular microchannel was prepared using silanization of glass surfaces with OTS (octa-dethy1-trichloro-siliane). Experiments of two-phase flow in the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic rectangular microchannels were conducted using water and nitrogen gas. Visualization of two-phase flow pattern was carried out using a high-speed camera and a long distance microscope. Visualization results show that the wettability was important for two-phase flow pattern in rectangular microchannel. In addition, two-phase frictional pressure drop was highly related with flow patterns. Finally, Two-phase frictional pressure drop was analyzed with flow patterns.

  3. The Rolling Transition in a Granular Flow along a Rotating Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Le Quiniou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a dry granular material composed of spherical particles along a rotating boundary has been studied by the discrete element method (DEM. This type of flow is used, among others, as a process to spread particles. The flow consists of several phases. A compression phase along the rotating wall is followed by an elongation of the flow along the same boundary. Eventually, the particles slide or roll independently along the boundary. We show that the main motion of the flow can be characterized by a complex deformation rate of traction/compression and shear. We define numerically an effective friction coefficient of the flow on the scale of the continuum and show a strong decrease of this effective friction beyond a certain critical friction coefficient μ*. We correlate this phenomenon with the apparition of a new transition from a sliding regime to a rolling without sliding regime that we called the rolling transition; this dynamic transition is controlled by the value of the friction coefficient between the particle and the wall. We show that the spherical shape for the particles may represent an optimum for the flow in terms of energetic.

  4. Numerical simulation of incompressible turbulent flows in presence of laminar to turbulent transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, G.; Vashista, G. A.; Majumdar, Sekhar

    2017-04-01

    Most of the widely used popular mathematical models of turbulence use a judicious combination of intuition, empiricism and the governing equations of instantaneous and mean motion-valid strictly for fully developed turbulence without any laminar region. In reality however, any wall bounded or free shear flow may consist of some laminar flow patches which eventually undergo transition over a finite length to grow into fully turbulent flows. Most of the turbulence models used in commercial CFD codes, are unable to predict the dynamics of turbulent flows with laminar patches. However, accurate prediction of transitional flows is often essential to estimate the pressure losses and/or heat transfer in industrial applications. The present paper implements two different transition models in an existing finite volume URANS-based code RANS3D, developed in house and validated against reliable measurement data for flow past flat plates with different free stream turbulence levels and flow past SD7003 aerofoil at a chord-based Reynolds number of 60,000.

  5. Numerical study of laminar-turbulent transition in particle-laden channel flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Joy; Sardina, Gaetano; de Lange, H C; Brandt, Luca

    2013-04-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of subcritical transition to turbulence in a particle-laden channel flow, with particles assumed rigid, spherical, and heavier than the fluid. The equations describing the fluid flow are solved with an Eulerian mesh, whereas those describing the particle dynamics are solved by Lagrangian tracking. Two-way coupling between fluid and particles is modeled with Stokes drag. The numerical code is first validated against previous results from linear stability: the nonmodal growth of streamwise vortices resulting in streamwise streaks is still the most efficient mechanism for linear disturbance amplification at subcritical conditions as for the case of a single phase fluid. To analyze the full nonlinear transition, we examine two scenarios well studied in the literature: (1) transition initiated by streamwise independent counter-rotating streamwise vortices and one three-dimensional mode and (2) oblique transition, initiated by the nonlinear interaction of two symmetric oblique waves. The threshold energy for transition is computed, and it is demonstrated that for both scenarios the transition may be facilitated by the presence of particles at low number density. This is due to the fact that particles may introduce in the system detrimental disturbances of length scales not initially present. At higher concentrations, conversely, we note an increase of the disturbance energy needed for transition. The threshold energy for the oblique scenario shows a more significant increase in the presence of particles, by a factor about four. Interestingly, for the streamwise-vortex scenario the time at which transition occurs increases with the particle volume fraction when considering disturbances of equal initial energy. These results are explained by considering the reduced amplification of oblique modes in the two-phase flow. The results from these two classical scenarios indicate that, although linear stability analysis shows hardly any

  6. Array of Biomimetic Hair Sensor Dedicated for Flow Pattern Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Kolster, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    Flow sensor arrays can be used to extract features from flow fields rather than averaging or providing local measurements provided the sensors in the array structure can be interrogated individually. This paper addresses the latest developments in fabrication and array interfacing of biomimetic

  7. Image-based modeling of the flow transition from a Berea rock matrix to a propped fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, P.; Willson, C. S.; Thompson, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, new technologies and advances in horizontal hydraulic fracturing to extract oil and gas from tight rocks have raised questions regarding the physics of the flow and transport processes that occur during production. Many of the multi-dimensional details of flow from the rock matrix into the fracture and within the proppant-filled fracture are still unknown, which leads to unreliable well production estimations. In this work, we use x-ray computed micro tomography (XCT) to image 30/60 CarboEconoprop light weight ceramic proppant packed between berea sandstone cores (6 mm in diameter and ~2 mm in height) under 4000 psi (~28 MPa) loading stress. Image processing and segmentation of the 6 micron voxel resolution tomography dataset into solid and void space involved filtering with anisotropic diffusion (AD), segmentation using an indicator kriging (IK) algorithm, and removal of noise using a remove islands and holes program. Physically-representative pore network structures were generated from the XCT images, and a representative elementary volume (REV) was analyzed using both permeability and effective porosity convergence. Boundary conditions were introduced to mimic the flow patterns that occur when fluid moves from the matrix into the proppant-filled fracture and then downstream within the proppant-filled fracture. A smaller domain, containing Berea and proppants close to the interface, was meshed using an in-house unstructured meshing algorithm that allows different levels of refinement. Although most of this domain contains proppants, the Berea section accounted for the majority of the elements due to mesh refinement in this region of smaller pores. A finite element method (FEM) Stokes flow model was used to provide more detailed insights on the flow transition from rock matrix to fracture. Results using different pressure gradients are used to describe the flow transition from the Berea rock matrix to proppant-filled fracture.

  8. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  9. Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille flow as a linear instability process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizner, Federico; Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a transition scenario is demonstrated, in which most of the stages are followed analytically. The transition is initiated by the linear transient growth mechanism in plane Poiseuille flow subjected to an infinitesimally small secondary disturbance. A novel analytical approximation of the linear transient growth mechanism enables us to perform a secondary linear stability analysis of the modified base-flow. Two possible routes to transition are highlighted here, both correspond to a small secondary disturbance superimposed on a linear transient growth. The first scenario is initiated by four decaying odd normal modes which form a counter-rotating vortex pair; the second is initiated by five even decaying modes which form a pair of counter-rotating pairs. The approximation of the linear transient growth stage by a combination of minimal number of modes allows us to follow the transition stages analytically by employing the multiple time scale method. In particular, the secondary instability stage is followed analytically using linear tools, and is verified by obtaining transition in a direct numerical simulation initiated by conditions dictated by the transient growth analytical expressions. Very good agreement is observed, verifying the theoretical model. The similarities between the two transition routes are discussed and the results are compared with similar results obtained for plane Couette flow.

  10. Investigating flow pathways and transit times for the dispersal of hydrocarbon pollution on Rabots glacier, Kebnekaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clason, Caroline; Rosqvist, Gunhild; Coch, Caroline; Jarsjö, Jerker; Brugger, Keith

    2014-05-01

    On March 15th 2012 a Royal Norwegian Air Force Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules aircraft crashed into the western face of Kebnekaise in northern Sweden, approximately 50 m below the mountain ridge, during a military exercise. It was carrying c.14000 l of kerosene jet fuel when it left Narvik, and an estimated minimum of 8 m3 of fuel was deposited on the mountain wall. Along with a large amount of debris from the wreckage, the fuel was subsequently buried by an avalanche in a north-west facing cirque on Rabots glacier. To assess the fate of the hydrocarbon pollution, a field campaign was organised to both monitor traces of pollution in the snowpack and the proglacial river system, and to quantify the preferential pathways and transit time for pollution dispersal from the crash source zone, through the glacier, to the proglacial outlet. An intensive series of dye tracing experiments were conducted as a proxy for potential pollution flow pathways during the 2013 ablation season. Percolation pathways through the snowpack and flow rates in the basal saturated layer were investigated in the vicinity of the crash site using rhodamine dye. Flow patterns across the slush and ice surface immediately downstream of the snowline were also investigated in terms of dye dispersion and the speed with which meltwater reaches the englacial system after emerging from the snowpack. The breakthrough of dye following injection in moulins was examined throughout the melt season, with injection sites situated along two longitudinal profiles of the glacier to investigate drainage efficiency with distance from the front. These experiments revealed a drainage axis in the glacial hydrological system, ending in two proglacial outlets of distinctly different turbidity. Furthermore, englacial dye tracing immediately downstream of the crash cirque snowpack revealed storage of dye over a long time period, followed by fast, efficient release of meltwater. This may suggest that pollution is

  11. Patterns of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity during health transition in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey N; Vilar, Miguel; Chan, Chim; DeHuff, Christa; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Garruto, Ralph M; Lum, J Koji

    2012-01-01

    Rapid economic development and subsequent changes in lifestyle and disease burdens ('health transition') is associated with increasing prevalence of obesity among both adults and children. However, because of continued infectious diseases and undernutrition during the early stages of transition, monitoring childhood obesity has not been prioritized in many countries and the scope of the problem is unknown. Therefore we sought to characterize patterns of childhood overweight and obesity in an early transitional area, the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu. We completed an anthropometric survey among children from three islands with varying levels of economic development, from rural areas (where adult obesity prevalence is low) to urban areas (where adult obesity prevalence is high). The islands of Ambae (rural), Aneityum (rural with tourism) and Efate (urban). Boys and girls (n 513) aged 6-17 years. Height-, weight- and BMI-for-age did not vary among islands, and prevalence of overweight/obesity based on BMI was low. However, girls from Aneityum - a rural island where the tourism industry increased rapidly after malaria eradication - had increased central adiposity compared with girls from the other islands. This is contrary to adult patterns, which indicate higher obesity prevalence in urban areas. Multiple factors might contribute, including stunting, biological responses after malaria control, sleeping patterns, diet and physical activity levels. Measures of central adiposity highlight an emerging obesity risk among girls in Vanuatu. The data highlight the synergistic relationship among infectious diseases, undernutrition and obesity during the early stages of health transition.

  12. Profound spatial heterogeneity of coronary reserve. Discordance between patterns of resting and maximal myocardial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R E; Aldea, G S; Coggins, D L; Flynn, A E; Hoffman, J I

    1990-08-01

    We examined the ability of individual regions of the canine left ventricle to increase blood flow relative to baseline rates of perfusion. Regional coronary flow was measured by injecting radioactive microspheres over 90 seconds in seven anesthetized mongrel dogs. Preliminary experiments demonstrated a correlation between the regional distributions of blood flow during asphyxia and pharmacological vasodilatation with adenosine (mean r = 0.75; 192 regions in each of two dogs), both of which resulted in increased coronary flow. Subsequent experiments, during which coronary perfusion pressure was held constant at 80 mm Hg, examined the pattern of blood flow in 384 regions (mean weight, 106 mg) of the left ventricular free wall during resting flow and during maximal coronary flow effected by intracoronary adenosine infusion. We found that resting and maximal flow patterns were completely uncorrelated to each other in a given dog (mean r = 0.06, p = NS; n = 3 dogs). Furthermore, regional coronary reserve, defined as the ratio of maximal to resting flow, ranged from 1.75 (i.e., resting flow was 57% of maximum) to 21.9 (resting flow was 4.5% of maximum). Thus, coronary reserve is spatially heterogeneous and determined by two distinct perfusion patterns: the resting (control) pattern and the maximal perfusion pattern. Normal hearts, therefore, contain small regions that may be relatively more vulnerable to ischemia. This may explain the patchy nature of infarction with hypoxia and at reduced perfusion pressures as well as the difficulty of using global parameters to predict regional ischemia. Despite the wide dispersion of coronary reserve, we found, by autocorrelation analysis, that reserve in neighboring regions (even when separated by a distance of several tissue samples) was significantly correlated. This also applied to patterns of resting myocardial flow. Thus, both resting coronary blood flow and reserve appear to be locally continuous and may define functional

  13. Heat Flow Pattern in the Mainland of China and Its Geodynamic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of 723 heat flow measurements in the mainland of China and over 2000 data from the global heat flow data set, the authors compiled the heat flow map of the mainland of China and its adjacent areas to exhibit the overall variation of the heat flow pattern in the mainland. The heat flow pattern of the mainland is complex, and can not be simply summarized as "low in the north and west and high in the south and east". Significant difference exists between eastern and western China in the spatial pattern of heat flow. Divided by the 105° E meridian, heat flow values in eastern China show a westward-decreasing trend; and a northward variation is observed in western China. The high-heat flow regions correspond to tectonically active belts such as Cenozoic orogens and extensional basins, where mantle heat flow is high; and the low-heat flow regions correspond to stable units such as the Tarim and Yangtze platforms. This heat flow pattern is controlled by India-Asia collision in the west and Pacific plate subduction in the east. The lateral variation in lithospheric strength corresponds to the heat flow variation, and there is a generally reversely proportional relation between heat flow and lithospheric strength in the mainland of China. The mosaic pattern of present deformation in the mainland results from lateral rheological heterogeneity. The good coincidence between weak strength domains and seismic zones demonstrates the intrinsic relation between the strength heterogeneity and regional seismicity pattern in the mainland of China.

  14. Laser transit anemometer measurements of a JANNAF nozzle base velocity flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Russ, C. E., Jr.; Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Velocity flow fields of a nozzle jet exhausting into a supersonic flow were surveyed. The measurements were obtained with a laser transit anemometer (LTA) system in the time domain with a correlation instrument. The LTA data is transformed into the velocity domain to remove the error that occurs when the data is analyzed in the time domain. The final data is shown in velocity vector plots for positions upstream, downstream, and in the exhaust plane of the jet nozzle.

  15. Transition to two-dimensionality in magnetohydrodynamic turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yurong; Tao, Jianjun; Zikanov, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Transition from a Taylor-Couette turbulent flow to a completely two-dimensional axisymmetric turbulent state is realized numerically by increasing gradually the strength of the azimuthal magnetic field produced by electric current flowing through the axial rod. With the increase of the Hartmann number, the Taylor-vortex-like structures shrink, move closer to the inner cylinder, and turn into unsteady but perfect tori at sufficiently high Hartmann numbers.

  16. Smooth Transition from Shakura-Sunyaev Disc to Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林一清; 卢炬甫; 顾为民

    2003-01-01

    We solve a set of basic equations describing black hole accretion flows using the standard Runge-Kutta method and a bridging formula for the radiative cooling, and show that a smooth transition from a Shakura-Sunyaev disc to an advection-dominated accretion flow is realizable for the high-viscosity case, without the need of involving any extra mechanism of energy transport.

  17. Patterned turbulence in liquid metal flow: computational reconstruction of the Hartmann experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Dmitry; Thess, André; Boeck, Thomas; Zhao, Yurong; Zikanov, Oleg

    2013-02-22

    We present results of a numerical analysis of Hartmann's historical experiments on flows of mercury in pipes and ducts under the influence of magnetic fields. The computed critical parameters for the laminar-turbulent transition as well as the friction coefficients are in excellent agreement with Hartmann's data. The simulations provide a first detailed view of the flow structures that are experimentally inaccessible. Novel flow regimes with localized turbulent spots near the sidewalls parallel to the magnetic field and otherwise laminar flow are discovered. We finally suggest how these predictions can be tested in a transparent fluid using optical flow measurement.

  18. Parametric Study of Flow Patterns behind the Standing Accretion Shock Wave for Core-Collapse Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Iwakami, Wakana; Yamada, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    The systematic research of flow patterns behind the accretion shock wave is conducted using three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations for core-collapse supernovae in this study. Changing the accretion rate and neutrino luminosity, the steady solutions of the one-dimensional irrotational accretion flow passing through the spherical shock wave are evolved by imposing a random perturbation with 1% amplitude at the onset of the simulations. Depending on the accretion rate and neutrino luminosity, various flow patterns appear behind the shock wave. We classified them into the three fundamental flow patterns: (1) sloshing motion, (2) spiral motion, (3) multiple high-entropy bubbles, and the two anomalous flow patterns: (4) spiral motion with buoyant bubbles, and (5) spiral motion with pulsating rotational velocity. The sloshing and spiral motions tend to be dominant in the higher accretion rate and lower neutrino luminosity, and the generations of multiple buoyant bubbles tend to prevail in the lower accretion ra...

  19. Debris flows in the Eastern Italian Alps: seasonality and atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Nikolopoulos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work examines the seasonality and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns of debris flows in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (Eastern Italian Alps. Analysis is based on classification algorithms applied on a uniquely dense archive of debris flows and hourly rain gauge precipitation series covering the period 2000–2009. Results highlight the seasonal and synoptic forcing patterns linked to debris flows in the study area. Summer and fall season account for 92% of the debris flows in the record, while atmospheric circulation characterized by Zonal West, Mixed and Meridional South, Southeast patterns account for 80%. Both seasonal and circulation patterns exhibit geographical preference. In the case of seasonality, there is a strong north–south separation of summer–fall dominance while spatial distribution of dominant circulation patterns exhibits clustering, with both Zonal West and Mixed prevailing in the northwest and central east part of the region, while the southern part relates to Meridional South, Southeast pattern. Seasonal and synoptic pattern dependence is pronounced also on the debris flow triggering rainfall properties. Examination of rainfall intensity–duration thresholds derived for different data classes (according to season and synoptic pattern revealed a distinct variability in estimated thresholds. These findings imply a certain control on debris-flow events and can therefore be used to improve existing alert systems.

  20. Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow transition in lung surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Amir; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan

    2010-11-01

    The lining of normal lungs is covered by surfactants, because otherwise the surface tension of the aqueous layer would be too large to allow breathing. A lack of functioning surfactants can lead to respiratory distress syndrome, a potentially fatal condition in both premature infants and adults, and a major cause of death in the US and world-wide. We use a home-built Brewster angle microscope on an optically accessible deep channel viscometer to simultaneously observe the mesoscale structures of DPPC, the primary constituent of lung surfactant, on water surface and measure the interfacial velocity field. The measured interfacial velocity is compared to Navier-Stokes computations with the Boussinesq-Scriven surface model. Results show that DPPC monolayer behaves i) purely elastically at low surface pressures on water, ii) viscoelastically at modest surface pressures, exhibiting non-zero surface shear viscosity that is independent of the shear rate and flow inertia, and iii) at surface pressures approaching film collapse, DPPC loses its fluid characteristics, and a Newtonian surface model no longer captures its hydrodynamics.

  1. Transition and Continuance in Science Production: Authorship Flow in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Nikzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study authorship flow in Iranian ISI articles in the field of chemistry based on Price’s model. Price divided authors in each given period in any field into four groups including newcomers, transients, continuants, and terminators. He maintained that actuarial statistics could be applied to authorship to calculate death rate and birth rate in scientific fields. A total 25,573 articles written by 59,661 Iranian chemistry authors between 1973 and 2012 were downloaded from Web of Science and were subjected to statistical analysis. The average birth rate was 66.7%, the average death rate was 19.4%, infant mortality rate was 51.2%, average natural increase was 47.3%, the average life expectancy was 1.98 years and the longest scientific age was 22 years. The results show that although a large number of people start their scientific activity, the number of those who terminate their activity in the same year as they start (infant death rate is also large and little continuity exist in publishing activities of Iranian chemists. The overall labor force in the field of chemistry in Iran was not satisfactory as the majority of authors in each period are transients. Policy makers need to take measures to improve the situation.

  2. Computational modeling of lava domes using particle dynamics to investigate the effect of conduit flow mechanics on flow patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Taha Murtuza

    Large (1--4 x 106 m3) to major (> 4 x 106 m3) dome collapses for andesitic lava domes such as Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat are observed for elevated magma discharge rates (6--13 m3/s). The gas rich magma pulses lead to pressure build up in the lava dome that result in structural failure of the over steepened canyon-like walls which may lead to rockfall or pyroclastic flow. This indicates that dome collapse intimately related to magma extrusion rate. Variation in magma extrusion rate for open-system magma chambers is observed to follow alternating periods of high and low activity. Periodic behavior of magma exhibits a rich diversity in the nature of its eruptive history due to variation in magma chamber size, total crystal content, linear crystal growth rate and magma replenishment rate. Distinguished patterns of growth were observed at different magma flow rates ranging from endogenous to exogenous dome growth for magma with varying strengths. Determining the key parameters that control the transition in flow pattern of the magma during its lava dome building eruption is the main focus. This dissertation examines the mechanical effects on the morphology of the evolving lava dome on the extrusion of magma from a central vent using a 2D particle dynamics model. The particle dynamics model is coupled with a conduit flow model that incorporates the kinetics of crystallization and rheological stiffening to investigate important mechanisms during lava dome building eruptions. Chapter I of this dissertation explores lava dome growth and failure mechanics using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. The model follows the evolution of fractured lava, with solidification driven by degassing induced crystallization of magma. The particle-dynamics model emulates the natural development of dome growth and rearrangement of the lava dome which is difficult in mesh-based analyses due to mesh entanglement effects. The deformable talus evolves naturally as a frictional

  3. Three-phase theory of city traffic: Moving synchronized flow patterns in under-saturated city traffic at signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2014-03-01

    Three-phase traffic flow theory of city traffic has been developed. Based on simulations of a stochastic microscopic traffic flow model, features of moving synchronized flow patterns (MSP) have been studied, which are responsible for a random time-delayed breakdown of a green-wave (GW) organized in a city. A possibility of GW control leading to the prevention of GW breakdown has been demonstrated. A diagram of traffic breakdown in under-saturated traffic (transition from under- to over-saturated city traffic) at the signal has been found; the diagram presents regions of the average arrival flow rate, within which traffic breakdown can occur, in dependence of parameters of the time-function of the arrival flow rate or/and signal parameters. Physical reasons for a crucial difference between results of classical theory of city traffic and three-phase theory are explained. In particular, we have found that under-saturated traffic at the signal can exist during a long time interval, when the average arrival flow rate is larger than the capacity of the classical theory; the classical capacity is equal to a minimum capacity in three-phase theory. Within a range of the average arrival flow rate between the minimum and maximum signal capacities, under-saturated traffic is in a metastable state with respect to traffic breakdown. We have distinguished the following possible causes for the metastability of under-saturated traffic: (i) The arrival flow rate during the green phase is larger than the saturation flow rate. (ii) The length of the upstream front of a queue at the signal is a finite value. (iii) The outflow rate from a MSP (the rate of MSP discharge) is larger than the saturation flow rate.

  4. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming

    2008-01-01

    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  5. The competition of convective and absolute instabilities in rotating-disk flow transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Shintaro; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Lingwood, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of this experimental study is to investigate laminar-turbulent transition mechanisms in the rotating-disk boundary-layer flow. Lingwood (1995) found that the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable above a critical Reynolds number and suggested that absolutely unstable travelling waves triggered nonlinearity leading to transition. However, the growth of convectively unstable stationary vortices is also a possible alternative route if the surface roughness of the disk is sufficiently large. The convectively unstable stationary vortices are attributed to an inviscid crossflow mechanism. Flow-visualization studies and hot-wire measurements of the rotating-disk boundary layer typically capture 28-32 stationary vortices in the transition regime (e.g. Imayama et al. 2014). The hot-wire measurements presented here were performed on a smooth glass disk with a diameter of 474 mm. To excite stationary vortices disk-shaped roughness elements with a diameter of 2 mm and a height of 5 micron were put on the disk at a radial position of 110 mm. In the presentation, the details of the convectively unstable stationary vortices in the rotating-disk boundary layer are shown and compared with travelling waves and similarities/differences in the turbulent transition discussed. This work is supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Linné FLOW Centre.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field in the gradual transition of rectangular to trapezoidal open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Asnaashari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitions are structures that can change geometry and flow velocity through varying the cross-sections of their channels. Under subcritical flow and steady flow conditions, it is necessary to reduce the flow velocity gradually due to increasing water pressure and adverse pressure gradients. Due to the separation of flow and subsequent eddy formation, a significant energy loss is incurred along the transition. This study presents the results of experimental investigations of the subcritical flow along the expansive transition of rectangular to trapezoidal channels. A numerical simulation was developed using a finite volume of fluid (VOF method with a Reynolds stress turbulence model. Water surface profiles and velocity distributions of flow through the transition were measured experimentally and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical model results showed that the Reynolds model and VOF method are capable of simulating the hydraulic flow in open channel transitions. Also, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss were calculated. The results show that with an increasing upstream Froude number, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss decrease and increase, respectively. The results also show the ability of numerical simulation to simulate the flow separation zones and secondary current along the transition for different inlet discharges.

  7. The physics of stripe patterns in turbulent channel flow determined by DNS results

    CERN Document Server

    Kiš, P; Herwig, H

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent flow in an infinitely extended plane channel is analysed by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with a DNS approach. Solutions are obtained in a numerical solution domain of finite size in the streamwise as well as in the lateral direction setting periodic boundary conditions in both directions. Their impact on large scale structures in the turbulent flow field is analysed carefully in order to avoid their suppression. When this is done appropriately well known stripe patterns in these flows can be observed and analysed especially with respect to their relative motion compared to the mean flow velocity. Various details of this stripe pattern dominated velocity field are shown. Also global parameters like the friction factor in the flow field and the Nusselt number in the temperature field are determined based on the statistics of the flow and temperature data in a very large time period that guarantees fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer.

  8. Transition of effective hydraulic properties from low to high Reynolds number flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesapillai, R.; Steeb, H.; Hartmaier, A.

    2014-07-01

    We numerically analyze fluid flow through porous media up to a limiting Reynolds number of O(103). Due to inertial effects, such processes exhibit a gradual transition from laminar to turbulent flow for increasing magnitudes of Re. On the macroscopic scale, inertial transition implies nonlinearities in the relationship between the effective macroscopic pressure gradient and the filter velocity, typically accounted for in terms of the quadratic Forchheimer equation. However, various inertia-based extensions to the linear Darcy equation have been discussed in the literature; most prominently cubic polynomials in velocity. The numerical results presented in this contribution indicate that inertial transition, as observed in the apparent permeability, hydraulic tortuosity, and interfacial drag, is inherently of sigmoidal shape. Based on this observation, we derive a novel filtration law which is consistent with Darcy's law at small Re, reproduces Forchheimer's law at large Re, and exhibits higher-order leading terms in the weak inertia regime.

  9. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  10. Dietary transition, nutritional and health outcomes, and changing agrifood production and trade patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan

    Rapid income growth and urbanization in China has triggered a dietary transition towards more animal based products such as meats and dairy products. This transition has already had significant impacts on nutritional and health outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to assess the nutritional...... and health outcomes of diet transition and alternative diets on the one hand and the associated agricultural and food production and trade effects on the other hand, using the Chinese case as an example. We base this analysis in a modified GTAP model featuring the demand, production and supply and trade...... of major agricultural and food products. Taking advantages of recent methodological advances in building calorie and other nutrition data sourced from the FAO into the GTAP model and database, we further represent current and predicted dietary patterns for China in a baseline projection. The projected...

  11. Examining Change in Cortisol Patterns During the 10-week Transition to a New Childcare Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Peloso, Elizabeth; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Zhiyong; Dozier, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The transition to out-of-home childcare brings a number of challenges for children, including complex peer interactions and extended separations from parents. Children often show a midmorning-to-afternoon rise in cortisol on childcare days, compared to the typical diurnal decline seen at home. Changes in cortisol were examined in a wide age range of children (N = 168; 1.2mos–8yrs, M = 3.27yrs) during the 10-week transition to a new childcare setting. Structural equation modeling using latent change scores showed that children experienced an increase in the cortisol rise at childcare across the 10-week transition. Further, child age moderated the difference between home and childcare cortisol patterns. Findings are placed in a developmental context, and potential implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:25283439

  12. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin......-streptavidin interactions, DNA-hybridization and DNA-triplex formation. The system is simple, fast, reproducible, flexible, and has small sample requirements....

  13. Flow regime transitions in dense non-Brownian suspensions: Rheology, microstructural characterization, and constitutive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Christopher; Sun, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Shear flow of dense non-Brownian suspensions is simulated using the discrete element method taking particle contact and hydrodynamic lubrication into account. The resulting flow regimes are mapped in the parametric space of the solid volume fraction, shear rate, fluid viscosity, and particle stiffness. Below a critical volume fraction ϕc, the rheology is governed by the Stokes number, which distinguishes between viscous and inertial flow regimes. Above ϕc, a quasistatic regime exists for low and moderate shear rates. At very high shear rates, the ϕ dependence is lost, and soft-particle rheology is explored. The transitions between rheological regimes are associated with the evolving contribution of lubrication to the suspension stress. Transitions in microscopic phenomena, such as interparticle force distribution, fabric, and correlation length are found to correspond to those in the macroscopic flow. Motivated by the bulk rheology, a constitutive model is proposed combining a viscous pressure term with a dry granular model presented by Chialvo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 021305 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.021305]. The model is shown to successfully capture the flow regime transitions.

  14. Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul Manneville

    2008-06-01

    In contrast with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with injection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and turbulent domains at intermediate Reynolds numbers, well below the range where (viscous) instabilities can show up. There can even be no unstable mode at all, as for plane Couette flow (pCf) or for Poiseuille pipe flow (Ppf) that are currently the subject of intense research. Though the mechanisms involved in the transition to turbulence in wall flows are now better understood, statistical properties of the transition itself are yet unsatisfactorily assessed. A widely accepted interpretation rests on non-trivial solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the form of unstable travelling waves and on transient chaotic states associated to chaotic repellors. Whether these concepts typical of the theory of temporal chaos are really appropriate is yet unclear owing to the fact that, strictly speaking, they apply when confinement in physical space is effective while the physical systems considered are rather extended in at least one space direction, so that spatiotemporal behaviour cannot be ruled out in the transitional regime. The case of pCf will be examined in this perspective through numerical simulations of a model with reduced cross-stream () dependence, focusing on the in-plane (, ) space dependence of a few velocity amplitudes. In the large aspect-ratio limit, the transition to turbulence takes place via spatiotemporal intermittency and we shall attempt to make a connection with the theory of first-order (thermodynamic) phase transitions, as suggested long ago by Pomeau.

  15. Intermittency and transition to chaos in the cubical lid-driven cavity flow

    CERN Document Server

    Loiseau, Jean-Christophe; Leriche, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Transition from steady state to intermittent chaos in the cubical lid-driven flow is investigated numerically. Fully three-dimensional stability analyses have revealed that the flow experiences an Andronov-Poincar\\'e-Hopf bifurcation at a critical Reynolds number $Re_c$ = 1914. As for the 2D-periodic lid-driven cavity flows, the unstable mode originates from a centrifugal instability of the primary vortex core. A Reynolds-Orr analysis reveals that the unstable perturbation relies on a combination of the lift-up and anti lift-up mechanisms to extract its energy from the base flow. Once linearly unstable, direct numerical simulations show that the flow is driven toward a primary limit cycle before eventually exhibiting intermittent chaotic dynamics. Though only one eigenpair of the linearized Navier-Stokes operator is unstable, the dynamics during the intermittencies are surprisingly well characterized by one of the stable eigenpairs.

  16. Intermittency and transition to chaos in the cubical lid-driven cavity flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.-Ch; Robinet, J.-Ch; Leriche, E.

    2016-12-01

    Transition from steady state to intermittent chaos in the cubical lid-driven cavity flow is investigated numerically. Fully three-dimensional stability analyses have revealed that the flow experiences an Andronov-Poincaré-Hopf bifurcation at a critical Reynolds number Re c = 1914. As for the 2D-periodic lid-driven cavity flows, the unstable mode originates from a centrifugal instability of the primary vortex core. A Reynolds-Orr analysis reveals that the unstable perturbation relies on a combination of the lift-up and anti lift-up mechanisms to extract its energy from the base flow. Once linearly unstable, direct numerical simulations show that the flow is driven toward a primary limit cycle before eventually exhibiting intermittent chaotic dynamics. Though only one eigenpair of the linearized Navier-Stokes operator is unstable, the dynamics during the intermittencies are surprisingly well characterized by one of the stable eigenpairs.

  17. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinants of right coronary artery flow reserve and phasic flow pattern in advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady Charles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC, right-sided cardiac disturbances has prognostic implications. Right coronary artery (RCA flow pattern and flow reserve (CFR are not well known in this setting. The purpose of this study was to assess, in human advanced NIC, the RCA phasic flow pattern and CFR, also under right-sided cardiac disturbances, and compare with left coronary circulation. As well as to investigate any correlation between the cardiac structural, mechanical and hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or CFR. Methods Twenty four patients with dilated severe NIC were evaluated non-invasively, even by echocardiography, and also by cardiac catheterization, inclusive with Swan-Ganz catheter. Intracoronary Doppler (Flowire data was obtained in RCA and left anterior descendent coronary artery (LAD before and after adenosine. Resting RCA phasic pattern (diastolic/systolic was compared between subgroups with and without pulmonary hypertension, and with and without right ventricular (RV dysfunction; and also with LAD. RCA-CFR was compared with LAD, as well as in those subgroups. Pearson's correlation analysis was accomplished among echocardiographic (including LV fractional shortening, mass index, end systolic wall stress more hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or RCA-CFR. Results LV fractional shortening and end diastolic diameter were 15.3 ± 3.5 % and 69.4 ± 12.2 mm. Resting RCA phasic pattern had no difference comparing subgroups with vs. without pulmonary hypertension (1.45 vs. 1.29, p = NS either with vs. without RV dysfunction (1.47 vs. 1.23, p = NS; RCA vs. LAD was 1.35 vs. 2.85 (p Conclusion In patients with chronic advanced NIC, RCA phasic flow pattern has a mild diastolic predominance, less marked than in LAD, with no effects from pulmonary artery hypertension or RV dysfunction. There is no significant correlation between any cardiac mechanical-structural or

  18. An experimental study on turbulent-stripe structure in transitional channel flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukahara, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent stripe, which would occur in turbulent channel flows at transitional Reynolds numbers, was studied experimentally by flow visualization using reflective flake particles. In a range of bulk mean Reynolds number Re = 1700-2000, the turbulent stripe was observed to be inclined at angles of 20-30 degree against the streamwise direction, and its streamwise wave length was about 60 times of the channel half width (delta). The longitudinal streaks with the spanwise spacing of 1.6delta were found in the quasi-laminar regions. The critical Reynolds number was Re = 1300. Time traces of the streamwise velocity were measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, revealing similarity to the equilibrium turbulent puff in the transitional pipe flow.

  19. The Research on Metrological Characteristics of House Water Meters during Transitional Flow Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Briliūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the influence of transitional flow regimes on inlet water meters. Four construction types of mechanical inlet water meters (each capacity Q = 10 m3/h were investigated. The biggest additional volume 0,12–0,26% when Q = 0,2…2 m3/h shows single-jet vane wheel meter. This additional volume is less 0,06–0,13% for the multi-jet concentric water meter. The minimum influence of transitional flow regimes was for turbine water meters till 0,1% for all flow range. The volumetric meters are not sensitive for this effect.Article in Lithuanian

  20. TRANSITION PHENOMENON INVESTIGATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT FLOW REGIMES IN A ROTARY DRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Rotary drums can show different granular flow regimes each one with its own specific flow behavior, which increase the complexity in their study. The way particles move inside the rotary drum is directly related to the mass and energy transfer rates, and consequently to the process performance. Thus, an experimental investigation regarding the transition between different flow regimes inside a rotary drum was carried out in the present work. To the best of our knowledge, the hysteresis phenomenon was observed for the first time in the transition between cataracting-centrifuging regimes, which was shown to be dependent on the physical properties of the particles such as sphericity, density and particle-wall friction coefficient. A new expression for the centrifuging critical rotation speed was proposed in this work.

  1. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains

  2. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant

  3. Wave-induced nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Murty, C.S.

    of a sheared cellular flow pattern with clockwise and anti-clockwise rotations exhibiting noticeable spatial variation. Field studies reveal a southerly littoral current during most of the year. A conceptual model is presented to explain the sediment...

  4. Thermal structure and flow patterns around Seychelles group of Islands (Indian Ocean) during austral autumn

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; RameshBabu, V.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Properties of thermal structure in the upper 750 m around the Seychelles group of islands in the Indian Ocean, based on Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) data collected in March 1984, are presented along with the inferred flow patterns...

  5. Numerical Investigation on Two-dimensional Boundary Layer Flow with Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhao; Tianlin Wang; Zhi Zong

    2014-01-01

    As a basic problem in many engineering applications, transition from laminar to turbulence still remains a difficult problem in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A numerical study of one transitional flow in two-dimensional is conducted by Reynolds averaged numerical simulation (RANS) in this paper. Turbulence model plays a significant role in the complex flows’ simulation, and four advanced turbulence models are evaluated. Numerical solution of frictional resistance coefficient is compared with the measured one in the transitional zone, which indicates that Wilcox (2006) k-ω model with correction is the best candidate. Comparisons of numerical and analytical solutions for dimensionless velocity show that averaged streamwise dimensionless velocity profiles correct the shape rapidly in transitional region. Furthermore, turbulence quantities such as turbulence kinetic energy, eddy viscosity, and Reynolds stress are also studied, which are helpful to learn the transition’s behavior.

  6. Cantorian Fractal Patterns, Quantum-Like Chaos and Prime Numbers in Atmospheric Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M; Fadnavis, Suvarna

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric flows exhibit cantorian fractal space-time fluctuations signifying long-range spatiotemporal correlations. A recently developed cell dynamical system model shows that such non-local connections are intrinsic to quantum-like chaos governing flow dynamics. The dynamical evolution of fractal structures can be quantified in terms of ordered energy flow described by mathematical functions which occur in the field of number theory. The quantum-like chaos in atmospheric flows can be quantified in terms of the following mathematical functions / concepts: (1) The fractal structure of the flow pattern is resolved into an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure and is equivalent to a hierarchy of vortices. The incorporation of Fibonacci mathematical series, representative of ramified bifurcations, indicates ordered growth of fractal patterns. (2) The steady state emergence of progressively larger fractal structures incorporates unique pri...

  7. Topological analysis of the formation of Jet-Wake flow pattern in centrifugal impeller channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qun; LIU Shun-long

    2004-01-01

    Topological analyses are carried out for the numerical results of internal flow field in centrifugal impeller. Topological rules of the singular point characteristics of the limiting streamline are derived and used to determine three dimensional separation patterns in centrifugal impeller and to verify the numerical results. The results reveal that the wake is saddle to nodal closed separation and the formation, its onset point and its developing process of Jet-Wake Flow pattern in centrifugal impeller are presented in this paper.

  8. Flow-Induced Control of Pattern Formation in Chemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Igal; Beta, Carsten

    Since Alan Turing's seminal paper in 1952, the study of spatio-temporal patterns that arise in systems of reacting and diffusing components has grown into an immense and vibrant realm of scientific research. This field includes not only chemical systems but spans many areas of science as diverse as cell and developmental biology, ecology, geosciences, or semiconductor physics. For several decades research in this field has concentrated on the vast variety of patterns that can emerge in reaction-diffusion systems and on the underlying instabilities. In the 1990s, stimulated by the pioneering work of Ott, Grebogi and Yorke, control of pattern formation arose as a new topical focus and gradually developed into an entire new field of research. On the one hand, research interests concentrated on control and suppression of undesired dynamical states, in particular on control of chaos. On the other hand, the design and engineering of particular space-time patterns became a major focus in this field that motivates ongoing scientific effort until today...

  9. Emergence and transitions of dynamic patterns of thickness oscillation of the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Seiji; Ueda, Tetsuo

    2008-03-01

    The emergence and transitions of various spatiotemporal patterns of thickness oscillation were studied in the freshly isolated protoplasm of the Physarum plasmodium. New patterns, such as standing waves, and chaotic and rotating spirals, developed successively before the well-documented synchronous pattern appeared. There was also a spontaneous opposite transition from synchrony to chaotic and rotating spirals. Rotating spiral waves were observed in the large migrating plasmodium, where the vein structures were being destroyed. Thus, the Physarum plasmodium exhibits versatile patterns, which are generally expected in coupled oscillator systems. This paper discusses the physiological roles of spatiotemporal patterns, comparing them with other biological systems.

  10. Vapor Flow Patterns During a Start-Up Transient in Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Ghoniem, N, M.; Catton, I.

    1996-01-01

    The vapor flow patterns in heat pipes are examined during the start-up transient phase. The vapor core is modelled as a channel flow using a two dimensional compressible flow model. A nonlinear filtering technique is used as a post process to eliminate the non-physical oscillations of the flow variables. For high-input heat flux, multiple shock reflections are observed in the evaporation region. The reflections cause a reverse flow in the evaporation and circulations in the adiabatic region. Furthermore, each shock reflection causes a significant increase in the local pressure and a large pressure drop along the heat pipe.

  11. An experimental study of the size effect on adiabatic gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns and void fraction in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Renqiang; Chung, J. N.

    2007-03-01

    Adiabatic gas-liquid flow patterns and void fractions in microchannels were experimentally investigated. Using nitrogen and water, experiments were conducted in rectangular microchannels with hydraulic diameters of 0.209mm, 0.412mm and 0.622mm, respectively. Gas and liquid superficial velocities were varied from 0.06-72.3m/s and 0.02-7.13m/s, respectively. The main objective is focused on the effects of microscale channel sizes on the flow regime map and void fraction. The instability of flow patterns was observed. Four groups of flow patterns including bubbly slug flow, slug-ring flow, dispersed-churn flow, and annular flow were observed in microchannels of 0.412mm and, 0.622mm. In the microchannel of 0.209mm, the bubbly slug flow became the slug flow and the dispersed-churn flow disappeared. The current flow regime maps showed the transition lines shifted to higher gas superficial velocity due to a dominant surface tension effect as the channel size was reduced. The regime maps presented by other authors for minichannels were found to not be applicable for microchannels. Time-averaged void fractions were measured by analyzing 8000 high speed video images for each flow condition. The void fractions hold a nonlinear relationship with the homogeneous void fraction as opposed to the relatively linear trend for the minichannels. A new correlation was developed to predict the nonlinear relationship that fits most of the current experimental data and those of the 0.1mm diameter tube reported by Kawahara et al. [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 28, 1411 (2002)] within ±15%.

  12. Surface Patterning: Controlling Fluid Flow Through Dolphin and Shark Skin Biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Lawren; Lang, Amy; Bradshaw, Michael; McVay, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Dolphin skin is characterized by circumferential ridges, perpendicular to fluid flow, present from the crest of the head until the tail fluke. When observing a cross section of skin, the ridges have a sinusoidal pattern. Sinusoidal grooves have been proven to induce vortices in the cavities that can help control flow separation which can reduce pressure drag. Shark skin, however, is patterned with flexible scales that bristle up to 50 degrees with reversed flow. Both dolphin ridges and shark scales are thought to help control fluid flow and increase swimming efficiency by delaying the separation of the boundary layer. This study investigates how flow characteristics can be altered with bio-inspired surface patterning. A NACA 4412 hydrofoil was entirely patterned with transverse sinusoidal grooves, inspired by dolphin skin but scaled so the cavities on the model have the same Reynolds number as the cavities on a swimming shark. Static tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 100,000 and at varying angles of attack. The results were compared to the smooth hydrofoil case. The flow data was quantified using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The results of this study demonstrated that the patterned hydrofoil experienced greater separation than the smooth hydrofoil. It is hypothesize that this could be remediated if the pattern was placed only after the maximum thickness of the hydrofoil. Funding through NSF REU grant 1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Nitrogen transformations in wetlands: Effects of water flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, T.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis, I have studied nitrogen turnover processes in water meadows. A water meadow is a wetland where water infiltrates through the soil of a grassland field. It is hypothesized that infiltration of water through the soil matrix promotes nutrient transformations compared to surface flow of water, by increasing the contact between water, nutrients, soil organic matter and bacteria. I have studied how the balance between nitrogen removal (denitrification, assimilative uptake, adsorption) and release (mineralization, desorption) processes are affected by water flow characteristics. Mass balance studies and direct denitrification measurements at two field sites showed that, although denitrification was high, net nitrogen removal in the water meadows was poor. This was due to release of ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from the soils. In laboratory studies, using {sup 15}N isotope techniques, I have shown that nitrogen turnover is considerably affected by hydrological conditions and by soil type. Infiltration increased virtually all the nitrogen processes, due to deeper penetration of nitrate and oxygen, and extended zones of turnover processes. On the contrary, soils and sediments with surface water flow, diffusion is the main transfer mechanism. The relation between release and removal processes sometimes resulted in shifts towards net nitrogen production. This occurred in infiltration treatments when ammonium efflux was high in relation to denitrification. It was concluded that ammonium and DON was of soil origin and hence not a product of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. Both denitrification potential and mineralization rates were higher in peaty than in sandy soil. Vertical or horizontal subsurface flow is substantial in many wetland types, such as riparian zones, tidal salt marshes, fens, root-zone systems and water meadows. Moreover, any environment where aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems meet, and where water level fluctuates

  14. Aggregation pattern transitions by slightly varying the attractive/repulsive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Cheng

    Full Text Available Among collective behaviors of biological swarms and flocks, the attractive/repulsive (A/R functional links between particles play an important role. By slightly changing the cutoff distance of the A/R function, a drastic transition between two distinct aggregation patterns is observed. More precisely, a large cutoff distance yields a liquid-like aggregation pattern where the particle density decreases monotonously from the inside to the outwards within each aggregated cluster. Conversely, a small cutoff distance produces a crystal-like aggregation pattern where the distance between each pair of neighboring particles remains constant. Significantly, there is an obvious spinodal in the variance curve of the inter-particle distances along the increasing cutoff distances, implying a legible transition pattern between the liquid-like and crystal-like aggregations. This work bridges the aggregation phenomena of physical particles and swarming of organisms in nature upon revealing some common mechanism behind them by slightly varying their inter-individual attractive/repulsive functions, and may find its potential engineering applications, for example, in the formation design of multi-robot systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  15. Numerical analysis of respiratory flow patterns within human upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Gao, Fei

    2009-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study the respiratory airflow dynamics within a human upper airway. The airway model which consists of the airway from nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to triple bifurcation is built based on the CT images of a healthy volunteer and the Weibel model. The flow characteristics of the whole upper airway are quantitatively described at any time level of respiratory cycle. Simulation results of respiratory flow show good agreement with the clinical measures, experimental and computational results in the literature. The air mainly passes through the floor of the nasal cavity in the common, middle and inferior nasal meatus. The higher airway resistance and wall shear stresses are distributed on the posterior nasal valve. Although the airways of pharynx, larynx and bronchi experience low shear stresses, it is notable that relatively high shear stresses are distributed on the wall of epiglottis and bronchial bifurcations. Besides, two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models of normal and abnormal airways are built to discuss the flow-induced deformation in various anatomy models. The result shows that the wall deformation in normal airway is relatively small.

  16. Secondary Flow Patterns of Liquid Ejector with Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kwisung; Yun, Jinwon; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Inseok [COAVIS, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongkyo [Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    An ejector is a type of non-powered pump that is used to supply a secondary flow via the ejection of a primary flow. It is utilized in many industrial fields, and is used for fueling the vehicle because of less failures and simple structure. Since most of ejectors in industry are gas-to-gas and liquid to gas ejector, many research activities have been reported in optimization of gas ejector. On the other hand, the liquid ejector is also applied in many industry but few research has been reported. The liquid ejector occurs cavitation, and it causes damage of parts. Cavitation has bees observed at the nozzle throat at the specified pressure. In this study, a two-dimensional axisymmetric simulation of a liquid-liquid ejector was carried out using five different parameters. The angle of the nozzle plays an important role in the cavitation of a liquid ejector, and the performance characteristics of the flow ratio showed that an angle of 35° was the most advantageous. The simulation results showed that the performance of the liquid ejector and the cavitation effect have to be considered simultaneously.

  17. A Favré averaged transition prediction model for hypersonic flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE; ChunHian

    2010-01-01

    Transition prediction is crucial for aerothermodynamic and thermal protection system design of hypersonic vehicles.The compressible form of laminar kinetic energy equation is derived based on Favréaverage formality in the present paper.A closure of the equation is deduced and simplified under certain hypotheses and scaling analysis.A laminar-to-turbulent transition prediction procedure is proposed for high Mach number flows based on the modeled Favré-averaged laminar kinetic energy equation,in conjunction with the Favré-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.The proposed model,with and without associated explicit compressibility terms,is then applied to simulate flows over flared-cones with a free-stream Mach number of 5.91,and the onset locations of the boundary layer transition under different wall conditions are estimated.The computed onset locations are compared with those obtained by the model based on a compressibility correction deduced from the reference-temperature concept,together with experimental data.It is revealed that the present model gives a more favorable transition prediction for hypersonic flows.

  18. Modelling flow transition in a hypersonic boundary layer with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; FU Song

    2009-01-01

    Based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach, a laminar-turbulence transition model is proposed in this study that takes into account the effects of different instability modes associated with the variations in Mach numbers of compressible boundary layer flows. The model is based on k-ω-γ three-equation eddy-viscosity concept with k representing the fluctuating kinetic energy, ωthe specific dissipation rate and the intermittency factor γ.The particular features of the model are that: 1) k includes the non-turbulent, as well as turbulent fluctuations; 2) a transport equation for the intermittency factor γis proposed here with a source term set to trigger the transition onset; 3) through the introduction of a new length scale normal to wall, the present model employs the local variables only avoiding the use of the integral parameters, like the boundary layer thickness δ,which are often cost-ineffective with the modern CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods; 4) in the fully turbulent region, the model retreats to the well-known k-ωSST (Shear Stress Transport) model. This model is validated with a number of available experiments on boundary layer transitions including the incompressible, supersonic and hypersonic flows past flat plates, straight/flared cones at zero incidences, etc. It is demonstrated that the present model can be successfully applied to the engineering calculations of a variety of aerodynamic flow transition.

  19. Modelling flow transition in a hypersonic boundary layer with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach,a laminar-turbulence transition model is proposed in this study that takes into account the effects of different instability modes associated with the variations in Mach numbers of compressible boundary layer flows.The model is based on k-ω-γ three-equation eddy-viscosity concept with k representing the fluctuating kinetic energy,ωthe specific dissipation rate and the intermittency factorγ.The particular features of the model are that:1)k includes the non-turbulent,as well as turbulent fluctuations;2)a transport equation for the intermittency factorγis proposed here with a source term set to trigger the transition onset;3)through the introduction of a new length scale normal to wall,the present model employs the local variables only avoiding the use of the integral parameters,like the boundary layer thicknessδ,which are often cost-ineffective with the modern CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics)methods;4)in the fully turbulent region,the model retreats to the well-known k-ωSST(Shear Stress Transport)model.This model is validated with a number of available experiments on boundary layer transitions including the incompressible,supersonic and hypersonic flows past flat plates,straight/flared cones at zero incidences,etc.It is demonstrated that the present model can be successfully applied to the engineering calculations of a variety of aerodynamic flow transition.

  20. Effects of Orifice Orientation and Gas-Liquid Flow Pattern on Initial Bubble Size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长军; 梁斌; 唐盛伟; 闵恩泽

    2013-01-01

    In many gas-liquid processes, the initial bubble size is determined by a series of operation parameters along with the sparger design and gas-liquid flow pattern. Bubble formation models for variant gas-liquid flow pat-terns have been developed based on force balance. The effects of the orientation of gas-liquid flow, gas velocity, liquid velocity and orifice diameter on the initial bubble size have been clarified. In ambient air-water system, the suitable gas-liquid flow pattern is important to obtain smaller bubbles under the low velocity liquid cross-flow con-ditions with stainless steel spargers. Among the four types of gas-liquid flow patterns discussed, the horizontal orifice in a vertically upward liquid flow produces the smallest initial bubbles. However the orientation effects of gas and liquid flow are found to be insignificant when liquid velocity is higher than 3.2 m·s-1 or the orifice diameter is small enough.

  1. Liquid interfaces in viscous straining flows: Numerical studies of the selective withdrawal transition

    CERN Document Server

    Berkenbusch, M K; Berkenbusch, Marko Kleine; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2005-01-01

    In selective withdrawal, the interface between two liquid layers is deformed by an imposed withdrawal flow. A shape transition occurs at a threshold flow rate that changes the topology of the interface from a steady-state hump to an entrained spout. Near the transition a very sharp hump tip occurs, with the minimum tip radius far smaller than the characteristic lateral length-scale. Previous measurements [Cohen and Nagel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 2002] suggest the sharp hump is created via an approach towards a singular steady-state shape which is cut off at a small lengthscale. To help unfold the mechanism underlying the shape transition and to determine the origin of the cutoff lengthscale, we construct a numerical model and compare its results against experimental measurements. The increased resolution in the simulation enables us to identify the shape transition both in the experiment and the numerics as a saddle-node bifurcation. The transition does not involve an approach towards a singular shape as the hum...

  2. Annular multiphase flow behavior during deep water drilling and the effect of hydrate phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiyuan; Sun Baojiang

    2009-01-01

    It is very important to understand the annular multiphase flow behavior and the effect of hydrate phase transition during deep water drilling. The basic hydrodynamic models, including mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, were established for annular flow with gas hydrate phase transition during gas kick. The behavior of annular multiphase flow with hydrate phase transition was investigated by analyzing the hydrate-forming region, the gas fraction in the fluid flowing in the annulus, pit gain, bottom hole pressure, and shut-in casing pressure. The simulation shows that it is possible to move the hydrate-forming region away from sea floor by increasing the circulation rate. The decrease in gas volume fraction in the annulus due to hydrate formation reduces pit gain, which can delay the detection of well kick and increase the risk of hydrate plugging in lines. Caution is needed when a well is monitored for gas kick at a relatively low gas production rate, because the possibility of hydrate presence is much greater than that at a relatively high production rate. The shut-in casing pressure cannot reflect the gas kick due to hydrate formation, which increases with time.

  3. The Effect of Confluence Angle on the Flow Pattern at a Rectangular Open-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rooniyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow connection in channels is a phenomenon which frequently happens in rivers, water and drainage channels and urban sewage systems. The phenomenon appears to be more complex in rivers than in channels, especially at the y-junction bed joint that causes erosion and sedimentation at some areas resulting to morphological changes. Flow behavior at the channel junction area depends on variables such as channel geometry, discharge ratio, tributary width and y-junction connection angle of the channel, bed level changes at the bed joint, flow characteristic at the bed joint upstream and flow Froude number in different sections. In this research, fluent numerical model and junction angles of 30o, 45o & 60o are used to analyze and evaluate the effect of channel junction geometry on the flow pattern and the flow separation zone dimensions in different ratios of flow discharge (upstream channel discharge to total discharge of the flow. Results for two ratios of flow discharge are represented. Results are in agreement with earlier studies and it is shown that the change of the channel crossing angle affects the flow pattern in the main channel and also that the dimensions of the created separation zone in the main channel become larger when the crossing angle increases. This phenomenon can also be observed when the flow discharge ratio is lower. Analysis showed that the least dimension of the separation zone will be at the crossing angle of 45o .

  4. Differential Transform Method for Mathematical Modeling of Jamming Transition Problem in Traffic Congestion Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we aim to find an analytical solution for jamming transition in traffic flow. Generally the Jamming Transition Problem (JTP) can be modeled via Lorentz system. So, in this way, the governing differential equation achieved is modeled in the form of a nonlinear damped oscillator....... In current research the authors utilized the Differential Transformation Method (DTM) for solving the nonlinear problem and compared the analytical results with those ones obtained by the 4th order Runge-Kutta Method (RK4) as a numerical method. Further illustration embedded in this paper shows the ability...... of DTM in solving nonlinear problems when a so accurate solution is required....

  5. Stability of Multidimensional Phase Transitions in a Steady van der Waals Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyi ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the author studies the multidimensional stability of subsonic phase transitions in a steady supersonic flow of van der Waals type.The viscosity capillarity criterion (in "Arch.Rat.Mech.Anal.,81(4),1983,301-315") is used to seek physical admissible planar waves.By showing the Lopatinski determinant being non-zero,it is proved that subsonic phase transitions are uniformly stable in the sense of Majda (in "Mem.Amer.Math.Soc.,41(275),1983,1-95") under both one dimensional and multidimensional perturbations.

  6. MOLECULAR WEIGHT DEPENDENCE OF CRYSTAL PATTERN TRANSITIONS OF POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-liang Zhang; Liu-xin Jin; Ping Zheng; Wei Wang; Xiao-jing Wen

    2013-01-01

    Crystal patterns in ultrathin films of six poly(ethylene oxide) fractions with molecular weights from 25000 to 932000 g/mol were characterized within crystallization temperature range from 20 ℃ to 60 ℃.Labyrinthine,dendritic and faceted crystal patterns were observed in different temperature ranges,and then labyrinthine-to-dendritic and dendritic-tofaceted transition temperatures TL-D and TD-F were quantitatively identified.Their molecular weight dependences are TL-D(Mw) =TL-D(∞)-KL-D/Mw,where TL-D(∞) =38.2 ℃ and KL-D =253000 ℃·g/mol and TD-F(Mw) =TD-F(∞)-KD-F/Mw,where TD-F(∞) =54.7 ℃ and KD-F =27000 ℃·g/mol.Quasi two-dimensional blob models were proposed to provide empirical explanations of the molecular weight dependences.The labyrinthine-to-dendritic transition is attributed to a molecular diffusion process change from a local-diffusion to diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) and a polymer chain with Mw ≈ 253000 g/mol within a blob can join crystals independently.The dendritic-to-faceted transition is attributed to a turnover of the pattern formation mechanism from DLA to crystallization control,and a polymer chain with a Mw ≈ 27000g/mol as an independent blob crosses to a depletion zone to join crystals.These molecular weight dependences reveal a macromolecular effect on the crystal pattern formation and selection of crystalline polymers.

  7. DSMC computations of hypersonic flow separation and re-attachment in the transition to continuum regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ram; Gai, Sudhir L.; O'Byrne, Sean; Brown, Melrose

    2016-11-01

    The flow over a `tick' shaped configuration is performed using two Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes: the DS2V code of Bird and the code from Sandia National Laboratory, called SPARTA. The configuration creates a flow field, where the flow is expanded initially but then is affected by the adverse pressure gradient induced by a compression surface. The flow field is challenging in the sense that the full flow domain is comprised of localized areas spanning continuum and transitional regimes. The present work focuses on the capability of SPARTA to model such flow conditions and also towards a comparative evaluation with results from DS2V. An extensive grid adaptation study is performed using both the codes on a model with a sharp leading edge and the converged results are then compared. The computational predictions are evaluated in terms of surface parameters such as heat flux, shear stress, pressure and velocity slip. SPARTA consistently predicts higher values for these surface properties. The skin friction predictions of both the codes don't give any indication of separation but the velocity slip plots indicate an incipient separation behavior at the corner. The differences in the results are attributed towards the flow resolution at the leading edge that dictates the downstream flow characteristics.

  8. Assessment of spatial flow patterns in unsaturated sandy alluvial sediments using high- resolution GPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarder, E. B.; Looms, M. C.; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Traditional sampling and monitoring techniques have inherent limitations in capturing the detailed spatial patterns of water flow in the unsaturated zone particularly for complex flow conditions such as unstable wetting fronts or preferential flow. Dye tracer experiments can help visualise the dynamics of water flow but they are highly destructive as well. High-resolution Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an attractive technique for non-destructive mapping of soil moisture changes and thus flow patterns in the shallow subsurface. In this study we test the method at a field site in western Denmark developed on a sandy alluvial outwash plane. We compare high-resolution reflection GPR data with visual observations from a dye tracer experiment using Brilliant Blue (BB). 100 mm of BB-stained water was infiltrated over a 5x5 m area and 3D reflection GPR data sets using high-frequency antennae were collected before and after infiltration. Subsequently a 2 m deep trench was excavated for visual observations of the flow patterns in a cross-section as evidenced by the dye staining patterns. The dye infiltration experiment had an overall attenuating effect on the GPR signal, and reflections were delayed significantly because of the increase in soil moisture. In the excavated cross-section we found a reasonable agreement between the areas subject to attenuation of the GPR signal and the areas affected by dye. Also, we found that displacement flow was responsible for a delay of deeper reflections below the extend of the dye staining. An amplitude analysis performed for a shallow 1.3 m thick section shows a general decrease in electromagnetic wave amplitude within the region bounded by the area exposed to infiltration, but also suggests that lateral flow along sedimentary boundaries occurs. The results suggest that high-resolution GPR provides important insight into the spatial patterns of unsaturated flow and highlight the applicability of this method as a non-destructive means

  9. Flow patterns on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography reveal flow directions at retinal vessel bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Q; Munch, Inger C

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study intravascular characteristics of flowing blood in retinal vessels using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Examination of selected arterial bifurcations and venous sites of confluence in 25 healthy 11-year-old children recruited as an ad hoc subsample...... be determined using SD-OCT. This feature may assist the identification of flow reversal near sites of vascular occlusion, the analysis of blood flow near vascular malformations and the segmentation of retinal SD-OCT images....

  10. Lattice Boltzmann Simulations in the Slip and Transition Flow Regime with the Peano Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    We present simulation results of flows in the finite Knudsen range, which is in the slip and transition flow regime. Our implementations are based on the Lattice Boltzmann method and are accomplished within the Peano framework. We validate our code by solving two- and three-dimensional channel flow problems and compare our results with respective experiments from other research groups. We further apply our Lattice Boltzmann solver to the geometrical setup of a microreactor consisting of differently sized channels and a reactor chamber. Here, we apply static adaptive grids to fur-ther reduce computational costs. We further investigate the influence of using a simple BGK collision kernel in coarse grid regions which are further away from the slip boundaries. Our results are in good agreement with theory and non-adaptive simulations, demonstrating the validity and the capabilities of our adaptive simulation software for flow problems at finite Knudsen numbers.

  11. Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flow in Slip and Transitional Regimes by the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM based simulation of microscale flow has been carried out, for various values of Knudsen number. The details in determining the parameters critical for LBM applications in microscale flow are provided. Pressure distributions in the slip flow regime are compared with the analytical solution based on the Navier-Stokes equationwith slip-velocity boundary condition. Satisfactory agreements have been achieved. Simulations are then extended to transition regime (Kn = 0.15 and compared with the same analytical solution. The results show some deviation from the analytical solution due to the breakdown of continuum assumption. From this study, we may conclude that the lattice Boltzmann method is an efficient approach for simulation of microscale flow.

  12. Transitions between Multiband Oscillatory Patterns Characterize Memory-Guided Perceptual Decisions in Prefrontal Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Klaus; Ramon, Marc; Pasternak, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) reflects the structure and cognitive demands of memory-guided sensory discrimination tasks. However, we still do not know how neuronal activity articulates in network states involved in perceiving, remembering, and comparing sensory information during such tasks. Oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs) provide fingerprints of such network dynamics. Here, we examined LFPs recorded from LPFC of macaques while they compared the directions or the speeds of two moving random-dot patterns, S1 and S2, separated by a delay. LFP activity in the theta, beta, and gamma bands tracked consecutive components of the task. In response to motion stimuli, LFP theta and gamma power increased, and beta power decreased, but showed only weak motion selectivity. In the delay, LFP beta power modulation anticipated the onset of S2 and encoded the task-relevant S1 feature, suggesting network dynamics associated with memory maintenance. After S2 onset the difference between the current stimulus S2 and the remembered S1 was strongly reflected in broadband LFP activity, with an early sensory-related component proportional to stimulus difference and a later choice-related component reflecting the behavioral decision buildup. Our results demonstrate that individual LFP bands reflect both sensory and cognitive processes engaged independently during different stages of the task. This activation pattern suggests that during elementary cognitive tasks, the prefrontal network transitions dynamically between states and that these transitions are characterized by the conjunction of LFP rhythms rather than by single LFP bands. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons in the brain communicate through electrical impulses and coordinate this activity in ensembles that pulsate rhythmically, very much like musical instruments in an orchestra. These rhythms change with “brain state,” from sleep to waking, but also signal with different oscillation

  13. Effect of intermolecular potential on compressible Couette flow in slip and transitional regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew B.; Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of intermolecular potentials on compressible, planar flow in slip and transitional regimes is investigated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Two intermolecular interaction models, the variable hard sphere (VHS) and the Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, are first compared for subsonic and supersonic Couette flows of argon at temperatures of 40, 273, and 1,000 K, and then for Couette flows in the transitional regime ranging from Knudsen numbers (Kn) of 0.0051 to 1. The binary scattering model for elastic scattering using the Lennard-Jones (LJ) intermolecular potential proposed recently [A. Venkattraman and A. Alexeenko, "Binary scattering model for Lennard-Jones potential: Transport coefficients and collision integrals for non-equilibrium gas flow simulations," Phys. Fluids 24, 027101 (2012)] is shown to accurately reproduce both the theoretical collision frequency in an equilibrium gas as well as the theoretical viscosity variation with temperature. The use of a repulsive-attractive instead of a purely repulsive potential is found to be most important in the continuum and slip regimes as well as in flows with large temperature variations. Differences in shear stress of up to 28% between the VHS and LJ models is observed at Kn=0.0051 and is attributed to differences in collision frequencies, ultimately affecting velocity gradients at the wall. For Kn=1 where the Knudsen layer expands the entire domain, the effect of the larger collision frequency in the LJ model relative to VHS diminishes, and a 7% difference in shear stress is observed.

  14. Connection between full-lifetime and breakdown of puffs in transitional pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Mina; Ertunç, Özgür; Delgado, Antonio

    Puff splitting was studied by direct measurement of the full-lifetime (LT full ) of transitional structures (puffs) in low Reynolds number pipe flows. During the investigations, a fully developed laminar pipe flow was triggered by an iris diaphragm with pre-defined amplitude and lapse time and the evolution of puffs was monitored by the transients of pressure drop along the pipe and the hot wire anemometry at the pipe exit. Those complementary measurements showed that a single puff favors to breakdown into two or more (splitting) puffs and later into slug-like puffs at Re ≈ 2300, where they are expected to have infinite LT full .

  15. Mapping Reactive Flow Patterns in Monolithic Nanoporous Catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Falcucci, Giacomo; Montessori, Andrea; Melchionna, Simone; Prestininzi, Pietro; Barroo, Cedric; Bell, David C; Biener, Monika M; Biener, Juergen; Zugic, Branko; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-efficiency porous catalyst membranes critically depends on our understanding of where the majority of the chemical conversions occur within the porous structure. This requires mapping of chemical reactions and mass transport inside the complex nano-scale architecture of porous catalyst membranes which is a multiscale problem in both the temporal and spatial domain. To address this problem, we developed a multi-scale mass transport computational framework based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) that allows us to account for catalytic reactions at the gas-solid interface by introducing a new boundary condition. In good agreement with experiments, the simulations reveal that most catalytic reactions occur near the gas-flow facing side of the catalyst membrane if chemical reactions are fast compared to mass transport within the porous catalyst membrane.

  16. A quiet flow Ludwieg tube for study of transition in compressible boundary layers: Design and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    Laminar-turbulent transition in high speed boundary layers is a complicated problem which is still poorly understood, partly because of experimental ambiguities caused by operating in noisy wind tunnels. The NASA Langley experience with quiet tunnel design has been used to design a quiet flow tunnel which can be constructed less expensively. Fabrication techniques have been investigated, and inviscid, boundary layer, and stability computer codes have been adapted for use in the nozzle design. Construction of such a facility seems feasible, at a reasonable cost. Two facilities have been proposed: a large one, with a quiet flow region large enough to study the end of transition, and a smaller and less expensive one, capable of studying low Reynolds number issues such as receptivity. Funding for either facility remains to be obtained, although key facility elements have been obtained and are being integrated into the existing Purdue supersonic facilities.

  17. DNS Study for the origin of the flow Randomization in Late Boundary Layer Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Thapa, Manoj; Liu, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of the origin and mechanism of randomization in late boundary layer transition over a flat plate without pressure gradient. The flow randomization is a crucial phase before flow transition to the turbulent state. According to existing literatures, the randomization was caused by the big background noises and non-periodic spanwise boundary conditions. It was assumed that the large ring structure is affected by background noises first, and then the change of large ring structure affects the small length scales quickly, which directly leads to randomization and formation of turbulence. However, by careful analysis of our high order DNS results, we believe that the internal instability of multiple ring cycles structure is the main reason. What we observed is that randomization begins when the third cycle overlaps the first and second cycles. A significant asymmetric phenomenon is originated from the second cycle in the middle of both streamwise and spanwise directions. M...

  18. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of Flow Patterns and Film Thickness in a Thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingtao LI; Qi CHEN; Xiangyuan DONG; Shi LIU

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the suitability of using an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system to visualize the flow patterns, and to measure the film thickness of the annular flow in a two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT). The performance of the ECT system was examined over a range of flow conditions.The experimental data were compared with the visual observations and existing correlations. Results indicated that the ECT system, with the linear back projection (LBP) algorithm, could be used to give an on-line qualitative image of the flow patterns. The Landweber iteration algorithm with optimal step length was implemented off-line to reconstruct high-resolution images. Then, the images were analyzed to obtain the film thickness of the annular flow. The experimental data compared well with the Nusselt's equation in low vapor velocity range, but showed an increasing deficiency with the increase of vapor velocity.

  19. Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.

  20. Self-organization of stress patterns drives state transitions in actin cortices

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Tzer Han; Abu-Shah, Enas; Li, Junang; Sharma, Abhinav; MacKintosh, Fred C; Keren, Kinneret; Schmidt, Christoph F; Fakhri, Nikta

    2016-01-01

    Biological functions rely on ordered structures and intricately controlled collective dynamics. In contrast to systems in thermodynamic equilibrium, order is typically established and sustained in stationary states by continuous dissipation of energy. Non-equilibrium dynamics is a necessary condition to make the systems highly susceptible to signals that cause transitions between different states. How cellular processes self-organize under this general principle is not fully understood. Here, we find that model actomyosin cortices, in the presence of rapid turnover, display distinct steady states, each distinguished by characteristic order and dynamics as a function of network connectivity. The different states arise from a subtle interaction between mechanical percolation of the actin network and myosin-generated stresses. Remarkably, myosin motors generate actin architectures, which in turn, force the emergence of ordered stress patterns. Reminiscent of second order phase transitions, the emergence of order...

  1. Dietary transition, nutritional and health outcomes, and changing agrifood production and trade patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan

    Rapid income growth and urbanization in China has triggered a dietary transition towards more animal based products such as meats and dairy products. This transition has already had significant impacts on nutritional and health outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to assess the nutritional and ...... will be captured in this case, the welfare cost of an alternative diet will then be fully accounted for....... of major agricultural and food products. Taking advantages of recent methodological advances in building calorie and other nutrition data sourced from the FAO into the GTAP model and database, we further represent current and predicted dietary patterns for China in a baseline projection. The projected...... efficiency and welfare consequences. Realizing that changing dietary trends are likely to be costly, in a more refined scenario, we consider public policy options to influence consumer choices for purposes of reaching a given alternative diet target. Since the costs of the policy intervention...

  2. Convective thermal fluxes in unsteady non-homogeneous flows generating complex three dimensional vorticity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Jesu Mary

    2016-04-01

    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form convective driven mixing. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2, 3]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Rayleigh and Atwood numbers and compare the scaling and the multifractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the non-homogeneous. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overall turbulent process is evaluated [4 - 6]. Diffusion is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of Thermoelectric generated heating and cooling [2, 4]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by a buoyant heat flux either in the base or in a side wall of the convective enclosure [1, 6]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine or sugar solutions and fresh water in order to form a density interface and low Prandtl number mixing with only temperature gradients [7]. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [8, 9]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using salt or sugar solutions and

  3. An analysis of microcirculatory flow heterogeneity using measurements of transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarelius, I H

    1990-07-01

    Heterogeneity of blood flow distribution was measured in capillary networks in cremaster muscles of anesthetized Golden hamsters (nembutal, 70 mg/kg, ip). The relative dispersion of Q/PS, where Q is blood flow, P is permeability, and S is exchange surface area, was estimated; in microvascular terms (and assuming uniform permeability) this ratio reduces to vr/l, where v is plasma velocity, r is vessel radius, and l is vessel length, and where v/l = 1/T, where T is transit time. Distributions of 1/T across complete capillary networks significantly increased in relative dispersion from 68.2 to 97.8% during hyperemia, suggesting an increase in flow heterogeneity with increased inflow. In contrast, relative dispersion of 1/T did not change significantly from rest (72.0%) to hyperemia (66.1%) in capillary segments sampled randomly across the tissue. Other microvascular indices of flow (velocity, cell content) did not reflect the changes in relative flow dispersion shown by the changes in 1/T. The analysis demonstrates that estimates of flow heterogeneity are sensitive both to the selection of an appropriate flow variable and to the manner in which this variable is sampled in the capillary bed.

  4. Characterization of Transition to Turbulence for Blood in a Straight Pipe Under Steady Flow Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dipankar; Casey, David M; Crowder, Douglas C; Steinman, David A; Yun, Yang H; Loth, Francis

    2016-07-01

    Blood is a complex fluid that, among other things, has been established to behave as a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid when exposed to low shear rates (SR). Many hemodynamic investigations use a Newtonian fluid to represent blood when the flow field of study has relatively high SR (>200 s-1). Shear thinning fluids have been shown to exhibit differences in transition to turbulence (TT) compared to that of Newtonian fluids. Incorrect prediction of the transition point in a simulation could result in erroneous hemodynamic force predictions. The goal of the present study was to compare velocity profiles near TT of whole blood and Newtonian blood analogs in a straight rigid pipe with a diameter 6.35 mm under steady flow conditions. Rheology was measured for six samples of whole porcine blood and three samples of a Newtonian fluid, and the results show blood acts as a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Measurements also revealed that blood viscosity at SR = 200 s-1 is significantly larger than at SR = 1000 s-1 (13.8%, p velocity profiles for blood and Newtonian samples at different flow rates to produce Reynolds numbers (Re) ranging from 1000 to 3300 (based on viscosity at SR = 1000 s-1). Two mathematically defined methods, based on the velocity profile shape change and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), were used to detect TT. Results show similar parabolic velocity profiles for both blood and the Newtonian fluid for Re velocity profiles for larger Re. The Newtonian fluid had blunt-like velocity profiles starting at Re = 2403 ± 8 which indicated transition. In contrast, blood did not show this velocity profile change until Re = 2871 ± 104. The Newtonian fluid had large velocity fluctuations (root mean square (RMS) > 20%) with a maximum TKE near the pipe center at Re = 2316 ± 34 which indicated transition. In contrast, blood results showed the maximum TKE at Re = 2806 ± 109. Overall, the critical Re was

  5. Influence of flow patterns on chromatographic efficiency in centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, L; Foucaul, A; Patissier, G; Rosant, J M; Legrand, J

    2000-02-11

    Visualization of flow patterns in centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was performed with an asynchronous camera and a stroboscope triggered by the CPC rotor, allowing a channel to be selected and observed regardless of rotational speed. Three main types of flow states were noted as a function of rotational speed and flow-rate: jets stuck along channel walls, broken jets and atomization. Our observations emphasize the importance of Coriolis force on flow shape. Chromatographic efficiency was related to the dispersion of the mobile phase in the stationary phase.

  6. Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow Pattern in an Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor with Micro Tip Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojuan Geng; Hongwu Zhang; Jingyi Chen; Weiguang Huang

    2007-01-01

    A numerical study of the effect of discrete micro tip injection on unsteady tip clearance flow pattern in an isolated axial compressor rotor is presented, intending to better understand the flow mechanism behind stall control measures that act on tip clearance flow. Under the influence of injection the unsteadiness of self-induced tip clearance flow could be weakened. Also the radial migration of tip clearance vortex is confined to a smaller radial extent near the rotor tip and the trajectory of tip clearance flow is pushed more downstream. So the injection is beneficial to improve compressor stability and increase static pressure rise near rotor tip region. The results of injection with different injected mass flow rates show that for the special type of injector adopted in the paper the effect of injection on tip clearance flow may be different according to the relative strength between these two streams of flow. For a fixed injected mass flow rate, reducing the injector area to increase injection velocity can improve the effect of injection on tip clearance flow and thus the compressor stability. A comparison of calculations between single blade passage and multiple blade passages validates the utility of single passage computations to investigate the tip clearance flow for the case without injection and its interaction with injected flow for the case with tip injection.

  7. Effects of rainfall patterns and land cover on the subsurface flow generation of sloping Ferralsols in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian; Yang, Jie; Tang, Chongjun; Chen, Lihua; Liu, Yaojun; Wang, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall patterns and land cover are two important factors that affect the runoff generation process. To determine the surface and subsurface flows associated with different rainfall patterns on sloping Ferralsols under different land cover types, observational data related to surface and subsurface flows from 5 m × 15 m plots were collected from 2010 to 2012. The experiment was conducted to assess three land cover types (grass, litter cover and bare land) in the Jiangxi Provincial Soil and Water Conservation Ecological Park. During the study period, 114 natural rainfall events produced subsurface flow and were divided into four groups using k-means clustering according to rainfall duration, rainfall depth and maximum 30-min rainfall intensity. The results showed that the total runoff and surface flow values were highest for bare land under all four rainfall patterns and lowest for the covered plots. However, covered plots generated higher subsurface flow values than bare land. Moreover, the surface and subsurface flows associated with the three land cover types differed significantly under different rainfall patterns. Rainfall patterns with low intensities and long durations created more subsurface flow in the grass and litter cover types, whereas rainfall patterns with high intensities and short durations resulted in greater surface flow over bare land. Rainfall pattern I had the highest surface and subsurface flow values for the grass cover and litter cover types. The highest surface flow value and lowest subsurface flow value for bare land occurred under rainfall pattern IV. Rainfall pattern II generated the highest subsurface flow value for bare land. Therefore, grass or litter cover are able to convert more surface flow into subsurface flow under different rainfall patterns. The rainfall patterns studied had greater effects on subsurface flow than on total runoff and surface flow for covered surfaces, as well as a greater effect on surface flows associated

  8. Analysis of Phase Transition in Traffic Flow based on a New Model of Driving Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Shang, Hua-Yan; Lu, Hua-Pu

    2011-07-01

    Different driving decisions will cause different processes of phase transition in traffic flow. To reveal the inner mechanism, this paper built a new cellular automaton (CA) model, based on the driving decision (DD). In the DD model, a driver's decision is divided into three stages: decision-making, action, and result. The acceleration is taken as a decision variable and three core factors, i.e. distance between adjacent vehicles, their own velocity, and the preceding vehicle's velocity, are considered. Simulation results show that the DD model can simulate the synchronized flow effectively and describe the phase transition in traffic flow well. Further analyses illustrate that various density will cause the phase transition and the random probability will impact the process. Compared with the traditional NaSch model, the DD model considered the preceding vehicle's velocity, the deceleration limitation, and a safe distance, so it can depict closer to the driver preferences on pursuing safety, stability and fuel-saving and has strong theoretical innovation for future studies.

  9. Analysis of Phase Transition in Traffic Flow based on a New Model of Driving Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu; SHANG Hua-Yan; LU Hua-Pu

    2011-01-01

    Different driving decisions will cause different processes of phase transition in traffic flow. To reveal the inner mechanism, this paper built a new cellular automaton (CA) model, based on the driving decision (DD). In the DD model, a driver's decision is divided into three stages: decision-making, action, and result. The acceleration is taken as a decision variable and three core factors, i.e. distance between adjacent vehicles, their own velocity, and the preceding vehicle's velocity, are considered. Simulation results show that the DD model can simulate the synchronized flow effectively and describe the phase transition in traffic flow well. Further analyses illustrate that various density will cause the phase transition and the random probability will impact the process. Compared with the traditional NaSch model, the DD model considered the preceding vehicle's velocity, the deceleration limitation, and a safe distance, so it can depict closer to the driver preferences on pursuing safety, stability and fuel-saving and has strong theoretical innovation for future studies.

  10. Subcritical transition scenarios via linear and nonlinear localized optimal perturbations in plane Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farano, Mirko; Cherubini, Stefania; Robinet, Jean-Christophe; De Palma, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille flow is investigated by means of a Lagrange-multiplier direct-adjoint optimization procedure with the aim of finding localized three-dimensional perturbations optimally growing in a given time interval (target time). Space localization of these optimal perturbations (OPs) is achieved by choosing as objective function either a p-norm (with p\\gg 1) of the perturbation energy density in a linear framework; or the classical (1-norm) perturbation energy, including nonlinear effects. This work aims at analyzing the structure of linear and nonlinear localized OPs for Poiseuille flow, and comparing their transition thresholds and scenarios. The nonlinear optimization approach provides three types of solutions: a weakly nonlinear, a hairpin-like and a highly nonlinear optimal perturbation, depending on the value of the initial energy and the target time. The former shows localization only in the wall-normal direction, whereas the latter appears much more localized and breaks the spanwise symmetry found at lower target times. Both solutions show spanwise inclined vortices and large values of the streamwise component of velocity already at the initial time. On the other hand, p-norm optimal perturbations, although being strongly localized in space, keep a shape similar to linear 1-norm optimal perturbations, showing streamwise-aligned vortices characterized by low values of the streamwise velocity component. When used for initializing direct numerical simulations, in most of the cases nonlinear OPs provide the most efficient route to transition in terms of time to transition and initial energy, even when they are less localized in space than the p-norm OP. The p-norm OP follows a transition path similar to the oblique transition scenario, with slightly oscillating streaks which saturate and eventually experience secondary instability. On the other hand, the nonlinear OP rapidly forms large-amplitude bent streaks and skips the phases

  11. Turbulence Modeling for the Simulation of Transition in Wall Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Our research involves study of the behavior of k-epsilon turbulence models for simulation of bypass-level transition over flat surfaces and turbine blades. One facet of the research has been to assess the performance of a multitude of k-epsilon models in what we call "natural transition", i.e. no modifications to the k-e models. The study has been to ascertain what features in the dynamics of the model affect the start and end of the transition. Some of the findings are in keeping with those reported by others (e.g. ERCOFTAC). A second facet of the research has been to develop and benchmark a new multi-time scale k-epsilon model (MTS) for use in simulating bypass-level transition. This model has certain features of the published MTS models by Hanjalic, Launder, and Schiestel, and by Kim and his coworkers. The major new feature of our MTS model is that it can be used to compute wall shear flows as a low-turbulence Reynolds number type of model, i.e. there is no required partition with patching a one-equation k model in the near-wall region to a two-equation k-epsilon model in the outer part of the flow. Our MTS model has been studied extensively to understand its dynamics in predicting the onset of transition and the end-stage of the transition. Results to date indicate that it far superior to the standard unmodified k-epsilon models. The effects of protracted pressure gradients on the model behavior are currently being investigated.

  12. Classification of annular bed flow patterns and investigation on their influence on the bottom spray fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to classify annular bed flow patterns in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process, study their influence on coat uniformity and investigate the feasibility of developing real-time annular bed flow pattern detection as a PAT tool. High-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry were used to visualize annular bed flow. Color coating and subsequent tristimulus colorimetry were employed to determine influence of annular bed flow pattern on coat uniformity. Feasibility of monitoring annular bed flow pattern through an observation window was tested using miniaturized particle velocity field and time series particle velocity orientation information. Three types of annular bed flow patterns were identified. Plug flow gave the best coat uniformity followed by global and localized fluidization. Plug flow may be advantageous for high spray-rate conditions, large-scale coating and prevention of particle segregation. Plug flow could be differentiated from the other flow patterns through a simulated observation window. Annular bed flow patterns were classified and found to influence particle coat uniformity noticeably. Availability of annular bed flow information for large-scale coaters would enable adjustments for process optimization. This study highlights the potential of monitoring annular bed flow pattern as a PAT tool.

  13. Gap-flow patterns behind twin-cylinders at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Shun Chang; Liu, Chien Ting [National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung (China)

    2011-11-15

    The flow structures, drag coefficients (C{sub d}) and vortex shedding characteristics around a single square cylinder and twin side-by-side square cylinders were experimentally investigated with various Reynolds numbers (Re) and gap ratios (g{sup *}) in a vertical water tunnel. The Reynolds number (Re) and gap ratio (g{sup *}) were 178 < Re < 892 and 0 {<=} g{sup *} {<=} 2.5, respectively. The flow patterns and vortex shedding frequency were determined using the particle tracking flow visualization (PTFV). The flow structures, velocity properties, and drag coefficients were calculated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV). The topological flow patterns of vortex evolution processes were plotted and analyzed based on critical point theory. Furthermore, the flow structures behind twin side-by-side square cylinders were classified into three modes - single vortex-street mode, gap-flow mode and couple vortex-streets mode. The maximum C{sub d} occurred in the single vortex-street mode, and the minimum C{sub d} occurred in the gap-flow mode. The highest Strouhal number (St) occurred in the single vortex-street mode, and the lowest St occurred in the gap-flow mode.

  14. Analyzing Unsatirated Flow Patterns in Fractured Rock Using an Integrated Modeling Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Wu; G. Lu; K. Zhang; L. Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-08-03

    Characterizing percolation patterns in unsaturated fractured rock has posed a greater challenge to modeling investigations than comparable saturated zone studies, because of the heterogeneous nature of unsaturated media and the great number of variables impacting unsaturated flow. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology for quantitatively characterizing percolation patterns in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling approach integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modeling analyses. It takes into account the coupled processes of fluid and heat flow and chemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured tuffs. Modeling results are examined against different types of field-measured data and then used to evaluate different hydrogeological conceptualizations and their results of flow patterns in the unsaturated zone. In particular, this model provides a much clearer understanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through the unsaturated zone, both crucial issues in assessing repository performance. The integrated approach for quantifying Yucca Mountain's flow system is demonstrated to provide a practical modeling tool for characterizing flow and transport processes in complex subsurface systems.

  15. Effect of air-flow on the evaluation of refractive surgery ablation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Schumacher, Silvia; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Siegel, Jan; Mrochen, Michael; Marcos, Susana

    2011-02-28

    An Allegretto Eye-Q laser platform (Wavelight GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) was used to study the effect of air-flow speed on the ablation of artificial polymer corneas used for testing refractive surgery patterns. Flat samples of two materials (PMMA and Filofocon A) were ablated at four different air flow conditions. The shape and profile of the ablated surfaces were measured with a precise non-contact optical surface profilometer. Significant asymmetries in the measured profiles were found when the ablation was performed with the clinical air aspiration system, and also without air flow. Increasing air-flow produced deeper ablations, improved symmetry, and increased the repeatability of the ablation pattern. Shielding of the laser pulse by the plume of smoke during the ablation of plastic samples reduced the central ablation depth by more than 40% with no-air flow, 30% with clinical air aspiration, and 5% with 1.15 m/s air flow. A simple model based on non-inertial dragging of the particles by air flow predicts no central shielding with 2.3 m/s air flow, and accurately predicts (within 2 μm) the decrease of central ablation depth by shielding. The shielding effects for PMMA and Filofocon A were similar despite the differences in the ablation properties of the materials and the different full-shielding transmission coefficient, which is related to the number of particles ejected and their associated optical behavior. Air flow is a key factor in the evaluation of ablation patterns in refractive surgery using plastic models, as significant shielding effects are found with typical air-flow levels used under clinical conditions. Shielding effects can be avoided by tuning the air flow to the laser repetition rate.

  16. Mixing by rotary jet heads: Indications of the benefits of head rotation under turbulent and transitional flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Vognsen, Marie; Nienow, Alfred W.

    2008-01-01

    Mixing times were obtained by the iodine-thiosulphate decolorization technique using rotary jet heads (RJH) for mixing in a Perspex tank with an inner diameter of 0.75 m and an aspect ratio of 2.5 using both water (turbulent flow) and shear-thinning, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions...... increases. Experiments in 0.75 wt% and 1.25 wt% CMC showed that the transition from transitional to turbulent flow occurs at a lower Reynolds number with head rotation than without. Furthermore, the decrease in mixing time caused by the rotation is much more pronounced when the flow is transitional than...

  17. Velocity bias induced by flow patterns around ADCPs and associated deployment platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Velocity measurements near the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) are important for mapping surface currents, measuring velocity and discharge in shallow streams, and providing accurate estimates of discharge in the top unmeasured portion of the water column. Improvements to ADCP performance permit measurement of velocities much closer (5 cm) to the transducer than has been possible in the past (25 cm). Velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with a 1200 kHz Rio Grande Zedhead ADCP in 2002 showed a negative bias in measured velocities near the transducers. On the basis of these results, the USGS initiated a study combining field, laboratory, and numerical modeling data to assess the effect of flow patterns caused by flow around the ADCP and deployment platforms on velocities measured near the transducers. This ongoing study has shown that the negative bias observed in the field is due to the flow pattern around the ADCP. The flow pattern around an ADCP violates the basic assumption of flow homogeneity required for an accurate three-dimensional velocity solution. Results, to date (2014), have indicated velocity biases within the measurable profile, due to flow disturbance, for the TRDI 1200 kHz Rio Grande Zedhead and the SonTek RiverSurveyor M9 ADCPs. The flow speed past the ADCP, the mount and the deployment platform have also been shown to play an important role in the magnitude and extent of the velocity bias.

  18. Liquid interfaces in viscous straining flows: numerical studies of the selective withdrawal transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy; Cohen, Itai

    2005-11-01

    In selective withdrawal, the interface between two liquid layers is pulled apart by an imposed withdrawal flow. The shape transition creates a sharp hump on the interface, with the minimum hump radius of curvature far smaller than the characteristic lateral length-scale. Previous measurements [Cohen & Nagel Phys. Rev. Lett. 2002] on equal-viscosity layers suggest the sharp hump is created via an approach towards a steady-state singular shape which is cut off at a small length-scale. In contrast, an analogous shape transition in drop emulsification has been shown to occur via a saddle-node bifurcation, without an approach towards a singular shape. Here we present a numerical model of the selective withdrawal experiment and examine the dynamics near the transition with higher resolution. Our numerical results are consistent with previous measurements, but the increased resolution enables us to identify the shape transition as a saddle-node bifurcation. The transition does not involve approach towards a singular shape. (We thank Sidney R. Nagel for helpful discussions.)

  19. Short-time Lyapunov exponent analysis and the transition to chaos in Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, John A.; Moser, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The physical mechanism driving the weakly chaotic Taylor-Couette flow is investigated using the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis. In this procedure, the transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos is studied using direct numerical 3D simulations of axially periodic Taylor-Couette flow, and a partial Liapunov exponent spectrum for the flow is computed by simultaneously advancing the full solution and a set of perturbations. It is shown that the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis yields more information on the exponents and dimension than that obtained from the common Liapunov exponent calculations. Results show that the chaotic state studied here is caused by a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability of the outflow boundary jet of Taylor vortices.

  20. Laminar-Turbulent Transition: The change of the flow state temperature with the Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2014-01-01

    Using the previously developed model to describe laminar/turbulent states of a viscous fluid flow, which treats the flow as a collection of coherent structures of various size (Chekmarev, Chaos, 2013, 013144), the statistical temperature of the flow state is determined as a function of the Reynolds number. It is shown that at small Reynolds numbers, associated with laminar states, the temperature is positive, while at large Reynolds numbers, associated with turbulent states, it is negative. At intermediate Reynolds numbers, the temperature changes from positive to negative as the size of the coherent structures increases, similar to what was predicted by Onsager for a system of parallel point-vortices in an inviscid fluid. It is also shown that in the range of intermediate Reynolds numbers the temperature exhibits a power-law divergence characteristic of second-order phase transitions.

  1. Numerical and experimental analysis of the transitional flow across a real stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agujetas, R; Ferrera, C; Marcos, A C; Alejo, J P; Montanero, J M

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical study of the pulsatile transitional flow crossing a severe real stenosis located right in front of the bifurcation between the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. The simulation allows one to determine relevant features of this subject-specific flow, such as the pressure waves in the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. We explain the subclavian steal syndrome suffered by the patient in terms of the drastic pressure drop in the right subclavian artery. This pressure drop is caused by both the diverging part of the analyzed stenosis and the reverse flow in the bifurcation induced by another stenosis in the right internal carotid artery.

  2. Short-time Lyapunov exponent analysis and the transition to chaos in Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, John A.; Moser, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The physical mechanism driving the weakly chaotic Taylor-Couette flow is investigated using the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis. In this procedure, the transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos is studied using direct numerical 3D simulations of axially periodic Taylor-Couette flow, and a partial Liapunov exponent spectrum for the flow is computed by simultaneously advancing the full solution and a set of perturbations. It is shown that the short-time Liapunov exponent analysis yields more information on the exponents and dimension than that obtained from the common Liapunov exponent calculations. Results show that the chaotic state studied here is caused by a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability of the outflow boundary jet of Taylor vortices.

  3. A simple method for understanding the triangular growth patterns of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siya Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Triangular nanoflake growth patterns have been commonly observed in synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets and their hybrid structures. Triangular nanoflakes not only show exceptional properties, but also can serve as building blocks for two or three dimensional structures. In this study, taking the MoS2 system as a test case, we propose a Matrix method to understand the mechanism of such unique growth pattern. Nanoflakes with different edge types are mathematically described with configuration matrices, and the total formation energy is calculated as the sum of the edge formation energies and the chemical potentials of sulfur and molybdenum. Based on energetics, we find that three triangular patterns with the different edge configurations are energetically more favorable in different ranges of the chemical potential of sulfur, which are in good agreement with experimental observations. Our algorithm has high efficiency and can deal with nanoflakes in microns which are beyond the ability of ab-initio method. This study not only elucidates the mechanism of triangular nanoflake growth patterns in experiment, but also provides a clue to control the geometric configurations in synthesis.

  4. Analysis of Transitional and Turbulent Flow Through the FDA Benchmark Nozzle Model Using Laser Doppler Velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joshua O; Good, Bryan C; Paterno, Anthony V; Hariharan, Prasanna; Deutsch, Steven; Malinauskas, Richard A; Manning, Keefe B

    2016-09-01

    Transitional and turbulent flow through a simplified medical device model is analyzed as part of the FDA's Critical Path Initiative, designed to improve the process of bringing medical products to market. Computational predictions are often used in the development of devices and reliable in vitro data is needed to validate computational results, particularly estimations of the Reynolds stresses that could play a role in damaging blood elements. The high spatial resolution of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) is used to collect two component velocity data within the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Two flow conditions are used to produce flow encompassing laminar, transitional, and turbulent regimes, and viscous stresses, principal Reynolds stresses, and turbulence intensities are calculated from the measured LDV velocities. Axial velocities and viscous stresses are compared to data from a prior inter-laboratory study conducted with particle image velocimetry. Large velocity gradients are observed near the wall in the nozzle throat and in the jet shear layer located in the expansion downstream of the throat, with axial velocity changing as much as 4.5 m/s over 200 μm. Additionally, maximum Reynolds shear stresses of 1000-2000 Pa are calculated in the high shear regions, which are an order of magnitude higher than the peak viscous shear stresses (<100 Pa). It is important to consider the effects of both viscous and turbulent stresses when simulating flow through medical devices. Reynolds stresses above commonly accepted hemolysis thresholds are measured in the nozzle model, indicating that hemolysis may occur under certain flow conditions. As such, the presented turbulence quantities from LDV, which are also available for download at https://fdacfd.nci.nih.gov/ , provide an ideal validation test for computational simulations that seek to characterize the flow field and to predict hemolysis within the FDA nozzle geometry.

  5. Laminar flow in a microchannel with hydrophobic surface patterned microribs oriented parallel to the flow direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, D.; Jeffs, K.; Woolford, B.; Webb, B. W.

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports results of an analytical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow in a parallel-plate microchannel with ultrahydrophobic top and bottom walls. The walls are fabricated with microribs and cavities that are oriented parallel to the flow direction. The channel walls are modeled in an idealized fashion, with the shape of the liquid-vapor meniscus approximated as flat. An analytical model of the vapor cavity flow is employed and coupled with a numerical model of the liquid flow by matching the local liquid and vapor phase velocity and shear stress at the interface. The numerical predictions show that the effective slip length and the reduction in the classical friction factor-Reynolds number product increase with increasing relative cavity width, increasing relative cavity depth, and decreasing relative microrib/cavity module length. Comparisons were also made between the zero shear interface model and the liquid-vapor cavity coupled model. The results illustrate that the zero shear interface model underpredicts the overall flow resistance. Further, the deviation between the two models was found to be significantly larger for increasing values of both the relative rib/cavity module width and the cavity fraction. The trends in the frictional pressure drop predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements made at similar conditions, with greater deviation observed at increasing size of the cavity fraction. Based on the numerical predictions, an expression is proposed in which the friction factor-Reynolds number product may be estimated in terms of the important variables.

  6. Decompositions of injection patterns for nodal flow allocation in renewable electricity networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Tranberg, Bo; Hempel, Sabrina; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The large-scale integration of fluctuating renewable power generation represents a challenge to the technical and economical design of a sustainable future electricity system. In this context, the increasing significance of long-range power transmission calls for innovative methods to understand the emerging complex flow patterns and to integrate price signals about the respective infrastructure needs into the energy market design. We introduce a decomposition method of injection patterns. Contrary to standard flow tracing approaches, it provides nodal allocations of link flows and costs in electricity networks by decomposing the network injection pattern into market-inspired elementary import/export building blocks. We apply the new approach to a simplified data-driven model of a European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation.

  7. Recognition and tracking of convective flow patterns using Wollaston shearing interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaussinger, F.; Krebs, A.; Travnikov, V.; Egbers, Ch.

    2017-09-01

    The GeoFlow experiment on the ISS is designed to study convective flows in a spherical gap under microgravity conditions. The main challenge, however, is the visualization of the fluid flow especially under the safety requirements of the Columbus module. The Wollaston shearing interferometry unit of the Fluid Science Laboratory works by optical means alone and is therefore utilized as measurement device for temperature fluctuations. The resulting interferograms in terms of fringe patterns are the base for the presented advanced post-processing techniques. They are used to identify convective patterns, to track these structures and to reconstruct the inaccessible three-dimensional temperature field. A comparison between experimentally gained results and numerically calculated interferograms is given, too. We show that convective patterns are automatically recognized and tracked accurately in experimental images by means of the generalized structure tensor. Furthermore, generic numerical simulations are used to deduce the internal temperature distribution by comparison with interferograms from the experiment.

  8. Analyzing flow patterns in unsaturated fractured rock of YuccaMountain using an integrated modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Pan, Lehua; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

    2003-11-03

    This paper presents a series of modeling investigations to characterize percolation patterns in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The investigations are conducted using a modeling approach that integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model through model calibration. This integrated modeling approach, based on a dual-continuum formulation, takes into account the coupled processes of fluid and heat flow and chemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured tuffs. In particular, the model results are examined against different types of field-measured data and used to evaluate different hydrogeological conceptual models and their effects on flow patterns in the unsaturated zone. The objective of this work to provide understanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through the unsaturated zone, which is a crucial issue in assessing repository performance.

  9. Explaining patterns in the school-to-work transition: An analysis using optimal matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Richard; Lucchino, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies the school to work transition in the UK with the aim of achieving a richer understanding of individuals' trajectories in the five years after reaching school leaving age. By applying the technique of 'optimal matching' on data from 1991 to 2008, we group individuals' trajectories post-16, and identify a small number of distinct transition patterns. Our results suggest that while 9 out of 10 young people have generally positive experiences post-16, the remaining individuals exhibit a variety of histories that might warrant policy attention. We assess the extent to which characteristics at age 16 can predict which type of trajectory a young person will follow. Our analysis shows that, despite the apparent heterogeneity, virtually all at-risk trajectories are associated with a relatively small set of key 'risk factors': early pregnancy; low educational attainment and self-confidence; and disadvantaged family background. These characteristics are known to be strongly correlated across individuals and raise concerns about the degree of socio-economic polarisation in the transition from school to work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow Pattern in a Fluidized Bed with a Non-fluidized Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Van den Bleek, Cor. M.

    1997-01-01

    The flow pattern of a fluidized bed with non-fluidized zones is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments were carried out in such a way that air was introduced only through part of the distributor. The results show a significant amount of air flowing to the zone where no air...... is introduced. However, once the gas velocity exceeds the minimum fluidization velocity in the zone where the air is introduced, the cross-flow hardly changes upon further increase of the gas velocity. A continuity equation and Ergun's equation are used to describe the flow pattern and pressure distribution...... over the bed. Very good agreement between the experimental and calculated results is achieved without any fitting parameter. The results are relevant to the understanding of heat transfer behaviour of a fluidized bed combustor (FBC) that is only partly fluidized to control its load....

  11. Two-phase Flow Patterns in High Temperature Generator of Absorption Chiller / Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kanuma, Hitoshi; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko; Takeishi, Masayuki

    There is a lack of information about vapor-liquid two-phase flow patterns determined using void signals in high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. Sensing void fraction has been hampered because lithium bromide aqueous solution of strong alkalinity is employed as working fluid at high temperature and high level of vacuum. New void sensor applicable to such difficult conditions was developed. The void Fractions at 48 locations in a high temperature generator were measured simultaneously in both cooling and heating operations. Analysis of void signals detected reveals that the most violent boiling occurs at the upper part of rear plate of combustion chamber and the first line of vertical tubes located in the flue. The flow patterns are strongly affected by the system pressure difference between the cooling and heating operations: there appear bubbly, slug and froth flows in the cooling operation, but only bubbly flow in the heating operation.

  12. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  13. Impact of vegetation die-off on spatial flow patterns over a tidal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Moonen, Pieter; Schoelynck, Jonas; Govers, Gerard; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale die-off of tidal marsh vegetation, caused by global change, is expected to change flow patterns over tidal wetlands, and hence to affect valuable wetland functions such as reduction of shoreline erosion, attenuation of storm surges, and sedimentation in response to sea level rise. This study quantified for the first time the effects of large-scale (4 ha) artificial vegetation removal, as proxy of die-off, on the spatial flow patterns through a tidal marsh channel and over the surrounding marsh platform. After vegetation removal, the flow velocities measured on the platform increased by a factor of 2 to 4, while the channel flow velocities decreased by almost a factor of 3. This was associated with a change in flow directions on the platform, from perpendicular to the channel edges when vegetation was present, to a tendency of more parallel flow to the channel edges when vegetation was absent. Comparison with hydrodynamic model simulations explains that the vegetation-induced friction causes both flow reduction on the vegetated platform and flow acceleration towards the non-vegetated channels. Our findings imply that large-scale vegetation die-off would not only result in decreased platform sedimentation rates, but also in sediment infilling of the channels, which together would lead to further worsening of plant growth conditions and a potentially runaway feedback to permanent vegetation loss.

  14. Landscape pattern and transition under natural and anthropogenic disturbance in an arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Tianwei; Cai, Chongfa; Li, Chongguang; Liu, Yaojun; Bao, Yuze; Guan, Wuhong

    2016-02-01

    There is a pressing need to determine the relationships between driving variables and landscape transformations. Human activities shape landscapes and turn them into complex assemblages of highly diverse structures. Other factors, including climate and topography, also play significant roles in landscape transitions, and identifying the interactions among the variables is critical to environmental management. This study analyzed the configurations and spatial-temporal processes of landscape changes from 1998 to 2011 under different anthropogenic disturbances, identified the main variables that determine the landscape patterns and transitions, and quantified the relationships between pairs of driver sets. Landsat images of Baicheng and Tekes from 1998, 2006 and 2011 were used to classify landscapes by supervised classification. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variation partitioning were performed to identify the main driving forces and to quantify the unique, shared, and total explained variation of the sets of variables. The results indicate that the proportions of otherwise identical landscapes in Baicheng and Tekes were very different. The area of the grassland in Tekes was much larger than that of the cropland; however, the differences between the grassland and cropland in Baicheng were not as pronounced. Much of the grassland in Tekes was located in an area that was near residents, whereas most of the grassland in Baicheng was far from residents. The slope, elevation, annual precipitation, annual temperature, and distance to the nearest resident were strong driving forces influencing the patterns and transitions of the landscapes. The results of the variation partitioning indicated complex interrelationships among all of the pairs of driver sets. All of the variable sets had significant explanatory roles, most of which had both unique and shared variations with the others. The results of this study can assist policy makers and planners in implementing sustainable

  15. An Integrated Modeling Analysis of Unsaturated Flow Patterns inFractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Pan, Lehua; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-21

    Characterizing percolation patterns in unsaturated zones hasposed a greater challenge to numerical modeling investigations thancomparable saturated zone studies, because of the heterogeneous nature ofunsaturated media as well as the great number of variables impactingunsaturated zone flow. This paper presents an integrated modelingmethodology for quantitatively characterizing percolation patterns in theunsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed undergroundrepository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. It takes intoaccount the multiple coupled processes of air, water, heat flow andchemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain s highly heterogeneous,unsaturated fractured tuffs. The modeling approach integrates a widevariety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical fielddata into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modelinganalyses. Modeling results are examined against different types offield-measured data and then used to evaluate different hydrogeologicalconceptual models and their results of flow patterns in the unsaturatedzone. In particular, this integration model provides a much clearerunderstanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through theunsaturated zone, both crucial issues in assessing repositoryperformance. The integrated approach for quantifying Yucca Mountain sflow system is also demonstrated to provide a comprehensive modeling toolfor characterizing flow and transport processes in complex subsurfacesystems.

  16. Flow regime patterns and their controlling factors in the Ebro basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, M. Dolores; Marchamalo, Miguel; García de Jalón, Diego; González del Tánago, Marta

    2010-05-01

    SummaryNatural intra-annual flow fluctuations vary between rivers, being a determining factor for aquatic insects, fish and riparian communities which are adapted to the habitat conditions and different flows throughout the seasons. Moreover, restoration of seasonal flow patterns plays an important role in achieving good ecological status of rivers, through the preservation and/or recovery of components and processes of natural river ecosystems. In this work we: (a) classify fluvial segments in the Ebro basin (North-Eastern Spain) according to the intra-annual variability of flows under natural conditions using statistical cluster analysis of monthly mean flow data; (b) characterise the resulting flow typologies according to several ecologically important hydrological variables; (c) analyse the relationships between flow regimes of fluvial segments and physical variables from their catchments; and finally (d) predict the most probable natural flow regime using logistic models based on the most determinant physical characteristics. Fifteen natural flow typologies were described in the Ebro basin, which were characterised in terms of flow fluctuation through the year as well as timing, flow ratio and duration of the maximum and minimum flows. Precipitation, biogeography and geology of catchments showed the highest correlations with flow regimes. Basin size, mean elevation and slope were also correlated. The logistic model we developed had a prediction success of 72% in the Ebro basin. The definition of the natural hydrological conditions (to which the biological communities are tailored), even when flow data are not available, is an important support in the management of river ecosystems. It is especially suitable for setting goals in aquatic ecosystem conservation or restoration projects.

  17. Evidence from lava flows for complex polarity transitions: The new composite Steens Mountain reversal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, N.A.; Coe, R.S.; Glen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geomagnetic polarity transitions may be significantly more complex than are currently depicted in many sedimentary and lava-flow records. By splicing together paleomagnetic results from earlier studies at Steens Mountain with those from three newly studied sections of Oregon Plateau flood basalts at Catlow Peak and Poker Jim Ridge 70-90 km to the southeast and west, respectively, we provide support for this interpretation with the most detailed account of a magnetic field reversal yet observed in volcanic rocks. Forty-five new distinguishable transitional (T) directions together with 30 earlier ones reveal a much more complex and detailed record of the 16.7 Ma reversed (R)-to-normal (N) polarity transition that marks the end of Chron C5Cr. Compared to the earlier R-T-N-T-N reversal record, the new record can be described as R-T-N-T-N-T-R-T-N. The composite record confirms earlier features, adds new west and up directions and an entire large N-T-R-T segment to the path, and fills in directions on the path between earlier directional jumps. Persistent virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) clusters and separate VGPs have a preference for previously described longitudinal bands from transition study compilations, which suggests the presence of features at the core-mantle boundary that influence the flow of core fluid and distribution of magnetic flux. Overall the record is consistent with the generalization that VGP paths vary greatly from reversal to reversal and depend on the location of the observer. Rates of secular variation confirm that the flows comprising these sections were erupted rapidly, with maximum rates estimated to be 85-120 m ka-1 at Catlow and 130-195 m ka-1 at Poker Jim South. Paleomagnetic poles from other studies are combined with 32 non-transitional poles found here to give a clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 11.4???? 5.6?? with respect to the younger Columbia River Basalt Group flows to the north and 14.5???? 4.6?? with respect to cratonic

  18. Arrays of biomimetic hair flow-sensor dedicated for measuring flow patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Next to image sensors, future’s robots will definitely use a variety of sensing mechanisms for navigation and prevention of risks to human life, for example flow-sensor arrays for 3D hydrodynamic reconstruction of the near environment. This paper aims to quantify the possibilities of our artificial

  19. Flow patterns of larval fish: undulatory swimming in the intermediate flow regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Boogaart, van den J.G.M.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Fish larvae, like many adult fish, swim by undulating their body. However, their body size and swimming speeds put them in the intermediate flow regime, where viscous and inertial forces both play an important role in the interaction between fish and water. To study the influence of the relatively

  20. Pattern transition, microstructure, and dynamics in a two-dimensional vibrofluidized granular bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Istafaul H.; Alam, Meheboob

    2016-05-01

    Experiments are conducted in a two-dimensional monolayer vibrofluidized bed of glass beads, with a goal to understand the transition scenario and the underlying microstructure and dynamics in different patterned states. At small shaking accelerations (Γ =A ω2/g convection" to "1-roll convection" and finally to a gas-like state. For a given length of the container, the coarsening of multiple convection rolls leading to the genesis of a "single-roll" structure (dubbed the multiroll transition) and its subsequent transition to a granular gas are two findings of this work. We show that the critical shaking intensity (ΓBBLS) for the BB→LS transition has a power-law dependence on the particle loading (F =h0/d , where h0 is the number of particle layers at rest and d is the particle diameter) and the shaking amplitude (A /d ). The characteristics of BB and LS states are studied by calculating (i) the coarse-grained density and temperature profiles and (ii) the pair correlation function. It is shown that while the contact network of particles in the BB state represents a hexagonal-packed structure, the contact network within the "floating cluster" of the LS resembles a liquid-like state. An unsteadiness of the Leidenfrost state has been uncovered wherein the interface (between the floating cluster and the dilute collisional layer underneath) and the top of the bed are found to oscillate sinusoidally, with the oscillation frequency closely matching the frequency of external shaking. Therefore, the granular Leidenfrost state is a period-1 wave as is the case for the BB state.

  1. Turbulent transitions in the stable boundary layer: Couette and Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Amber M.; Monahan, Adam H.

    2016-11-01

    The stable boundary layer (SBL) can be classified into two distinct regimes. The weakly stable regime (WSBL) which occurs in the presence of moderate to strong pressure gradients or cloudy skies and is characterized by continuous turbulent mixing, and the very stable regime (VSBL) which occurs in the presence of weak pressure gradients or clear skies and turbulence weakens to the point of collapse. Modelling and observational results indicate that transitions from the WSBL to the VSBL occur when the maximum sustainable heat flux (MSHF), or shear capacity, is exceeded. The collapse of turbulence in the SBL is investigated using a one dimensional model of Couette flow with a constant heat flux. We show that the MSHF framework for predicting turbulent collapse is qualitatively robust to the choice of turbulence parameterization and extend these earlier stability analyses by numerically determining the unstable modes along the unstable branch. To explore transitions between the VSBL and the WSBL we extend the model to include a horizontal pressure gradient and a surface radiation scheme. Analysis of the Poiseuille flow demonstrates how the idealized energy/momentum budget model with parameterized turbulence can reproduce the regime transitions present in atmospheric data. We acknowledge support from NSERC and the computing facilities of Westgrid and Compute Canada.

  2. Yield and flow-induced phase transition in colloidal gels under startup shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lilian; Landrum, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2016-11-01

    We study the micro-mechanical origins of the transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior during flow startup of colloidal gels via large-scale dynamic simulation, with a view toward understanding connections to energy storage and phase transition. Such materials often exhibit an overshoot in stress, and prior studies of strong, dilute colloidal gels with a stringy microstructure connect this "yield" event to loss of network connectivity. Owing to the importance of Brownian transport in phase separation processes in colloids, here we study a reversible colloidal gel of hard spheres that interact via a short-range attraction of several kT, for which Brownian motion can lead to rapid quiescent coarsening. In the present study, we interrogate the shear stress for a range of imposed flow strengths, monitoring particle-level structure and dynamics, to determine the microscopic picture of gel yield. Our detailed studies of the microstructural evolution and macroscopic response during startup provide insight into the phase behavior during yield. We present a new model of stress development, phase transition, and structural evolution during transient yield in colloidal gels for which ongoing phase separation informs gel phenomenology.

  3. Flow pattern and lift evolution of hydrofoil with control of electro-magnetic forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The initial responses and evolutions of the flow pattern and lift coefficient of a hydrofoil under the action of electro-magnetic (Lorentz) force have been studied experimentally and numerically, and trace particle methods are employed for them. With the introduction of BVF (boundary vortex flux), the quantitative relation among Lorentz forces, BVF and lifts is deduced. The influences of flow patterns on the hydrofoil lift coefficient have been discussed based on the BVF distribution, and the flow control mechanism of Lorentz force for a hydrofoil has been elucidated. Our results show that the flow pattern and lift of the hydrofoil vary periodically without any force. However, with the action of streamwise Lorentz forces, the separation point on the hydrofoil surface moves backward with a certain velocity, which makes the flow field steady finally. The streamwise Lorentz force raises the foil lift due to the increase of BVF intensity. On the other hand, Lorentz force also increases the hydrofoil surface pressure, which makes the lift decrease. However, the factor leading to the lift enhancement is determinant, therefore, the Lorentz force on the suction side can increase the lift, and the stronger the Lorentz force, the larger the lift enhancement. Our results also show that the localized Lorentz force can also both suppress the flow separation and increase the hydrofoil lift coefficient, furthermore, the Lorentz force located on the tail acts better than that located on the front.

  4. Parallel patterns determination in solving cyclic flow shop problem with setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the new idea of blocks for the cyclic flow shop problem with setup times, using multiple patterns with different sizes determined for each machine constituting optimal schedule of cities for the traveling salesman problem (TSP. We propose to take advantage of the Intel Xeon Phi parallel computing environment during so-called ’blocks’ determination basing on patterns, in effect significantly improving the quality of obtained results.

  5. Vector projectile imaging: time-resolved dynamic visualization of complex flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Billy Y S; Lai, Simon S M; Yu, Alfred C H

    2014-09-01

    Achieving non-invasive, accurate and time-resolved imaging of vascular flow with spatiotemporal fluctuations is well acknowledged to be an ongoing challenge. In this article, we present a new ultrasound-based framework called vector projectile imaging (VPI) that can dynamically render complex flow patterns over an imaging view at millisecond time resolution. VPI is founded on three principles: (i) high-frame-rate broad-view data acquisition (based on steered plane wave firings); (ii) flow vector estimation derived from multi-angle Doppler analysis (coupled with data regularization and least-squares fitting); (iii) dynamic visualization of color-encoded vector projectiles (with flow speckles displayed as adjunct). Calibration results indicated that by using three transmit angles and three receive angles (-10°, 0°, +10° for both), VPI can consistently compute flow vectors in a multi-vessel phantom with three tubes positioned at different depths (1.5, 4, 6 cm), oriented at different angles (-10°, 0°, +10°) and of different sizes (dilated diameter: 2.2, 4.4 and 6.3 mm; steady flow rate: 2.5 mL/s). The practical merit of VPI was further illustrated through an anthropomorphic flow phantom investigation that considered both healthy and stenosed carotid bifurcation geometries. For the healthy bifurcation with 1.2-Hz carotid flow pulses, VPI was able to render multi-directional and spatiotemporally varying flow patterns (using a nominal frame rate of 416 fps or 2.4-ms time resolution). In the case of stenosed bifurcations (50% eccentric narrowing), VPI enabled dynamic visualization of flow jet and recirculation zones. These findings suggest that VPI holds promise as a new tool for complex flow analysis.

  6. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year ({delta}D) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1{+-}0.07 vs 15.2{+-}0.03 vs 11.8{+-}0.04, p<0.01; {delta}D: 3.62{+-}0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58{+-}0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and {delta}D (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  7. Pulmonary vein flow pattern in children with bidirectional cavopulmonary connection or Fontan circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariat, Masoud; Yoo, Shi-Joon [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Windram, Jonathan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Cardiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Typical flow velocity profiles in the extraparenchymal pulmonary veins (PVs) demonstrate two major antegrade flow waves: a biphasic systolic wave (S), with S1 and S2 peaks and a monophasic early diastolic wave (D). Flow reversal during atrial systole (A) is common. There is agreement that the forward diastolic PV flow wave is caused by left ventricular relaxation with opening of the mitral valve. The origin of the PV systolic wave, however, remains a topic of debate. Some studies have suggested that the S wave is created by the relaxation of the left atrium and descent of the mitral valve plane. These studies have concluded that forces generated by the right ventricle (RV) have no effect on the S wave. Others suggest that the forward propagation of the right ventricular systolic pressure pulse is the major contributor to the S wave. To determine whether any part of the systolic wave of PV flow is dependent on forces created by the right ventricle. We assessed PV flow pattern, as obtained by cardiac MRI in 12 cases (39 pulmonary veins) with RV-independent pulmonary circulation (bidirectional cavopulmonary connection or Fontan circulation). Phase-contrast imaging of the PVs was performed on a 1.5-T MR scanner with velocity encoding set at 120 cm/s. We compared these flow patterns with those of a control group of ten children (15 pulmonary veins) who had RV-dependent pulmonary circulation and underwent CMR for other indications. In all PVs of children with RV-independent pulmonary circulation the flow curves showed a single systolic peak in early systole (S1) with the S2 peak consistently absent. PV flow pattern in the control group consistently showed distinct early and late systolic peaks. This study supports the concept that S2 is caused by forward propagation of the right ventricular systolic pressure pulse. It also demonstrates that the S1 is independent of the right ventricle. (orig.)

  8. Pulmonary vein flow pattern in children with bidirectional cavopulmonary connection or Fontan circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Masoud; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Windram, Jonathan; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2012-02-01

    Typical flow velocity profiles in the extraparenchymal pulmonary veins (PVs) demonstrate two major antegrade flow waves: a biphasic systolic wave (S), with S1 and S2 peaks and a monophasic early diastolic wave (D). Flow reversal during atrial systole (A) is common. There is agreement that the forward diastolic PV flow wave is caused by left ventricular relaxation with opening of the mitral valve. The origin of the PV systolic wave, however, remains a topic of debate. Some studies have suggested that the S wave is created by the relaxation of the left atrium and descent of the mitral valve plane. These studies have concluded that forces generated by the right ventricle (RV) have no effect on the S wave. Others suggest that the forward propagation of the right ventricular systolic pressure pulse is the major contributor to the S wave. To determine whether any part of the systolic wave of PV flow is dependent on forces created by the right ventricle. We assessed PV flow pattern, as obtained by cardiac MRI in 12 cases (39 pulmonary veins) with RV-independent pulmonary circulation (bidirectional cavopulmonary connection or Fontan circulation). Phase-contrast imaging of the PVs was performed on a 1.5-T MR scanner with velocity encoding set at 120 cm/s. We compared these flow patterns with those of a control group of ten children (15 pulmonary veins) who had RV-dependent pulmonary circulation and underwent CMR for other indications. In all PVs of children with RV-independent pulmonary circulation the flow curves showed a single systolic peak in early systole (S1) with the S2 peak consistently absent. PV flow pattern in the control group consistently showed distinct early and late systolic peaks. This study supports the concept that S2 is caused by forward propagation of the right ventricular systolic pressure pulse. It also demonstrates that the S1 is independent of the right ventricle.

  9. Pattern recognition techniques for horizontal and vertically upward multiphase flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arubi, Tesi I. M.; Yeung, Hoi

    2012-03-01

    The oil and gas industry need for high performing and low cost multiphase meters is ever more justified given the rapid depletion of conventional oil reserves that has led oil companies to develop smaller and marginal fields and reservoirs in remote locations and deep offshore, thereby placing great demands for compact and more cost effective solutions of on-line continuous multiphase flow measurement for well testing, production monitoring, production optimisation, process control and automation. The pattern recognition approach for clamp-on multiphase measurement employed in this study provides one means for meeting this need. High speed caesium-137 radioisotope-based densitometers were installed vertically at the top of a 50.8mm and 101.6mm riser as well as horizontally at the riser base in the Cranfield University multiphase flow test facility. A comprehensive experimental campaign comprising flow conditions typical of operating conditions found in the Petroleum Industry was conducted. The application of a single gamma densitometer unit, in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques to determine both the phase volume fractions and velocities to yield the individual phase flow rates of horizontal and vertically upward multiphase flows was investigated. The pattern recognition systems were trained to map the temporal fluctuations in the multiphase mixture density with the individual phase flow rates using statistical features extracted from the gamma counts signals as their inputs. Initial results yielded individual phase flow rate predictions to within ±5% relative error for the two phase airwater flows and ±10% for three phase air-oil-water flows data.

  10. Molecular-Based Optical Measurement Techniques for Transition and Turbulence in High-Speed Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    High-speed laminar-to-turbulent transition and turbulence affect the control of flight vehicles, the heat transfer rate to a flight vehicle's surface, the material selected to protect such vehicles from high heating loads, the ultimate weight of a flight vehicle due to the presence of thermal protection systems, the efficiency of fuel-air mixing processes in high-speed combustion applications, etc. Gaining a fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the transition process will lead to the development of predictive capabilities that can identify transition location and its impact on parameters like surface heating. Currently, there is no general theory that can completely describe the transition-to-turbulence process. However, transition research has led to the identification of the predominant pathways by which this process occurs. For a truly physics-based model of transition to be developed, the individual stages in the paths leading to the onset of fully turbulent flow must be well understood. This requires that each pathway be computationally modeled and experimentally characterized and validated. This may also lead to the discovery of new physical pathways. This document is intended to describe molecular based measurement techniques that have been developed, addressing the needs of the high-speed transition-to-turbulence and high-speed turbulence research fields. In particular, we focus on techniques that have either been used to study high speed transition and turbulence or techniques that show promise for studying these flows. This review is not exhaustive. In addition to the probe-based techniques described in the previous paragraph, several other classes of measurement techniques that are, or could be, used to study high speed transition and turbulence are excluded from this manuscript. For example, surface measurement techniques such as pressure and temperature paint, phosphor thermography, skin friction measurements and

  11. Laminar and transitional liquid metal duct flow near a magnetic point dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Tympel, Saskia; Schumacher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The flow transformation and the generation of vortex structures by a strong magnetic dipole field in a liquid metal duct flow is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The dipole is considered as the paradigm for a magnetic obstacle which will deviate the streamlines due to Lorentz forces acting on the fluid elements. The duct is of square cross-section. The dipole is located above the top wall and is centered in spanwise direction. Our model uses the quasi-static approximation which is applicable in the limit of small magnetic Reynolds numbers. The analysis covers the stationary flow regime at small hydrodynamic Reynolds numbers $Re$ as well as the transitional time-dependent regime at higher values which may generate a turbulent flow in the wake of the magnetic obstacle. We present a systematic study of these two basic flow regimes and their dependence on $Re$ and on the Hartmann number $Ha$, a measure of the strength of the magnetic dipole field. Furthermore, three orientations...

  12. Nonlinear optimal control of bypass transition in a boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dandan; Papadakis, George

    2016-11-01

    Bypass transition is observed in a flat-plate boundary-layer flow when high levels of free stream turbulence are present. This scenario is characterized by the formation of streamwise elongated streaks inside the boundary layer, their break down into turbulent spots and eventually fully turbulent flow. In the current work, we perform DNS simulations of control of bypass transition in a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. A non-linear optimal control algorithm is developed that employs the direct-adjoint approach to minimise a quadratic cost function based on the deviation from the Blasius velocity profile. Using the Lagrange variational approach, the distribution of the blowing/suction control velocity is found by solving iteratively the non-linear Navier-Stokes and its adjoint equations in a forward/backward loop. The optimisation is performed over a finite time horizon during which the Lagrange functional is to be minimised. Large values of optimisation horizon result in instability of the adjoint equations. The results show that the controller is able to reduce the turbulent kinetic energy of the flow in the region where the objective function is defined and the velocity profile is seen to approach the Blasius solution. Significant drag reduction is also achieved.

  13. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid–vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.fechter@iag.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munz, Claus-Dieter, E-mail: munz@iag.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Rohde, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Rohde@mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Zeiler, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Zeiler@mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid–vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local two-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevant physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the Riemann solution. The interface tracking itself is based on a level-set method. The focus in this paper is the description of the two-phase Riemann solver and its usage within the sharp interface approach. One-dimensional problems are selected to validate the approach. Finally, the three-dimensional simulation of a wobbling droplet and a shock droplet interaction in two dimensions are shown. In both problems phase transition and surface tension determine the global bulk behavior.

  14. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Stefan; Munz, Claus-Dieter; Rohde, Christian; Zeiler, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid-vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local two-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevant physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the Riemann solution. The interface tracking itself is based on a level-set method. The focus in this paper is the description of the two-phase Riemann solver and its usage within the sharp interface approach. One-dimensional problems are selected to validate the approach. Finally, the three-dimensional simulation of a wobbling droplet and a shock droplet interaction in two dimensions are shown. In both problems phase transition and surface tension determine the global bulk behavior.

  15. Identification of microfluidic two-phase flow patterns in lab-on-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao; Halvorsen, Einar

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a capacitive sensor for identification of microfluidic two-phase flow in lab-on-chip devices. With interdigital electrodes and thin insulation layer utilized, this sensor is capable of being integrated with the microsystems easily. Transducing principle and design considerations are presented with respect to the microfluidic gas/liquid flow patterns. Numerical simulation results verify the operational principle. And the factors affecting the performance of the sensor are discussed. Besides, a feasible process flow for the fabrication is also proposed.

  16. Using a 3-dimensional laser anemometer to determine mean streamline patterns in a turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of mean streamline patterns by moving the test point in the direction of the measured velocity is shown to produce cumulative errors that are unacceptable. A two-dimensional algorithm that minimizes these errors is presented and is analytically validated using simple potential flows. The algorithm is extended to three-dimensional flows and is again validated analytically. Finally, as an example of a typical application of the algorithm, mean streamlines are measured in a complex, turbulent flow with a three-dimensional laser anemometer.

  17. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation: Merging Jets and the Ultimate Jet Length Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey B. Parker and John A. Krommes

    2013-01-30

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. It is shown that for statisti- cally averaged equations of quasigeostrophic turbulence on a beta plane, zonal flows and inhomoge- neous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  18. Experimental evaluation of streamline patterns and separated flows in a series of branching vessels with implications for atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Masry, O A; Feuerstein, I A; Round, G F

    1978-10-01

    Flow conditions in four models representing the aortic bifurcation, iliac bifuraction, and a renal artery branch were investigated at volumetric flow rates corresponding to Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4000 over the complete range of flow division between daughter vessels. Qualitative flow streamline patterns and quantitative definition of those flow conditions leading to disturbed flow (flow separation ) were determined primarily at steady flow with a limited set of pulsatie experiments. Under conditions of no flow separation, common characteristic streamline patterns not parallel to the center lines of parent or daughter tubes were found for all models. These effects were accentuated with increasing Reynolds number. Flow separation was inducible through alteration of flow division between daughter vessels or by an increase in flow rate. Each of the four models had distinct combinations of flow division ratio and flow rate which gave: (1) no flow separation, (2) flow separation at the outside of the right daughter tube, and (3) flow separation at the outside of the left daughter tube. Models representing the renal artery also had regions of simultaneous left- and righthand separation on the outside of their daughter tubes. The separated flows observed here displayed streamlines forming an open vortex with flows entering and leaving. These regions, which occur only at distinct combinations of flow rate and flow division, may be key centers where platelet aggregates may form, release constituents, and cause vessel injury.

  19. Modeling of debris flow depositional patterns according to the catchments and sediment source areas characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Deangeli, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    A method to predict the most probable flow rheology in Alpine debris flows is presented. The methods classifies outcropping rock masses in catchments on the basis of the type of resulting unconsolidated deposits. The grain size distribution of the debris material and the depositional style of past debris flow events are related to the dominant flow processes: viscoplastic and frictional/collisional. Three catchments in the upper Susa Valley (Western Alps), characterized by different lithologies, were selected for numerical analysis carried out with a Cellular Automata code with viscoplastic and frictional/collisional rheologies. The obtained numerical results are in good agreement with in site evidences in terms of depositional patterns, confirming the possibility of choosing the rheology of the debris flow based on the source material within the catchment.

  20. A mesoscopic approach on stability and phase transition between different traffic flow states

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Wei-Liang; Lin, Kai; Machado, Romuel F; Hama, Yogiro

    2015-01-01

    It is understood that congestion in traffic can be interpreted in terms of the instability of the equation of dynamic motion. The evoltuion of a traffic system from an unstable or metastable state to a globally stable state bears a strong resemblance to the phase transition in thermodynamics. In this work, we explore the underlying physics of the traffic system, by examing closely the physical properties and mathematical constraints of the phase transitons therein. By using a mesoscopic approach, one entitles the catastrophe model the same physical content as in the Landau's theory, and uncovers its close connection to the instability and phase transitions. In addition to the one-dimensional configuration space, we generalize our discussion to the higher-dimensional case, where the observed temporal oscillation in traffic flow data is attributed to the curl of a vector field. We exhibit that our model can reproduce main features of the observed fundamental diagram including the inverse-$\\lambda$ shape and the...

  1. Compressible DNS of transitional and turbulent flow in a low pressure turbine cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajesh; Deshpande, Suresh; Narasimha, Roddam

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of flow in a low pressure turbine cascade at high incidence is performed using a new in-house code ANUROOP. This code solves compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservative form using finite volume technique and uses kinetic-energy consistent scheme for the flux calculations. ANUROOP is capable of handling flow past complex geometries using hybrid grid approach (separate grid topologies for the boundary layer and rest of the blade passage). This approach offers much more control in mesh spacing and distribution compared to elliptic grid technique, which is used in many previous studies. Also, in contrast to previous studies, focus of the current work is mainly on the boundary layer flow. The flow remains laminar on the pressure side of the blade, but separates in the aft region of the suction side leading to transition. Separation bubbles formed at this region are transient in nature and we notice multiple bubbles merging and breaking in time. In the mean flow however, only one bubble is seen. Velocity profiles very near to the leading edge of the suction side suggest strong curvature effect. Higher-order boundary layer theory that includes effect of curvature is found to be necessary to characterize the flow in this region. Also, the grid convergence study reveals interesting aspects of numerics vital for accurate simulation of this kind of complex flows. We would like to thank the Gas Turbine Enabling Technology (GATET) Program for funding this project. We also thank C-DAC, Pune and CSIR-4PI, Bangalore for providing computational resources.

  2. Impact of melting snow on the valley flow field and precipitation phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Julie M.; Milbrandt, Jason A.; Doyle, Jonathan; Minder, Justin R.; Thompson, Gregory; Sarkadi, Noemi; Geresdi, Istvan

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of precipitation phase and intensity in complex terrain is challenging when the surface temperature is near 0 °C. In calm weather conditions, melting snow often leads to a 0 °C-isothermal layer. The temperature feedback from melting snow generates cold dense air moving downslope, hence altering the dynamics of the storm. A correlation has been commonly observed between the direction of the valley flow and the precipitation phase transition in complex terrain. This study examines the impact of temperature feedback from melting snow on the direction of the valley flow when the temperature is near 0 °C. Semi-idealized two-dimensional simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model were conducted for a case of moderate precipitation in the Pacific Coast Ranges. The results demonstrate that the temperature feedbacks caused by melting snow affect the direction of the flow in valleys. Several microphysics schemes (1-moment bulk, 2-moment bulk, and bin), which parameterize snow in different ways, all produced a valley flow reversal but at different rates. Experiments examining sensitivity to the initial prescribed snow mixing ratio aloft were conducted to study the threshold precipitation at which this change in the direction of the valley flow field can occur. All prescribed snow fields produced a change in the valley wind velocity but with different timings. Finally, the evolution of the rain-snow boundary with the different snowfields was also studied and compared with the evolution of the wind speed near the surface. It was found that the change in the direction of the valley flow occurs after the 0 °C isotherm reaches the base of the mountain. Overall this study showed the importance to account for the latent heat exchange from melting snow. This weak temperature feedback can impact, in some specific weather conditions, the valley flow field in a mountainous area.

  3. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern based on image texture spectrum descriptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xi-guo; JIN Ning-de; WANG Zhen-ya; ZHANG Wen-yin

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic image information of typical gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in vertical upward pipe is captured by a high-speed dynamic camera. The texture spectrum descriptor is used to describe the texture characteristics of the processed images whose content is represented in the form of texture spectrum histogram, and four time-varying characteristic param-eter indexes which represent image texture structure of different flow patterns are extracted. The study results show that the amplitude fluctuation of texture characteristic parameter indexes of bubble flow is lowest and shows very random complex dynamic behavior; the amplitude fluctuation of slug flow is higher and shows intermittent motion behavior between gas slug and liquid slug, and the amplitude fluctuation of churn flow is the highest and shows better periodicity; the amplitude fluctuation of bubble-slug flow is from low to high and oscillating frequence is higher than that of slug flow, and includes the features of both slug flow and bubble flow; the slug-churn flow loses the periodicity of slug flow and churn flow, and the amplitude fluctuation is high. The results indicate that the image texture characteristic parameter indexes of different flow pattern can reflect the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, which provides a new approach to tmderstand the temporal and spatial evolution of flow pattern dynamics.

  4. Experimental and visual study on flow patterns and pressure drops in U-tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Lima, J. R.

    2011-07-01

    In single- and two-phase flow heat exchangers (in particular 'coils'), besides the straight tubes there are also many singularities, in particular the 180° return bends (also called return bends or U-bends). However, contrary to the literature concerning pressure drops and heat transfer in straight tubes, where many experimental data and predicting methods are available, only a limited number of studies concerning U-bends can be found. Neither reliable experimental data nor proven prediction methods are available. Indeed, flow structure, pressure drop and heat transfer in U-bends are an old unresolved design problem in the heat transfer industry. Thus, the present study aims at providing further insight on two-phase pressure drops and flows patterns in U-bends. Based on a new type of U-bend test section, an extensive experimental study was conducted. The experimental campaign covered five test sections with three internal diameters (7.8, 10.8 and 13.4 mm), five bend diameters (24.8, 31.7, 38.1, 54.8 and 66.1 mm), tested for three orientations (horizontal, vertical upflow and vertical downflow), two fluids (R134a and R410A), two saturation temperatures (5 and 10 °C) and mass velocities ranging from 150 to 1000 kg s{sup -1} m{sup -2}. The flow pattern observations identified were stratified-wavy, slug-stratified-wavy, intermittent, annular, dryout and mist flows. The effects of the U-bend on the flow patterns were also observed. A total of 5655 pressure drop data were measured at seven different locations in the test section ( straight tubes and U-bend) providing a total of almost 40,000 data points. The straight tube data were first used to improve the actual two-phase straight tube model of Moreno-Quibén and Thome. This updated model was then used to developed a two-phase U-bend pressure drop model. Based on a comparison between experimental and predicted values, it is concluded that the new two-phase frictional pressure drop model for U

  5. Fractal regional myocardial blood flows pattern according to metabolism, not vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yipintsoi, Tada; Kroll, Keith; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2016-02-01

    Regional myocardial blood flows are markedly heterogeneous. Fractal analysis shows strong near-neighbor correlation. In experiments to distinguish control by vascular anatomy vs. local vasomotion, coronary flows were increased in open-chest dogs by stimulating myocardial metabolism (catecholamines + atropine) with and without adenosine. During control states mean left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flows (microspheres) were 0.5-1 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) and increased to 2-3 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with catecholamine infusion and to ∼4 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with adenosine (Ado). Flow heterogeneity was similar in all states: relative dispersion (RD = SD/mean) was ∼25%, using LV pieces 0.1-0.2% of total. During catecholamine infusion local flows increased in proportion to the mean flows in 45% of the LV, "tracking" closely (increased proportionately to mean flow), while ∼40% trended toward the mean. Near-neighbor regional flows remained strongly spatially correlated, with fractal dimension D near 1.2 (Hurst coefficient 0.8). The spatial patterns remain similar at varied levels of metabolic stimulation inferring metabolic dominance. In contrast, adenosine vasodilation increased flows eightfold times control while destroying correlation with the control state. The Ado-induced spatial patterns differed from control but were self-consistent, inferring that with full vasodilation the relaxed arterial anatomy dominates the distribution. We conclude that vascular anatomy governs flow distributions during adenosine vasodilation but that metabolic vasoregulation dominates in normal physiological states.

  6. Flow patterns of larval fish: undulatory swimming in the intermediate flow regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrike K; van den Boogaart, Jos G M; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2008-01-01

    Fish larvae, like many adult fish, swim by undulating their body. However, their body size and swimming speeds put them in the intermediate flow regime, where viscous and inertial forces both play an important role in the interaction between fish and water. To study the influence of the relatively high viscous forces compared with adult fish, we mapped the flow around swimming zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae using two-dimensional digital particle image velocimetry (2D-DPIV) in the horizontal and transverse plane of the fish. Fish larvae initiate a swimming bout by bending their body into a C shape. During this initial tail-beat cycle, larvae shed two vortex pairs in the horizontal plane of their wake, one during the preparatory and one during the subsequent propulsive stroke. When they swim ;cyclically' (mean swimming speed does not change significantly between tail beats), fish larvae generate a wide drag wake along their head and anterior body. The flow along the posterior body is dominated by the undulating body movements that cause jet flows into the concave bends of the body wave. Patches of elevated vorticity form around the jets, and travel posteriorly along with the body wave, until they are ultimately shed at the tail near the moment of stroke reversal. Behind the larva, two vortex pairs are formed per tail-beat cycle (the tail beating once left-to-right and then right-to-left) in the horizontal plane of the larval wake. By combining transverse and horizontal cross sections of the wake, we inferred that the wake behind a cyclically swimming zebrafish larva contains two diverging rows of vortex rings to the left and right of the mean path of motion, resembling the wake of steadily swimming adult eels. When the fish larva slows down at the end of a swimming bout, it gradually reduces its tail-beat frequency and amplitude, while the separated boundary layer and drag wake of the anterior body extend posteriorly to envelope the entire larva. This drag wake is

  7. Transitional DDES computations of the NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we describe CFD simulations of the well known NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions using a newly developed technique of combining turbulence modeling by the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) technique with laminar/turbulent transition modeling by a correlation...... based method. We demonstrate how the power production around the onset of stall is very dependent on the turbulence intensity in the inflow. Additionally, we compare with measurements and illustrate how the unsteady loads from the DDES simulations can provide valuable insight in the transient behavior...

  8. Phase transitions in a new car-following traffic flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Shi Peng-Fei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the well-known optimal velocity car-following model(the OVM) with numerical simulation in describing the acceleration process that is induced by the motion of a ldading car with a pre-specifide speed profile. Results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing this process. Modification of the OVM to overcome the deficiency is demonstrated. The linear stability for the modified model is analysed. If the linear stability condition can not be satisfied, phase transitions occur on varying the initial homogeneous headway of the traffic flow.

  9. Flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in a horizontal circular micro-channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-01-15

    Adiabatic two-phase air-water flow characteristics, including the two-phase flow pattern as well as the void fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop, in a circular micro-channel are experimentally studied. A fused silica channel, 320 mm long, with an inside diameter of 0.53 mm is used as the test section. The test runs are done at superficial velocity of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-16 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow pattern map is developed from the observed flow patterns i.e. slug flow, throat-annular flow, churn flow and annular-rivulet flow. The flow pattern map is compared with those of other researchers obtained from different working fluids. The present single-phase experiments also show that there are no significant differences in the data from the use of air or nitrogen gas, and water or de-ionized water. The void fraction data obtained by image analysis tends to correspond with the homogeneous flow model. The two-phase pressure drops are also used to calculate the frictional multiplier. The multiplier data show a dependence on flow pattern as well as mass flux. A new correlation of two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical application. (author)

  10. The shock-vortex interaction patterns affected by vortex flow regime and vortex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keun-Shik; Barik, Hrushikesh; Chang, Se-Myong

    2009-08-01

    We have used a third-order essentially non-oscillatory method to obtain numerical shadowgraphs for investigation of shock-vortex interaction patterns. To search different interaction patterns, we have tested two vortex models (the composite vortex model and the Taylor vortex model) and as many as 47 parametric data sets. By shock-vortex interaction, the impinging shock is deformed to a S-shape with leading and lagging parts of the shock. The vortex flow is locally accelerated by the leading shock and locally decelerated by the lagging shock, having a severely elongated vortex core with two vertices. When the leading shock escapes the vortex, implosion effect creates a high pressure in the vertex area where the flow had been most expanded. This compressed region spreads in time with two frontal waves, an induced expansion wave and an induced compression wave. They are subsonic waves when the shock-vortex interaction is weak but become supersonic waves for strong interactions. Under a intermediate interaction, however, an induced shock wave is first developed where flow speed is supersonic but is dissipated where the incoming flow is subsonic. We have identified three different interaction patterns that depend on the vortex flow regime characterized by the shock-vortex interaction.

  11. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  12. Numerical experiments on transition control in wall-bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringen, S.; Caruso, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a numerical simulation of transition control in plane channel and boundary layer flows. The analysis is based on a pseudo-spectral/finite difference semi-implicit solution procedure employed to numerically integrate the time-dependent, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a doubly periodic domain. In the channel flow, it was found that the active periodic suction/blowing method was effective in controlling strongly three-dimensional disturbances. In the boundary layer, the preliminary analysis indicated that in the early stages, passive control by suction is as effective as active control to suppress instabilities. The current work is focused on a detailed comparison of active and passive control by suction/blowing in the boundary layer.

  13. Possible User-Dependent CFD Predictions of Transitional Flow in Building Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lei; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Wang, Xiaoxue;

    2016-01-01

    among different teams. It indicates that the combined effects of a lack of general turbulence model, and possible errors in multiple decisions based on users’ experience may have caused the observed significant difference. Prediction of transitional flows, as often observed in building ventilation......A modified backward-facing step flow with a large expansion ratio of five (5) was modelled by 19 teams without benchmark solutions or experimental data for validation in an ISHVAC-COBEE July 2015 Tianjin Workshop, entitled as “to predict low turbulent flow”. Different computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) codes/software, turbulence models, boundary conditions, numerical schemes and convergent criteria were adopted based on the own CFD experience of each participating team. The largest coefficient of variation is larger than 50% and the largest relative maximum difference of penetration length...

  14. Dynamic enhanced multi-slice spiral CT in evaluation of blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules with enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shenjiang; XIAO Xiangsheng; LIU Shiyuan; LI Huimin; LI Chengzhou; ZHANG Chenshi; TAO Zhiwei; YANG Chunshan

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methods of dynamic enhanced multi-slice spiral CT in evaluation of blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) with enhancement. Methods Seventy eight patients with SPNs (≤4 cm) with strong enhancement underwent dynamic multi-slice spiral CT (Marconi Mx8000) scan before and after contrast enhancement by injecting contrast material with a rate of 4 mL/s. For the 40 patients in protocol one, one scan was obtained every 2 seconds during 15-45 and 75- 105 seconds after injection, while for the 38 patients in protocol two, one scan was obtained every 2 seconds during 11-41 and 71-101 seconds. For all the patients, one scan was obtained every 30 seconds during 2 9 minutes. The section thickness was 2.5 mm for lesions ≤3 cm and 5 mm for lesions >3 cm. Standard algorithm was used in the image reconstruction. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. The perfusion,peak height, ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta and mean transit time were calculated. Results The peak height, perfusion, ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta and mean transit time in malignant SPNs were 34. 85 Hu±10.87 Hu, 30. 37 ml/(min· 100 g)±11. 14 ml/(min · 100 g), 13. 78%±3.96%, 14.19 s±6.19 s respectively in protocol one, while those in protocol two were 36.62 Hu±10.75 Hu,30.01 ml/(min · 100 g)±8.10 ml/(min · 100 g), 14.70 %±4.71%, 13.91 s±4.82 s respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the peak height (t = 0. 673, P = 0. 503), perfusion (t =0.152, P=0.880), ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (t 0.861, P 0.393) and mean transit time (t= 0. 199, P=0. 843) in malignant SPNs measured in protocol one and those measured in protocol two. All mean transit time in protocol two (36/36) were obtained, but only part of them (25/32) were ob tained in protocol one. Conclusion Dynamic enhanced multi-slice spiral CT is a non-invasive method for

  15. Laterally Stitched Heterostructures of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide: Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth on Lithographically Patterned Area

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2016-10-31

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have shown great promise in electronics and optoelectronics due to their unique electrical and optical properties. Heterostructured TMDC layers such as the laterally stitched TMDCs offer the advantages of better electronic contact and easier band offset tuning. Here, we demonstrate a photoresist-free focused ion beam (FIB) method to pattern as-grown TMDC monolayers by chemical vapor deposition, where the exposed edges from FIB etching serve as the seeds for growing a second TMDC material to form desired lateral heterostructures with arbitrary layouts. The proposed lithographic and growth processes offer better controllability for fabrication of the TMDC heterostrucuture, which enables the construction of devices based on heterostructural monolayers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  16. Assessment on the Cohesion Pattern of Rail Transit: Integration of Rough Set and Grey Correlation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhijie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing project assessment relies on expert scoring, whose precision can be deteriorated by personal subjectivity. This paper presents an assessment method to compare the advantages and disadvantages of three cohesion patterns between suburban and urban rail transit network, which reduces the influence of subjective score. A modified rough set – grey correlation model is developed as a core of this assessment, based on the integration of rough set theory and grey correlational analysis, where an index system is set up for model calculation. A case study using the network in Ningbo is applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the results show that the method is more effective using discretely distributed data sensitive to sample size. The consistency of the results in comparison with marginal cost analysis can be a preliminary verification of the model.

  17. Laminar-turbulent patterning in wall-bounded shear flows: a Galerkin model

    CERN Document Server

    Seshasayanan, K

    2015-01-01

    On its way to turbulence, plane Couette flow - the flow between counter-translating parallel plates - displays a puzzling steady oblique laminar-turbulent pattern. We approach this problem via Galerkin modelling of the Navier-Stokes equations. The wall-normal dependence of the hydrodynamic field is treated by means of expansions on functional bases fitting the boundary conditions exactly. This yields a set of partial differential equations for the spatiotemporal dynamics in the plane of the flow. Truncating this set beyond lowest nontrivial order is numerically shown to produce the expected pattern, therefore improving over what was obtained at cruder effective wall-normal resolution. Perspectives opened by the approach are discussed.

  18. Speed dependent stochasticity capacitates Newell model for synchronized flow and oscillation growth pattern

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Jia, Bin; Ma, Shoufeng; Gao, Ziyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper has incorporated the stochasticity into the Newell car following model. Three stochastic driving factors have been considered: (i) Driver's acceleration is stochastic and bounded. (ii) Driver's deceleration includes stochastic component, which is depicted by a deceleration with the randomization probability that is assumed to increase with the speed. (iii) Vehicles in the jam state have a larger randomization probability. Two simulation scenarios are conducted to test the model. In the first scenario, traffic flow on a circular road is investigated, and the empirical characteristics of the synchronized traffic flow can be simulated. In the second scenario, traffic flow pattern induced by a rubberneck bottleneck is studied, and the simulated traffic oscillations are consistent with that in the NGSIM data. Moreover, two experiments of model calibration and validation are conducted. The first is to calibrate and validate using experimental data, which illustrates that the concave growth pattern has be...

  19. Fractal flow patterns in hydrophobic microfluidic pore networks: experimental modeling of two-phase flow in porous electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Sinton, David; Djilali, Ned

    2009-01-01

    Experimental two-phase invasion percolation flow patterns were observed in hydrophobic micro-porous networks designed to model fuel cell specific porous media. In order to mimic the operational conditions encountered in the porous electrodes of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), micro-porous networks were fabricated with corresponding microchannel size distributions. The inlet channels were invaded homogeneously with flow rates corresponding to fuel cell current densities of 1.0 to 0.1 A/cm2 (Ca 10e-7-10e-8). A variety of fractal breakthrough patterns were observed and analyzed to quantify flooding density and geometrical diversity in terms of the total saturation, St, local saturations, s, and fractal dimension, D. It was found that St increases monotonically during the invasion process until the breakthrough point is reached, and s profiles indicate the dynamic distribution of the liquid phase during the process. Fractal analysis confirmed that the experiments fall within the flow regime of i...

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound duplex scanning for measurement of portal venous flow. Validation against transit time ultrasound flowmetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E F; Strandberg, C; Bendtsen, F;

    1999-01-01

    with that of transit time ultrasound (TTU) in healthy pigs. The ability of EUS to detect changes in the portal venous flow after pharmacologic intervention was also investigated. METHODS: Six anaesthetized pigs were studied. Portal venous flow was measured simultaneously by EUS duplex scanning, using a Pentax FG-32UA...

  1. Analysis of A-phase transitions during the cyclic alternating pattern under normal sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Alba, Alfonso; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Grassi, Andrea; Arce-Santana, Edgar; Milioli, Guilia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Parrino, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the EEG signal during the B-phase and A-phases transitions of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) during sleep is presented. CAP is a sleep phenomenon composed by consecutive sequences of A-phases (each A-phase could belong to a possible group A1, A2 or A3) observed during the non-REM sleep. Each A-phase is separated by a B-phase which has the basal frequency of the EEG during a specific sleep stage. The patterns formed by these sequences reflect the sleep instability and consequently help to understand the sleep process. Ten recordings from healthy good sleepers were included in this study. The current study investigates complexity, statistical and frequency signal properties of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at the transitions: B-phase--A-phase. In addition, classification between the onset-offset of the A-phases and B-phase was carried out with a kNN classifier. The results showed that EEG signal presents significant differences (p sleep stages. The statistical analysis of variance shows that more than 80% of the A-phase onset and offset is significantly different from the B-phase. The classification performance between onset or offset of A-phases and background showed classification values over 80% for specificity and accuracy and 70% for sensitivity. Only during the A3-phase, the classification was lower. The results suggest that neural assembles that generate the basal EEG oscillations during sleep present an over-imposed coordination for a few seconds due to the A-phases. The main characteristics for automatic separation between the onset-offset A-phase and the B-phase are the energy at the different frequency bands.

  2. Granular-flow rheology: Role of shear-rate number in transition regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-L.; Ling, C.-H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale behind the semiempirical formulation of a generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model in the light of the Reiner-Rivlin constitutive theory and the viscoplastic theory, thereby identifying the parameters that control the rheology of granular flow. The shear-rate number (N) proves to be among the most significant parameters identified from the GVF model. As N ??? 0 and N ??? ???, the GVF model can reduce asymptotically to the theoretical stress versus shear-rate relations in the macroviscous and graininertia regimes, respectively, where the grain concentration (C) also plays a major role in the rheology of granular flow. Using available data obtained from the rotating-cylinder experiments of neutrally buoyant solid spheres dispersing in an interstitial fluid, the shear stress for granular flow in transition between the two regimes proves dependent on N and C in addition to some material constants, such as the coefficient of restitution. The insufficiency of data on rotating-cylinder experiments cannot presently allow the GVF model to predict how a granular flow may behave in the entire range of N; however, the analyzed data provide an insight on the interrelation among the relevant dimensionless parameters.

  3. On the effect of stochastic transition in the fundamental diagram of traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira, Adriano Francisco; Wu, Chen; Qian, Wei-Liang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose an alternative stochastic model for the fundamental diagram of traffic flow with minimal number of parameters. Our approach is based on a mesoscopic viewpoint of the traffic system in terms of the dynamics of vehicle velocity transitions. A key feature of the present approach lies in its stochastic nature which makes it possible to describe not only the flow-concentration relation, the so-called fundamental diagram in traffic engineering, but also its variance -- an important ingredient in the observed data of traffic flow. It is shown that the model can be seen as a derivative of the Boltzmann equation when assuming a discrete velocity spectrum. The latter assumption significantly simplifies the mathematics and therefore, facilitates the study of its physical content through the analytic solutions. The model parameters are then adjusted to reproduce the observed traffic flow on the "23 de maio" highway in the Brazilian city of Sao Paulo, where both the fundamental diagram and its var...

  4. Molecular weight dependence of surface flow near the bulk glass transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yu; Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphael, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the study on molecular weight dependent sub-Tg surface dynamics of polymer thin films by using the Nano-step experiment [McGraw et al. Soft Matter 7, 7832 (2011)]. By varying the molecular weight, we are able to probe the surface dynamics of the free surface below Tg with the polymer size comparable to the surface depth. In particular, we define and use a correlation function to compare measured and calculated profiles to analyze the transition from the bulk flow to flow restricted to the surface region. Surprisingly, even for the polymers with Mw = 22,000 surface flow is still observed below the bulk Tg value. A numerical simulation of random walk is used to find the fraction of polymer of which all of the polymer segments are located in the free surface region. The simulation results indicate that there are still a significant fraction of polymer molecules where all segments are in the near free surface region. These molecules can undergo flow consistent with the experimental results.

  5. Flow Pattern Analysis and Performance Improvement of Regenerative Flow Pump Using Blade Geometry Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nejadrajabali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative pump is a low specific speed and rotor-dynamic turbomachine capable of developing high heads at low flow rates. In this paper, a numerical study has been carried out in order to investigate the effect of blade angle on the performance of a regenerative pump. Two groups of impellers were employed. The first type has symmetric angle blades with identical inlet/outlet angles of ±10°, ±30°, and ±50° and the second group has nonsymmetric angle blades in which the inlet angle was set to 0° and six different angles of ±10°, ±30°, and ±50° were designed for the outlet of the blades. A total of 12 impellers, as well as primary radial blades impeller, were investigated in this study. The results showed that all forward blades have higher head coefficients than radial blades impeller at design flow coefficient. It was found that regenerative pumps with symmetric angle forward blades have better performance than other types. Also, it is worth mentioning that the highest head coefficient and efficiency occur at angle +10<β<+30 of symmetric angle blades. It was found that the maximum efficiency occurs at angle of +15.5° by curve fitting to the data obtained from numerical simulations for symmetric angle forward blades.

  6. Streaming driven by sessile microbubbles: Explaining flow patterns and frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Guo, Lin; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound excitation of bubbles drives powerful steady streaming flows which have found widespread applications in microfluidics, where bubbles are typically of semicircular cross section and attached to walls of the device (sessile). While bubble-driven streaming in bulk fluid is well understood, this practically relevant case presents additional complexity introduced by the wall and contact lines. We develop an asymptotic theory that takes into account the presence of the wall as well as the oscillation dynamics of the bubble, providing a complete description of the streaming flow as a function only of the driving frequency, the bubble size, and the physical properties of the fluid. We show that the coupling between different bubble oscillation modes sustains the experimentally observed streaming flow vortex pattern over a broad range of frequencies, greatly exceeding the widths of individual mode resonances. Above a threshold frequency, we predict, and observe in experiment, reversal of the flow direction. Our analytical theory can be used to guide the design of microfluidic devices, both in situations where robust flow patterns insensitive to parameter changes are desired (e.g. lab-on-a-chip sorters), and in cases where intentional modulation of the flow field appearance is key (e.g. efficient mixers). Current address: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology.

  7. An artificial intelligence based improved classification of two-phase flow patterns with feature extracted from acquired images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, C; Pappa, N

    2017-05-01

    Flow pattern recognition is necessary to select design equations for finding operating details of the process and to perform computational simulations. Visual image processing can be used to automate the interpretation of patterns in two-phase flow. In this paper, an attempt has been made to improve the classification accuracy of the flow pattern of gas/ liquid two- phase flow using fuzzy logic and Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The videos of six different types of flow patterns namely, annular flow, bubble flow, churn flow, plug flow, slug flow and stratified flow are recorded for a period and converted to 2D images for processing. The textural and shape features extracted using image processing are applied as inputs to various classification schemes namely fuzzy logic, SVM and SVM with PCA in order to identify the type of flow pattern. The results obtained are compared and it is observed that SVM with features reduced using PCA gives the better classification accuracy and computationally less intensive than other two existing schemes. This study results cover industrial application needs including oil and gas and any other gas-liquid two-phase flows. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual-RiverSonde measurements of two-dimensional river flow patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; Stumpner, P.; Burau, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional river flow patterns have been measured using a pair of RiverSondes in two experiments in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta system of central California during April and October 2007. An experiment was conducted at Walnut Grove, California in order to explore the use of dual RiverSondes to measure flow patterns at a location which is important in the study of juvenile fish migration. The data available during the first experiment were limited by low wind, so a second experiment was conducted at Threemile Slough where wind conditions and surface turbulence historically have resulted in abundant data. Both experiments included ADCP near-surface velocity measurements from either manned or unmanned boats. Both experiments showed good comparisons between the RiverSonde and ADCP measurements. The flow conditions at both locations are dominated by tidal effects, with partial flow reversal at Walnut Grove and complete flow reversal at Threemile Slough. Both systems showed complex flow patterns during the flow reversals. Quantitative comparisons between the RiverSondes and an ADCP on a manned boat at Walnut Grove showed mean differences of 4.5 cm/s in the u (eastward) and 7.6 cm/s in the v (northward) components, and RMS differences of 14.7 cm/s in the u component and 21.0 cm/s in the v component. Quantitative comparisons between the RiverSondes and ADCPs on autonomous survey vessels at Threemile Slough showed mean differences of 0.007 cm/s in the u component and 0.5 cm/s in the v component, and RMS differences of 7.9 cm/s in the u component and 13.5 cm/s in the v component after obvious outliers were removed. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  9. Transition in a granular chute flow due to periodic and aperiodic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Bharathraj; v, Kumaran

    2015-11-01

    Granular flow down an inclined plane exhibits a transition from a disordered,random state to an ordered state with layers of particles with in-layer hexagonal order, when there is a small change in the roughness of the base. In earlier studies,a rough base was created using a random arrangement of frozen particles at the base,and the roughness was varied by varying the ratio of the frozen and moving particle diameters.Here,the effect of a different form of base roughness,which is sinusoidal perturbations of varying amplitude and wavelength,is also examined. The transition from an ordered to disordered state is also observed when a sinusoidal base is used, when the amplitude of the sine wave increases beyond a critical value.The critical amplitude initially increases as the wavelength is increased, reaches a maximum and then decreases as the wavelength is further increased. The critical amplitude also increases as the height of the flow increases.The states induced by the sinusoidal base have peculiar transient features, where there is a tendency to order at intermediate times in disordered states, unlike the rough base where no such tendency is observed.We also formulate a boundary layer theory for the ordered state, which develops in two distinct stages of shear propagation

  10. State-to-State Mode Specificity: Energy Sequestration and Flow Gated by Transition State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2015-12-23

    Energy flow and sequestration at the state-to-state level are investigated for a prototypical four-atom reaction, H2 + OH → H + H2O, using a transition-state wave packet (TSWP) method. The product state distribution is found to depend strongly on the reactant vibrational excitation, indicating mode specificity at the state-to-state level. From a local-mode perspective, it is shown that the vibrational excitation of the H2O product derives from two different sources, one attributable to the energy flow along the reaction coordinate into the newly formed OH bond and the other due to the sequestration of the vibrational energy in the OH spectator moiety during the reaction. The analysis provided a unified interpretation of some seemingly contradicting experimental observations. It is further shown that the transfer of vibrational energy from the OH reactant to H2O product is gated by the transition state, accomplished coherently by multiple TSWPs with the corresponding OH vibrational excitation.

  11. Transitional phenomenon of particle dispersion in gas-solid two-phase flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Kun; FAN JianRen; CEN KeFa

    2007-01-01

    Without using any turbulent model, direct numerical simulation of a three-dimensional gas-solid two-phase turbulent jet was performed by finite volume method. The effects on dispersion of particles with different Stokes numbers by the transitional behavior of turbulent structures were investigated. To produce high-resolution results and reduce the computation and storage, the fractional-step projection algorithm was used to solve the governing equations of gas phase fluid. The low-storage, three-order Runge-Kutta scheme was used for time integration. The governing equations of particles were solved in the Lagrangian framework. These numerical schemes were validated by the good agreement between the statistical results of flow field and the related experimental data. In the study of particle dispersion, it was found that the effects on particle dispersion by the spanwise vortex structures were prominent. The new behaviors of particle dispersion were also observed during the evolution of the flow field, i.e. the transitional phenomenon of particle dispersion occurs for the particles with small and intermediate Stokes numbers.

  12. An introduction to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of phase transitions and nonequilibrium patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberg, P. C.; Krekhov, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an introduction to phase transitions and critical phenomena on the one hand, and nonequilibrium patterns on the other, using the Ginzburg-Landau theory as a unified language. In the first part, mean-field theory is presented, for both statics and dynamics, and its validity tested self-consistently. As is well known, the mean-field approximation breaks down below four spatial dimensions, where it can be replaced by a scaling phenomenology. The Ginzburg-Landau formalism can then be used to justify the phenomenological theory using the renormalization group, which elucidates the physical and mathematical mechanism for universality. In the second part of the paper it is shown how near pattern forming linear instabilities of dynamical systems, a formally similar Ginzburg-Landau theory can be derived for nonequilibrium macroscopic phenomena. The real and complex Ginzburg-Landau equations thus obtained yield nontrivial solutions of the original dynamical system, valid near the linear instability. Examples of such solutions are plane waves, defects such as dislocations or spirals, and states of temporal or spatiotemporal (extensive) chaos.

  13. An introduction to the Ginzburg–Landau theory of phase transitions and nonequilibrium patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberg, P.C., E-mail: pierre.hohenberg@nyu.edu [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Krekhov, A.P. [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-04-04

    This paper presents an introduction to phase transitions and critical phenomena on the one hand, and nonequilibrium patterns on the other, using the Ginzburg–Landau theory as a unified language. In the first part, mean-field theory is presented, for both statics and dynamics, and its validity tested self-consistently. As is well known, the mean-field approximation breaks down below four spatial dimensions, where it can be replaced by a scaling phenomenology. The Ginzburg–Landau formalism can then be used to justify the phenomenological theory using the renormalization group, which elucidates the physical and mathematical mechanism for universality. In the second part of the paper it is shown how near pattern forming linear instabilities of dynamical systems, a formally similar Ginzburg–Landau theory can be derived for nonequilibrium macroscopic phenomena. The real and complex Ginzburg–Landau equations thus obtained yield nontrivial solutions of the original dynamical system, valid near the linear instability. Examples of such solutions are plane waves, defects such as dislocations or spirals, and states of temporal or spatiotemporal (extensive) chaos.

  14. a Numerical Investigation of the Jamming Transition in Traffic Flow on Diluted Planar Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achler, Gabriele; Barra, Adriano

    In order to develop a toy model for car's traffic in cities, in this paper we analyze, by means of numerical simulations, the transition among fluid regimes and a congested jammed phase of the flow of kinetically constrained hard spheres in planar random networks similar to urban roads. In order to explore as timescales as possible, at a microscopic level we implement an event driven dynamics as the infinite time limit of a class of already existing model (Follow the Leader) on an Erdos-Renyi two-dimensional graph, the crossroads being accounted by standard Kirchoff density conservations. We define a dynamical order parameter as the ratio among the moving spheres versus the total number and by varying two control parameters (density of the spheres and coordination number of the network) we study the phase transition. At a mesoscopic level it respects an, again suitable, adapted version of the Lighthill-Whitham model, which belongs to the fluid-dynamical approach to the problem. At a macroscopic level, the model seems to display a continuous transition from a fluid phase to a jammed phase when varying the density of the spheres (the amount of cars in a city-like scenario) and a discontinuous jump when varying the connectivity of the underlying network.

  15. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhaoming

    2016-06-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron self-Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value dot{M} ˜ 3α dot{M}_Edd, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down on to the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary, our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenario for the state transition.

  16. Nonlinear optimal control of bypass transition in a boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dandan; Papadakis, George

    2017-05-01

    The central aim of the paper is to apply and assess a nonlinear optimal control strategy to suppress bypass transition, due to bimodal interactions [T. A. Zaki and P. A. Durbin, "Mode interaction and the bypass route to transition," J. Fluid Mech. 531, 85 (2005)] in a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. To this end, a Lagrange variational formulation is employed that results in a set of adjoint equations. The optimal wall actuation (blowing and suction from a control slot) is found by solving iteratively the nonlinear Navier-Stokes and the adjoint equations in a forward/backward loop using direct numerical simulation. The optimization is performed in a finite time horizon. Large values of optimization horizon result in the instability of the adjoint equations. The control slot is located exactly in the region of transition. The results show that the control is able to significantly reduce the objective function, which is defined as the spatial and temporal integral of the quadratic deviation from the Blasius profile plus a term that quantifies the control cost. The physical mechanism with which the actuation interacts with the flow field is investigated and analysed in relation to the objective function employed. Examination of the joint probability density function shows that the control velocity is correlated with the streamwise velocity in the near wall region but this correlation is reduced as time elapses. The spanwise averaged velocity is distorted by the control action, resulting in a significant reduction of the skin friction coefficient. Results are presented with and without zero-net mass flow constraint of the actuation velocity. The skin friction coefficient drops below the laminar value if there is no mass constraint; it remains however larger than laminar when this constraint is imposed. Results are also compared with uniform blowing using the same time-average velocity obtained from the nonlinear optimal algorithm.

  17. The Hall current system revealed as a statistical significant pattern during fast flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Snekvik

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the dawn-dusk component of the magnetic field, BY, in the night side current sheet during fast flows in the neutral sheet. 237 h of Cluster data from the plasma sheet between 2 August 2002 and 2 October 2002 have been analysed. The spatial pattern of BY as a function of the distance from the centre of the current sheet has been estimated by using a Harris current sheet model. We have used the average slopes of these patterns to estimate earthward and tailward currents. For earthward fast flows there is a tailward current in the inner central plasma sheet and an earthward current in the outer central plasma sheet on average. For tailward fast flows the currents are oppositely directed. These observations are interpreted as signatures of Hall currents in the reconnection region or as field aligned currents which are connected with these currents. Although fast flows often are associated with a dawn-dusk current wedge, we believe that we have managed to filter out such currents from our statistical patterns.

  18. Flow patterns at the stenosed carotid bifurcation: effect of concentric versus eccentric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, D A; Poepping, T L; Tambasco, M; Rankin, R N; Holdsworth, D W

    2000-04-01

    Carotid stenosis severity is a commonly used indicator for assessing risk of stroke. However, the majority of individuals with severe carotid artery disease never suffer a stroke, and strokes can occur even with only mild or moderate stenosis. This suggests local factors (other than stenosis severity) at or near the carotid artery bifurcation may be important in determining stroke risk. In this paper we investigate the effect of stenosis geometry on flow patterns in the stenosed carotid bifurcation, using concentrically and eccentrically stenosed anthropomorphic carotid bifurcation models having identical stenosis severity. Computational simulations and experimental flow visualizations both demonstrate marked differences in flow patterns of concentric and eccentric stenosis models for moderately and severely stenosed cases, respectively. In particular, we identify post-stenotic recirculation zone size and location, and spatial extent of elevated wall shear stress as key factors differing between the two geometries. As these are also rotid plaque more vulnerable to cerebral embolus prokey biophysical factors promoting thrombogenesis, we propose that the stenosed carotid bifurcation geometry--or the induced flow patterns themselves--may provide more specific indicators for those plaques that are vulnerable to enhanced thromboembolic potential, and hence, increased risk of ischemic stroke.

  19. The effects of socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of regions on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäenpää

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies to what extent regional socioeconomic and cultural characteristics explain spatial patterns in the Second Demographic Transition in Finland. The country's 75 functional regions are used as area units. A summary indicator of the transition based on divorce and cohabitation is used as the dependent variable. The results show that the spatial pattern is mainly determined according to the regional level of urbanization, but the effect is mediated by cultural characteristics (secularization and support for the socialist and green parties. The cultural characteristics have only a modest independent effect.

  20. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  1. Bead-flow pattern: quantitation of fluid movement during torsional and longitudinal phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Luis E Fernández; Dimalanta, Ramon C; Solomon, Kerry D

    2010-06-01

    To develop a bead-flow pattern for visualizing and comparatively quantifying fluid movement using a torsional or longitudinal ultrasound (US) phaco handpiece. Magill Laser Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Visualization and quantification of intraocular fluid dynamics were evaluated by injecting neutrally buoyant, collagen-coated polystyrene beads (diameter, 125 to 212 microm) into the phacoemulsification irrigation flow. Using the anterior chamber of a cadaver or porcine eye or a laboratory test chamber, the bead-flow pattern was video recorded. Qualitative comparisons between longitudinal and torsional phacoemulsification were made using video-processing software to track the beads frame by frame. The time (quantitative) required to aspirate a bolus of beads from the anterior chamber (clearance time) was measured and compared between the 2 modalities. Aspiration efficiency was calculated to compare operating conditions in a test chamber using high-speed videography; conditions included irrigation/aspiration (I/A) only (0% power) and clinically relevant fluidic parameters and power modulations with torsional, longitudinal, or a combination of powers applied. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the fluidic patterns of bead flow in the peripheral anterior chamber and near the aspirating tip opening indicated that torsional fluidics behave closer to the I/A-only configuration than longitudinal phacoemulsification, with the latter repelling more bead material in front of the aspiration tip. Bead clearance time was approximately 50% faster with torsional than with longitudinal US, regardless of the power setting. Bead flow-pattern evaluation is a feasible approach to future studies of fluid movement in the anterior chamber. (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of pulmonary system diseases patterns using flow-volume curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabalibeik, Hossein; Jafari, Samaneh; Agin, Khosro

    2011-01-01

    Spirometry is the most common pulmonary function test. It provides useful information for early detection of respiratory system abnormalities. While decision support systems use normally calculated parameters such as FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% to diagnose the pattern of respiratory system diseases, expert physicians pay close attention to the pattern of the flow-volume curve as well. Fisher discriminant analysis shows that coefficients of a simple polynomial function fitted to the curve, can capture the information about the disease patterns much better than the familiar single point parameters. A neural network then can classify the abnormality pattern as restrictive, obstructive, mixed, or normal. Using the data from 205 adult volunteers, total accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for four categories are 97.6%, 97.5% and 98.8% respectively.

  3. Understanding Flow Pathways, Mixing and Transit Times for Water Quality Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S. M.; Bacon, J. R.; Soulsby, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2007-12-01

    Water quality modelling requires representation of the physical processes controlling the movement of solutes and particulates at an appropriate level of detail to address the objective of the model simulations. To understand and develop mitigation strategies for diffuse pollution at catchment scales, it is necessary for models to be able to represent the sources and age of water reaching rivers at different times. Experimental and modelling studies undertaken on several catchments in the north east of Scotland have used natural hydrochemical and isotopic tracers as a means of obtaining spatially integrated information about mixing processes. Methods for obtaining and integrating appropriate data are considered together with the implications of neglecting it. The tracer data have been incorporated in a conceptual hydrological model to study the sensitivity of the modelled tracer response to factors that may not affect runoff simulations but do affect mixing and transit times of the water. Results from the studies have shown how model structural and parameter uncertainties can lead to errors in the representation of: the flow pathways of water; the degree to which these flow pathways have mixed and the length of time for which water has been stored within the soil / groundwater system. It has been found to be difficult to eliminate structural uncertainty regarding the mechanisms of mixing, and parameter uncertainty regarding the role of groundwater. Simulations of nitrate pollution, resulting from the application of agricultural fertilisers, have been undertaken to demonstrate the sensitivity of water quality simulations to the potential errors in physical transport mechanisms, inherent in models that fail to account correctly for flow pathways, mixing and transit times.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of debris flow deposition in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christine L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of debris-flow occurrence were investigated in 125 headwater basins in the Oregon Coast Range. Time since the previous debris-flows was established using dendrochronology, and recurrence interval estimates ranged from 98 to 357 years. Tributary basins with larger drainage areas had a greater abundance of potential landslide source areas and a greater frequency of scouring events compared to smaller basins. The flux rate of material delivered to the confluence with a larger river influenced the development of small-scale debris-flow fans. Fans at the mouths of tributary basins with smaller drainage areas had a higher likelihood of being eroded by the mainstem river in the interval between debris-flows, compared to bigger basins that had larger, more persistent fans. Valley floor width of the receiving channel also influenced fan development because it limited the space available to accommodate fan formation. Of 63 recent debris-flows, 52% delivered sediment and wood directly to the mainstem river, 30% were deposited on an existing fan before reaching the mainstem, and 18% were deposited within the confines of the tributary valley before reaching the confluence. Spatial variation in the location of past and present depositional surfaces indicated that sequential debris-flow deposits did not consistently form in the same place. Instead of being spatially deterministic, results of this study suggest that temporally variable and stochastic factors may be important for predicting the runout length of debris-flows.

  5. Assessment of the debris-flow susceptibility in tropical mountains using clast distribution patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Faria Lima Lopes, Laís; de Almeida Prado Bacellar, Luís; Amorim Castro, Paulo de Tarso

    2016-12-01

    Channel morphometric parameters and clast distribution patterns in selected basins of the Ferriferous Quadrangle tropical mountains, Brazil, were analyzed in order to assess susceptibility to debris flows. Median bed surface clast size (D50) in the main stream channel of these basins shows a coarsening downstream trend with drainage areas of up to 6 km2, which is attributed to debris flow dominated-channels by some authors. The composition and roundness of the bed load, clast sand, and the presence of allochthonous large boulders throughout the channels also suggest the occurrence of past debris flow in the region. Luminescence Optically Stimulated (LOE) dating points out that debris flow could have occurred as a consequence of climate changes in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and it can now be triggered by deforestation or extreme rainfall events. There has not been any record of past debris flow in the study area, or in other mountainous regions of Brazil where debris flows have recently occurred. Thus, the adopted approach can be useful to assess debris flow susceptibility in this and other similar areas.

  6. Flow pattern and lift evolution of hydrofoil with control of electro-magnetic forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YaoHui; FAN BaoChun; CHEN ZhiHua; LI HongZhi

    2009-01-01

    The Initial responses and evolutions of the flow pattern and lift coefficient of a hydrofoil under the ac-tion of electro-magnetic (Lorentz) force have been studied experimentally and numerically,and trace particle methods are employed for them.With the introduction of BVF (boundary vortex flux),the quantitative relation among Lorentz forces,BVF and lifts is deduced.The influences of flow patterns on the hydrofoil lift coefficient have been discussed based on the BVF distribution,and the flow control mechanism of Lorentz force for a hydrofoil has been elucidated.Our results show that the flow pattern and lift of the hydrofoil vary periodically without any force.However,with the action of streamwise Lorentz forces,the separation point on the hydrofoil surface moves backward with a certain velocity,which makes the flow field steady finally.The streamwise Lorentz force raises the foil lift due to the Increase of BVF intensity.On the other hand,Lorentz force also increases the hydrofoil surface pres-sure,which makes the lift decrease.However,the factor leading to the lift enhancement is determinant,therefore,the Lorentz force on the suction side can increase the lift,and the stronger the Lorentz force,the larger the lift enhancement.Our results also show that the localized Lorentz force can also both suppress the flow separation and increase the hydrofoil lift coefficient,furthermore,the Lorentz force located on the tail acts better than that located on the front.

  7. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17-42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion.

  8. The role of turbulence-flow interactions in L- to H-mode transition dynamics: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.

    2017-02-01

    Recent experimental and simulation work has substantially advanced the understanding of L-mode plasma edge turbulence and plasma flows and their mutual interaction across the L-H transition. Flow acceleration and E   ×   B shear flow amplification via the turbulent Reynolds stress have been directly observed in multiple devices, using multi-tip probe arrays, Doppler backscattering, beam emission spectroscopy, and gas puff imaging diagnostics. L-H transitions characterized by limit-cycle oscillations (LCO) allow probing of the trigger dynamics and the synergy of turbulence-driven and pressure-gradient-driven flows with high spatio-temporal resolution. L-mode turbulent structures exhibit characteristic changes in topology (tilting) and temporal and radial correlation preceding the L-H transition. Long-range toroidal flow correlations increase preceding edge-transport-barrier formation. The energy transfer from the turbulence spectrum to large-scale axisymmetric flows has been quantified in L-LCO and fast L-H transitions in several devices. After formation of a transient barrier, the increasing ion pressure gradient (via the E   ×   B flow shear associated with diamagnetic flow) sustains fluctuation suppression and secures the transition to H-mode. Heuristic models of the L-H trigger dynamics have progressed from 0D predator-prey models to 1D extended models, including neoclassical ion flow-damping and pressure-gradient evolution. Initial results from 2D and 3D reduced fluid models have been obtained for high-collisionality regimes.

  9. Ultrasound imaging of flow patterns in liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Solvig, Jan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of colour Doppler, power Doppler and echo-enhanced Doppler imaging to detect the blood flow in liver metastases from colorectal cancer was investigated. An evaluation was then made to determine whether the flow pattern could be used as an indication of disease elsewhere....... METHODS: Forty-two patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer were examined, 8 of whom had local recurrence of their colorectal cancer. Seventy-seven liver metastases were evaluated with colour Doppler and power Doppler, and the presence or absence of a Doppler signal in the halo or centre...... detection rate to 98% (P liver...

  10. Transition to turbulence in stratified shear flow: experiments in an inclined square duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Colin; Linden, Paul

    2013-11-01

    We describe laboratory experiments of countercurrent stratified shear flow in an inclined square duct. To achieve this, a long water tank was partitioned into regions of higher and lower density saltwater that are connected by an inclined square duct. The flow regime was characterized to be turbulent, intermittent, Holmboe or laminar as a function of the duct inclination, θ, and the density difference, Δρ , between the two reservoirs. The density difference and duct angle were systematically varied and a phase plane of flow regime was developed. The transition between the interrmittent regime and turbulence was experimentally determined to occur at θΔρ ~= 20 [degrees kg m-3]. This critical combination of parameters fits into the buoyancy-compensated Reynolds number scaling proposed by Brethouwer et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2007). The turbulent interfacial thickness was found to be a function of the inclination angle, which can be predicted using the buoyancy lengthscale from Waite and Bartello (J. Fluid Mech., 2004) and others. Furthermore, we measured the density profiles at multiple points along the duct, and using these profiles, we modeled the entrainment at the interface. Support provided by the Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States.

  11. Evolution of transitional structures from puff to slug through multiple splitting in a pipe flow at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, J.; Ertunç, Ö.; Ostwald, Ch; Lienhart, H.; Delgado, A.

    2011-12-01

    During laminar-to-turbulent transition in low Reynolds pipe flows, three main types of flow structures occur: traveling waves and the turbulent flow structures, namely puffs and slugs. In the present work, detailed experiments on the probability of occurrence and propagation speed of puffs, splitting puffs and slugs were conducted with the transition pipe-flow facility of LSTM-Erlangen. During the investigations, fully developed laminar pipe flow was triggered by an iris diaphragm with a pre-defined amplitude and lapse time. Different types of single and multiple puffs are classified and the probability of their occurrence as well as their propagation speed at the end of pipes with different lengths are evaluated.

  12. Evolution of transitional structures from puff to slug through multiple splitting in a pipe flow at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, J; Ertunc, Oe; Ostwald, Ch; Lienhart, H; Delgado, A, E-mail: jens.krauss@lstm.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    During laminar-to-turbulent transition in low Reynolds pipe flows, three main types of flow structures occur: traveling waves and the turbulent flow structures, namely puffs and slugs. In the present work, detailed experiments on the probability of occurrence and propagation speed of puffs, splitting puffs and slugs were conducted with the transition pipe-flow facility of LSTM-Erlangen. During the investigations, fully developed laminar pipe flow was triggered by an iris diaphragm with a pre-defined amplitude and lapse time. Different types of single and multiple puffs are classified and the probability of their occurrence as well as their propagation speed at the end of pipes with different lengths are evaluated.

  13. Pattern transition from nanohoneycomb to nanograss on germanium by gallium ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng Xiao-Hu郑, 晓虎; Zhang Miao张, 苗; Huang An-Ping黄, 安平; Xiao Zhi-Song肖, 志松; Paul, K. Chu朱 剑 豪; Wang Xi王, 曦; Di Zeng-Feng狄, 增峰

    2015-05-01

    During the irradiation of Ge surface with Ga+ ions up to 1017 ions·cm-2, various patterns from ordered honeycomb to nanograss structure appear to be decided by the ion beam energy. The resulting surface morphologies have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. For high energy Ga+ irradiation (16-30 keV), by controlling the ion fluence, we have captured that the equilibrium nanograss morphology also originates from the ordered honeycomb structure. When honeycomb holes are formed by ion erosion, heterogeneous distribution of the deposited energy along the holes leads to viscous flow from the bottom to the plateau. Redistribution of target atoms results in the growth of protuberances on the plateau, and finally the pattern evolution from honeycomb to nanograss with an equilibrium condition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Funds for Excellent Young Scholar, China (Grant No. 51222211), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176001 and 61006088), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB832906), the Pujiang Talent Project of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 11PJ1411700), the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC) General Research Funds (GRF), China (Grant No. 112212), the City University of Hong Kong of Hong Kong Applied Research Grant (ARG), China (Grant No. 9667066), and the International Collaboration and Innovation Program on High Mobility Materials Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Experiments and Models of DNA Nano-Catenary Patterns Manipulated by Liquid Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张益; 胡钧; 吴世英; 艾小白; 李民乾

    2002-01-01

    Individual DNA molecules were first stretched by a centrifugal force and adsorbed on a modified mica surface.Then, a liquid flow was guided across the surface along a direction perpendicular to the aligned DNA strands.Some nano-catenary-like patterns of DNA molecules were formed, which were revealed by atomic force microscopy.A physical mechanism called the "s-suspension bridge" model has been presented, by which the features of the catenary-like patterns of DNA molecules can be understood quantitatively quite well.

  15. Internal flow Patterns of the Horizontal Heat Mode Closed-Loop Oscillating Heat Pipe with Check Valves (HHMCLOHP/CV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sangiamsuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was to study the internal flow patterns on heat transfer rates of the Horizontal Heat Mode Closed Loop Oscillating Heat Pipe with Check Valves (HHMCLOHP/CV. The HHMCLOHP/CV was made from a Pyrex glass capillary tube with a 2.4 mm inside diameter. There were 10 meandering turns with 2 check valves. Ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture were used as working fluid. Experimental results found that if working fluid varies from ethanol to a silver nano-ethanol mixture and the evaporator temperature increases the main flow patterns were Slug flow + Annular flow. The main regime of each flow pattern can be determined from the flow pattern map.

  16. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  17. Correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenshi ZHANG

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. It becomes possible to provide more accurately quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs with multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size. Methods 68 patients with maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs (diameter <=4 cmunderwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4mL/s by an autoinjector, 4*5mm or 4*2.5mm scanning mode with stable table were performed. serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion (PSPN, peak height (PHSPNratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratioand mean transit time(MTT were calculated. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the tumor size and each of the peak height (PHSPN ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio perfusion(PSPNand mean transit time (r=0.18, P=0.14; r=0.20,P=0.09; r=0.01, P=0.95; r=0.01, P=0.93. Conclusion No significant correlation is found between the tumor size and each of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules.

  18. The effect of neutrally buoyant finite-size particles on channel flows in the laminar-turbulent transition regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, Vincent; Abbas, Micheline; Masbernat, Olivier; Climent, Eric

    2013-12-01

    The presence of finite-size particles in a channel flow close to the laminar-turbulent transition is simulated with the Force Coupling Method which allows two-way coupling with the flow dynamics. Spherical particles with channel height-to-particle diameter ratio of 16 are initially randomly seeded in a fluctuating flow above the critical Reynolds number corresponding to single phase flow relaminarization. When steady-state is reached, the particle volume fraction is homogeneously distributed in the channel cross-section (ϕ ≅ 5%) except in the near-wall region where it is larger due to inertia-driven migration. Turbulence statistics (intensity of velocity fluctuations, small-scale vortical structures, wall shear stress) calculated in the fully coupled two-phase flow simulations are compared to single-phase flow data in the transition regime. It is observed that particles increase the transverse r.m.s. flow velocity fluctuations and they break down the flow coherent structures into smaller, more numerous and sustained eddies, preventing the flow to relaminarize at the single-phase critical Reynolds number. When the Reynolds number is further decreased and the suspension flow becomes laminar, the wall friction coefficient recovers the evolution of the laminar single-phase law provided that the suspension viscosity is used in the Reynolds number definition. The residual velocity fluctuations in the suspension correspond to a regime of particulate shear-induced agitation.

  19. Control of stationary cross-flow modes in a mach 3.5 boundary layer using patterned passive and active roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuele, Chan Yong

    Spanwise-periodic roughness designed to excite selected wavelengths of stationary cross-flow modes was investigated in a 3-D boundary layer at Mach 3.5. The test model was a sharp-tipped 14° right-circular cone. The model and integrated sensor traversing system were placed in the Mach 3.5 Supersonic Low Disturbance Tunnel (SLDT) equipped with a "quiet design" nozzle at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model was oriented at a 4.2 angle of attack to produce a mean cross-flow velocity component in the boundary layer over the cone. Five removable cone tips have been investigated. One has a smooth surface that is used to document the baseline ("natural") conditions. Two had minute (20 - 40 mum) "dimples" that are equally spaced around the circumference, at a streamwise location that is just upstream of the linear stability neutral growth branch for cross-flow modes. The azimuthal mode numbers of the dimpled tips were selected to either enhance the most amplified wave numbers, or to suppress the growth of the most amplified wave numbers. Two of the cone tips had an array of plasma streamwise vortex generators that were designed to simulate the disturbances produced by the passive patterned roughness. The results indicate that the stationary cross-flow modes were highly receptive to the patterned roughness of both passive and active types. The patterned passive roughness that was designed to suppress the growth of the most amplified modes had an azimuthal wavelength that was 66% smaller that that of the most amplified stationary cross-flow mode. This had the effect to increase the transition Reynolds number from 25% to 50% depending on the measurement technique. The application of the research is on turbulent transition control on swept wings of supersonic aircraft. The plasma-based roughness has the advantage over the passive roughness of being able to be adaptable to different conditions that would occur during a flight mission.

  20. Laminar-turbulent patterning in wall-bounded shear flows: a Galerkin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshasayanan, K [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, CNRS UMR 8550, École Normale Supérieure, F-75005 Paris (France); Manneville, P, E-mail: paul.manneville@polytechnique.edu [Laboratoire d’Hydrodynamique, CNRS UMR7646, École Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau (France)

    2015-06-15

    On its way to turbulence, plane Couette flow–the flow between counter-translating parallel plates–displays a puzzling steady oblique laminar-turbulent pattern. We approach this problem via Galerkin modelling of the Navier–Stokes equations. The wall-normal dependence of the hydrodynamic field is treated by means of expansions on functional bases fitting the boundary conditions exactly. This yields a set of partial differential equations for spatiotemporal dynamics in the plane of the flow. Truncating this set beyond the lowest nontrivial order is numerically shown to produce the expected pattern, therefore improving over what was obtained at the cruder effective wall-normal resolution. Perspectives opened by this approach are discussed. (paper)