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  1. Right ventricular failure after implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Johan Joakim; Nilsson, Jens C; Hansen, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a significant complication after implantation of a left ventricular assist device. We aimed to identify haemodynamic changes in the early postoperative phase that predicted subsequent development of RVF in a cohort of HeartMate II (HMII) implanted patients....

  2. Association of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device flow estimate with thermodilution cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Tal; Huebner, Marianne; Li, Zhuo; Brown, Daniel; Stulak, John M; Boilson, Barry A; Joyce, Lyle; Pereira, Naveen L; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Park, Soon J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) assessment is important in treating patients with heart failure. Durable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) provide essentially all CO. In currently used LVADs, estimated device flow is generated by a computerized algorithm. However, LVAD flow estimate may be inaccurate in tracking true CO. We correlated LVAD (HeartMate II) flow with thermodilution CO during postoperative care (day 2-10 after implant) in 81 patients (5,616 paired measurements). Left ventricular assist device flow and CO correlated with a low correlation coefficient (r = 0.42). Left ventricular assist device readings were lower than CO measurements by approximately 0.36 L/min, trending for larger difference with higher values. Left ventricular assist device flow measurements showed less temporal variability compared with CO. Grouping for simultaneous measured blood pressure (BP device flow generally trends with measured CO, but large variability exists, hence flow measures should not be assumed to equal with CO. Clinicians should take into account variables such as high CO, BP, and opening of the aortic valve when interpreting LVAD flow readout. Direct flow sensors incorporated in the LVAD system may allow for better estimation.

  3. Durability of central aortic valve closure in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices.

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    McKellar, Stephen H; Deo, Salil; Daly, Richard C; Durham, Lucian A; Joyce, Lyle D; Stulak, John M; Park, Soon J

    2014-01-01

    A competent aortic valve is essential to providing effective left ventricular assist device support. We have adopted a practice of central aortic valve closure by placing a simple coaptation stitch at left ventricular assist device implantation in patients with significant aortic insufficiency. We conducted a follow-up study to evaluate the efficacy and durability of this procedure. The study included patients who had undergone continuous flow left ventricular assist device implantation. The patients were divided into 2 groups, those who did not require any aortic procedure because the valve was competent and those who underwent central aortic valve closure for mild or greater aortic regurgitation. The clinical endpoints were mortality, progression or recurrence of aortic insufficiency, and reoperation for aortic valve pathologic features. Aortic insufficiency was measured qualitatively from mild to severe on a scale of 0 to 5. A total of 123 patients received continuous flow left ventricular assist devices from February 2007 to August 2011. Of those, 18 (15%) underwent central aortic valve closure at left ventricular assist device implantation because of significant aortic insufficiency (1.8 ± 1.4) and 105 who did not (competent aortic valve, 0.15 ± 0.43; P assist device-supported patients, with follow-up extending into 2 years. Although aortic insufficiency progressed over time in those with minimal native valve regurgitation initially, no such progression was noted in those with central aortic valve closure. Additional investigation is needed to evaluate whether prophylactic central aortic valve closure should be performed at left ventricular assist device implantation to avoid problematic aortic regurgitation developing over time, in particular in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation for life-long (destination therapy) support. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  4. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF CONTINUOUS-FLOW LEFT VENTRICULAR ASSIST DEVICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyt, Mattias; Van den Bruel, Ann; Smit, Yolba; De Jonge, Nicolaas; Erasmus, Michiel; Van Dijk, Diederik; Vlayen, Joan

    Objectives: Mechanical circulatory support through left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) improves survival and quality of life for patients with end-stage heart failure who are ineligible for cardiac transplantation. Our aim was to calculate the cost-effectiveness of continuous-flow LVADs.

  5. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Jerson R.; Westerhof, Berend E.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Westers, Paul; Chamuleau, Steven; van Dijk, Diederik; Rodermans, Ben F. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Lahpor, Jaap R.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure and echocardiography may provide useful physiological information regarding cardiac support in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We investigated the accuracy and characteristics of noninvasive blood pressure during cf-LVAD support.

  6. Experimental study on the effect of an artificial cardiac valve on the left ventricular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JiangSheng; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Wang, JinJun

    2017-09-01

    The use of artificial valves to replace diseased human heart valves is currently the main solution to address the malfunctioning of these valves. However, the effect of artificial valves on the ventricular flow still needs to be understood in flow physics. The left ventricular flow downstream of a St. Jude Medical (SJM) bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV), which is a widely implanted mechanical bileaflet valve, is investigated with time-resolved particle image velocimetry in the current work. A tilting-disk valve is installed on the aortic orifice to guarantee unidirectional flow. Several post-processing tools are applied to provide combined analyses of the physics involved in the ventricular flow. The triple jet pattern that is closely related to the characteristics of the bileaflet valve is discussed in detail from both Eulerian and Lagrangian views. The effects of large-scale vortices on the transportation of blood are revealed by the combined analysis of the tracking of Lagrangian coherent structures, the Eulerian monitoring of the shear stresses, and virtual dye visualization. It is found that the utilization of the SJM BMHV complicates the ventricular flow and could reduce the efficiency of blood transportation. In addition, the kinematics of the bileaflets is presented to explore the effects of flow structures on their motion. These combined analyses could elucidate the properties of SJM BMHV. Furthermore, they could provide new insights into the understanding of other complex blood flows.

  7. Enhancement of arterial pressure pulsatility by controlling continuous-flow left ventricular assist device flow rate in mock circulatory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozkurt, S.; van de Vosse, F.N.; Rutten, M.C.M.

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) generally operate at a constant speed, which reduces pulsatility in the arteries and may lead to complications such as functional changes in the vascular system, gastrointestinal bleeding, or both. The purpose of this study is to increase

  8. Experimental Assessment of the Hydraulics of a Miniature Axial-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

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    Smith, P. Alex; Cohn, William; Metcalfe, Ralph

    2017-11-01

    A minimally invasive partial-support left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been proposed with a flow path from the left atrium to the arterial system to reduce left ventricular stroke work. In LVAD design, peak and average efficiency must be balanced over the operating range to reduce blood trauma. Axial flow pumps have many geometric parameters. Until recently, testing all these parameters was impractical, but modern 3D printing technology enables multi-parameter studies. Following theoretical design, experimental hydraulic evaluation in steady state conditions examines pressure, flow, pressure-flow gradient, efficiency, torque, and axial force as output parameters. Preliminary results suggest that impeller blades and stator vanes with higher inlet angles than recommended by mean line theory (MLT) produce flatter gradients and broader efficiency curves, increasing compatibility with heart physiology. These blades also produce less axial force, which reduces bearing load. However, they require slightly higher torque, which is more demanding of the motor. MLT is a low order, empirical model developed on large pumps. It does not account for the significant viscous losses in small pumps like LVADs. This emphasizes the importance of experimental testing for hydraulic design. Roderick D MacDonald Research Fund.

  9. Improving left ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI using intramodality image registration for cardiac blood flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Bustamante, Mariana; Fredriksson, Alexandru; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of blood flow in the left ventricle using four-dimensional flow MRI requires accurate left ventricle segmentation that is often hampered by the low contrast between blood and the myocardium. The purpose of this work is to improve left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI for reliable blood flow analysis. The left ventricle segmentations are first obtained using morphological cine-MRI with better in-plane resolution and contrast, and then aligned to four-dimensional flow MRI data. This alignment is, however, not trivial due to inter-slice misalignment errors caused by patient motion and respiratory drift during breath-hold based cine-MRI acquisition. A robust image registration based framework is proposed to mitigate such errors automatically. Data from 20 subjects, including healthy volunteers and patients, was used to evaluate its geometric accuracy and impact on blood flow analysis. High spatial correspondence was observed between manually and automatically aligned segmentations, and the improvements in alignment compared to uncorrected segmentations were significant (P  0.05). Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in improving left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI, and its potential for reliable blood flow analysis. Magn Reson Med 79:554-560, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Jerson R; Westerhof, Berend E; de Jonge, Nicolaas; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Westers, Paul; Chamuleau, Steven; van Dijk, Diederik; Rodermans, Ben F M; de Mol, Bas A J M; Lahpor, Jaap R

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure and echocardiography may provide useful physiological information regarding cardiac support in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We investigated the accuracy and characteristics of noninvasive blood pressure during cf-LVAD support. Noninvasive arterial pressure waveforms were recorded with Nexfin (BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). First, these measurements were validated simultaneously with invasive arterial pressures in 29 intensive care unit patients. Next, the association between blood pressure responses and measures derived by echocardiography, including left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (LVEDDs), left ventricular end-systolic dimensions (LVESDs), and left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF) were determined during pump speed change procedures in 30 outpatients. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveforms by the Nexfin monitor slightly underestimated invasive measures during cf-LVAD support. Differences between noninvasive and invasive measures (mean ± SD) of systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressures were -7.6 ± 5.8, -7.0 ± 5.2, -6.9 ± 5.1, and -0.6 ± 4.5 mm Hg, respectively (all blood pressure responses did not correlate with LVEDD, LVESD, or LVSF, while LVSF correlated weakly with both pulse pressure (r = 0.24; p = 0.005) and (dP(art)/dt)max (r = 0.25; p = 0.004). The dicrotic notch in the pressure waveform was a better predictor of aortic valve opening (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87) than pulse pressure (AUC = 0.64) and (dP(art)/dt)max (AUC = 0.61). Patients with partial support rather than full support at 9,000 rpm had a significant change in systolic pressure, pulse pressure, and (dP(art)/dt)max during ramp studies, while echocardiographic measures did not change. Blood pressure measurements by Nexfin were reliable and may thereby act as a compliment to the assessment of the cf-LVAD patient.

  11. Modeling the Link between Left Ventricular Flow and Thromboembolic Risk Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen May-Newman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A thrombus is a blood clot that forms on a surface, and can grow and detach, presenting a high risk for stroke and pulmonary embolism. This risk increases with blood-contacting medical devices, due to the immunological response to foreign surfaces and altered flow patterns that activate the blood and promote thromboembolism (TE. Abnormal blood transport, including vortex behavior and regional stasis, can be assessed from Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS. LCS are flow structures that bound transport within a flow field and divide the flow into regions with maximally attracting/repelling surfaces that maximize local shear. LCS can be identified from finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE fields, which are computed from velocity field data. In this study, the goal was to use FTLE analysis to evaluate LCS in the left ventricle (LV using velocity data obtained from flow visualization of a mock circulatory loop. A model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM was used to investigate the effect of left ventricular assist device (LVAD support on diastolic filling and transport in the LV. A small thrombus in the left ventricular outflow tract was also considered using data from a corresponding LV model. The DCM LV exhibited a direct flow of 0.8 L/cardiac cycle, which was tripled during LVAD support Delayed ejection flow was doubled, further illustrating the impact of LVAD support on blood transport. An examination of the attracting LCS ridges during diastolic filling showed that the increase is due primarily to augmentation of A wave inflow, which is associated with increased vortex circulation, kinetic energy and Forward FTLE. The introduction of a small thrombus in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT of the LV had a minimal effect on diastolic inflow, but obstructed systolic outflow leading to decreased transport compared with the unobstructed LVOT geometry. Localized FTLE in the LVOT increased dramatically with the small thrombus model, which reflects

  12. Flow Visualization Studies in the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System CRADA PC91-002, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovetz, H.S.; Shaffer, F.; Schaub, R.; Lund, L.; Woodard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of experiments to visualize and measure flow fields in the Novacor left ventricular assist system (LVAS). The experiments utilize a multiple exposure, optical imaging technique called fluorescent image tracking velocimetry (FITV) to hack the motion of small, neutrally-buoyant particles in a flowing fluid.

  13. Continuous flow left ventricular assist devices: shared care goals of monitoring and treating patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Jerry D; Trachtenberg, Barry H; Loza, Laurie P; Bruckner, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) have been clinically adopted as a long-term standard of care therapy option for patients with end-stage heart failure. For many patients, shared care between the care providers at the implanting center and care providers in the community in which the patient resides is a clinical necessity. The aims of this review are to (1) provide a rationale for the outpatient follow-up exam and surveillance testing used at our center to monitor patients supported by the HeartMate II(®) CF-LVAD (Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA) and (2) provide the protocol/algorithms we use for blood pressure, driveline exit site, LVAD alarm history, surveillance blood work, and echocardiography monitoring in this patient population. In addition, we define our partnership outpatient follow-up protocol and the "shared care" specific responsibilities we use with referring health care providers to best manage many of our patients.

  14. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  15. Non-Invasive Mapping of Intraventricular Flow Patterns in Patients Treated with Left Ventricular Assist Devices

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    Miramontes, Marissa; Rossini, Lorenzo; Braun, Oscar; Brambatti, Michela; Almeida, Shone; Mizeracki, Adam; Martinez-Legazpi, Pablo; Benito, Yolanda; Bermejo, Javier; Kahn, Andrew; Adler, Eric; Del Álamo, Juan C.

    2017-11-01

    In heart failure patients, left ventricular (LV) assist devices (LVADs) decrease mortality and improve quality of life. We hypothesize echo color Doppler velocimetry (echo-CDV), an echocardiographic flow mapping modality, can non-invasively characterize the effect of LVAD support, optimize the device, thereby decreasing the stoke rate present in these patients. We used echo-CDV to image LV flow at baseline LVAD speed and during a ramp test in LVAD patients (Heartmate II, N =10). We tracked diastolic vortices and mapped blood stasis and cumulative shear. Compared to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients without LVADs, the flow had a less prominent diastolic vortex ring, and transited directly from mitral valve to cannula. Residence time and shear were significantly lower compared to healthy controls and DCMs. Aortic regurgitation and a large LV vortex presence or a direct mitral jet towards the cannula affected blood stasis region location and size. Flow patterns, residence time and shear depended on LV geometry, valve function and LVAD speed in a patient specific manner. This new methodology could be used with standard echo, hemodynamics and clinical information to find the flow optimizing LAVD setting minimizing stasis for each patient.

  16. Partitioned fluid-solid coupling for cardiovascular blood flow: left-ventricular fluid mechanics.

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    Krittian, Sebastian; Janoske, Uwe; Oertel, Herbert; Böhlke, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    We present a 3D code-coupling approach which has been specialized towards cardiovascular blood flow. For the first time, the prescribed geometry movement of the cardiovascular flow model KaHMo (Karlsruhe Heart Model) has been replaced by a myocardial composite model. Deformation is driven by fluid forces and myocardial response, i.e., both its contractile and constitutive behavior. Whereas the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE) of the Navier-Stokes equations is discretized by finite volumes (FVM), the solid mechanical finite elasticity equations are discretized by a finite element (FEM) approach. Taking advantage of specialized numerical solution strategies for non-matching fluid and solid domain meshes, an iterative data-exchange guarantees the interface equilibrium of the underlying governing equations. The focus of this work is on left-ventricular fluid-structure interaction based on patient-specific magnetic resonance imaging datasets. Multi-physical phenomena are described by temporal visualization and characteristic FSI numbers. The results gained show flow patterns that are in good agreement with previous observations. A deeper understanding of cavity deformation, blood flow, and their vital interaction can help to improve surgical treatment and clinical therapy planning.

  17. Carotid Artery Stenting in a Patient With a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Squizzato, Francesco; Grego, Franco; Bottio, Tommaso; Gerosa, Gino; Antonello, Michele

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the safety and feasibility of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in a patient with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD). A 54-year-old woman with a LVAD was referred for a 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient was offered CAS, and oral anticoagulant was not discontinued in the periprocedural period. Because of absent arterial pulses, percutaneous transfemoral access was obtained under ultrasound guidance. Particular attention was paid to cannulation of the innominate artery; a 7-F guiding catheter was advanced from the descending aorta into the innominate artery under road-mapping, avoiding maneuvers in the ascending aorta where the outflow Dacron graft of the LVAD was anastomosed. To avoid cerebral flow modifications, the Angioguard RX was used as the cerebral protection device rather than other devices such as the flow reversal or flow-clamping systems. At this point, CAS was performed in a standard fashion using the 7×30-mm Precise ProRX stent. The computed tomography angiogram at 6 months showed patency of the stented right ICA. With adequate planning, CAS appears feasible in patients with a LVAD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Surgical treatment of tricuspid valve insufficiency promotes early reverse remodeling in patients with axial-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Simon; Topilsky, Yan; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; McKellar, Stephen H; Durham, Lucian A; Joyce, Lyle D; Daly, Richard C; Park, Soon J

    2012-06-01

    The HeartMate II (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, Calif) continuous-flow left ventricular assist device has emerged as the standard of care for patients with advanced heart failure. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and early effectiveness of concomitant tricuspid valve procedures in patients undergoing implantation of a HeartMate II device. From February 2007 to April 2010, 83 patients underwent HeartMate II left ventricular assist device implantation. Of these, 37 patients had concomitant tricuspid valve procedures (32 repairs, 5 replacements) for severe tricuspid regurgitation. The effects of a tricuspid valve procedure on tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular remodeling were assessed comparing echocardiographic findings at baseline and 30 days after left ventricular assist device implantation. Overall survival was also compared. Patients undergoing a concomitant tricuspid valve procedure had more tricuspid regurgitation (vena contracta, 5.6 ± 2.1 mm vs 2.9 ± 2.0 mm; P tricuspid regurgitation was worse in patients who underwent left ventricular assist device implantation alone (+18.6%), whereas it improved significantly in patients undergoing a concomitant tricuspid valve procedure (-50.2%) (P = .005). A corresponding significant reduction in right ventricular end-diastolic area (33.6% ± 6.2% vs 30.1% ± 9.7%; P = .03) and a trend toward better right ventricular function (55.5% ± 79.7% vs 35.7% ± 60.5%; P = .28) were noted in patients undergoing a concomitant tricuspid valve procedure. Survival was comparable between the 2 groups. In patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation, a concomitant tricuspid valve procedure effectively reduces tricuspid regurgitation and promotes reverse remodeling of the right ventricle. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulse Oximeter Derived Blood Pressure Measurement in Patients With a Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Yaron; Malik, Adnan S; Lane, Kathleen A; Shen, Changyu; Wang, I-Wen; Wozniak, Thomas C; Hashmi, Zubair A; Munson, Sarah D; Pickrell, Jeanette; Caccamo, Marco A; Gradus-Pizlo, Irmina; Hadi, Azam

    2017-05-01

    Currently, blood pressure (BP) measurement is obtained noninvasively in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) by placing a Doppler probe over the brachial or radial artery with inflation and deflation of a manual BP cuff. We hypothesized that replacing the Doppler probe with a finger-based pulse oximeter can yield BP measurements similar to the Doppler derived mean arterial pressure (MAP). We conducted a prospective study consisting of patients with contemporary continuous flow LVADs. In a small pilot phase I inpatient study, we compared direct arterial line measurements with an automated blood pressure (ABP) cuff, Doppler and pulse oximeter derived MAP. Our main phase II study included LVAD outpatients with a comparison between Doppler, ABP, and pulse oximeter derived MAP. A total of five phase I and 36 phase II patients were recruited during February-June 2014. In phase I, the average MAP measured by pulse oximeter was closer to arterial line MAP rather than Doppler (P = 0.06) or ABP (P < 0.01). In phase II, pulse oximeter MAP (96.6 mm Hg) was significantly closer to Doppler MAP (96.5 mm Hg) when compared to ABP (82.1 mm Hg) (P = 0.0001). Pulse oximeter derived blood pressure measurement may be as reliable as Doppler in patients with continuous flow LVADs. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Preload dependence of color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity in controls and in patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Poulsen, S H; Søndergaard, E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of preload alterations on color M-mode flow propagation velocity (Vp) in volunteers with normal left ventricular (LV) function and in patients with depressed LV function. Color M-mode Doppler echocardiography was performed during Valsalva maneuv...

  1. Left ventricular outflow tract to left atrial communication secondary to rupture of mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa in infective endocarditis: diagnosis by transesophageal echocardiography and color flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, R C; Graham, B M; Jutzy, K R; Shakudo, M; Shah, P M

    1990-02-01

    Infection of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa occurs most commonly in association with infective endocarditis of the aortic valve. Infection of the aortic valve results in a regurgitant jet that presumably strikes this subaortic interannular zone of fibrous tissue and produces a secondary site of infection. Infection of this interannular zone then leads to the formation of subaortic abscess or pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricular outflow tract. This infected zone of mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa or subaortic aneurysm can subsequently rupture into the left atrium with systolic ejection of blood from the left ventricular outflow tract to the left atrium. This report describes the echocardiographic findings in three patients with pathologically proved left ventricular outflow tract to left atrial communication. Precise preoperative diagnosis is important, and this lesion should be differentiated from ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva and perforation of the anterior mitral leaflet. Transthoracic echocardiography using color flow imaging and conventional Doppler techniques may show an eccentric mitral regurgitation type of signal in the left atrium originating from the region of the left ventricular outflow tract. However, transesophageal echocardiography provides an accurate preoperative diagnosis and should be used intraoperatively during repair of such lesions.

  2. Cardiac transplantation after bridged therapy with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Salil V; Sung, Kiick; Daly, Richard C; Shah, Ishan K; Altarabsheh, Salah E; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle D; Boilson, Barry A; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Park, Soon J

    2014-03-01

    Cardiac transplantation is an effective surgical therapy for end-stage heart failure. Patients (pts) may need to be bridged with a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) while on the transplant list as logistic factors like organ availability are unknown. Cardiac transplantation post-LVAD can be a surgically challenging procedure and outcome in these pts is perceived to be poorer based on experience with earlier generation pulsatile flow pumps. Data from a single institution comparing these pts with those undergoing direct transplantation in the present era of continuous flow device therapy are limited. Evaluate results of cardiac transplantation in pts bridged with a CF-LVAD (BTx) and compare outcomes with pts undergoing direct transplantation (Tx) in a single institution. From June 2007 till January 2012, 106 pts underwent cardiac transplantation. Among these, 37 (35%) pts (51±11 years; 85% male) were bridged with a CF-LVAD (BTx), while 70 (65%) comprised the Tx group (53±12 years; 72% males). The median duration of LVAD support was 227 (153,327) days. During the period of LVAD support, 10/37 (27%) pts were upgraded to status 1A and all were successfully transplanted. Median hospital stay in the BTx (14 days) was slightly longer than the Tx group (12 days) but not statistically significant (p=0.21). In-hospital mortality in the BTx (5%) and Tx (1%) were comparable (p=0.25). Estimated late survival in the BTx cohort was 94±7, 90±10 and 83±16% at the end of one, two and three years, respectively which was comparable to 97±4%, 93±6% and 89±9% for the Tx group (p=0.50). Cardiac transplantation after LVAD implant can be performed with excellent results. Patients can be supported on the left ventricular assist device even for periods close to a year with good outcome after cardiac transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand

  3. Neuromodulation therapy does not influence blood flow distribution or left-ventricular dynamics during acute myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, J G; Linderoth, B; Ardell, J L; Armour, J A; DeJongste, M J; Foreman, R D

    2001-08-13

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal aspect of the upper thoracic spinal cord is used increasingly to treat patients with angina pectoris refractory to conventional therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in dogs affects regional myocardial blood flow and left-ventricular (LV) function before and during transient obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). In anesthetized dogs, regional myocardial blood flow distribution was determined using radiolabeled microspheres and left-ventricular function was measured by impedance-derived pressure-volume loops. SCS was accomplished by stimulating the dorsal T1-T2 segments of the spinal cord using epidural bipolar electrodes at 90% of motor threshold (MT) (50 Hz, 0.2-ms duration). Effects of 5-min SCS were assessed under basal conditions and during 4-min occlusion of the LAD. SCS alone evoked no change in regional myocardial blood flow or cardiovascular indices. Transient LAD occlusion significantly diminished blood flow within ischemic, but not in non-ischemic myocardial tissue. Left ventricular pressure-volume loops were shifted rightward during LAD occlusion. Cardiac indices were altered similarly during LAD occlusion and concurrent SCS. SCS does not influence the distribution of blood flow within the non-ischemic or ischemic myocardium. Nor does it modify LV pressure-volume dynamics in the anesthetized experimental preparation.

  4. Heat Generation in Axial and Centrifugal Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Gardner; Joseph, Christine Rachel; Royston, Thomas; Tatooles, Antone; Bhat, Geetha

    Despite increasing use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as a surgical treatment for advanced heart failure in an era of improved outcomes with LVAD support, the mechanical interactions between these pumps and the cardiovascular system are not completely understood. We utilized an in vitro mock circulatory loop to analyze the heat production incurred by operation of an axial flow and centrifugal flow LVAD. A HeartMate II and a HeartWare HVAD were connected to an abbreviated flow loop and were implanted in a viscoelastic gel. Temperature was measured at the surface of each LVAD. Device speed and fluid viscosity were altered and, in the HeartMate II, as artificial thrombi were attached to the inflow stator, impeller, and outflow stator. The surface temperatures of both LVADs increased in all trials and reached a plateau within 80 minutes of flow initiation. Rate of heat generation and maximum system temperature were greater when speed was increased, when viscosity was increased, and when artificial thrombi were attached to the HeartMate II impeller. Normal operation of these two widely utilized LVADs results in appreciable heat generation in vitro. Increased pump loading resulted in more rapid heat generation, which was particularly severe when a large thrombus was attached to the impeller of the HeartMate II. While heat accumulation in vivo is likely minimized by greater dissipation in the blood and soft tissues, focal temperature gains with the pump housing of these two devices during long-term operation may have negative hematological consequences.

  5. Enhancement of Arterial Pressure Pulsatility by Controlling Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Flow Rate in Mock Circulatory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Selim; van de Vosse, Frans N; Rutten, Marcel C M

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) generally operate at a constant speed, which reduces pulsatility in the arteries and may lead to complications such as functional changes in the vascular system, gastrointestinal bleeding, or both. The purpose of this study is to increase the arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility by controlling the CF-LVAD flow rate. A MicroMed DeBakey pump was used as the CF-LVAD. A model simulating the flow rate through the aortic valve was used as a reference model to drive the pump. A mock circulation containing two synchronized servomotor-operated piston pumps acting as left and right ventricles was used as a circulatory system. Proportional-integral control was used as the control method. First, the CF-LVAD was operated at a constant speed. With pulsatile-speed CF-LVAD assistance, the pump was driven such that the same mean pump output was generated. Continuous and pulsatile-speed CF-LVAD assistance provided the same mean arterial pressure and flow rate, while the index of pulsatility increased significantly for both arterial pressure and pump flow rate signals under pulsatile speed pump support. This study shows the possibility of improving the pulsatility of CF-LVAD support by regulating pump speed over a cardiac cycle without reducing the overall level of support.

  6. The successful implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy in Korea: echocardiographic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Sujin; Choi, Namgyung; Jeong, Dong Seop; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Lee, Young Tak

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a good treatment option for the patients ineligible for cardiac transplantation. Several studies have demonstrated that a ventricular assist device improves the quality of life and prognosis of the patients with end-stage heart failure. A 75-yr-old man debilitated with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III-IV due to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction received LVAD implantation as a destination therapy. The patient was discharged with improved functional status (NYHA functional class II) after appropriate cardiac rehabilitation and education about how to manage the device and potential emergency situations. This is the first case of successful continuous-flow LVAD implantation as a destination therapy in Korea.

  7. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohean, Jeffrey R; George, Mitchell J; Pate, Thomas D; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G; Smalling, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to use a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate the support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous pulsatile valveless dual-piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared with measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared with the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device.

  8. Hemodynamic stress echocardiography in patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Gustafsson, Finn; Madsen, Per Lav

    2010-01-01

    exercise. Exercise induced an increase in cardiac output, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and diastolic pulmonary artery pressure. Although no changes in left ventricular dimensions or fractional shortening were seen on echocardiography, systolic mitral annular motion (S') increased significantly (in...... parallel with cardiac output) and diastolic E/e' ratio decreased (correlating inversely with diastolic pulmonary artery pressure). These findings emphasize the potential role of exercise echocardiography in studying exercise hemodynamics in LVAD patients....

  9. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  10. Estimation of left ventricular blood flow parameters: clinical application of patient-specific CFD simulations from 4D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, David; Spühler, Jeannette H.; Günyeli, Elif; Weinkauf, Tino; Hoffman, Johan; Colarieti-Tosti, Massimiliano; Winter, Reidar; Larsson, Matilda

    2017-03-01

    Echocardiography is the most commonly used image modality in cardiology, assessing several aspects of cardiac viability. The importance of cardiac hemodynamics and 4D blood flow motion has recently been highlighted, however such assessment is still difficult using routine echo-imaging. Instead, combining imaging with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-simulations has proven valuable, but only a few models have been applied clinically. In the following, patient-specific CFD-simulations from transthoracic dobutamin stress echocardiography have been used to analyze the left ventricular 4D blood flow in three subjects: two with normal and one with reduced left ventricular function. At each stress level, 4D-images were acquired using a GE Vivid E9 (4VD, 1.7MHz/3.3MHz) and velocity fields simulated using a presented pathway involving endocardial segmentation, valve position identification, and solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. Flow components defined as direct flow, delayed ejection flow, retained inflow, and residual volume were calculated by particle tracing using 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration. Additionally, systolic and diastolic average velocity fields were generated. Results indicated no major changes in average velocity fields for any of the subjects. For the two subjects with normal left ventricular function, increased direct flow, decreased delayed ejection flow, constant retained inflow, and a considerable drop in residual volume was seen at increasing stress. Contrary, for the subject with reduced left ventricular function, the delayed ejection flow increased whilst the retained inflow decreased at increasing stress levels. This feasibility study represents one of the first clinical applications of an echo-based patient-specific CFD-model at elevated stress levels, and highlights the potential of using echo-based models to capture highly transient flow events, as well as the ability of using simulation tools to study clinically complex

  11. Left Ventricular Myocardial Deformation Parameters Are Affected by Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon: A Study of Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulel, Okan; Akcay, Murat; Soylu, Korhan; Aksan, Gokhan; Yuksel, Serkan; Zengin, Halit; Meric, Murat; Sahin, Mahmut

    2016-05-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is defined as a delayed distal vessel contrast opacification in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. There is conflicting data in medical literature regarding the effects of CSFP on the left ventricular functions assessed by conventional echocardiography or tissue Doppler imaging. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether there is any abnormality in the myocardial deformation parameters (strain, strain rate (SR), rotation, twist) of the left ventricle obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with CSFP. Twenty patients with CSFP were included prospectively in the study. Another 20 patients with similar demographics and cardiovascular risk factors as well as normal coronary angiography were used as the control group. Two-dimensional echocardiographic images of the left ventricle from the apical long-axis, two-chamber, four-chamber, and parasternal short-axis views were used for STE analysis. The analysis of left ventricular circumferential deformation parameters showed that the averaged peak systolic strain, systolic SR, and early diastolic SR values were significantly lower in patients with CSFP (P = 0.009, P = 0.02, and P = 0.02, respectively). Among the left ventricular rotation and twist values, apical rotation was significantly lower in patients with CSFP (P = 0.02). Further, the mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count value was found to be negatively correlated with the averaged peak circumferential early diastolic SR (r = -0.35, P = 0.03). It was positively correlated with the averaged peak circumferential systolic strain (r = 0.47, P = 0.003) and circumferential systolic SR (r = 0.46, P = 0.005). Coronary slow flow phenomenon leads to significant alterations in the myocardial deformation parameters of the left ventricle as assessed by STE. Specifically, circumferential deformation parameters are affected in CSFP patients. © 2015

  12. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  13. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  14. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  15. Ramp Study Hemodynamics, Functional Capacity, and Outcome in Heart Failure Patients with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Gustafsson, Finn; Houston, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ramp studies-measuring changes in cardiac parameters as a function of serial pump speed changes (revolutions per minute [rpm])-are increasingly used to evaluate function and malfunction of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). We hypothesized that ramp studies can predict...... patients (HeartMate II, Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA). Functional status was evaluated in 70% (31/44); average 6 minute walk test (6MWT) was 312 ± 220 min, New York Heart Association (NYHA) I-II/III-IV (70/30%) and activity scores very low-low/moderate-very high (55/45%). Decrease in pulmonary...

  16. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  17. A D-Shaped Bileaflet Bioprosthesis which Replicates Physiological Left Ventricular Flow Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Guo-Dong Tan

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that in a healthy heart, there exist a large asymmetric vortex structure that aids in establishing a steady flow field in the left ventricle. However, the implantation of existing artificial heart valves at the mitral position is found to have a negative effect on this physiological flow pattern. In light of this, a novel D-shaped bileaflet porcine bioprosthesis (GD valve has been designed based on the native geometry mitral valve, with the hypothesis that biomimicry in valve design can restore physiological left ventricle flow patterns after valve implantation. An in-vitro experiment using two dimensional particle velocimetry imaging was carried out to determine the hemodynamic performance of the new bileaflet design and then compared to that of the well-established St. Jude Epic valve which functioned as a control in the experiment. Although both valves were found to have similar Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy levels, the novel D-shape valve was found to have lower turbulence intensity and greater mean kinetic energy conservation.

  18. A D-Shaped Bileaflet Bioprosthesis which Replicates Physiological Left Ventricular Flow Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sean Guo-Dong; Kim, Sangho; Hon, Jimmy Kim Fatt; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that in a healthy heart, there exist a large asymmetric vortex structure that aids in establishing a steady flow field in the left ventricle. However, the implantation of existing artificial heart valves at the mitral position is found to have a negative effect on this physiological flow pattern. In light of this, a novel D-shaped bileaflet porcine bioprosthesis (GD valve) has been designed based on the native geometry mitral valve, with the hypothesis that biomimicry in valve design can restore physiological left ventricle flow patterns after valve implantation. An in-vitro experiment using two dimensional particle velocimetry imaging was carried out to determine the hemodynamic performance of the new bileaflet design and then compared to that of the well-established St. Jude Epic valve which functioned as a control in the experiment. Although both valves were found to have similar Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy levels, the novel D-shape valve was found to have lower turbulence intensity and greater mean kinetic energy conservation. PMID:27258099

  19. Altered left ventricular vortex ring formation by 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging after repair of atrioventricular septal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, Emmeline E; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Westenberg, Jos J M; Kroft, Lucia J M; Hazekamp, Mark G; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J

    2015-11-01

    During normal left ventricular (LV) filling, a vortex ring structure is formed distal to the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV). Vortex structures contribute to efficient flow organization. We aimed to investigate whether LAVV abnormality in patients with a corrected atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) has an impact on vortex ring formation. Whole-heart 4D flow MRI was performed in 32 patients (age: 26 ± 12 years), and 30 healthy subjects (age: 25 ± 14 years). Vortex ring cores were detected at peak early (E-peak) and peak late filling (A-peak). When present, the 3-dimensional position and orientation of the vortex ring was defined, and the circularity index was calculated. Through-plane flow over the LAVV, and the vortex formation time (VFT), were quantified to analyze the relationship of vortex flow with the inflow jet. Absence of a vortex ring during E-peak (healthy subjects 0%, vs patients 19%; P = .015), and A-peak (healthy subjects 10% vs patients 44%; P = .008) was more frequent in patients. In 4 patients, this was accompanied by a high VFT (5.1-7.8 vs 2.4 ± 0.6 in healthy subjects), and in another 2 patients with abnormal valve anatomy. In patients compared with controls, the vortex cores had a more-anterior and apical position, closer to the ventricular wall, with a more-elliptical shape and oblique orientation. The shape of the vortex core closely resembled the valve shape, and its orientation was related to the LV inflow direction. This study quantitatively shows the influence of abnormal LAVV and LV inflow on 3D vortex ring formation during LV inflow in patients with corrected AVSD, compared with healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Predicting changes in flow category in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction on medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kuntjoro, Ivandito; Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Sim, Hui-Wen; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2017-11-01

    Controversy surrounds the prognosis and management of patients with paradoxical low-flow severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). It was not certain if patients in a particular flow category remained in the same category as disease progressed. We investigated whether there were switches in categories and if so, their predictors. Consecutive subjects (n = 203) with isolated severe AS and paired echocardiography (>180 days apart) were studied. They were divided into 4 groups, based on their flow categories and if they progressed on subsequent echocardiography to switch or remain in the same flow category. Univariate analyses of clinical and echocardiographic parameters identified predictors of these changes in flow category. One hundred eighteen were normal flow (SVI ≥ 35 mL/m 2 ), while 85 were low flow on index echocardiography. In the patients with normal flow, 33% switched to low flow. This was associated with higher valvuloarterial impedance (Zva, P 4.77 mm Hg/mL/m 2 , AUC = 0.81 [95% CI:0.75-0.87, P < .001]). In patients with low flow, 25% switched to normal flow, which was associated with lower Zva and higher SAC and the switch was predicted by a higher initial mean transaortic pressure gradient. A significant number of patients switched flow categories in severe AS with preserved LVEF on subsequent echocardiography. Changes in flow were reflected by respective changes in Zva and SAC. Identifying echocardiographic predictors of a switch in category may guide prognostication and management of such patients. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Discontinuation of antithrombotic therapy for a year or more in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Naveen L; Chen, Dong; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Park, Soon J

    2010-10-01

    The recommended anticoagulation regimen during continuous-flow axial left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support is aspirin and warfarin with a targeted international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. We report two patients in whom recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding during LVAD support necessitated discontinuation of this anti-thrombotic regimen for a year or more. Despite this, neither patients developed thrombotic complications during 29 patient-months of follow-up. An acquired von Willebrand factor (VWF) abnormality reflected by the absence or decreased abundance of the highest molecular weight multimers was demonstrated in both patients. The gold standard test for platelet function, light transmission platelet aggregometry was measured in one patient and was normal, indicative that the predominant abnormality in the coagulation profile of these patients is an acquired VWF syndrome. Clinical trials are required to address the question whether it is safe to discontinue anticoagulation in LVAD patients with acquired VWF abnormalities.

  2. Neurohormonal activation and exercise tolerance in patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette Holme; Goetze, Jens Peter; Boesgaard, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurohormones play a key role in regulating hemodynamics in heart failure (HF) both at rest and during exercise. In contrast, little is known about the importance of neurohormonal regulation for exercise capacity in continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients....... The aim of this study was to assess the relation between neurohormonal activation patterns in CF-LVAD patients and exercise capacity. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of the C-terminal portion of pro-arginine vasopressin precursor (copeptin), pro-adrenomedullin (proADM), pro-B-type (proBNP) and pro......-atrial (proANP) natriuretic peptides were measured in 25 CF-LVAD patients (HeartMate II) in the morning prior to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing determining peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2). Quality of life (QOL) was determined by questionnaires. RESULTS: Peak VO2 was severely reduced averaging 13...

  3. A practical review for cardiac rehabilitation professionals of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compostella, Leonida; Russo, Nicola; Setzu, Tiziana; Bottio, Tomaso; Compostella, Caterina; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Livi, Ugolino; Gerosa, Gino; Iliceto, Sabino; Bellotto, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with end-stage heart failure are being treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). These patients provide new challenges to the staff in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. Even though experience remains limited, it seems that patients supported by cf-LVADs may safely engage in typical rehabilitative activities, provided that some attention is paid to specific aspects, such as the presence of a short external drive line. In spite of initial physical deconditioning, CR allows progressive improvement of symptoms such as fatigue and dyspnea. Intensity of rehabilitative activities should ideally be based on measured aerobic capacity and increased appropriately over time. Regular, long-term exercise training results in improved physical fitness and survival rates. Appropriate adjustment of cf-LVAD settings, together with maintenance of adequate blood volume, provides maximal output, while avoiding suction effects. Ventricular arrhythmias, although not necessarily constituting an immediate life-threatening situation, deserve treatment as they could lead to an increased rate of hospitalization and poorer quality of life. Atrial fibrillation may worsen symptoms of right ventricular failure and reduce exercise tolerance. Blood pressure measurements are possible in cf-LVAD patients only using a Doppler technique, and a mean blood pressure ≤80 mmHg is considered "ideal." Some patients may present with orthostatic intolerance, related to autonomic dysfunction. While exercise training constitutes the basic rehabilitative tool, a comprehensive intervention that includes psychological and social support could better meet the complex needs of patients in which cf-LVAD may offer prolonged survival.

  4. Right ventricular dysfunction following continuous flow left ventriccular assist device placement in 51 patients: predicators and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neragi-Miandoab Siyamek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right ventricular (RV dysfunction following implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a serious condition and is associated with increased mortality. Methods The aim of the study is to investigate the significance of pre-existing RV dysfunction, tricuspid valve (TV insufficiency, and the severity of septal deviation following LVAD implantation on RV dysfunction, as well as the outcome and short-term complications in 51 patients from June 2006 to August 2010. Student t test was used to compare the data and estimate the p value. Results Mean age was 55.1 ± 13, with a male to female ratio of 3.25. The 30-day mortality was 13.7% (7/51 patients, and the overall mortality was 23.5% (12/51 patients. Meanwhile, 21 patients (21/51; 41.2% have undergone orthotopic heart transplantation. The mean time of support was 314.5±235 days with a median of 240 days at the time of closing this study. Echocardiographic evaluation of RV function pre- and post-implantation of an LVAD demonstrated septal deviation towards the left ventricle in immediate postoperative phase, which correlated with acute RV dysfunction (p = 0.002. Preoperative RV dysfunction was a significant predictor of postoperative right heart dysfunction following implantation of an LVAD (p = 0.001. Conclusion Preoperative RV dysfunction is a predictor of RV failure in LVAD patients. The adjustment of septal deviation through gradual increase of the LVAD flow can prevent the acute RV dysfunction following LVAD placement.

  5. Relations among impaired coronary flow reserve, left ventricular hypertrophy and thallium perfusion defects in hypertensive patients without obstructive coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, J.L.; Frank, M.J.; Carr, A.A.; von Dohlen, T.W.; Prisant, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Invasive Doppler catheter-derived coronary flow reserve, echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular hypertrophy and intravenous dipyridamole-limited stress thallium-201 scintigraphy were compared in 48 patients (40 were hypertensive or diabetic) with clinical ischemic heart disease and no or minor coronary artery disease. Abnormal vasodilator reserve (ratio less than 3:1) occurred in 50% of the study group and markedly abnormal reserve (less than or equal to 2:1) occurred in 27%. Coronary vasodilator reserve was significantly lower (2.2 +/- 0.8 versus 3.5 +/- 1.3, p = 0.003) and indexed left ventricular mass significantly higher (152.6 +/- 42.2 versus 113.6 +/- 24.0 g, p = 0.0007) in patients with a positive (n = 11) versus a negative (n = 32) thallium perfusion scan. Coronary flow reserve was linearly related in coronary basal flow velocity as follows: y = -0.17x + 4.59; r = -0.57; p = 0.00002. The decrement in flow reserve was not linearly related to the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. Abnormal vasodilator reserve subsets found in hypertensive patients were defined on the basis of basal flow velocity, indexed left ventricular mass and clinical factors. In this series, diabetes did not cause a detectable additional decrement in flow reserve above that found with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that thallium perfusion defects are associated with depressed coronary vasodilator reserve in hypertensive patients without obstructive coronary artery disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy by indexed mass criteria is predictive of which hypertensive patients are likely to have thallium defects

  6. Relationship between myocardial flow reserve by oxygen-15 water positron emission tomography in the subacute phase of myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodeling in the chronic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Minako; Yukiiri, Kazushi; Masugata, Hisashi

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on myocardial flow reserve in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the subacute phase using oxygen-15 positron emission tomography (PET) and to elucidate the relationship between the myocardial flow reserve and remodeling in the chronic phase. Sixty patients who had been treated with coronary angioplasty within 12 h after the onset of AMI were enrolled. Patients were divided into an enalapril (ACEI) group and a candesartan (ARB) group. The myocardial flow reserve was measured by oxygen-15 water PET in the subacute phase from the 20th to the 30th day after the onset of AMI. Left ventriculography was performed to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction in the chronic phase about 6 months after the onset. Ten patients (33%) in the enalapril group and 4 patients (13%) in the candesartan group stopped taking their respective medications within a few days of starting, because of side effects such as cough or hypotension. Thus, the prevalence of medication intolerance was higher in the enalapril group. The myocardial flow reserve in the subacute phase and the left ventricular ejection fraction in the chronic phase were lower in the enalapril group (2.08±0.30 and 42±6%) than in the candesartan group (2.25±0.20 and 49±5%) (p<0.05). The myocardial flow reserve significantly correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction in all patients (r=0.45, p<0.01). The myocardial flow reserve assessed by PET in the subacute phase after AMI was found to be related to left ventricular remodeling in the chronic phase. (author)

  7. Risk Stratification of Patients With Current Generation Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices Being Bridged to Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ashrith; Nguyen, Duc; Cruz-Solbes, Ana S; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Schutt, Robert C; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Trachtenberg, Barry H; Park, Myung H; Graviss, Edward A; Gaber, Osama; Suarez, Erik; Montane, Eva; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Estep, Jerry D

    Patients bridged to transplant (BTT) with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) have increased in the past decade. Decision support tools for these patients are limited. We developed a risk score to estimate prognosis and guide decision-making. We included heart transplant recipients bridged with CF-LVADs from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database and divided them into development (2,522 patients) and validation cohorts (1,681 patients). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were performed. Variables that independently predicted outcomes (age, African American race, recipient body mass index [BMI], intravenous [IV] antibiotic use, pretransplant dialysis, and total bilirubin) were assigned weight using linear transformation, and risk scores were derived. Patients were grouped by predicted posttransplant mortality: low risk (≤ 38 points), medium risk (38-41 points), and high risk (≥ 42 points). We performed Cox proportional hazards analysis on wait-listed CF-LVAD patients who were not transplanted. Score significantly discriminated survival among the groups in the development cohort (6.7, 12.9, 20.7; p = 0.001), validation cohort (6.4, 10.1, 13.6; p assist device (LVAD) BTT risk score that effectively identifies CF-LVAD patients who are at higher risk for worse outcomes after heart transplant. This score may help physicians weigh the risks of transplantation in patients with CF-LVAD.

  8. Quantification of left ventricular volumes from cardiac cine MRI using active contour model combined with gradient vector flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Murase, Kenya; Kumashiro, Masayuki; Momoi, Risa; Yang, Xiaomei; Tabuchi, Takashi; Nagayama, Masako; Watanabe, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of combining the active contour model with gradient vector flow (Snakes-GVF) to estimate left ventricular (LV) volumes from cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI data were acquired from 27 patients, including 14 adults (9 men, 5 women, 55.0±23.3 years) and 13 children (10 boys, 3 girls, 2.7±2.1 years) using Gyroscan Intera (1.5 Tesla, Philips Medical Systems). LV volumes were calculated by adding the areas surrounded by the contour extracted by Snakes-GVF and compared with volumes estimated by manual tracing. Those estimated by Snakes-GVF [y (mL)] correlated well with those estimated by manual tracing [x (mL)]. In adult cases, the regression equation and correlation coefficient were y=1.008x-0.517 and 0.996, respectively. In pediatric cases, they were y=1.174x-2.542 and 0.992, respectively. In conclusion, Snakes-GVF is a powerful and useful tool for quantifying LV volumes using cardiac MRI. (author)

  9. Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Black normotensive patients, left ventricular function, type 2 DM. Résumé ... sickle cell disease and structural heart disease were excluded ... Pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity ... had abnormal ECG pattern compared with 30%.

  10. Is anti-platelet therapy needed in continuous flow left ventricular assist device patients? A single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Pierre-Yves; Smail, Hassiba; Barbay, Virginie; Nafeh-Bizet, Catherine; Bouchart, François; Baste, Jean-Marc; Abriou, Caroline; Bessou, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    We report our 5-year experience of continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation without the use of anti-platelet therapy. Between February 2006 and September 2011, 27 patients (26 men; 1 woman) were implanted with a continuous flow LVAD (HeartMate II, Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA). The mean age was 55.7 ± 9.9 years. The mean duration of support was 479 ± 436 (1-1555) days with 35.4 patient-years on support. Twenty-one patients were implanted as a bridge to transplantation and 6 for destination therapy. The anticoagulation regimen was fluindione for all patients, with aspirin for only 4 patients. At the beginning of our experience, aspirin was administered to 4 patients for 6, 15, 60 and 460 days. Due to gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and epistaxis, aspirin was discontinued, and since August 2006, no patients have received anti-platelet therapy. At 3 years, the survival rate during support was 76%. The most common postoperative adverse event was GI bleeding (19%) and epistaxis (30%) (median time: 26 days) for patients receiving fluindione and aspirin. The mean International Normalized Ratio (INR) was 2.58 ± 0.74 during support. Fifteen patients have been tested for acquired Von Willebrand disease. A diminished ratio of collagen-binding capacity and ristocetin cofactor activity to Von Willebrand factor antigen was observed in 7 patients. In the postoperative period, 2 patients presented with ischaemic stroke at 1 and 8 months. One of these 2 patients had a previous history of carotid stenosis with ischaemic stroke. There were no patients with haemorrhagic stroke, transient ischaemic attack or pump thrombosis. The event rate of stroke (ischaemic and haemorrhagic) per patient-year was 0.059 among the patients without aspirin with fluindione regimen only. A fluindione regimen without aspirin in long-duration LVAD support appears to not increase thromboembolic events and could lead to a diminished risk of haemorrhagic stroke.

  11. Mycobacterium chimaera left ventricular assist device infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Leora B; Louie, Eddie; Hill, Fred; Levine, Jamie; Phillips, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    A global outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after cardiac surgery has recently been linked to bioaerosols from contaminated heater-cooler units. The majority of cases have occurred after valvular surgery or aortic graft surgery and nearly half have resulted in death. To date, infections in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been characterized in the literature. We report two cases of device-associated M. chimaera infection in patients with continuous-flow LVADs and describe challenges related to diagnosis and management in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Vector flow mapping in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to assess the relationship of early systolic left ventricular flow and the mitral valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Richard; Halpern, Dan; Sahn, David J; Homel, Peter; Arabadjian, Milla; Lopresto, Charles; Sherrid, Mark V

    2014-11-11

    The hydrodynamic cause of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) is unresolved. This study hypothesized that echocardiographic vector flow mapping, a new echocardiographic technique, would provide insights into the cause of early SAM in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We analyzed the spatial relationship of left ventricular (LV) flow and the mitral valve leaflets (MVL) on 3-chamber vector flow mapping frames, and performed mitral valve measurements on 2-dimensional frames in patients with obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and in normal patients. We compared 82 patients (22 obstructive HCM, 23 nonobstructive HCM, and 37 normal) by measuring 164 LV pre- and post-SAM velocity vector flow maps, 82 maximum isovolumic vortices, and 328 2-dimensional frames. We observed color flow and velocity vector flow posterior to the MVL impacting them in the early systolic frames of 95% of obstructive HCM, 22% of nonobstructive HCM, and 11% of normal patients (p 60° of local vector flow onto the posterior surface of the leaflets whether the flow was ejection (59%) or the early systolic isovolumic vortex (41%). Ricochet of vector flow, rebounding off the leaflet into the cul-de-sac, was noted in 82% of the obstructed HCM, 9% of nonobstructive HCM, and none (0%) of the control patients (p Flow velocities in the LV outflow tract on the pre-SAM frame 1 and 2 mm from the tip of the anterior leaflet were low: 39 and 43 cm/s, respectively. Early systolic flow impacts the posterior surfaces of protruding MVL initiating SAM in obstructive HCM. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatic and renal function with successful long-term support on a continuous flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Salil V; Sharma, Vikas; Altarabsheh, Salah E; Hasin, Tal; Dillon, John; Shah, Ishan K; Durham, Lucian A; Stulak, John M; Daly, Richard C; Joyce, Lyle D; Park, Soon J

    2014-03-01

    Data regarding the long-term clinical effects of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) on hepato-renal function is limited. Hence our aim was to assess changes in hepato-renal function over a one-year period in patients supported on a CF-LVAD. During the study period 126 patients underwent CF-LVAD implant. Changes in hepato-renal laboratory parameters were studied in 61/126 patients successfully supported on a CF-LVAD for period of one year. A separate cohort of a high-risk group (HCrB) of patients (56/126) with a serum creat>1.9 mg/dL (168 μmol/L) (75th percentile) or a serum bil>1.5 mg/dL (25.65 μmol/L) (75th percentile) was created. Changes in serum creatinine and bilirubin were analysed at regular intervals for this group along with the need for renal replacement therapy. Baseline creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for the entire cohort was 1.4[1.2,1.9 mg/dL] [123.7(106,168) μmol/L) and 27[20,39.5 mg/dL] [9.6(7.1,14.1) mmol/L] respectively. After an initial reduction at the end of one month [1(0.8,1.2) mg/dL; 88(70,105) μmol/L] (passist device support for one year. High-risk patients demonstrate a higher 30-day mortality and temporary need for renal replacement therapy. Yet even in this cohort, improvement is present over a period of one year on the device, with a minimal need for permanent haemodialysis. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluoroscopy-Guided Resolution of Ingested Thrombus Leading to Functional Disturbance of a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Garbade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The third generation of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs has been shown to improve outcome and quality of life in patients suffering from acute and chronic heart failure. However, VAD-associated complications are still a challenge in the clinical practice. Here we report the resolution of a mobile thrombus formation in the proximity of the inflow cannula of a third generation of LVADs (HVAD Pump, HeartWare, Inc. in a patient with chronic heart failure 4 months after implantation.

  15. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement of Left Ventricular Blood Flow and Coronary Flow Reserve in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure due to Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aras, A.; Anik, Y.; Demirci, A.; Balci, N.C.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuoglu, B. (Radiology Dept. and Cardiology Dept., Kocaeli Univ. School of Medicine, Kocaeli (Turkey))

    2007-11-15

    Background: Coronary sinus flow reflects global cardiac perfusion and has been used for the assessment of myocardial flow reserve, which is reduced in chronic heart failure (CHF). Coronary flow reserve (CFR) can be measured by using phase-contrast (PC) velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To quantify and compare global left ventricular (LV) perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF and in a healthy control group by measuring coronary sinus flow with PC VEC MRI, and to correlate this with global LV perfusion, segmental first-pass perfusion, and viability in the same patients. Material and Methods: Cardiac MRI was performed in 20 patients with CHF of ischemic origin and in a control group of healthy subjects (n 11) at rest and after pharmacological stress induced by i.v. dipyridamole. The MRI protocol included cine MRI, VEC MRI, first-pass perfusion, and delayed contrast-enhanced MRI for viability. Global LV perfusion was quantified by measuring coronary sinus flow on VEC MRI at rest in all subjects. CFR was determined as the ratio of global LV perfusion before and after pharmacologic stress. Results: At rest, global LV perfusion was not significantly different in patients with CHF and the control group. After administration of dipyridamole, global LV perfusion and CFR were significantly lower in patients with CHF compared to the control group (P<0.001). An inverse correlation was observed between CFR and the number of infarcted and/or ischemic segments (P = 0.083, P = 0.037). Conclusion: A combined cardiac MRI protocol including function and perfusion techniques together with VEC MRI can be used to evaluate global LV perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF. Global LV perfusion and CFR measurements may have potential in the monitoring of CHF. Impaired CFR may contribute to progressive decline in LV function in patients with CHF

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurement of Left Ventricular Blood Flow and Coronary Flow Reserve in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure due to Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, A.; Anik, Y.; Demirci, A.; Balci, N.C.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuogl u, B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Coronary sinus flow reflects global cardiac perfusion and has been used for the assessment of myocardial flow reserve, which is reduced in chronic heart failure (CHF). Coronary flow reserve (CFR) can be measured by using phase-contrast (PC) velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To quantify and compare global left ventricular (LV) perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF and in a healthy control group by measuring coronary sinus flow with PC VEC MRI, and to correlate this with global LV perfusion, segmental first-pass perfusion, and viability in the same patients. Material and Methods: Cardiac MRI was performed in 20 patients with CHF of ischemic origin and in a control group of healthy subjects (n 11) at rest and after pharmacological stress induced by i.v. dipyridamole. The MRI protocol included cine MRI, VEC MRI, first-pass perfusion, and delayed contrast-enhanced MRI for viability. Global LV perfusion was quantified by measuring coronary sinus flow on VEC MRI at rest in all subjects. CFR was determined as the ratio of global LV perfusion before and after pharmacologic stress. Results: At rest, global LV perfusion was not significantly different in patients with CHF and the control group. After administration of dipyridamole, global LV perfusion and CFR were significantly lower in patients with CHF compared to the control group (P<0.001). An inverse correlation was observed between CFR and the number of infarcted and/or ischemic segments (P = 0.083, P 0.037). Conclusion: A combined cardiac MRI protocol including function and perfusion techniques together with VEC MRI can be used to evaluate global LV perfusion and CFR in patients with CHF. Global LV perfusion and CFR measurements may have potential in the monitoring of CHF. Impaired CFR may contribute to progressive decline in LV function in patients with CHF

  18. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C; Pinto, Yigal M

    2003-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there are structural changes in myofilaments, disorganization of the cytoskeletal framework and increased collagen synthesis. LVH is associated with progressive left ventricular remodeling that culminates to heart failure. The modern treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is now largely based on the hypothesis that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of the disease and inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Drugs specifically designed to unload the left ventricle, such as diuretics and vasodilators, appears to be less effective in reducing LV mass and improving prognosis. Thus, the evolution of treatment for LVH itself has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder.

  19. Evaluation of Aortic Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in Aortic Stenosis and Its Association With Left Ventricular Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Karunaharamoorthy, Achudhan; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Barker, Alex J; Blaszczyk, Edyta; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. Study aim was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of AS patients and determine their association with remodeling. Methods and Results Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age 60±10 years) underwent 4D-flow MRI. Helical and vortical flow formations and flow eccentricity were assessed in the ascending aorta. Normalized flow displacement from the vessel center and peak systolic wall shear stress (WSSpeak) in the ascending aorta were quantified. LV remodeling was assessed based on LV mass index (LVMI-I) and the ratio of LV mass to enddiastolic volume (relative wall mass; RWM). Marked helical and vortical flow formation and eccentricity were more prevalent in patients with AS than in healthy subjects, and AS patients exhibited an asymmetric and elevated distribution of WSSpeak. In AS, aortic orifice area was strongly negatively associated with vortical flow formation (p=0.0274), eccentricity (p=0.0070) and flow displacement (p=0.0021). Bicuspid aortic valve was associated with more intense helical (p=0.0098) and vortical flow formation (p=0.0536), higher flow displacement (p=0.11) and higher WSSpeak (p=0.0926). LVM-I and RWM were significantly associated with aortic orifice area (p=0.0611, p=0.0058) and flow displacement (p=0.0058, p=0.0283). Conclusions In this pilot study, AS leads to abnormal blood flow pattern and WSSpeak in the ascending aorta. In addition to aortic orifice area, normalized flow displacement was significantly associated with LV remodeling. PMID:26917824

  20. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  1. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary design of the internal geometry in a minimally invasive left ventricular assist device under pulsatile-flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P Alex; Wang, Yaxin; Metcalfe, Ralph W; Sampaio, Luiz C; Timms, Daniel L; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H

    2018-03-01

    A minimally invasive, partial-assist, intra-atrial blood pump has been proposed, which would unload the left ventricle with a flow path from the left atrium to the arterial system. Flow modulation is a common strategy for ensuring washout in the pump, but it can increase power consumption because it is typically achieved through motor-speed variation. However, if a pump's performance curve had the proper gradient, flow modulation could be realized passively. To achieve this goal, we propose a pump performance operating curve as an alternative to the more standard operating point. Mean-line theory was employed to generate an initial set of geometries that were then tested on a hydraulic test rig at ~20,000 r/min. Experimental results show that the intra-atrial blood pump performed below the operating region; however, it was determined that smaller hub diameter and longer chord length bring the performance of the intra-atrial blood pump device closer to the operating curve. We found that it is possible to shape the pump performance curve for specifically targeted gradients over the operating region through geometric variations inside the pump.

  3. Prevalence, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of various flow and gradient patterns in mild or moderate aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong-Qiang Benjamin; Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2016-10-15

    Paradoxical low-flow aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has only been described in severe AS. Controversy surrounds prognosis and management but no studies have reported this phenomenon in mild or moderate AS. We investigated the prevalence of flow and gradient patterns in this population, characterising their clinical and echocardiographic profile. Consecutive subjects (n=1362) with isolated AS: mild (n=462, aortic valve area≥1.5cm(2), 2.5m/sflow (stroke volume index<35ml/m(2)) were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to compare the flow and gradient patterns. In mild AS, 130 (28%) had low-flow. Lower left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (97.0±28.5vs116.4±2.3g/m(2),p<0.001), higher percentage of concentric remodelling (40%vs6%,p<0.001) and hypertrophy (43%vs40%,p<0.001) and lower end-systolic wall stress (ESWS) (57.6±1.60vs67.7±19.6dyn/cm(2),p=0.014) were independently associated with low-flow. Similarly, in moderate AS, 297 (33%) had low-flow. Older age (73.4±14.8vs69.5±16.5,p=0.027), lower LVMI (88.6±25.9vs118.0±36.5,p<0.001), higher percentage of concentric remodelling (46%vs8%,p<0.001) and lower ESWS (59.9±18.3vs70.5±19.7,p<0.001) were independently associated with low-flow. Despite moderate AS, most had lower mean pressure gradients, especially subjects with concentric remodelling. In the entire cohort, low-flow patients had more concentric remodelling (43%vs7%,p<0.001) and less eccentric hypertrophy (2%vs27%,p<0.001) compared to normal flow. Low-flow AS with normal LVEF is observed in mild or moderate AS, in up to a third of the cases. These patients had different LV structure compared to normal-flow, with more concentric remodelling. Further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, H.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Morehead, A. J.; Zetts, A. D.; Travaglini, A.; Bauer, F.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.

  5. Assessment of left ventricular global function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuel, H.-P.; Baehre, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV), i.e. noninvasive evaluation of left venticular performance following the application of radionuclides has had a major impact on many aspects of cardiology and has proven its clinical value and reliability in the last few years. This article deals mainly with the changes in global left ventricular function. The clinical applications of RNV for coronary artery diseases and valvular heart diseases are described. (Auth.)

  6. Left ventricular hypertrophy : virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, S; Sharma, UC; Pinto, YM

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, there

  7. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there

  8. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne [Dresden University of Technology, OncoRay - Molecular and Biological Imaging, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Goetzelt, Knut; Vogelberg, Christian [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatrics - Pediatric Pulmonology, Dresden (Germany); Hahn, Gabriele [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Institute and Policlinic for Radiology - Pediatric Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Fitze, Guido [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatric Surgery, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment. (orig.)

  9. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne; Götzelt, Knut; Hahn, Gabriele; Fitze, Guido; Vogelberg, Christian

    2010-07-01

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment.

  10. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne; Goetzelt, Knut; Vogelberg, Christian; Hahn, Gabriele; Fitze, Guido

    2010-01-01

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment. (orig.)

  11. Effect of loading-dose ticagrelor on coronary blood flow, left ventricular remodeling and myocardial enzyme spectrum in patients with acute myocardial infarction after interventional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Rui Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of loading-dose ticagrelor on coronary blood flow, left ventricular remodeling and myocardial enzyme spectrum in patients with acute myocardial infarction after interventional therapy. Methods: A total of 86 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received emergency PCI in our hospital between May 2013 and May 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, ticagrelor group received perioperative ticagrelor therapy and clopidogrel group received perioperative clopidogrel therapy. After PCI, coronary blood flow reperfusion was evaluated, serum myocardial remodeling indexes and myocardial enzymes were determined, and cardiac color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to determine the cardiac function indexes. Results: TIMI grading and TMPG grading of ticagrelor group after PCI were significantly higher than those of clopidogrel group; serum MMP9, BNP, CITP, PICP, PIIINP, CK, CK-MB, cTnI and cTnT content of ticagrelor group 24h after operation were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group; LVEDD, LVSED and LVMI of ticagrelor group 2 weeks after operation were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group while LVEF was significantly higher than that of clopidogrel group. Conclusion: Peri-PCI loading-dose ticagrelor can improve coronary blood perfusion and reduce ventricular remodeling and myocardial injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  13. Color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity is a preload insensitive index of left ventricular relaxation: animal and human validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M J; Smedira, N G; Greenberg, N L; Main, M; Firstenberg, M S; Odabashian, J; Thomas, J D

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effect of preload in color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity (v(p)). The interpretation of Doppler filling patterns is limited by confounding effects of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and preload. Color M-mode v(p) has been proposed as a new index of LV relaxation. We studied four dogs before and during inferior caval (IVC) occlusion at five different inotropic stages and 14 patients before and during partial cardiopulmonary bypass. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volumes (LV-EDV), the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), left atrial (LA) pre-A and LV end-diastolic pressures (LV-EDP) were measured. Peak velocity during early filling (E) and v(p) were extracted by digital analysis of color M-mode Doppler images. In both animals and humans, LV-EDV and LV-EDP decreased significantly from baseline to IVC occlusion (both p < 0.001). Peak early filling (E) velocity decreased in animals from 56 +/- 21 to 42 +/- 17 cm/s (p < 0.001) without change in v(p) (from 35 +/- 15 to 35 +/- 16, p = 0.99). Results were similar in humans (from 69 +/- 15 to 53 +/- 22 cm/s, p < 0.001, and 37 +/- 12 to 34 +/- 16, p = 0.30). In both species, there was a strong correlation between LV relaxation (tau) and v(p) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that color M-mode Doppler v(p) is not affected by preload alterations and confirms that LV relaxation is its main physiologic determinant in both animals during varying lusitropic conditions and in humans with heart disease.

  14. Validity and reliability of a novel slow cuff-deflation system for noninvasive blood pressure monitoring in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Gregg M; Orlanes, Khristine; Hayashi, Yacki; Murphy, Jennifer; Flannery, Margaret; Te-Frey, Rosie; Uriel, Nir; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Mancini, Donna M; Naka, Yoshifumi; Takayama, Hiroo; Jorde, Ulrich P; Demmer, Ryan T; Colombo, Paolo C

    2013-09-01

    Doppler ultrasound is the clinical gold standard for noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement among continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients. The relationship of Doppler BP to systolic BP (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) is uncertain and Doppler measurements require a clinic visit. We studied the relationship between Doppler BP and both arterial-line (A-line) SBP and MAP. Validity and reliability of the Terumo Elemano BP Monitor, a novel slow cuff-deflation device that could potentially be used by patients at home, were assessed. Doppler and Terumo BP measurements were made in triplicate among 60 axial continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (HeartMate II) patients (30 inpatients and 30 outpatients) at 2 separate exams (360 possible measurements). A-line measures were also obtained among inpatients. Mean absolute differences (MADs) and correlations were used to determine within-device reliability (comparison of second and third BP measures) and between-device validity. Bland-Altman plots assessed BP agreement between A-line, Doppler BP, and Terumo Elemano. Success rates for Doppler and Terumo Elemano were 100% and 91%. Terumo Elemano MAD for repeat SBP and MAP were 4.6±0.6 and 4.2±0.6 mm Hg; repeat Doppler BP MAD was 2.9±0.2 mm Hg. Mean Doppler BP was lower than A-line SBP by 4.1 (MAD=6.4±1.4) mm Hg and higher than MAP by 9.5 (MAD=11.0±1.2) mm Hg; Terumo Elemano underestimated A-line SBP by 0.3 (MAD=5.6±0.9) mm Hg and MAP by 1.7 (MAD=6.0±1.0) mm Hg. Doppler BP more closely approximates SBP than MAP. Terumo Elemano was successful, reliable, and valid when compared with A-line and Doppler.

  15. Left Ventricular Geometry In Nigerians With Type II Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy is independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and all cause mortality. In a relatively healthy hypertensive adult population, type II diabetes is associated with higher left ventricular mass, concentric left ventricular geometry and lower ...

  16. 2-D left ventricular flow estimation by combining speckle tracking with Navier-Stokes-based regularization: an in silico, in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hang; Bijnens, Nathalie; Coisne, Damien; Lugiez, Mathieu; Rutten, Marcel; D'hooge, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of multiple ultrasound approaches to left ventricular (LV) flow characterization in two dimensions, this technique remains in its childhood and further developments seem warranted. This article describes a new methodology for tracking the 2-D LV flow field based on ultrasound data. Hereto, a standard speckle tracking algorithm was modified by using a dynamic kernel embedding Navier-Stokes-based regularization in an iterative manner. The performance of the proposed approach was first quantified in synthetic ultrasound data based on a computational fluid dynamics model of LV flow. Next, an experimental flow phantom setup mimicking the normal human heart was used for experimental validation by employing simultaneous optical particle image velocimetry as a standard reference technique. Finally, the applicability of the approach was tested in a clinical setting. On the basis of the simulated data, pointwise evaluation of the estimated velocity vectors correlated well (mean r = 0.84) with the computational fluid dynamics measurement. During the filling period of the left ventricle, the properties of the main vortex obtained from the proposed method were also measured, and their correlations with the reference measurement were also calculated (radius, r = 0.96; circulation, r = 0.85; weighted center, r = 0.81). In vitro results at 60 bpm during one cardiac cycle confirmed that the algorithm properly measures typical characteristics of the vortex (radius, r = 0.60; circulation, r = 0.81; weighted center, r = 0.92). Preliminary qualitative results on clinical data revealed physiologic flow fields. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Myocardial changes in patients with end-stage heart failure during continuous flow left ventricular assist device support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    With respect to the clinical outcome, cf-LVADs provide sufficient ventricular unloading and circulatory support. The post-operative mortality and morbidity in our centre are comparable with other recent experiences with this device. Based on these data, Heart Mate II (HM II) LVAD therapy can be

  18. Peak negative myocardial velocity gradient in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular diastolic function: comparison with transmitral flow velocity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Uematsu, M; Shimizu, H; Nakamura, K; Yamagishi, M; Miyatake, K

    1998-11-01

    We sought to assess the clinical significance of peak negative myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Peak systolic MVG has been shown useful for the quantitative assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities, but limited data exist regarding the diastolic MVG as an indicator of LV diastolic function. Peak negative MVG was obtained from M-mode tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in 43 subjects with or without impairment of systolic and diastolic performance: 12 normal subjects, 12 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with normal systolic performance and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and was compared with standard Doppler transmitral flow velocity indices. In a subgroup of 30 patients, effects of preload increase on these indices were assessed by performing passive leg lifting. In an additional 11 patients with congestive heart failure at the initial examination, the measurements were repeated after 26+/-16 days of volume-reducing therapy. Peak negative MVG was significantly depressed both in HHD (-3.9+/-1.3/s, p indices failed to distinguish DCM from normal due to the pseudonormalization. Transmitral flow velocity indices were significantly altered (peak early/late diastolic filling velocity [E/A]=1.1+/-0.5 to 1.5+/-0.7, p indicator of LV diastolic function that is less affected by preload alterations than the transmitral flow velocity indices, and thereby could be used for the follow-up of patients with nonischemic LV dysfunction presenting congestive heart failure.

  19. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  20. Implantation of a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device via left thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang Hyun; Deo, Salil V; Schirger, John A; Pereira, Naveen L; Stulak, John M; Park, Soon J

    2012-11-01

    Left thoracotomy was used as an approach for the implantation of pulsatile ventricular assist devices. Avoiding the standard approach of median sternotomy is attractive in patients undergoing complicated redo cardiac surgery, especially with prior mediastinal radiation. We report a case of the use of left thoracotomy for the implantation of the HeartMate II axial-flow pump. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of the left ventricular dysfunction induced by ventricular arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. І. Vytryhovskiy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The most powerful predictor of life-threatening arrhythmia risk is a combination of low heart rate variability with low ejection fraction (EF of the left ventricle. Aim. To identify predictors of left ventricle dysfunction which is induced by ventricular arrhythmia. Materials and methods. To diagnose structural changes of left ventricular functional capacity and reserves in patients with previous myocardial infarction and patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk by SCORE scale and for establishment the relationship between morphological heart changes and pathological phenomenon of heart turbulence echocardiography and study of heart rate turbulence variability were performed. 603 patients were selected for the research. All patients were divided into groups: group 1 – patients with coronary heart disease, but without associated risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome; group 2 – patients who smoke tobacco more than 2 years (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE; group 3 – patients with metabolic syndrome without coronary heart disease or arterial hypertension (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE. The control group consisted of 149 persons. Results. The feature of structural changes in patients with myocardial infarction and in patients with a high cardiovascular risk by SCORE with heart rate turbulence compared with cases without НRT is considerably thickening of the left interventricular septum in systole. Based on this, it can be argued that the emergence of ventricular arrhythmia and accordingly phenomenon of heart rate turbulence in patients with existing cardiovascular diseases and risk factors has both morphological and functional character. Significant difference of echocardioscopy parameters in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis and risk factors by the SCORE system was established by index of intraventricular septum thickness in systole, and in persons with high risk – in

  2. Myocardial fibrosis and pro-fibrotic markers in end-stage heart failure patients during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Sjoukje I.; Nous, Fay M. A.; van Kuik, Joyce; van der Weide, Petra; Winkens, Bjorn; Kemperman, Hans; Huisman, Andre; Lahpor, Jaap R; de Weger, Roel A.; de Jonge, Nicolaas

    OBJECTIVES: During support with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), partial reverse remodelling takes place in which fibrosis plays an important role. In this study, we analysed the histological changes and expression of fibrotic markers in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) during

  3. Evaluation of left ventricular function by cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1982-01-01

    Left ventricular function was evaluated by CT, which was compared with the data of left ventriculography for various cardiac diseases. The end diastolic volume of the left ventricle can be readily computed from CT, with a satisfactory correlation with that of left ventriculography (r = 0.95). The left ventricular ejection fraction, calculated from the areal ratio of the left ventricular lumen in end-diastolic imaging to that in end-sytolic imaging, also roughly reflects left ventricular contractile function, but shows correlation with left ventriculography by only r = 0.79. Although the cardiac output is not sensitive for functional evaluation, it can be directly calculated by means of dynamic scanning and shows a satisfactory correlation with the ear piece pigment dilution (r = 0.85). Evaluation of left ventricular function by CT shows a high precision in comparison with left ventriculography, but still lacks temporal resolving power. (Chiba, N.)

  4. Early Right Ventricular Assist Device Use in Patients Undergoing Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: Incidence and Risk Factors From the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michael S; Grandin, E Wilson; Brinkley, Marshall; Kapur, Navin K; Pham, Duc Thinh; Ruthazer, Robin; Rame, J Eduardo; Atluri, Pavan; Birati, Edo Y; Oliveira, Guilherme H; Pagani, Francis D; Kirklin, James K; Naftel, David; Kormos, Robert L; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; DeNofrio, David

    2017-10-01

    To investigate preimplant risk factors associated with early right ventricular assist device (RVAD) use in patients undergoing continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) surgery. Patients in the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support who underwent primary continuous-flow-LVAD surgery were examined for concurrent or subsequent RVAD implantation within 14 days of LVAD. Risk factors for RVAD implantation and the combined end point of RVAD or death within 14 days of LVAD were assessed with stepwise logistic regression. We compared survival between patients with and without RVAD using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Of 9976 patients undergoing continuous-flow-LVAD implantation, 386 patients (3.9%) required an RVAD within 14 days of LVAD surgery. Preimplant characteristics associated with RVAD use included interagency registry for mechanically assisted circulatory support patient profiles 1 and 2, the need for preoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or renal replacement therapy, severe preimplant tricuspid regurgitation, history of cardiac surgery, and concomitant procedures other than tricuspid valve repair at the time of LVAD. Hemodynamic determinants included elevated right atrial pressure, reduced pulmonary artery pulse pressure, and reduced stroke volume. The final model demonstrated good performance for both RVAD implant (area under the curve, 0.78) and the combined end point of RVAD or death within 14 days (area under the curve, 0.73). Compared with patients receiving an isolated LVAD, patients requiring RVAD had decreased 1- and 6-month survival: 78.1% versus 95.8% and 63.6% versus 87.9%, respectively ( P The need for RVAD implantation after LVAD is associated with indices of global illness severity, markers of end-organ dysfunction, and profiles of hemodynamic instability. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Patients With a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device: An Analysis of the INTERMACS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; Topkara, Veli K; Demmer, Ryan T; Dizon, Jose M; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Fried, Justin A; Mai, Xingchen; Mancini, Donna M; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Colombo, Paolo C; Garan, A Reshad

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine if the presence of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) provided a mortality benefit during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. An ICD decreases mortality in selected patients with advanced heart failure and have been associated with reduced mortality in patients with pulsatile LVAD. However, it is unclear whether that benefit extends to patients with a contemporary continuous-flow LVAD. Propensity score matching was used to generate a cohort of patients with similar baseline characteristics. The primary outcome was freedom from death during LVAD support. Secondary endpoints included freedom from unexpected death, likelihood of transplantation and recovery, and adverse events. Among 16,384 eligible patients in the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support registry, 2,209 patients with an ICD and 2,209 patients without one had similar propensity scores and were included. The presence of an ICD was associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 1.39; p = 0.013) and an increased risk of unexpected death during device support (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.71; p = 0.03). Patients with an ICD were more likely to undergo transplantation (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.35; p = 0.06) and less likely to have LVAD explant for recovery (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.98; p = 0.04). Patients with an ICD had a higher rate of treated ventricular arrhythmias (rate ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.48; p = 0.001) and rehospitalization (rate ratio: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.12; p < 0.0001), but rates of hemorrhagic stroke were similar (rate ratio: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.26; p = 0.98). Among patients with a continuous flow LVAD, the presence of an ICD was not associated with reduced mortality. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Left ventricular structural and functional characteristics in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Lupia, Mario; Salvetti, Massimo; Grigoletto, Consuelo; Sonino, Nicoletta; Boscaro, Marco; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Mantero, Franco; Fallo, Francesco

    2003-06-18

    This study was designed to evaluate left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in patients with Cushing's syndrome. A high prevalence of LV hypertrophy and concentric remodeling has been reported in Cushing's syndrome, although no data have been reported on LV systolic and diastolic function. Forty-two consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome and 42 control subjects, matched for age, gender, and blood pressure, were studied. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were measured by echocardiography, endocardial and midwall fractional shortening (FS) were assessed, and diastolic filling was measured by Doppler transmitral flow. The RWT was significantly greater in Cushing patients than in controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy and concentric remodeling were observed in 10 and 26 patients with Cushing's syndrome, respectively. In Cushing patients, midwall FS was significantly reduced compared with controls (16.2 +/- 3% vs. 21 +/- 4.5%, p = 0.01). The ratio of transmitral E and A flow velocities was reduced and E deceleration time was prolonged in Cushing patients compared with controls (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). In patients with Cushing's syndrome, cardiac structural changes are associated with reduced midwall systolic performance and with diastolic dysfunction that may contribute to the high risk of cardiovascular events observed in these patients.

  7. Detection of left ventricular thrombi by computerised tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.; Sketch, M.H.; Mahoney, P.D.; Lynch, J.D.; Mooss, A.N.; Kenney, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen patients suspected of having left ventricular mural thrombi were studied. All had suffered transmural myocardial infarction. Fifteen patients had a ventricular aneurysm. One had had systemic emboli. The mean length of time between the myocardial infarction and the study was 14.8 months, with a range of one month to 79 months. All patients underwent computerised tomography of the heart, M-mode echocardiography (M-mode), and two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D). Eight patients underwent left ventricular cineangiography. Five patients had surgical confirmation. Computerised tomography, two-dimensional, and M-mode echocardiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in 10, eight, and one of the 16 patients, respectively. Left ventricular cineangiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in four out of eight patients. Computerised tomography and left ventricular cineangiography correctly predicted the presence or absence of left ventricular thrombi in all five patients who underwent operation. In the same group, however, two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography failed to predict the presence of thrombi in one and three patients, respectively. Among the 11 patients without surgical confirmation, one, in whom no left ventricular thrombi were shown by M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, was found to have thrombi on computerised tomography. In another, two-dimensional echocardiography was positive but this finding was not confirmed either by computerised tomography or by left ventricular angiography. (author)

  8. New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J. J.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Tsujino, H.; Zetts, A. D.; Sun, J. P.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; hide

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, Pmethods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.

  9. The pharmacotherapy of the HeartMate II, a continuous flow left ventricular assist device, in patients with advanced heart failure: integration of disease, device, and drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Douglas L; Chambers, Rachel M; Schillig, Jessica M

    2010-10-01

    Advanced heart failure continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Patients with advanced heart failure have a poor prognosis without cardiac transplantation. The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as destination therapy for these patients is therefore expected to increase in the coming years as technology advances. The HeartMate II, a continuous flow implantable device, is currently the only LVAD that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for destination therapy in patients with advanced heart failure. The pharmacotherapy associated with this device is very complex and, therefore, the need for expertly trained clinical pharmacists to care for this expanding patient population will also likely increase. Unfortunately, most pharmacists are unfamiliar with the effect of LVADs on the physiology and pharmacotherapy of a patient's heart failure. The purpose of this article is to give clinical pharmacists an introduction to the most common pharmacotherapeutic issues for patients with LVADs and present practical solutions for managing common drug therapy problems.

  10. Calculation of cardiac pressures using left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) derived from radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommer, E.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop formulas to determine cardiac pressures in an undisturbed flow in patients without valvular or shunt diseases. These are based entirely on the results of left ventricular ejection fraction rates, permitting pressure analysis of several compartments at the same tine. According to BORER et al. they also enable determination of left ventricular 'Functional Reserve' after bycycle exercise as well as left ventricular 'Relaxation Reserve'. They support the views of NYHA in determining the grades of cardiac insufficiency proving the system- and low-pressure participation. A single formula for pulmonary flow can determine the pulmonary arterial pressure. The left ventricular enddiastolic pressure can also be exclusively calculated by values of left ventricular functions, thus both formulas may be used in disorders of the mitral valves. The possibility to calculate pressures of all the compartments of the heart from left ventricular ejection rate shows, that in undisturbed flow global heart function depends on left ventricular function. Therefore the mutual dependence of these formulas presents an intercompartimental pressure regulation of the heart through pulmonary flow and pulmonary vascular pressure, which leaves an aspect of autonomous cardiac regulation open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  11. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.

  12. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  13. Persistent blood stream infection in patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Barry H; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M; Aldeiri, Molham; Alvarez, Paulino; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Ashrith, Guha; Elias, Barbara; Suarez, Erik E; Bruckner, Brian; Loebe, Matthias; Harris, Richard L; Zhang, J Yi; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Estep, Jerry D

    2015-02-01

    Common adverse events in patients supported with Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD) include infections and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Some studies have suggested a possible association between blood stream infection (BSI) and CVA. Medical records of patients who received Heartmate II (HMII) CF-LVADs in 2008-2012 at a single center were reviewed. CVA was categorized as either hemorrhagic (HCVA) or ischemic (ICVA). BSI was divided into persistent (pBSI) and nonpersistent (non-pBSI). pBSI was defined as BSI with the same organism on repeated blood culture >72 hours from initial blood culture despite antibiotics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictors. A total of 149 patients had HMII implanted; 76% were male, and the overall mean age was 55.4 ± 13 years. There were a total of 19 (13%) patients who had CVA (7 HCVA and 12 ICVA) at a median of 295 days (range 5-1,096 days) after implantation. There were a total of 28 (19%) patients with pBSI and 17 (11%) patients with non-pBSI. Patients with pBSI had a trend toward greater BMI (31 kg/m(2) vs 27 kg/m(2); P = .09), and longer duration of support (1,019 d vs 371 d; P < .001) compared with those with non-pBSI. Persistent BSI was associated with an increased risk of mortality and with all-cause CVA on multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] 5.97; P = .003) as well as persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection (OR 4.54; P = .048). Persistent BSI is not uncommon in patients supported by CF-LVAD and is highly associated with all-cause CVA and increased all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Patients Bridged to Transplantation with a Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J.; Topkara, Veli K.; Mancini, Donna M.; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Dizon, Jose M.; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Colombo, Paolo C.; Garan, A. Reshad

    2016-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) provide a significant mortality benefit for appropriately selected patients with advanced heart failure. ICDs are associated with a mortality benefit when used in patients with a pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD). However it is unclear whether patients with a continuous flow LVAD (CF-LVAD) derive the same benefit. This study sought to determine if the presence of an ICD provided a mortality benefit during CFLVAD support as a bridge to transplantation. Methods Patients were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry that underwent LVAD implantation as bridge to transplantation from May 2004 and April 2014, with follow-up through June 2014. The primary outcome was freedom from death while on CF-LVAD support with adjustment for complications requiring UNOS listing status upgrade. Secondary endpoints included freedom from delisting while on CF-LVAD support and incidence of transplantation. Results 2,990 patients composed the study cohort and propensity score matching identified 1,012 patients with similar propensity scores. There was no difference in survival during device support between patients with and without an ICD (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.20, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.66-2.17, p=0.55). Adjusting for device complications requiring a UNOS listing status upgrade had minimal influence (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.60-2.05, p=0.74). There was no increased risk of delisting due to being too sick for those with an ICD (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.63-1.86, p=0.78). Likewise, the probability of transplantation was similar (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.87-1.27, p=0.62). Conclusions Among patients bridged to transplantation with a CF-LVAD, the presence of an ICD did not reduce mortality. PMID:28089072

  15. The role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients bridged to transplantation with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device: A propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; Topkara, Veli K; Mancini, Donna M; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Demmer, Ryan T; Dizon, Jose M; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Colombo, Paolo C; Garan, A Reshad

    2017-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) provide a significant mortality benefit for appropriately selected patients with advanced heart failure. ICDs are associated with a mortality benefit when used in patients with a pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD). It is unclear whether patients with a continuous-flow LVAD (CF-LVAD) derive the same benefit. We sought to determine if the presence of an ICD provided a mortality benefit during CF-LVAD support as a bridge to transplantation. Patients were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry who underwent LVAD implantation as bridge to transplantation between May 2004 and April 2014, with follow-up through June 2014. Primary outcome was freedom from death while on CF-LVAD support with adjustment for complications requiring UNOS listing status upgrade. Secondary end-points included freedom from delisting while on CF-LVAD support and incidence of transplantation. The study cohort comprised 2,990 patients, and propensity score matching identified 1,012 patients with similar propensity scores. There was no difference in survival during device support between patients with and without an ICD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-2.17; p = 0.55). Adjusting for device complications requiring a UNOS listing status upgrade had minimal influence (HR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.60-2.05; p = 0.74). There was no increased risk of delisting owing to being too sick for patients with an ICD (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.63-1.86; p = 0.78). Likewise, the probability of transplantation was similar (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87-1.27; p = 0.62). Among patients bridged to transplantation with a CF-LVAD, the presence of an ICD did not reduce mortality. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prospective assessment of the frequency of low gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: Critical impact of aortic flow misalignment and pressure recovery phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringle, Anne; Castel, Anne-Laure; Le Goffic, Caroline; Delelis, François; Binda, Camille; Bohbot, Yohan; Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Guerbaai, Raphaëlle A; Levy, Franck; Vincentelli, André; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    2018-02-10

    The frequency of paradoxical low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS) varies widely across studies. The impact of misalignment of aortic flow and pressure recovery phenomenon on the frequency of low-gradient severe AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has not been evaluated in prospective studies. To investigate prospectively the impact of aortic flow misalignment by Doppler and lack of pressure recovery phenomenon correction on the frequency of low-gradient (LG) severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved LVEF. Aortic jet velocities and mean pressure gradient (MPG) were obtained by interrogating all windows in 68 consecutive patients with normal LVEF and severe AS (aortic valve area [AVA] ≤1cm 2 ) on the basis of the apical imaging window alone (two-dimensional [2D] apical approach). Patients were classified as having LG or high-gradient (HG) AS according to MPG 35mL/m 2 or ≤35mL/m 2 , on the basis of the 2D apical approach, the multiview approach (multiple windows evaluation) and AVA corrected for pressure recovery. The proportion of LG severe AS was 57% using the 2D apical approach alone. After the multiview approach and correction for pressure recovery, the proportion of LG severe AS decreased from 57% to 13% (LF-LG severe AS decreased from 23% to 3%; NF-LG severe AS decreased from 34% to 10%). As a result, 25% of patients were reclassified as having HG severe AS (AVA ≤1cm 2 and MPG ≥40mmHg) and 19% as having moderate AS. Hence, 77% of patients initially diagnosed with LG severe AS did not have "true" LG severe AS when the multiview approach and the pressure recovery phenomenon correction were used. Aortic flow misevaluation, resulting from lack of use of multiple windows evaluation and pressure recovery phenomenon correction, accounts for a large proportion of incorrectly graded AS and considerable overestimation of the frequency of LG severe AS with preserved LVEF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.

  18. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction - important clinical problem of contemporary cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    An important clinical issue there is determination whether left ventricular damages are reversible or not single photon emission computed tomography and positron computed tomography techniques are shown to provide valuable data in this problem. Article describes basic syndromes connected with left ventricular dysfunction, namely: hibernating myocardium, stunned myocardium and ischemic myocardium preconditioning. (author). 18 refs

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Thomsen, C; Mehlsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined in 17 patients with different levels of left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 1.5 Tesla Magnet was used obtaining ECG triggered single and multiple slices. Calculated cardiac outputs were compared...

  20. Left Ventricular Assist Devices: The Adolescence of a Disruptive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, Sean P

    2015-10-01

    Clinical outcomes for patients with advanced heart failure receiving left ventricular assist devices are driven by appropriate patient selection, refined surgical technique, and coordinated medical care. Perhaps even more important is innovative pump design. The introduction and widespread adoption of continuous-flow ventricular assist devices has led to a paradigm shift within the field of mechanical circulatory support, making the promise of lifetime device therapy closer to reality. The disruption caused by this new technology, on the one hand, produced meaningful improvements in patient survival and quality of life, but also introduced new clinical challenges, such as bleeding, pump thrombosis, and acquired valvular heart disease. Further evolution within this field will require financial investment to sustain innovation leading to a fully implantable, durable, and cost-effective pump for a larger segment of patients with advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Left ventricular mass in borderline hypertension assessed by echo cardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzasalma, L.; Ghione, S.; Palonebo, C.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between clinical measurement of blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension appears to be weak in most studies. On the contrary, stronger correlations with target organ damage in general, and left ventricular hypertrophy in particular, have been reported for blood pressure measurements obtained by ambulatory monitoring; this finding may indicate a possible role for blood pressure response to naturally occurring stresses in determining left ventricular hypertrophy. Aim of this study was to investigate, in 18 patients with borderline arterial hypertension, the relationships between echocardiographically assessed left ventricular mass and, respectively, casual BP and BP responses to some standardized stress tests. Only three patients had a diastolic wall thickness of the interventricular septum and of the posterior wall ≥1.2 cm and none had a pathologically increased left ventricular mass index. The following statistically significant correlations were found: casual diastolic BP vs. left ventricular mass index (r=0.53, p<0.02), systolic BP response to bicycle exercise test vs. left ventricular mass index (r=0.55, p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that almost fifty percent of the variability of left ventricular mass index could be predicted by these two BP measurements. These findings suggest that besides the chronically increased afterload, also the transient hypertensive responses to naturally occuring physical stresses may have a role in determining the extent of cardiac structural changes in borderline hypertensive patients. In addition, they indicate a direct relation between left ventricular mass and blood pressure levels also in borderline hypertension, as previously shown for established hypertension, despite the fact that left ventricular hypertrophy represents only an occasional finding in early stages of hypertension

  2. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats.

  3. Myocardial blood flow and left ventricular functional reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a {sup 13}NH{sub 3} gated PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciagra, Roberto; Calabretta, Raffaella; Passeri, Alessandro; Castello, Angelo; Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Cipollini, Fabrizio [University of Florence, Department of Statistics, Florence (Italy); Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo [Careggi University Hospital, Referral Centre for Myocardial Diseases, Florence (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), which is detected by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with PET. Whether CMD may be associated with ischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is unclear. We therefore assessed LV ejection fraction (EF) reserve in HCM patients undergoing dipyridamole (Dip) PET. Resting and stress {sup 13}NH{sub 3} dynamic as well as gated PET were performed in 34 HCM patients. Segmental MBF and transmural perfusion gradient (TPG = subendocardial / subepicardial MBF) were assessed. LVEF reserve was considered abnormal if Dip LVEF decreased more than 5 units as compared to rest. Eighteen patients had preserved (group A) and 16 abnormal LVEF reserve (group B; range -7 to -32). Group B patients had greater wall thickness than group A, but resting volumes, LVEF, resting and Dip MBF, and myocardial flow reserve were similar. Group B had slightly higher summed stress score and summed difference score in visual analysis than group A, and a significantly higher summed stress wall motion score. In group B, resting TPG was slightly lower (1.31 ± 0.29 vs. 1.37 ± 0.34, p <0.05), and further decreased after Dip, whilst in group A it increased (B = 1.20 ± 0.39, p < 0.0001 vs. rest and vs. A = 1.40 ± 0.43). The number of segments per patient with TPG <1 was higher than in group A (p < 0.001) and was a significant predictor of impaired LVEF reserve (OR 1.86, p < 0.02), together with wall thickness (OR 1.3, p < 0.02). Abnormal LVEF response is common in HCM patients following Dip, and is related to abnormal TPG, suggesting that subendocardial ischemia might occur under Dip and cause transient LV dysfunction. Although in vivo this effect may be hindered by the adrenergic drive associated with effort, these findings may have relevance in understanding exercise limitation and heart failure symptoms in HCM. (orig.)

  4. Calculation of the ALMA Risk of Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loforte, Antonio; Montalto, Andrea; Musumeci, Francesco; Amarelli, Cristiano; Mariani, Carlo; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Lilla Della Monica, Paola; Grigioni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Marinelli, Giuseppe

    2018-05-08

    Right ventricular failure after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is still an unsolved issue and remains a life-threatening event for patients. We undertook this study to determine predictors of the patients who are candidates for isolated LVAD therapy as opposed to biventricular support (BVAD). We reviewed demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, and laboratory variables for 258 patients who underwent both isolated LVAD implantation and unplanned BVAD because of early right ventricular failure after LVAD insertion, between 2006 and 2017 (LVAD = 170 and BVAD = 88). The final study patients were randomly divided into derivation (79.8%, n = 206) and validation (20.1%, n = 52) cohorts. Fifty-seven preoperative risk factors were compared between patients who were successfully managed with an LVAD and those who required a BVAD. Nineteen variables demonstrated statistical significance on univariable analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified destination therapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.0 [1.7-3.9], p = 0.003), a pulmonary artery pulsatility index right ventricle/left ventricle end-diastolic diameter ratio >0.75 (OR 2.7 [1.5-5.5], p = 0.001), an right ventricle stroke work index 17 (OR 3.5 [1.9-6.9], p the major predictors of the need for BVAD. Using these data, we propose a simple risk calculator to determine the suitability of patients for isolated LVAD support in the era of continuous-flow mechanical circulatory support devices.

  5. Wave Intensity Analysis of Right Ventricular Function during Pulsed Operation of Rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, J Christopher; Park, Jiheum; Valdovinos, John; Bonde, Pramod

    2018-05-29

    Changing the speed of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) cyclically may be useful to restore aortic pulsatility; however, the effects of this pulsation on right ventricular (RV) function are unknown. This study investigates the effects of direct ventricular interaction by quantifying the amount of wave energy created by RV contraction when axial and centrifugal LVADs are used to assist the left ventricle. In 4 anesthetized pigs, pressure and flow were measured in the main pulmonary artery and wave intensity analysis was used to identify and quantify the energy of waves created by the RV. The axial pump depressed the intensity of waves created by RV contraction compared with the centrifugal pump. In both pump designs, there were only minor and variable differences between the continuous and pulsed operation on RV function. The axial pump causes the RV to contract with less energy compared with a centrifugal design. Diminishing the ability of the RV to produce less energy translates to less pressure and flow produced, which may lead to LVAD-induced RV failure. The effects of pulsed LVAD operation on the RV appear to be minimal during acute observation of healthy hearts. Further study is necessary to uncover the effects of other modes of speed modulation with healthy and unhealthy hearts to determine if pulsed operation will benefit patients by reducing LVAD complications.

  6. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia with Structural Abnormalities of the Right Ventricle and Left Ventricular Diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolo Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT. ECG showed a QRS in left bundle branch block morphology with inferior axis. Echocardiography, ventricular angiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI revealed a normal right ventricle and a left ventricular diverticulum. Electrophysiology studies with epicardial voltage mapping identified a large fibrotic area in the inferolateral layer of the right ventricular wall and a small area of fibrotic tissue at the anterior right ventricular outflow tract. VT ablation was successfully performed with combined epicardial and endocardial approaches.

  7. Endocarditis in left ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Kumar, Monisha Priyadarshini; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in developed nations. End stage heart failure often requires cardiac transplantation for survival. The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been one of the biggest evolvements in heart failure management often serving as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Like any other medical device, LVAD is associated with complications with infections being reported in many patients. Endocarditis developing secondary to the placement of LVAD is not a frequent, serious and difficult to treat condition with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few retrospective studies and case reports reporting the same. In our review, we found the most common cause of endocarditis in LVAD was due to bacteria. Both bacterial and fungal endocarditis were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this review we will be discussing the risk factors, organisms involved, diagnostic tests, management strategies, complications, and outcomes in patients who developed endocarditis secondary to LVAD placement. PMID:27672540

  8. Proximal thoracic aorta dimensions after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation: Longitudinal changes and relation to aortic valve insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Nowell M; Park, Soon J; Stulak, John M; Topilsky, Yan; Daly, Richard C; Joyce, Lyle D; Pereira, Naveen L; Schirger, John A; Edwards, Brooks S; Lin, Grace; Kushwaha, Sudhir S

    2016-04-01

    In this study we examined the impact of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) support on proximal thoracic aorta dimensions. Aortic root and ascending aorta diameter were measured from serial echocardiograms before and after CF-LVAD implantation in patients with ≥6 months of support, and correlated with the development of >mild aortic valve insufficiency (AI). Of 162 patients included, mean age was 58 ± 11 years and 128 (79%) were male. Seventy-nine (63%) were destination therapy patients. Mean aortic root and ascending aorta diameters at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and long-term follow-up (mean 2.0 ± 1.4 years) were 3.5 ± 0.4, 3.5 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2 and 4.0 ± 0.3, and 3.3 ± 0.2, 3.3 ± 0.3, 3.6 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 3.6 ± 0.3 cm, respectively. Only change in aortic root diameter from 1-month to 6-month follow-up reached statistical significance (p = 0.03). Nine (6%) patients had accelerated proximal thoracic aorta expansion (>0.5 cm/year), occurring predominantly in the first 6 months after implantation. These patients were older and more likely to have hypertension and baseline proximal thoracic aorta dilation. Forty-five (28%) patients developed >mild AI at long-term follow-up, including 7 of 9 (78%) of those with accelerated proximal thoracic aorta expansion. All 7 had aortic valves that remained closed throughout the cardiac cycle, and this, along with duration of CF-LVAD support and increase in aortic root diameter, were significantly associated with developing >mild AI. CF-LVAD patients have small increases in proximal thoracic aorta dimensions that predominantly occur within the first 6 months after implantation and then stabilize. Increasing aortic root diameter was associated with AI development. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative Right-Sided Cardiac Congestion Is Associated with Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Akiko; Kitahara, Hiroto; Sakuraba, Atsushi; Uriel, Nir; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Ota, Takeyoshi

    2018-06-01

    Large scale data on preoperative risk stratification for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) following continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation are scarce. To identify independent predictors for GIB following CF-LVAD implantation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive 243 patients who underwent CF-LVAD implantation (HeartMateII) from January 2009 to March 2015 at the University of Chicago Medical Center. GIB was defined as the presence of overt bleeding or occult GIB with ≥ 2 g/dl drop in hemoglobin (Hgb) from recorded baseline values and hemoccult-positive stool. The preoperative and postoperative data were reviewed. Within a median follow-up duration of 408 (IQR 113-954) days, 83 (34%) patients developed GIB after a median of 149 (IQR 27-615) days after implantation of CF-LVAD. There were no significant differences between the groups of GIB and non-GIB with respect to preoperative demographics and comorbidity except for ethnicity. The source of bleeding was identified in 39 (47%) patients and arteriovenous malformation or submucosal streaming vessel was the most frequent cause of bleeding (18/39, 46%). Multivariate-adjusted analysis demonstrated preoperative central venous pressure (CVP) ≥ 18 mmHg (HR 3.56; 95% CI 1.16-10.9; p = 0.026), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPA) ≥ 36 mmHg (HR 4.14; 95% CI 1.35-12.7; p = 0.013), and the presence of moderate/severe tricuspid valve disease (HR 1.01; 95% CI 1.01-3.86; p = 0.046) were associated with the risk of GIB. In this study, preoperative right-sided cardiac congestion (i.e., increased CVP, mPA and the presence of moderate/severe tricuspid valve disease) was associated with GIB in patients with CF-LVAD.

  10. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjewar SS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration.Methods: We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were computed and compared between the two subgroups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1 between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy.Conclusion: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.Keywords: emphysema, electrocardiogram, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic

  11. Annular subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C; Filho, A S; Esteves, J P; Abreu, W N; Vinhaes, L A; de Almeida Souza, J A; Machado, A

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of left ventricular aneurysm, a 16-year-old black boy and a 23-year-old white girl, from Bahia, Brazil, are presented. In both patients there was enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and a prominent bulge of the left inferior border. On the right oblique view a ring of calcium at the ventricular opening of the aneurysms was visualized. A left ventriculogram showed a huge aneurysm in the first case and a bulge on the lateral wall of the left ventricle in the other. Cardiac catheterization showed a rise in left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures and in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. In the first case the contour of the right ventricular pressure curve showed a restrictive pattern. The similarities of these aneurysms with the annular submitral type described in young black Africans are stressed.

  12. Radionuclide evaluation of left ventricular function with nonimaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, J P; Blaufox, M D

    1979-10-01

    Portable nonimaging probes have been developed that can evaluate left ventricular function using radionuclide techniques. Two modes of data acquisition are possible with these probe systems, first-pass and gated. Precordial radiocardiograms obtained after a bolus injection can be used to determine cardiac output, pulmonary transit time, pulmonary blood volume, left ventricle ejection fraction, and left-to-right shunts. Gated techniques can be used to determine left ventricular ejection fraction and sytolic time intervals. Probe-determined indices of left ventricular function agree excellently with comparable measurements determined by conventional camera-computer methods as well as by invasive techniques. These have begun to be used in a preliminary manner in a variety of clinical problems associated with left ventricular dysfunction. This review discusses the types of probe systems available, the methods used in positioning them, and details the specifics of their data acquisition and processing capacity. The major criticisms of probe methods are that they are nonimaging and that they measure global rather than regional left ventricular function. In spite of these criticisms, probe systems, because of their portability, high sensitivity, and relatively low cost are useful supplements to conventional camera-computer systems for the measurement of parameters of left ventricular performance using radionuclide techniques.

  13. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left ven....... CONCLUSION: Interventricular electrical delay predicts left ventricular remodeling after CRT and new, strict ECG criteria of LBBB are superior in predicting remodeling.......AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...... ventricular electrical delay (RV-LV-IED) was measured. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 (90%) patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 18 of 29 (62%) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) responded to CRT, p

  14. Normal left ventricular function does not protect against propafenone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal left ventricular function does not protect against propafenone-induced incessant ventricular tachycardia. R. N. Scott Millar, J. B. Lawrenson, D.A. Milne. Abstract. Propafenone is a class Ic anti-arrhythmic agent with mild B-blocking properties which has recently become available in South Africa. We have used the ...

  15. Factors of Formation of Various Types of Left Ventricular Diastolic Filling in Adolescents with Myocardium Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bogmat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the main components of the formation of impaired left ventricular diastolic filling in adolescents with myocardial pathology. Materials and methods. The study involved 110 adolescents with myocardial pathology aged 13–18 years, of which 40 — with heart rhythm disorder, 40 — with dysplastic cardiomyopathy, 30 — with primary hypertension. Morphological and functional parameters of the heart were studied using ultrasound according to standard procedure. Left ventricular diastolic function has been studied in the pulsed wave Doppler mode with transmitral flow mapping from the apical access of four-chambered heart. For an adequate assessment of left ventricular diastolic function and detection of its earliest disorders, adolescents underwent tests with isometric exercise. Based on these results, adolescents were divided in terms of the E/A ratio. In order to identify common latent factors that explain the correlation between indicators, we have used the factor analysis, namely, the principal component analysis. All statistical procedures were performed using application packages Statgraphics Centurion. Results. On the initial stages of formation of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricular myocardium in adolescents, a significant role is played by a number of factors, which can be conditionally defined as the geometric, functional and neurohumoral factors consistently included in the pathological process. Thus, during the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 1, the number one is neurohumoral factor, namely, the activation of the sympathoadrenal system, then peripheral vascular tone is being involved in the pathological process, and, consequently, a geometric factor — changing the sizes of the left atrium. In the formation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction type 2, the process consistently involves the renin-angiotensin system, namely, renin, a functional factor is presented by the indices

  16. Right and left ventricular performance by nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, T.; Uehara, T.; Hayashida, K.; Kozuka, T.

    1983-01-01

    Right and left ventricular performance by Nuclear Stethoscope using Kr-81m and Tc-99m-RBC were performed. And physiological and pharmacological interventions were also investigated for the evaluation of coronary artery diseases (CAD)

  17. Contemporary Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Kitzman, Dalane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although age-Associated changes in left ventricular diastolic function are well recognized, limited data exist characterizing measures of diastolic function in older adults, including both reference ranges reflecting the older adult population and prognostically relevant values...

  18. Quantitation of global and regional left ventricular function by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, RJ; Reiber, JHC; Reiber, JHC; VanDerWall, EE

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several imaging strategies for assessing left ventricular function. As a three-dimensional imaging technique, all measurements can be performed without relying on geometrical assumptions. Global and regional function parameters can be derived from

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiannikas, J.; Detrano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Digital subtraction ventriculography following injections of contrast via peripheral veins provides excellent images to assess left ventricular function. The images are essentially identical to those following DCV, but allow more uniform mixing of contrast in the left ventricular chamber. Furthermore, few, if any, cardiac arrhythmias occur, hence obviating difficulties that arise from DCV. The spatial resolution of the method is such that regional wall motion assessment of ventricular function is more accurate than that of other noninvasive imaging methods. The use of video-densitometry allows accurate assessment of left ventricular function even when the left ventricular cavity is nonsymmetrically deformed and aneurysmal. In the setting of the cardiac catheterization laboratory, digital ventriculography may provide a safer means of assessing left ventricular function when critical coronary or myocardial disease is present and allows multiple assessments of ventricular function during the same study. Although excellent correlations with standard ventriculography have been noted by all workers, significant discrepancies still exist in individual patients, particularly in the calculations of end diastolic volumes. In the authors experience and in those of most workers, the largest discrepancies existed in patients in whom suboptimal studies are included for analysis. The most frequent reason for the occasional suboptimal study as with all digital subtraction work is the misregistration that results from motion

  20. The Effect of Aortic Compliance on Left Ventricular Power Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2009-11-01

    Aortic compliance depends on both geometry and mechanical properties of the aorta. Reduction in arterial compliance has been associated with aging, smoking, and multiple cardiovascular diseases. Increased stiffness of the aorta affects the wave dynamics in the aorta by increasing both pulse pressure amplitude and wave speed. We hypothesized that decreased aortic compliance leads to an increased left ventricular power requirement for a fixed cardiac output due to altered pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. We used a computational approach using the finite element method for solid and fluid domains coupled to each other by using the direct coupling method. A nonlinear material model was used for the solid wall. The fluid flow model was considered to be Newtonian, incompressible, and laminar. The simulation was performed for a heart rate of 75 beats per minute for six different compliances while keeping the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance constant. The results show a trend towards increased left ventricular energy expenditure per cycle with decreased compliance. The relevance of these findings to clinical observations will be discussed.

  1. Tissue doppler echocardiography for evaluating left ventricular functions in obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mecnun Çetin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate theimpact of childhood obesity on ventricular functions usingtissue Doppler echocardiography.Materials and methods: The mitral tissue Doppler signalswere recorded in the apical four-chamber view, with thesample volume placed at the lateral walls of mitral annulus.The mitral flow was examined with the sample Pulse Dopplerpositioned parallely to flow just at the orifice of the mitralleaflets. Twenty obese (mean age, 161.5±25.8 monthsand 20 healthy children (mean age, 151.2±33.5 monthswere included to this study.Results: Body mass index (BMI was significantly higherin obese group (30.92±6.87. Isovolumic relaxation time(IVRT which is one of the left ventricular (LV diastolicfunction parameters was 66.10±7.30 ms in obese group,and 58.70±9.06 ms in the control group. IVRT was significantlyhigher in the obese group (p=0.007. In obesegroup, the mitral annulus tissue Doppler E velocity wasdecreased, flow velocity was increased and decrement inEm/Am ratio was significant. We found significant negativecorrelation between BMI and LV Em/Am ratio. Myocardialperformance index (MPI in obese group and control groupwas 0.50±0.07 and 0.41±0.04, respectively (p<0.001.Between MPI and LV Em/Am ratio there was a significantnegative correlation while MPI showed positive correlationwith BMI. In obese group septal and LV posterior wall thicknesswas shown to be significantly increased compared tothe control group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our findings, may be important for determinationof the relationship between obesity and cardiovascularrisk factors in children. Tissue Doppler echocardiographicimaging may be useful in revealing this relationship.Key words: obesity, doppler echocardiography, ventricular dysfunction

  2. Inhaled Milrinone After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Nicholas A; Burdorf, Adam; Jones, Tara; Shostrom, Valerie; Um, John; Ryan, Timothy; Shillcutt, Sasha; Fischer, Patricia; Cox, Zachary L; Raichlin, Eugenia; Anderson, Daniel R; Lowes, Brian D; Dumitru, Ioana

    2015-10-01

    Proven strategies to reduce right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation are lacking. We sought to evaluate the tolerability, feasibility, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of inhaled milrinone (iMil) delivery after CF-LVAD implantation. We prospectively evaluated fixed-dose nebulized iMil delivered into a ventilator circuit for 24 hours in 10 postoperative CF-LVAD (Heartmate-II) patients. Tolerability (arrhythmias, hypotension, and hypersensitivity reaction), efficacy (hemodynamics), pharmacokinetics (plasma milrinone levels), and cost data were collected.Mean age was 56 ± 9 years, 90% were male, and mean INTERMACS profile was 2.5 ± 0.8. No new atrial arrhythmia events occurred, although 3 (30%) ventricular tachycardia (1 nonsustained, 2 sustained) events occurred. Sustained hypotension, drug hypersensitivity, death, or need for right ventricular assist device were not observed. Invasive mean pulmonary arterial pressure from baseline to during iMil therapy was improved (P = .017). Mean plasma milrinone levels (ng/mL) at baseline, and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours were 74.2 ± 35.4, 111.3 ± 70.9, 135.9 ± 41.5, 205.0 ± 86.7, 176.8 ± 61.3 187.6 ± 105.5, respectively. Reduced institutional cost was observed when iMil was compared with nitric oxide therapy over 24 hours ($165.29 vs $1,944.00, respectively). iMil delivery after CF-LVAD implantation was well tolerated, feasible, and demonstrated favorable hemodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and cost profiles. iMil therapy warrants further study in larger clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Skin Sodium Concentration Correlates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using 23 sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP ( r =0.33, P =0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass ( r =0.56, P skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Phase image characterization of ventricular contraction in left anterior hemiblock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akifumi; Mizuno, Haruyoshi; Tahara, Yorio; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1991-01-01

    We investigated whether or not left anterior hemiblock is present in patients with left axis deviation using first-harmonic Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool images. Gated blood-pool images were taken in 50 patients without contraction abnormality. They included 14 normal subjects, 8 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB), 20 with left axis deviation (LAD) and 8 with both RBBB and LAD (RBBB+LAD). ECG gated blood-pool scans were acquired in the anterior and 'best septal' left anterior oblique projections. First, the phase images were displayed cinematically as a continuous-loop movie. Next, for quantitative analysis of the phase image, the whole left ventricular and left ventricular high lateral regions of interest were drawn. The 'regional phase shift' (RPS) was then defined as {RPS=A-a} where 'A' is the mean value of the whole left ventricular phase angles and 'a' is that of phase angles in the high lateral region. The left ventricular phase changes and the RPSs in the RBBB and LAD groups were similar to those in the normal group. In the RBBB+LAD group, the latest phase changes occurred in the high anterolateral region. The RPSs of this group were significantly lower than those in the other 3 groups (p<0.01). These data suggest that left anterior hemiblock might coexist with RBBB in patients with RBBB+LAD, whereas left anterior hemiblock might not exist in the majority of patients with LAD alone. (author)

  5. Central and peripheral blood flow during exercise with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device: constant versus increasing pump speed: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Jensen, Annette S; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    with work rate would increase organ blood flow. Methods and Results- Invasively determined CO and leg blood flow and Doppler-determined cerebral perfusion were measured during 2 incremental cycle exercise tests on the same day in 8 patients provided with a HeartMate II LVAD. In random order, patients...

  6. Left ventricular function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Ryutaro; Ifuku, Masayasu

    1985-01-01

    The present study was to investigate of left ventricular (LV) function during exercise in 26 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM) usingTc-99m equilibrium angiocardiography, and to elucidate the mechanism of impaired functional reserve during exercise. In patients with HCM, LV ejection fraction decreased from 65 ± 8 (mean ± SD) % at rest to 59 ± 18 % at peak exercise, in contrast to an increase among controls (from 56 ± 9 % to 64 ± 9 %). As compared with resting values, cardiac output increased to 168 ± 24 % at peak exercise in HCM, but the increase was significantly less than that in controls (215 ± 47 %). Stroke volume decreased gradually to 83 ± 16 % during exercise in HCM, while it increased to 114 ± 10 % at an exercise level of half intensity, and it decreased slightly to 106 ± 16 % at peak exercise. LV end-systolic volume decreased among controls to 78 ± 27 % at peak exercise, but remained unchanged in HCM (118 ± 58 %). An increase in peak ejection rate at peak exercise was less in HCM than in controls (143 ± 26 % vs 170 ± 42 %). No significant differences were observed between the two groups concerning changes in indices of LV diastolic function including LV end-diastolic volume, peak filling rate or 1/3 filling rate during exercise. In the analysis of LV function curves, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure increased to a greater extent in HCM than in controls (19 ± 6 mmHg vs 11 ± 6 mmHg); whereas, an increase in the stroke work index was less in HCM (80 ± 26 g.m/m 2 /beat vs 121 ± 21 g.m/m 2 /beat) at peak exercise. Thus, the LV function curve shifted downward and to the right in patients with HCM. The above findings indicate that LV functional reserve during exercise is impaired, especially as to systolic function in patients with HCM, while deterioration of diastolic function may be partly compromised by elevated filling pressure. (J.P.N.)

  7. Relationship of left ventricular systolic function to persistence or development of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva

    2014-01-01

    left ventricular systolic function in patients with new or persistent ECG LVH. METHODS: Baseline and year-3 ECG LVH and left ventricular midwall shortening (MWS) were examined in 725 hypertensive patients in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiographic...... 1.03-3.50, P = 0.040) at year 3. CONCLUSION: Persistence or development of new ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy is associated with an increased risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction after 3 years' follow-up. These findings provide insight into a possible mechanism by which changes......BACKGROUND: Persistence or development of ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by Cornell product criteria is associated with an increased risk of developing heart failure compared with regression or continued absence of LVH. We postulated that this association might be in part mediated via worse...

  8. Longitudinal strain predicts left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsomino, Sandro; Lucà, Fabiana; Parise, Orlando; Lorusso, Roberto; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Vizzardi, Enrico; Gensini, Gian Franco; Maessen, Jos G

    2013-11-01

    We explored the influence of global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography on left ventricular mass regression (LVMR) in patients with pure aortic stenosis (AS) and normal left ventricular function undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The study population included 83 patients with severe AS (aortic valve area regression (all P regression in patients with pure AS undergoing AVR. Our findings must be confirmed by further larger studies.

  9. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.J.; Okada, R.D.; Ewy, G.A.; Hellman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle, M-mode echocardiograms and systolic time intervals were obtained in 13 patients while they were clinically hyperthyroid and again when they were euthyroid following radioactive iodine therapy. Echocardiographic tracings of the septum and left ventricular posterior wall were digitized and analyzed to provide the maximum velocity of shortening and maximum velocity of lengthening. These velocities were normalized for left ventricular diastolic dimension. The left ventricular minor axis fractional shortening and the normalized maximum velocity of shortening were both increased during the hyperthyroid state. The normalized maximum velocity of lengthening, a measure of diastolic left ventricular function, was also increased during the hyperthyroid state when compared to the euthyroid state. The preejection period index and the preejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio were lower when the patients were hyperthyroid than when they were euthyroid. These data confirm the increased inotropic state and demonstrated increased diastolic relaxation velocities of the hyperthyroid left ventricle

  10. Current Trends in Implantable Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Garbade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of appropriate donor organs and the expanding pool of patients waiting for heart transplantation have led to growing interest in alternative strategies, particularly in mechanical circulatory support. Improved results and the increased applicability and durability with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs have enhanced this treatment option available for end-stage heart failure patients. Moreover, outcome with newer pumps have evolved to destination therapy for such patients. Currently, results using nonpulsatile continuous flow pumps document the evolution in outcomes following destination therapy achieved subsequent to the landmark Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance for the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Trial (REMATCH, as well as the outcome of pulsatile designed second-generation LVADs. This review describes the currently available types of LVADs, their clinical use and outcomes, and focuses on the patient selection process.

  11. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring on left ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Systemic hypertension (HTN) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are individually associated with left ventricular structural and functional adaptations. However, little is known about the impact of OSA on the left ventricle in Africans with HTN. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the association between ...

  12. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. Objectives: To describe the sex specific pattern of left ...

  13. Congenital bicuspid stenosis with left ventricular hypoplasia in a kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie, C J; van Messel, M A; Straatman, T J

    1980-01-15

    Congenital bicuspid stenosis with left ventricular hypoplasia was diagnosed in a kitten. Clinical weakness, dyspnoea and marked cardiomegaly (X rays) were related to postmortem findings. The cardiomegaly had resulted from an enlargement of the left auricular appendage. It is supposed the cardiomegaly developed after the closing of the foramen ovale.

  14. Left ventricular dysfunction after closure of large patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, M Omar; Amin, Mohamed; Hussein, Arif; Kouatli, Amjad; Al-Ata, Jameel; Jamjoom, Ahmed

    2005-03-01

    Changes in left ventricular dimensions and performance were studied in 43 patients after transcatheter occlusion or surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus. The patients were assigned to 2 groups based on their ductal diameter: >/= 3.1 mm to group A (n = 27) and ventricular end-diastolic diameter than group B, while all patients had normal shortening fraction and ejection fraction. Within 1 month after intervention, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter showed a trend towards regression while shortening fraction and ejection fraction decreased significantly in group A. There were no significant changes in these parameters in group B. Between 1 and 6 months after intervention, left ventricular performance improved in most of the group A patients who were followed up. We conclude that closure of large ductus arteriosus in children leads to significant immediate deterioration of left ventricular performance, which appears to recover within a few months. Echocardiographic study before hospital discharge is recommended in these patients. Serious deterioration of ventricular performance after closure may warrant the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

  15. The effect of heart failure and left ventricular assist device treatment on right ventricular mechanics: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun I K; Heikhmakhtiar, Aulia Khamas; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Yoo Seok; Choi, Seong Wook; Song, Kwang Soup; Lim, Ki Moo

    2018-05-22

    Although it is important to analyze the hemodynamic factors related to the right ventricle (RV) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, previous studies have focused only on the alteration of the ventricular shape and lack quantitative analysis of the various hemodynamic parameters. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed various hemodynamic parameters related to the RV under normal, heart failure (HF), and HF incorporated with continuous flow LVAD therapy by using a computational model. In this study, we combined a three-dimensional finite element electromechanical model of ventricles, which is based on human ventricular morphology captured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a lumped model of the circulatory system and continuous flow LVAD function in order to construct an integrated model of an LVAD implanted-cardiovascular system. To induce systolic dysfunction, the magnitude of the calcium transient function under HF condition was reduced to 70% of the normal value, and the time constant was reduced by 30% of the normal value. Under the HF condition, the left ventricular end systolic pressure decreased, the left ventricular end diastolic pressure increased, and the pressure in the right atrium (RA), RV, and pulmonary artery (PA) increased compared with the normal condition. The LVAD therapy decreased the end-systolic pressure of the LV by 41%, RA by 29%, RV by 53%, and PA by 71%, but increased the right ventricular ejection fraction by 52% and cardiac output by 40%, while the stroke work was reduced by 67% compared with the HF condition without LVAD. The end-systolic ventricular tension and strain decreased with the LVAD treatment. LVAD enhances CO and mechanical unloading of the LV as well as those of the RV and prevents pulmonary hypertension which can be induced by HF.

  16. Isolated left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy associated with polymorphous ventricular tachycardia mimicking torsades de pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dickinson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC cardiomyopathy is a rare congenital disorder, classified by the American Heart Association as a primary genetic cardiomyopathy and characterized by multiple trabeculations within the left ventricle. LVNC cardiomyopathy has been associated with 3 major clinical manifestations: heart failure, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events, including stroke. In this case report, we describe a female patient with apparently isolated LVNC in whom pause-dependent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia suggesting torsades de pointes occurred in the presence of a normal QT interval.

  17. Left ventricular function in patients with ventricular arrhythmias and aortic valve disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients having aortic valve replacement were evaluated preoperatively for ventricular arrhythmia and left ventricular ejection fraction. Arrhythmias were classified as complex or simple using the Lown criteria on the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram; ejection fractions were determined by radionuclide gated blood pool analysis and contrast angiography. The ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography were 59.1 +/- 13.1% for 26 patients with simple or no ventricular arrhythmias, and 43.9 +/- 20.3% for 14 patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (p less than 0.01). Ejection fractions determined by angiography, available for 31 patients, were also lower in patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (61.1 +/- 16.3% versus 51.4 +/- 13.4%; p less than 0.05). Seven of 9 patients showing conduction abnormalities on the electrocardiogram had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Eight of 20 patients with aortic stenosis had complex ventricular arrhythmias, while 2 of 13 patients with aortic insufficiency had such arrhythmias. It is concluded that decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and aortic stenosis are associated with an increased frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias in patients with aortic valve disease

  18. Detection of premature ventricular contractions on a ventricular electrocardiogram for patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Min; Lee, Jin Hong; Choi, Seong Wook

    2014-12-01

    The ventricular electrocardiogram (v-ECG) was developed for long-term monitoring of heartbeats in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and does not normally have the functionality necessary to detect additional heart irregularities that can progress to critical arrhythmias. Although the v-ECG has the benefits of physiological optimization and counterpulsation control, when abnormal heartbeats occur, the v-ECG does not show the distinct abnormal waveform that enables easy detection of an abnormal heartbeat among normal heartbeats on the conventional ECG. In this study, the v-ECGs of normal and abnormal heartbeats are compared with each other with respect to peak-to-peak voltage, area, and maximal slopes, and a new method to detect abnormal heartbeats is suggested. In a series of animal experiments with three porcine models (Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-40 kg), a v-ECG and conventional ECG were taken simultaneously during LVAD perfusion. Clinical experts found 104 abnormal heartbeats from the saved conventional ECG data and confirmed that the other 3159 heartbeats were normal. Almost all of the abnormal heartbeats were premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and there was short-term tachycardia for 3 s. A personal computer was used to automatically detect abnormal heartbeats with the v-ECG according to the new method, and its results were compared with the clinicians' results. The new method found abnormal heartbeats with 90% accuracy, and less than 15% of the total PVCs were missed. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Influence of left ventricular hypertrophy on infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Małek, Łukasz A.; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Petryka, Joanna; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz; Kruk, Mariusz; Kępka, Cezary; Miśko, Jolanta; Rużyłło, Witold; Witkowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predisposes to larger infarct size, which may be underestimated by the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) due to supranormal systolic performance often present in patients with LVH. The aim of the study was to compare infarct size and LVEF in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and increased left ventricular mass on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: The study included unselected group of 52 patients (61 ± 11 years, 69% male) with first STEMI who had CMR after median 5 days from the onset of the event. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was defined as left ventricular mass index exceeding 95th percentile of references values for age and gender. Infarct size was assessed with means of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Results: LVH was found in 16 patients (31%). In comparison to the rest of the group, patients with LVH had higher absolute and relative infarct mass (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). LVH was related to higher prevalence of microvascular obstruction and myocardial haemorrhage and higher number of LV segments with transmural necrosis (p = 0.02, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Despite marked difference in the infarct size between both studied subgroups there was no difference in LVEF and mean number of dysfunctional LV segments. Conclusions: Patients with LVH undergoing STEMI have larger infarct size underestimated by the LV systolic performance in comparison to patients without LVH.

  20. Assessment of the left ventricular function with the nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkowska, A.; Adam, W.E.; Bitter, F.

    1980-08-01

    The evaluation of the left ventricular function with the Nuclear Stethoscope was performed on 27 patients with heart diseases. The reproducibility of the measurements was good. Repetitions of EF, ER and EDV estimations yielded errors of 2.63%, 1.45% and 0.31%. The comparison with the results of camera ventriculography showed a good agreement of EF, contraction velocity parameters and relaxation velocity parameters, with a cor. coeff. of greater or equal to 0.750. A particularly high correlation was found between the NS EF and NS ER (r = 0.968). It was concluded that the Nuclear Stethoscope provides a reliable evaluation of left ventricular function.

  1. Assessment of the left ventricular function with the nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowska, A.; Adam, W.E.; Bitter, F.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the left ventricular function with the Nuclear Stethoscope was performed on 27 patients with heart diseases. The reproducibility of the measurements was good. Repetitions of EF, ER and EDV estimations yielded errors of 2.63%, 1.45% and 0.31%. The comparison with the results of camera ventriculography showed a good agreement of EF, contraction velocity parameters and relaxation velocity parameters, with a cor. coeff. of greater or equal to 0.750. A particularly high correlation was found between the NS EF and NS ER (r = 0.968). It was concluded that the Nuclear Stethoscope provides a reliable evaluation of left ventricular function. (orig.) [de

  2. Simultaneous determination of left ventricular perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremillet, E.; Champailler, A.; Esquerre, J.P.; Ouhayoun, E.; Coca, F.; Furber, A.; Le Jeune, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a very useful tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. The evaluation of left ventricular function during stress testing in also very useful to determine the prognosis of coronary artery disease. This chapter highlights three different imaging methods to assess left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion/ The first one consists of sequential dual isotope myocardial SPECT with ECG-gating. The second concerns magnetic resonance imaging and the third explores first pass exercise ventriculography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy simultaneously evaluated by means of 99m Tc-sestamibi. (authors)

  3. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-28

    Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised meal. Both ESS and cESS decreased significantly (P stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.

  4. Effect of food intake on left ventricular wall stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 +/- 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised me...

  5. The Impact of Obesity on Patients Bridged to Transplantation With Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna M; Colombo, Paolo C; Topkara, Veli K

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to determine if obese patients had worse post-left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation outcomes and if the implantation of an LVAD allowed for weight loss. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Obese heart failure patients have better outcomes than those with normal weight; however, obese patients have worse outcomes after heart transplantation. Patients were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database that underwent LVAD implantation as bridge to transplantation from May 2004 and April 2014, with follow-up through June 2014. Patients were grouped according to body mass index (BMI) based on the World Health Organization classification. Among 3,856 patients, the risk of death or delisting was not significantly different between BMI groups (p = 0.347). There was no increased risk of death (p = 0.234) or delisting (p = 0.918). The risk of complication requiring UNOS status upgrade was increased for those with class II obesity or greater (hazard ratio: 1.48; p = 0.004), driven by increased infection and thromboembolism. Obese patients had worse post-transplantation outcomes. Weight loss substantial enough to decrease BMI group was achieved by a small proportion of patients listed with class I obesity or greater (9.6% to 15.5%). Patients with obesity had similar freedom from death or delisting while on LVAD support. However, class II obese or greater patients had an increased risk of complications requiring UNOS status upgrade compared with those with normal BMI during LVAD support and decreased post-transplantation survival. Weight loss on device therapy was possible, but uncommon. Careful consideration is needed when a bridge to weight loss strategy is proposed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Central-Approach Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta with a Back-up Left Ventricular Assist Device for an Infant Presenting with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-month-old infant presented with coarctation of the aorta, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Through median sternotomy, the aortic arch was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass and regional cerebral perfusion. The patient was postoperatively supported with a left ventricular assist device for five days. Left ventricular function gradually improved, eventually recovering with the concomitant regression of mitral regurgitation. Prompt surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta is indicated for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. A central approach for surgical repair with a back-up left ventricular assist device is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these patients.

  7. Central-Approach Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta with a Back-up Left Ventricular Assist Device for an Infant Presenting with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Yu Rim; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Do Jung; Kim, Hyohyun; Shin, Hong Ju; Htut, Aung Thein; Park, Han Ki

    2015-12-01

    A two-month-old infant presented with coarctation of the aorta, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Through median sternotomy, the aortic arch was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass and regional cerebral perfusion. The patient was postoperatively supported with a left ventricular assist device for five days. Left ventricular function gradually improved, eventually recovering with the concomitant regression of mitral regurgitation. Prompt surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta is indicated for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. A central approach for surgical repair with a back-up left ventricular assist device is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these patients.

  8. Clinical Manifestations and Management of Left Ventricular Assist Device–Associated Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nienaber, Juhsien Jodi C.; Kusne, Shimon; Riaz, Talha; Walker, Randall C.; Baddour, Larry M.; Wright, Alan J.; Park, Soon J.; Vikram, Holenarasipur R.; Keating, Michael R.; Arabia, Francisco A.; Lahr, Brian D.; Sohail, M. Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    We report the clinical manifestations and management of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) infections from a large multicenter cohort. On the basis of these observations, a management algorithm is derived to assist clinical decision making for LVAD infection.

  9. Associations of Blood Pressure Dipping Patterns With Left Ventricular Mass and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Caughey, Melissa C; Tanner, Rikki M; Booth, John N; Diaz, Keith M; Anstey, D Edmund; Sims, Mario; Ravenell, Joseph; Muntner, Paul; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi

    2017-04-05

    Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP), including nondipping patterns, assessed using ambulatory BP monitoring, have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk among white and Asian adults. We examined the associations of BP dipping patterns (dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping) with cardiovascular target organ damage (left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy), among participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black population-based cohort. Analyses included 1015 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring and had echocardiography data from the baseline visit. Participants were categorized based on the nighttime to daytime systolic BP ratio into 3 patterns: dipping pattern (≤0.90), nondipping pattern (>0.90 to ≤1.00), and reverse dipping pattern (>1.00). The prevalence of dipping, nondipping, and reverse dipping patterns was 33.6%, 48.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. In a fully adjusted model, which included antihypertensive medication use and clinic and daytime systolic BP, the mean differences in left ventricular mass index between reverse dipping pattern versus dipping pattern was 8.3±2.1 g/m 2 ( P pattern versus dipping pattern was -1.0±1.6 g/m 2 ( P =0.536). Compared with participants with a dipping pattern, the prevalence ratio for having left ventricular hypertrophy was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.05-2.58) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.63-1.97) for those with a reverse dipping pattern and nondipping pattern, respectively. In this population-based study of blacks, a reverse dipping pattern was associated with increased left ventricular mass index and a higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Identification of a reverse dipping pattern on ambulatory BP monitoring may help identify black at increased risk for cardiovascular target organ damage. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Repair of aorto-left ventricular tunnel arising from the left sinus of valsalva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Maleki, Mahmood Hosseinzadeh; Javan, Hadi; Zirak, Nahid

    2010-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that bypasses the aortic valve via a para-valvular connection from the left ventricle to the aorta. In most cases, the tunnel arises from the right aortic sinus. In this case report, we are presenting a case of ALVT, of which the aortic orifice arose from the left aortic sinus, requiring special attention to avoid the left coronary artery injury at the time of surgical repair.

  11. Systemic Embolization from an Unusual Intracardiac Mass in the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelechukwu U. Okoro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis can affect any endocardial surface; in the vast majority of cases, the cardiac valves are involved. It is exceedingly rare to develop infective endocarditis on the endocardium of the left ventricular outflow tract due to the high velocity of blood that traverses this area. Herein, we present a rare case of left ventricular outflow tract endocarditis that likely occurred secondary to damage to the aortic valve leaflets (from healed prior aortic valve endocarditis causing a high velocity aortic valve regurgitant jet that impinged upon the interventricular septum which damaged the endocardium and resulted in a fibrotic “jet lesion.” This fibrous jet lesion served as a nidus for bacterial proliferation and vegetation formation. The high shear stress (due to high blood flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract likely promoted the multiple embolic events observed in this case. Our patient was successfully treated with aortic valve replacement, vegetation resection, and antibiotics.

  12. Continuous monitoring of left ventricular function by VEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kosaka, Noboru

    1988-01-01

    Using an ambulatory ventricular function monitor (VEST), left ventricular function (LVF) was examined in one healthy volunteer, 3 with ischemic heart disease, and one with dilated myocardiopathy (DMCP) under various conditions, such as treadmill exercise, standing, and sitting. It was also examined when two DCMP patients with associated left ventricular failure were given a nitrite (ISDM) and cardiotonic agent (E 1020). End-diastolic volume (EDV) decreased in the standing position, and increased in exercise, suggesting the involvement of venous blood pool in the legs. Ejection fraction (EF) decreased in the case of widespread ischemia during exercise. Drug tolerance test revealed decrease in EDV and end-systolic volume (ESV), no change in stroke volume (SV), and slight increase in EF on ISDM; and decrease in EDV and ESV, increase in SV, and marked increase in EF on E 1020. For EF, the VEST data were relatively well correlated with gamma camera data. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Left ventricular hypertrophy among chronic kidney disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with worsening cardiovascular outcomes. There is a dearth of data on LVH in Ghanaian CKD patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital ...

  14. Generalised left ventricular dysfunction after traumatic right coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patient with traumatic right coronary artery to right atrial fistula, which was repaired by direct closure and aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafting, is described. Cardiac catheterisation and selective cine angiocardiography were performed pre- and postoperatively, and left ventricular (LV) function was studied in ...

  15. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring on Left Ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring on Left Ventricular Mass and Diastolic Function in. Hypertensive Nigerians. Akintunde AA1,2, Kareem L1, Bakare A1, Audu M1. 1Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso,. Nigeria, 2Goshen ...

  16. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Left ventricular systolic function, sickle cell anaemia, echocardiographic evaluation, adult Nigerian patients. ..... Quadratic .505. -0.390. 12.231. 8.587 .001*. Cubic .510. -0.180. 8.264. 8.619 .001*. This relationship was further evaluated by means of scat- ter plots and subsequently by regression analysis. The.

  17. Left ventricular hypertrophy in renal failure review | Arodiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal failure is becoming increasingly common in our enironment. Advances in management like availability of dialysis and transplantation is prolonging the live of patients. As a consequence complication are increasingly being encountered. Cardiovascular complication is one of the commonest; and left ventricular ...

  18. Changes in Left Ventricular Diastolic Function During Hemodialysis Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assa, Solmaz; Hummel, Yoran M.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Kuipers, Johanna; Groen, Henk; de Jong, Paul E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is common in hemodialysis patients and is associated with worse outcome. Previous studies have shown that diastolic function worsens from pre- to post-dialysis session, but this has not been studied during hemodialysis. We studied the evolution of

  19. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, M.I.; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, W.; Szatmári, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. Case presentation: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  20. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  1. Normalised radionuclide measures of left ventricular diastolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.J.; Southee, A.E.; Bautovich, G.J.; Freedman, B.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Rossleigh, M.A.; Hutton, B.F.; Morris, J.G.; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal left ventricular diastolic function is being increasingly recognised in patients with clinical heart failure and normal systolic function. A simple routine radionuclide measure of diastolic function would therefore be useful. To establish, the relationship of peak diastolic filling rate (normalized for either end diastolic volume, stroke volume, or peak systolic emptying rate), and heart rate, age, and left ventricular ejection fraction was studied in 64 subjects with normal cardiovascular systems using routine gated heart pool studies. The peak filling rate when normalized to end diastolic volume correlated significantly with heart rate, age and left ventricular ejection fraction, whereas normalization to stroke volume correlated significantly to heart rate and age but not to left ventricular ejection fraction. Peak filling rate normalized for peak systolic emptying rate correlated with age only. Multiple regression equations were determined for each of the normalized peak filling rates in order to establish normal ranges for each parameter. When using peak filling rate normalized for end diastolic volume or stroke volume, appropriate allowance must be made for heart rate, age and ejection fraction. Peak filling rate normalized to peak ejection rate is a heart rate independent parameter which allows the performance of the patient's ventricle in diastole to be compared with its systolic function. It may be used in patients with normal systolic function to serially follow diastolic function, or if age corrected to screen for diastolic dysfunction. (orig.)

  2. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  3. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Elsheshtawy; Priatharsini Sriganesh; Vasudev Virparia; Falgun Patel; Ashok Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  4. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described ... used for analysis. ... risk due to LVH and that cardiac adaptation to ... had history taking, physical examination and ..... between the gender specific differences in cardiac ... A metaanalysis of individual.

  5. Relationship between obesity and left ventricular hypertrophy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Rompis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD increasing morbidity-mortality rates. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations/alterations in cardiac structure and function occurs as excessive adipose tissue accumulates. This leads to a decrease in diastolic compliance, eventually resulting in an increase in left ventricular filling pressure and left ventricular enlargement. Objective To evaluate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH among  obese using electrocardiographic (ECG criteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 74 children aged 10-15 years from February 2009 to October 2009. The subjects were divided into obese and control groups. Physical examination and standard 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG were done in both groups. Results Of 37 obese children, LVH were featured in 3 subjects, while in control group, only 1 child had LVH (P= 0.304. We found that mean RV6 in obese and control group were 9.8446 (SD 3.5854 and 11.9662 (SD 3.2857, respectively (P=0.005. As an additional findings, we found that birth weight was related to obesity in children. Conclusion There is no relation between obesity and left ventricular using ECG criteria in obese children aged 10-15 years.

  6. Quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular motion using endocardial landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); T.E.H. Hooghoudt (Ton); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); G.T. Meester (Geert); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the hypothesis is tested that the motion pattern of small anatomic landmarks, recognizable at the left ventricular endocardial border in the contrast angiocardiogram, reflects the motion of the endocardial wall. To verify this, minute metal markers were inserted in the

  7. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n...... = 567) underwent standard Doppler echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force was obtained from the mitral orifice area and Doppler mitral peak A velocity. Patients were divided into groups with normal or increased left atrial systolic force (>14.33 kdyn). Left atrial systolic force was high in 297...

  8. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  9. Radionuclide analysis of right and left ventricular response to exercise in patients with atrial and ventricular septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, C.A.; Bowyer, K.; Jones, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with ventricular or atrial septal defect, the ventricle which is chronically volume overloaded might not appropriately respond to increased demand for an augmentation in output and thereby might limit total cardiac function. In this study we simultaneously measured right and left ventricular response to exercise in 10 normal individuals, 10 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and 10 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The normal subjects increased both right and left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume to achieve a higher cardiac output during exercise. Patients with VSD failed to increase right ventricular ejection fraction, but increased right ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume did not increase in these patients but ejection fraction, stroke volume, and forward left ventricular output achieved during exercise were comparable to the response observed in healthy subjects. In the patients with ASD, no rest-to-exercise change occurred in either right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, or stroke volume. In addition, left ventricular end-diastolic volume failed to increase, and despite an increase in ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged from rest to exercise. Therefore, cardiac output was augmented only by the heart rate increase in these patients. Right ventricular function appeared to be the major determinant of total cardiac output during exercise in patients with cardiac septal defects and left-to-right shunt

  10. Cardiac arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in systemic hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Sultana, N.; Rashid, A.; Rasheed, S.Z.; Ahmed, M.; Ishaq, M.; Samad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and mortality. Objective was to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and LVH in systemic hypertension. Methods: In all subjects blood pressure was measured, electrocardiography and echocardiography was done. Holter monitoring and exercise test perform in certain cases. There were 500 hypertensive patients, 156 (31.2%) men and 344 (69%) women >30 years of age in the study. Among them 177 (35.4%) were diabetic, 224 (45%) were dyslipidemia, 188 (37.6%) were smokers, and 14 (3%) had homocysteinemia. Mean systolic BP (SBP) was 180 +- 20 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 95 +- 12 in male and female patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 119.2 +- 30 2 2gm/m in male while 103 +- 22 gm/m in female patients. Palpitation was seen in 126 (25%) male and 299 (59.8%) female patients. Atrial fibrillation was noted in 108 (21.6%) male and 125 (25%) female patients, 30 (6%) male and 82 (16.4%) female patients had atrial flutter. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 37 (7.4%) male and 59 (11.8%) female patients. Holter monitoring showed significant premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S) in 109 (21.8%) male and 128 (25.69%) female patients while Holter showed atrial arrhythmias (APC'S) in 89 (17.8%) males and 119 (23.8%) females. Angiography findings diagnosed coronary artery disease in 119 (23.8%) with CAD male and 225 (45%) without CAD while 47 (9.4%) females presented with CAD and 109 (21.8%) without CAD. Conclusion: A significant association has been demonstrated between hypertension and arrhythmias. Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, left atrial size and function, as well as LVH have been suggested as the underlying risk factors for supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in hypertensives with LVH. (author)

  11. Cardiac arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in systemic hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, R; Sultana, N; Rashid, A; Rasheed, S Z; Ahmed, M; Ishaq, M; Samad, A [Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Background: Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and mortality. Objective was to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and LVH in systemic hypertension. Methods: In all subjects blood pressure was measured, electrocardiography and echocardiography was done. Holter monitoring and exercise test perform in certain cases. There were 500 hypertensive patients, 156 (31.2%) men and 344 (69%) women >30 years of age in the study. Among them 177 (35.4%) were diabetic, 224 (45%) were dyslipidemia, 188 (37.6%) were smokers, and 14 (3%) had homocysteinemia. Mean systolic BP (SBP) was 180 +- 20 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 95 +- 12 in male and female patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 119.2 +- 30 2 2gm/m in male while 103 +- 22 gm/m in female patients. Palpitation was seen in 126 (25%) male and 299 (59.8%) female patients. Atrial fibrillation was noted in 108 (21.6%) male and 125 (25%) female patients, 30 (6%) male and 82 (16.4%) female patients had atrial flutter. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 37 (7.4%) male and 59 (11.8%) female patients. Holter monitoring showed significant premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S) in 109 (21.8%) male and 128 (25.69%) female patients while Holter showed atrial arrhythmias (APC'S) in 89 (17.8%) males and 119 (23.8%) females. Angiography findings diagnosed coronary artery disease in 119 (23.8%) with CAD male and 225 (45%) without CAD while 47 (9.4%) females presented with CAD and 109 (21.8%) without CAD. Conclusion: A significant association has been demonstrated between hypertension and arrhythmias. Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, left atrial size and function, as well as LVH have been suggested as the underlying risk factors for supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in hypertensives with LVH. (author)

  12. Large right ventricular sinusoids in an infant with aorta-left ventricular tunnel and proximal right coronary artery atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Spinner, Joseph A; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2018-07-01

    We report a 1-month-old infant diagnosed with an aorta-left ventricular tunnel, ventricular septal defect, and right coronary atresia with right ventricular sinusoids. The patient's anatomy and physiology did not indicate right-ventricular-dependent coronary circulation, and therefore right ventricular decompression could be performed without compromising coronary perfusion during surgical correction. A detailed understanding of the coronary anatomy is critical in managing this defect when coronary anomalies are present.

  13. The effect of acute mechanical left ventricular unloading on ovine tricuspid annular size and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Marcin; Wilton, Penny; Khaghani, Asghar; Brown, Michael; Langholz, David; Hooker, Victoria; Eberhart, Lenora; Hooker, Robert L; Timek, Tomasz A

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation may alter right ventricular shape and function and lead to tricuspid regurgitation. This in turn has been reported to be a determinant of right ventricular (RV) failure after LVAD implantation, but the effect of mechanical left ventricular (LV) unloading on the tricuspid annulus is unknown. The aim of the study was to provide insight into the effect of LVAD support on tricuspid annular geometry and dynamics that may help to optimize LV unloading with the least deleterious effect on the right-sided geometry. In seven open-chest anaesthetized sheep, nine sonomicrometry crystals were implanted on the right ventricle. Additional nine crystals were implanted around the tricuspid annulus, with one crystal at each commissure defining three separate annular regions: anterior, posterior and septal. Left ventricular unloading was achieved by connecting a cannula in the left atrium and the aorta to a continuous-flow pump. The pump was used for 15 min at a full flow of 3.8 ± 0.3 l/min. Epicardial echocardiography was used to assess the degree of tricuspid insufficiency. Haemodynamic, echocardiographic and sonomicrometry data were collected before and during full unloading. Tricuspid annular area, and the regional and total perimeter were calculated from crystal coordinates, while 3D annular geometry was expressed as the orthogonal distance of each annular crystal to the least squares plane of all annular crystals. There was no significant tricuspid regurgitation observed either before or during LV unloading. Right ventricular free wall to septum diameter increased significantly at end-diastole during unloading from 23.6 ± 5.8 to 26.3 ± 6.5 mm (P = 0.009), but the right ventricular volume, tricuspid annular area and total perimeter did not change from baseline. However, the septal part of the annulus significantly decreased its maximal length (38.6 ± 8.1 to 37.9 ± 8.2 mm, P = 0.03). Annular contraction was not altered. The

  14. Association of heart failure hospitalizations with combined electrocardiography and echocardiography criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, Eva; Okin, Peter M; Boman, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    The value of performing echocardiography in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is uncertain.......The value of performing echocardiography in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is uncertain....

  15. Evaluation of left ventricular function by nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, T [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1981-03-01

    The Nuclear Stethoscope (N.S.) is a unique cardiac probe system that provides a precise, rapid, noninvasive method to directly quantify ventricular functions at the bedside or actual beat-to-beat or composite beat basis. The accuracy and validity of N.S. were studied in 42 patients with cardiac diseases in comparison with camera-computer EF. The N.S. EF was well correlated with camera-computer EF (r = 0.82). In this study, clinical application of N.S. was as follows. 1. Beat-to-beat left ventricular volume response for evaluation of arrythmia (atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular conduction, bigemy et al.) 2. exercise study by handgrip and ergometer. EF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary arteries diseases from normal subjects.

  16. Evaluation of left ventricular function by nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Stethoscope (N.S.) is a unique cardiac probe system that provides a precise, rapid, noninvasive method to directly quantify ventricular functions at the bedside or actual beat-to-beat or composite beat basis. The accuracy and validity of N.S. were studied in 42 patients with cardiac diseases in comparison with camera-computer EF. The N.S. EF was well correlated with camera-computer EF (r = 0.82). In this study, clinical application of N.S. was as follows. 1. Beat-to-beat left ventricular volume response for evaluation of arrythmia (atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular conduction, bigemy et al.) 2. exercise study by handgrip and ergometer. EF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary arteries diseases from normal subjects. (author)

  17. Evaluation of left ventricular function by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ootaki, Makoto; Matsuyama, Seiya; Kanemoto, Nariaki; Furuya, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    Effects of contrast medium doses on left ventriculographic images using intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA-LVG) were assessed. The validity of IVDSA-LVG in evaluating ejection fraction (FF) and left ventricular regional wall motion was determined by comparison with conventional left ventriculography using direct injection (direct LVG). The advantages of left ventriculography using intraarterial subtraction angiography (IADSA-LVG) performed by injecting small doses of contrast media directly into the left ventricle were stressed. 1. To assess the effects of doses of contrast media on IVDSA-LVG, 10, 20, and 30 ml Urografin-76 were injected into the superior vena cava in 16 patients, and the resulting images were compared in each patient. With only 10 ml contrast medium, left ventricular opacification was fairly good, and regional wall motion was evaluated in many cases, but 30 ml were needed to calculate ventricular volume and EF. 2. To determine the validity of IVDSA-LVG in evaluating EF and regional wall motion, we compared IVDSA-LVG using 30 ml of contrast medium with direct LVG in 18 patients. There was a good correlation between the two methods in determining EF (r = 0.877), and 90 % of the interpretations of regional wall motion were in agreement by the two methods. IVDSA-LVG was useful and accurate in evaluating EF and regional wall motion of the left ventricle. 3. IADSA-LVG was performed for five patients, and good quality images were obtained in many cases, even with relatively small doses (10 ml) of contrast media. These results suggested that this method may be used in cases with impaired LV function, to avoid hemodynamic derangement induced by conventional direct LVG using large doses of contrast medium. (author)

  18. Allowable variance set on left ventricular function parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Li'na; Qi Zhongzhi; Zeng Yu; Ou Xiaohong; Li Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of allowable Variance settings on left ventricular function parameter of the arrhythmia patients during gated myocardial perfusion imaging. Method: 42 patients with evident arrhythmia underwent myocardial perfusion SPECT, 3 different allowable variance with 20%, 60%, 100% would be set before acquisition for every patients,and they will be acquired simultaneously. After reconstruction by Astonish, end-diastole volume(EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) would be computed with Quantitative Gated SPECT(QGS). Using SPSS software EDV, ESV, EF values of analysis of variance. Result: there is no statistical difference between three groups. Conclusion: arrhythmia patients undergo Gated myocardial perfusion imaging, Allowable Variance settings on EDV, ESV, EF value does not have a statistical meaning. (authors)

  19. The effects of stress on left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiess, M.C.; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Liu, P.; Newell, J.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston

    1988-01-01

    The left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was studied in 17 healthy volunteers with a new ambulatory left ventricular function monitor. Heart rate, EF, and blood pressure measurements were made during rest, a psychiatric stress interview, cold exposure, exercise, and eating. An increase in EF was seen during emotional stress (from 0.45±0.09 to 0.51±0.13, P<0.001). This increase was comparable to that observed during exercise (0.52±0.14) and eating (0.52±0.10, P<0.001). In contrast, cold exposure caused a decrease in EF (0.43±0.13, P<0.05). These observations demonstrate the powerful hemodynamic consequences of common behaviors as well as the utility and feasability of studying such behavioral factors in ambulatory subjects. (orig.)

  20. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm versus aneurysm a diagnosis dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bisoyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Free wall rupture of the left ventricle (LV is a rare but life-threatening complication of acute myocardial infaction. Very rarely such rupture may be contained by the adhering pericardium creating a pseudoaneurysm. This condition warrants for an emergency surgery. Left ventricular aneurysm is the discrete thinning of the ventricular wall (<5 mm with akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion causing an out-pouching of the ventricle. Given the propensity for pseudoaneurysms to rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, shock, and death, compared with a more benign natural history for true aneurysms, accurate diagnosis of these conditions is important. True aneurysm, usually, calls for an elective surgery. Clinically differentiating the two conditions remains a challenge. We report the case of a patient with LV pseudoaneurysm, initially diagnosed as true aneurysm at our institution. We have attempted to review the existing literature and discussed the characteristic findings of each entity.

  1. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Elsheshtawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  2. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A.; Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F.; Gedik, O.

    1991-01-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by 99m Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.) [de

  3. Non-gated computed tomography of left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Junta

    1983-01-01

    Non-ECG gated computed tomography (CT) of the heart was carried out in 19 cases with cardiovascular diseases; 4 with mitral stenosis, 3 with aortic valve disease, 2 with combined valve disease, 8 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and one myocardial infarction and one aortic aneurysm. All cardiac diseases were studied by echocardiography and 13 of them further investigated by intracadiac catheterization. The interventricular septum and the apical and posterolateral wall of the left ventricle were segmentally evaluated as to relative wall thickness of myocardium on CT. The wall thickness was directly measured on left ventricular cine angiograms in 13 cases. O-G vector calculated by CT was compatible with the palne of vectorcardiography in evaluating left ventricular hypertorphy. Conclusion were as follows: 1) The degree and site of myocardial hypertrophy were detected by CT with satisfaction. 2) The area of ventricular myocardium increased in aortic valve disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 3) The direction and magnitude of O-G vector calculated by CT were well correlated to the half area of QRS loop in horizontal plane of vectorcardiography. (author)

  4. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Cardiology); Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Gedik, O. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1991-10-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.).

  5. Evaluation of left ventricular function by invasive and noninvasive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusukawa, R [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-06-01

    Noninvasive methods in cardiology have progressed very rapidly in recent years. Cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography are the standard methods for evaluating of cardiac performance, however, they need expensive apparatus and are time-consuming, arduous procedures which do not permit to repeat frequently, and sometimes risky. In this article, the indices of pump and muscle function of the heart obtained by invasive methods were compared to those indices obtained by noninvasive methods, and correlation between two groups and usefulness and limitation were discussed. Systolic time intervals are convenient and repeatable measures of left ventricular performance in clinical cardiology. There are significant correlations of PEP/LVET with stroke volume, ejection fraction and mean circumferential shortening velocity. Although some limitations are present in application of this method to certain diseases, these measures are useful in the evaluation of left ventricular performance. Echocardiography has made an era of the noninvasive cardiology. Left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, mean circumferential shortening velocity and PSP/ESVI are accurately calculated by echocardiographic measurement. Nuclear cardiology is also accurate noninvasive method in evaluation of cardiac performance. With this tremendous growth in this field, it will make next era of noninvasive cardiology.

  6. "Heart rate-dependent" electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, John E

    2013-05-01

    A case is presented revealing the common phenomenon of heart rate-dependent diagnosis of electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which consists of satisfaction of LVH criteria only at faster rates whereas ECGs with a slow heart rate do not satisfy such criteria. The mechanism of the phenomenon has been attributed to the tachycardia-mediated underfilling of the left ventricle bringing the electrical "centroid" of the heart closer to the recording electrodes, which results in augmentation of the amplitude of QRS complexes, particularly in leads V2-V4. ©2012, The Author. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of peak flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract and effective orifice area indexed to body surface area in Golden Retriever puppies to predict development of subaortic stenosis in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javard, Romain; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Côté, Etienne; Beauchamp, Guy; Pibarot, Philippe

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of Doppler-derived peak flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT Vmax) and effective orifice area indexed to body surface area (EOAi) in puppies to predict development of subaortic stenosis (SAS) in the same dogs as adults. Prospective, longitudinal, observational study. 38 Golden Retrievers. Cardiac auscultation and echocardiography were performed on 2- to 6-month-old puppies, then repeated at 12 to 18 months. Subaortic stenosis was diagnosed when LVOT Vmax was ≥ 2.3 m/s in adult dogs with left basilar systolic murmurs. All puppies with EOAi 2.3 m/s in puppyhood was 63% sensitive and 100% specific for SAS in adulthood. In puppies, LVOT Vmax was more strongly associated with a future diagnosis of SAS (area under the curve [AUC], 0.89) than was EOAi (AUC, 0.80). In puppies, the combination of LVOT Vmax and EOAi yielded slightly higher sensitivity (69%) and specificity (100%) for adult SAS than did LVOT Vmax alone. In unaffected and affected dogs, LVOT Vmax increased significantly from puppyhood to adulthood but EOAi did not. In Golden Retriever puppies, LVOT Vmax > 2.3 m/s and EOAi < 1.46 cm(2)/m(2) were both associated with a diagnosis of SAS at adulthood. The combination of these 2 criteria may result in higher sensitivity for SAS screening. Unlike LVOT Vmax, EOAi did not change during growth in either unaffected Golden Retrievers or those with SAS.

  8. Right and Left Ventricular Volumes in Atrial Septal Defect Studied by Radiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivancevic, D. [Radioisotope Department, Internal Clinic, Rebro, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia); Vernejoul, P. de; Kellershohn, C. [CEA, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Biologie, Orsay (France)

    1971-02-15

    Radiocardiography with radioiodinated ({sup 131}I) human serum albumin and barium ({sup 137m}Ba) solution injected into the right subclavian vein has been performed in a group of 43 patients with atrial septal defect and left-to-right shunt. Data on the output and ejection index of each ventricle are essential for the estimation of the diastolic and residual volumes of the right and left ventricle. The systemic flow was therefore calculated according to Veall's formula and the pulmonary flow and the shunt How were determined using the method of de Vernejoul and co-workers. The formulas for the calculation of ventricular volumes were modified. The results show that many cases of atrial septal defect have an enlarged right ventricle whereas the left ventricle remains normal or is diminished. These changes correlate well with the amount of the shunt flow. In both ventricles the ventricular volumes show a good correlation with the stroke volumes. For the regulation of the pulmonary blood volume the right ventricle seems to be more important than the left ventricle. The operative closure of atrial septal defect (in 14 patients) has normalized the size of ventricular volumes. (author)

  9. Evaluation of left ventricular function using digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuka, Takahiro; Ohta, Mitsushige

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion images, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 45 patients with ischemic heart disease. Validity of the technique was compared with data obtained from cine left ventriculogram in all patients and 201 T1 myocardial images in 20 patients. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) calculated from DSA were correlated closely with those from cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.92, r = 0.94 and r = 0.86, respectively). Regional contractility at the antero-lateral wall of the left ventricle, assessed by DSA, was also correlated well with cine left ventriculogram (r = 0.75). Evaluation of the inferior wall motion showed less correlation in both procedures (r = 0.68). Phase and amplitude analysis with the same technique with radionuclide cardiac angiography was successfully applied in left ventriculogram obtained by DSA. The procedure seems to be helpful for objective evaluation of the left ventricular wall motion. Myocardial perfusion image, obtained with modified Radtke's technique, showed good coincidence with 201 T1 images. Thus, DSA is applicable for evaluation of function of the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion in patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  10. Non-invasive measurement of stroke volume and left ventricular ejection fraction. Radionuclide cardiography compared with left ventricular cardioangiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Svendsen, J H; Aldershvile, J

    1988-01-01

    The stroke volume (SV) was determined by first passage radionuclide cardiography and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multigated radionuclide cardiography in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease. The results were evaluated against those obtained by the invasive dye dilution or ...... are reliable. The discrepancy between the non-invasive and invasive LVEF values raises the question, whether LVEF is overestimated by cardioangiography or underestimated by radionuclide cardiography....

  11. Preliminary study of left ventricular cavity-to-myocardial count ratio. A new parameter for left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Qu Wanying; Zhu Ming; Gao Wenping; Zhao Hongshan

    1995-01-01

    A new simple quantitative parameter, left ventricular cavity-to-myocardial count ratio (C/M ratio) was suggested and compared with LVEF to assess its reliability and clinical value. Of 220 patients in the study, 102 had both exercise 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging and resting radionuclide ventriculography, another 118 patients had both rest 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging and rest radionuclide ventriculography, 740 MBq of 99m Tc-MIBI was injected intravenously. Both the exercise and rest C/M ratio were determined on short-axis tomograms and LVEF were calculated from radionuclide ventriculography. The correlation between LVEF and the C/M (exercise and rest) was analyzed. There was a positive linear correlation between LVEF measured by ventriculography and both C/M exercise ratio (r = 0.6964) and C/M rest ratio (r = 0.6995). The sensitivity of C/M exercise and rest ratio for detecting patients with left ventricular dysfunction is 71.9%, 68.6%; the specificity is 92.9%, 97.0%; the accuracy is 86.3%, 84.7% respectively. C/M ratio can accurately identify patients with CAD who have resting left ventricular dysfunction. It was highly reproducible, reliable and useful in clinical diagnosis

  12. Effect of Mitral Annular Calcium on Left Ventricular Diastolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codolosa, Jose N; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Alnabelsi, Talal; Goykhman, Igor; Romero-Corral, Abel; Pressman, Gregg S

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function by Doppler flow imaging and tissue Doppler is an integral part of the echocardiographic examination. Mitral annular calcium (MAC) is frequently encountered on echocardiography. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MAC, quantitatively measured by computed tomography scan, on echocardiographic LV diastolic parameters. We included 155 patients aged ≥65 years. Computed tomography reconstructions of the mitral annulus were created, and calcium identified and quantified by Agatston technique. Calcium locations were assigned using an overlaid template depicting the annular segments in relation to surrounding anatomic structures. Echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function was performed in standard fashion. Mean age was 77 years; 49% were men; and 43% were black. Patients with MAC had lower septal e' (p = 0.003), lateral e' (p = 0.04), and average e' (p = 0.01) compared with those without MAC. They also had a higher E-wave velocity (p = 0.01) and E/e' ratio (p <0.001). When evaluated by severity of MAC, and after adjustment for multiple clinical factors, there was a graded (inverse) relation between MAC severity and septal e' (p = 0.01), lateral e' (p = 0.01), and average e' (p = 0.01). In conclusion, LV diastolic parameters, as measured by Doppler echocardiography, are altered in the presence of MAC. This could be due to direct effects of MAC on annular function or might reflect truly reduced diastolic function. Interpretation of diastolic parameters in patients with MAC should be performed with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  14. Left ventricular remodeling in preclinical experimental mitral regurgitation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A Ray; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Tillson, Michael; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Denney, Thomas; Hathcock, John; Botzman, Logan

    2012-03-01

    Dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation (MR) provide insights into the left ventricular remodeling in preclinical MR. The early preclinical left ventricular (LV) changes after mitral regurgitation represent progressive dysfunctional remodeling, in that no compensatory response returns the functional stroke volume (SV) to normal even as total SV increases. The gradual disease progression leads to mitral annulus stretch and enlargement of the regurgitant orifice, further increasing the regurgitant volume. Remodeling with loss of collagen weave and extracellular matrix (ECM) is accompanied by stretching and hypertrophy of the cross-sectional area and length of the cardiomyocyte. Isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes demonstrate dysfunction based on decreased cell shortening and reduced intracellular calcium transients before chamber enlargement or decreases in contractility in the whole heart can be clinically appreciated. The genetic response to increased end-diastolic pressure is down-regulation of genes associated with support of the collagen and ECM and up-regulation of genes associated with matrix remodeling. Experiments have not demonstrated any beneficial effects on remodeling from treatments that decrease afterload via blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Beta-1 receptor blockade and chymase inhibition have altered the progression of the LV remodeling and have supported cardiomyocyte function. The geometry of the LV during the remodeling provides insight into the importance of regional differences in responses to wall stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Focused review on transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of patients with continuous axial left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topilsky, Yan; Maltais, Simon; Oh, Jae K; Atchison, Fawn W; Perrault, Louis P; Carrier, Michel; Park, Soon J

    2011-02-08

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are systems for mechanical support for patients with end-stage heart failure. Preoperative, postoperative and comprehensive followup with transthoracic echocardiography has a major role in LVAD patient management. In this paper, we will present briefly the hemodynamics of axial-flow LVAD, the rationale, and available data for a complete and organized echocardiographic assessment in these patients including preoperative assessment, postoperative and long-term evaluation.

  16. Novel nonsurgical left ventricular assist device and system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiri, Juna; DeSimone, Christopher V; Park, Soon J; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Friedman, Paul A; Bruce, Charles J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for advanced stages of congestive heart failure remain limited. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have emerged as a means to support failing circulation. However, these devices are not without significant risk such as major open chest surgery. We utilized a novel approach for device placement at the aorto-left atria continuity as a site to create a conduit capable of accommodating a percutaneous LVAD system. We designed and developed an expandable nitinol based device for placement at this site to create a shunt between the LA and aorta. Our experiments support this anatomic location as an accessible and feasible site for accommodation of an entirely percutaneous LVAD. The novelty of this approach would bypass the left ventricle, and thereby minimize complications and morbidities associated with current LVAD placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interdependence of right ventricular systolic function and left ventricular filling and its association with outcome for patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoji, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Yuko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ryo, Keiko; Imanishi, Junichi; Miyoshi, Tatsuya; Sawa, Takuma; Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Emoto, Noriaki; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Although impaired right ventricular (RV) performance has been associated with adverse outcomes for pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, the relationship between bi-ventricular interdependence and outcomes is not yet fully understood. We studied 96 PH patients. RV systolic function was assessed by means of RV free-wall longitudinal speckle-tracking strain (RV-free), and left ventricular (LV) filling as early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (TMF-E). RV-free ≤19 % and TMF-E functional class IV and brain natriuretic peptide >150 pg/dl (χ(2) = 1.2) was improved by the addition of RV-free (χ(2) = 5.5, p = 0.04) as well as of TMF-E (χ(2) = 11.5, p = 0.01). In conclusions, RV systolic function was shown to correlate significantly with LV filling in PH patients. In addition, not only assessment of RV systolic function, but also of a combined bi-ventricular parameter comprising RV systolic function and LV filling may well have clinical implications for more successful management of PH patients.

  18. Radionuclide determination of right and left ventricular stroke volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei Feng; Roubin, G S; Choong, C Y.P.; Harris, P J; Flether, P J; Kelly, D T; Uren, R F; Hutton, B F

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between radionuclide and thermodilution measurement of stroke volumes (SV) was investigated in 30 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group A) at rest and during exercise. Both attenuated radionuclide right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) SV measurements correlated well with the SV determined by the thermodilution method (r = 0.87 and r = 0.93, all P < 0.001). The reliability of the radionuclide method to estimate SV was evaluated prospectively in two additional groups of patients. In 11 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group B) the radionuclide RVSV and LVSV closely approximated to thermodilution SV at rest and during exercise. In 15 patients with aortic regurgitation (group C) the radionuclide stroke volume ratio correlated well with the angiographic regurgitant fraction. Thus, both RVSV and LVSV and the severity of aortic regurgitation can be reliably measured with gated radionuclide ventriculography.

  19. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; Pright ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; PBrain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. LEFT VENTRICULAR ROTATION, TWIST AND UNTWIST: PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The helical ventricular myocardial band of Torrent-Guasp is a new concept, which provides strong grounds for reconciliation of some important aspects in cardiovascular medicine. Oblique fiber orientation provides left ventricular rotation, which in addition to radial thickening and longitudinal shortening, is predicted as an essential component of the effective left ventricular pumping. Left ventricular rotation can be measured in clinical practice noninvasively using echocardiography and this provides new opportunities for the assessment of different aspects of left ventricular mechanical function.

  1. Independence of intrapericardial right and left ventricular performance in septic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, J.C.; Eichstaedt, H.; Barker, B.C.; Lewis, F.R.; Lim, A.D.; Pollycove, M.

    1990-01-01

    To study the effect of septic pulmonary hypertension on right/left ventricular intrapericardial interactions thirteen trauma patients, seven septic and six nonseptic controls, were compared. Ventricular volumes were derived from firstpass or gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography, and related to body surface area. Systemic and pulmonary pressures were measured invasively. Pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly increased in the sepsis group. Although right ventricular end-diastolic volumes were higher in sepsis, left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were not decreased. In terms of intrapericardial right/left ventricular interactions these results indicate that the right and left ventricles operate independently in septic pulmonary hypertension. (orig.) [de

  2. Left ventricular diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, P.T.

    1986-08-01

    In 302 patients with confirmed coronary disease we determined the left ventricular diastolic function with the Nuclear Stethoscope by the aid of the Peak Filling Rate (PFR) and the Time to Peak Filling Rate (TPFR). Moreover we investigated the ejection fraction (EF). 201 patients had already suffered a myocardial infarction, of these 99 an anterior wall and 102 an inferior wall infarction. The remaining 101 patients had a CAD without a history of myocardial infarction. The PFR was 2.19 +- 0.65 EDV/sec in the 99 patients after anterior wall infarction and 2.62 +- 0.85 EDV/sec in the 102 patients after inferior wall infarction and 2.79 +- 0.85 EDV/sec in 101 patients with coronary artery disease without a history of myocardial infarction. For the PFR there could be found a statistically significant difference between normal patients and patients after anterior wall infarction (p < 0.0001), normal patients and patients after inferior wall infarction (p < 0.0001) and normal patients and patients with coronary artery disease (p < 0.0001). The TPFR was 180 +- 37.5 msec after anterior - and 158 +- 50.7 msec after inferior wall infarction and 156 +- 45.2 msec in the patients with CAD without previous infarction. The left ventricular diastolic function (PFR and/or TPFR) was abnormal in 88% after anterior- and in 82% after inferior wall infarction and in 69% in coronary patients without previous myocardial infarction. In comparison with this the ejection fraction was reduced in 66% in anterior- and in 61% inferior wall infarction at rest. These results indicate that the diastolic function at rest appears to be more informative for evaluation of a left ventricular dysfunction than the systolic function at rest.

  3. Hyperdynamic left ventricular ejection fraction in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paonessa, Joseph R; Brennan, Thomas; Pimentel, Marco; Steinhaus, Daniel; Feng, Mengling; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2015-08-07

    Limited information exists on the etiology, prevalence, and significance of hyperdynamic left ventricular ejection fraction (HDLVEF) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our aim in the present study was to compare characteristics and outcomes of patients with HDLVEF with those of patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction in the ICU using a large, public, deidentified critical care database. We conducted a longitudinal, single-center, retrospective cohort study of adult patients who underwent echocardiography during a medical or surgical ICU admission at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center using the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database. The final cohort had 2867 patients, of whom 324 had HDLVEF, defined as an ejection fraction >70%. Patients with an ejection fraction <55% were excluded. Compared with critically ill patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction, the finding of HDLVEF in critically ill patients was associated with female sex, increased age, and the diagnoses of hypertension and cancer. Patients with HDLVEF had increased 28-day mortality compared with those with normal ejection fraction in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, Elixhauser score for comorbidities, vasopressor use, and mechanical ventilation use (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.039-1.842, p =0.02). The presence of HDLVEF portended increased 28-day mortality, and may be helpful as a gravity marker for prognosis in patients admitted to the ICU. Further research is warranted to gain a better understanding of how these patients respond to common interventions in the ICU and to determine if pharmacologic modulation of HDLVEF improves outcomes.

  4. Screening for heart transplantation and left ventricular assist system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lars H; Trochu, Jean-Noel; Meyns, Bart

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation (HTx) and implantable left ventricular assist systems (LVAS) improve outcomes in advanced heart failure but may be underutilized. We hypothesized that screening can identify appropriate candidates. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ScrEEning for advanced Heart Failure...... treatment (SEE-HF) study was a multicentre prospective study screening patients with existing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and/or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for ejection fraction ≤40% and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV, and subsequently for guideline-based HTx...

  5. Intraoperative bronchoscopic visualization of left ventricular assist device thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Gardner; Bhat, Geetha; Modi, Sejal; Pappas, Pat; Tatooles, Antone

    2016-07-01

    Despite advancements in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) design and clinical management, device thrombosis remains a pertinent complication. Limited imaging makes precise visualization of clot location and shape very challenging. We report the usage of videobronchoscopic exploration of explanted LVADs for direct visualization of clot in two patients. This technique is a rapid and inexpensive means of improving our understanding of LVAD clot formation and may be useful in surgical exploration of inflow and outflow tracts during LVAD exchange. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Scleroderma Renal Crisis: A Reversible Cause of Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Milla, Juan; Gaebelt, Hans Paul; Sánchez-Pernaute, Olga; Kallmeyer, Andrea; Romero, José; Farré, Jerónimo

    2018-05-02

    We report a case of acute left ventricular dysfunction due to myocarditis, in the setting of a scleroderma renal crisis. The case is particularly intriguing for the favorable outcome of both symptoms and heart function following immunosuppressive therapy. We also highlight the changes observed over time with image techniques as well as in electrocardiograms. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging of left ventricular wall motion via venous DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, G.; Roediger, W.; Buecheler, E.; Hamburg Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Until now, angiographical and nuclear medicine examination techniques for imaging left ventricular wall motion have been presenting with difficulties endemic to the methods themselves. For the first time in cardiological diagnostics, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) makes it possible to perform a fairly non-invasive examination with good spatial and temporal resolution. Functional analytic evaluation, however, still demands time-consuming, complicated post-processing. In this article we introduce a method that uses an additive window technique for the immediate generation of wall motion images. (orig.) [de

  8. Angular (Gothic) aortic arch leads to enhanced systolic wave reflection, central aortic stiffness, and increased left ventricular mass late after aortic coarctation repair: evaluation with magnetic resonance flow mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Phalla; Celermajer, David S; Raisky, Olivier; Jolivet, Odile; Buyens, Fanny; Herment, Alain; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Mousseaux, Elie

    2008-01-01

    We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby a particular deformity of the aortic arch, an angulated Gothic shape, might lead to hypertension late after anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation. Fifty-five normotensive patients with anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation and either a Gothic (angulated) or a Romanesque (smooth and rounded) arch were studied with magnetic resonance angiography and flow mapping in both the ascending and descending aortas. Systolic waveforms, central aortic stiffness, and pulse velocity were measured. We hypothesized that arch angulation would result in enhanced systolic wave reflection with loss of energy across the aortic arch, as well as increased central aortic stiffness. Twenty patients were found to have a Gothic, and 35 a Romanesque, arch. Patients with a Gothic arch showed markedly augmented systolic wave reflection (12 +/- 6 vs 5 +/- 0.3 mL, P Gothic arch (5.6 +/- 1.1 vs 4.1 +/- 1 m/s, P Gothic aortic arch is associated with increased systolic wave reflection, as well as increased central aortic stiffness and left ventricular mass index. These findings explain (at least in part) the association between this pattern of arch geometry and late hypertension at rest and on exercise in subjects after coarctation repair.

  9. Impact of hypertension on left ventricular structure in patients with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (a SEAS substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieck, Ashild E; Cramariuc, Dana; Staal, Eva M

    2010-01-01

    Both hypertension and aortic valve stenosis induce left ventricular hypertrophy. However, less is known about the influence of concomitant hypertension on left ventricular structure in patients with aortic valve stenosis.......Both hypertension and aortic valve stenosis induce left ventricular hypertrophy. However, less is known about the influence of concomitant hypertension on left ventricular structure in patients with aortic valve stenosis....

  10. Value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dysfunction in Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Amanda Arantes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dilation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas' disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 166 consecutive patients with Chagas' disease and no other associated diseases. The patients underwent cardiac assessment with chest radiography and Doppler echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest radiography were calculated to detect left ventricular dysfunction and the accuracy of the cardiothoracic ratio in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction with the area below the ROC curve. The cardiothoracic ratio was correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction and the left ventricular diastolic diameter. RESULTS: The abnormal chest radiogram had a sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 80.5%, and positive and negative predictive values of 51.2% and 79.8%, respectively, in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction. The cardiothoracic ratio showed a weak correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.23 and left ventricular diastolic diameter (r=0.30. The area calculated under the ROC curve was 0.734. CONCLUSION: The radiological study of the thorax is not an accurate indicator of left ventricular dysfunction; its use as a screening method to initially approach the patient with Chagas' disease should be reevaluated.

  11. Left Ventricular Function Improves after Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Patients with Previous Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction and Biventricular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Colin; Kogon, Brian; Pernetz, Maria; McConnell, Michael; Kirshbom, Paul; Rodby, Katherine; Book, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart defects that have a component of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, such as tetralogy of Fallot, are frequently palliated in childhood by disruption of the pulmonary valve. Although this can provide an initial improvement in quality of life, these patients are often left with severe pulmonary valve insufficiency. Over time, this insufficiency can lead to enlargement of the right ventricle and to the deterioration of right ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Pulmonary valve replacement in these patients decreases right ventricular volume overload and improves right ventricular performance. To date, few studies have examined the effects of pulmonary valve replacement on left ventricular function in patients with biventricular dysfunction. We sought to perform such an evaluation. Records of adult patients who had undergone pulmonary valve replacement from January 2003 through November 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. We reviewed preoperative and postoperative echocardiograms and calculated left ventricular function in 38 patients. In the entire cohort, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased by a mean of 0.07 after pulmonary valve replacement, which was a statistically significant change (P < 0.01). In patients with preoperative ejection fractions of less than 0.50, mean ejection fractions increased by 0.10. We conclude that pulmonary valve replacement in patients with biventricular dysfunction arising from severe pulmonary insufficiency and right ventricular enlargement can improve left ventricular function. Prospective studies are needed to verify this finding. PMID:21720459

  12. Ratio of left ventricular peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity assessed by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography in first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Seward, J B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the ability of the ratio of peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity (E/Vp) measured with color M-mode Doppler echocardiography to predict in-hospital heart failure and cardiac mortality in an unselected consecutive population with first myocardial infarction (MI...

  13. Bridge to transplantation with a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Jun; Sung, Kiick; Jeong, Dong Seop; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Young Tak; Park, Pyo Won

    2012-04-01

    A 61-year-old female patient was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricle dysfunction. Two days after admission, continuous renal replacement therapy was performed due to oliguria and lactic acidosis. On the fifth day, an intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted due to low cardiac output syndrome. Beginning 4 days after admission, she was supported for 15 days thereafter with an extracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) because of heart failure with multi-organ failure. A heart transplant was performed while the patient was stabilized with the LVAD. She developed several complications after the surgery, such as cytomegalovirus pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, wound dehiscence, and H1N1 infection. On postoperative day 19, she was discharged from the hospital with close follow-up and treatment for infection. She received follow-up care for 10 months without any immune rejection reaction.

  14. A multiparous woman with lately diagnosed multilevel left ventricular obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M. N.; Gul, I.; Nabi, A.

    2017-01-01

    A 56-year hypertensive, multiparous woman presented to the cardiology unit with Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class-III angina and worsening dyspnea for the past few weeks. Her clinical examination showed high blood pressure and mid-systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur radiating to carotids. However, there was no radio-femoral delay or significant blood pressure difference between her arms. Her transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed moderate aortic stenosis (AS) and mid cavity left ventricular outflow (LVO) obstruction. Left heart catheterization (LHC) showed coarctation of aorta with extensive collaterals, mid cavity LVO obstruction, and moderate AS. Thus, she was diagnosed as a case of multi-level LVO obstruction including mid cavity LVO obstruction AS and coarctation of aorta. She underwent stenting of aortic coarctation as the initial step of graded approach to her disease, and is doing well. (author)

  15. Impact of Aortic Valve Replacement on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

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    Abderrahmane Bakkali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aortic valve replacement on left ventricular function and remodeling among patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: In this retrospective bicentric study extended over a 15-year period, 61 consecutive patients underwent isolated AVR for severe AS associated to reduced LV function. The mean age was 58.21 ± 12.50 years and 83.60 % were men. 70.50% of patients were in class III or IV NYHA. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 32.9 ± 5.6.The mean LVEDD and LVESD were respectively 63.6 ± 9.2 and 50.2 ± 8.8 mm. The mean calculated logistic EuroScore was 12.2 ±4.5. Results: The hospital mortality was 11.5%. Morbidity was marked mainly by low output syndrome in 40.8% of cases. After a median follow-up of 38 months we have recorded 3 deaths. Almost all survivors were in class I and II of NYHA. The mean LV end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters decreased significantly at late postoperative stage. The mean LV ejection fraction increased significantly from 32.9 ± 5.6 to 38.2 ± 9.3 and to 50.3 ± 9.6 in early and late postoperative stages, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that increased early postoperative LVEF (β= 0.44, 95% CI [0.14; 0.75], p=0.006 and low mean transprosthesis gradient (β=-0.72, 95% CI [-1.42; -0.02], p= 0.04 were the independent predictors of left ventricular systolic function recovery. Conclusion: Patients with aortic valve stenosis and impaired LV systolic function benefited from AVR as regard improvement of LV function parameters and regression of the LV diameters .This improvement depends mainly on early postoperative LVEF and mean transprosthesis gradient.

  16. Left ventricular filling patterns in patients with systemic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (the LIFE study). Losartan Intervention For Endpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K; Smith, G; Gerdts, E

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal left ventricular (LV) filling may exist in early stages of hypertension. Whether this finding is related to LV hypertrophy is currently controversial. This study was undertaken to assess relations between abnormal diastolic LV filling and LV geometry in a large series of hypertensive...... (sex-adjusted Cornell voltage duration criteria or Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria) after 14 days of placebo treatment. The patients' mean age was 67+/-7 years and 44% were women. One hundred forty patients (19%) had normal LV geometric pattern, 79 (11%) had concentric remodeling, 342 (45%) had eccentric...

  17. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Pediatric Hypertension: A Mini Review

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    Robert P. Woroniecki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults with arterial hypertension (HTN have stroke, myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD, or die at higher rates than those without. In children, HTN leads to target organ damage, which includes kidney, brain, eye, blood vessels, and heart, which precedes “hard outcomes” observed in adults. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH or an anatomic and pathologic increase in left ventricular mass (LVM in response to the HTN is a pediatric surrogate marker for HTN-induced morbidity and mortality in adults. This mini review discusses current definitions, clinically relevant methods of LVM measurements and normalization methods, its epidemiology, management, and issue of reversibility in children with HTN. Pediatric definition of LVH and abnormal LVM is not uniformed. With multiple definitions, prevalence of pediatric HTN-induced LVH is difficult to ascertain. In addition while in adults cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is considered “the gold standard” for LVM and LVH determination, pediatric data are limited to “special populations”: ESRD, transplant, and obese children. We summarize available data on pediatric LVH treatment and reversibility and offer future directions in addressing LVH in children with HTN.

  18. Observations of super early left ventricular remodeling experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.G.; Jin, J.H.; Zhao, X.B.; Kang, C.S.; Liang, F.Y.; Yin, Z.M.; Liu, G.F.; Li, S.J.; Li, X.F.; Hu, G.; Qin, D.Z.; Song, L.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Ventricular remodeling is defined as the changes in the shape and size of the entire left ventricle after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Many investigators have shown that left ventricular remodeling is related to clinical outcomes, including mortality, that represent the natural history, of the heart failure syndrome. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that it is possible to observe super early left ventricular remodeling by 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging in the dog model of acute experimental myocardial infarction. Methods: Experimental subjects: Twenty-three healthy mongrel dogs (14-25 kg) of either sex were studied under general anesthesia (sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg). The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was dissected and ligated between the first and second diagonal branches. Seven dogs died of ventricular fibrillation after the LAD coronary artery ligation. The 16 remaining dogs were divided into two groups: Group A (GA) received 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging (n=8): Group B (GB) received 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging combined with echocardiography (n=8). 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging :Static 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging was taken with ADAC Vertex Dual-head SPECT. 99mTc-MIBI kit was manufactured in Syncor, China. Each dog served as its own control, and was scanned by 99mTc-MIBI myocardial imaging and chocardiography at 48-72 hours before ligation. The mean time of the first acquisition was 21.87 ± 11.03 (14-48) minutes post-operatively in GA, 57.63±22.83 (30-99) minutes for 99mTc-MIBI imaging in GB, 26.00±15.07 (12-50) minutes for echocardiography in GB. Acquisition techniques for Gated SPECT: ECG synchronized data collection: R wave trigger, 8 Frames/Cardiac cycle. Images were gathered by rotating the detectors 180 degrees at 6 degrees per frame. Each frame took 40 seconds. The dog position was supine. The images were acquired and recorded for 6 hours following the LAD coronary artery ligation. After 6 hours

  19. ECG-gated scintillation probe measurement of left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Borer, J.S.; Ostrow, H.G.; Redwood, D.R.; Johnston, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nonimaging, ECG-gated scintillation-probe system is described that permits real-time quantification, at high temporal resolution, of the time variation of left ventricular (LV) volume over a complete, average cardiac cycle. Linearity between counting rate and volume, probe positioning, and background correction were investigated for both cylindrically collimated (CC) and parallel-hole-collimated (PC) detectors. In 53 patient studies, results obtained with these probes were compared with results obtained from an ECG-gated gamma camera system (CS) with high temporal resolution. Time-activity curves obtained by all three devices were essentially identical in shape (for CC against CS, r = 0.93; for PC against CS, r = 0.98) and in intracycle timing. Left-ventricular ejection fractions obtained with the probes showed workable agreement with the camera: for CC against CS, r = 0.85 (N = 31); for PC against CS, r = 0.90 (N = 21). When LV background is removed as a source of error, the correlation between (PC) probe and camera is improved (r = 0.95, N = 21). This suggests that the portable probe system be used in circumstances where exact knowledge of LV background is minimally important--e.g., continuous bedside monitoring of changes in LV function

  20. Real-time scintillation probe measurement of left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.V.; Ostrow, H.G.; Bacharach, S.L.; Allen, S.I.; Bonow, R.O.; Johnston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The micro-processor based system described in this report was designed for maximum flexibility and utility. While the principle function of the system is to acquire, create, analyze and display (in real-time) left ventricular time activity (or volume) curves, provision is also made to acquire additional physiologic signals (e.g., ECG, flowmeter, etc.) and to calculate and display relationships between these various data. The system was designed for interactive use so that the system user can alter the course of a series of measurements based on previous results. These general capabilities are illustrated with several examples. In the first, LV function was measured continuously in a subject from (supine) rest through exercise and recovery. The second example illustrates the use of the system in acquiring (LV) pressure-volume loops. Several technical problems, such as correction for LV background radiation, appear at present to limit the probes applicability. Even now, however, probe systems are demonstrably useful in the study of global left ventricular function when this function is changing rapidly with time in response to various interventions. (orig.) [de

  1. Changes of left ventricular function at exercise after lung resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, Takashi; Gomibuchi, Makoto; Shoji, Tasuku

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of lung resection on left ventricular function, 29 surgical patients were examined by using a nuclear stethoscope as a non-invasive means for measuring ventricular function at exercise. Pre- and post-operative parameters were obtained at rest and exercise. At rest, postoperative stroke volume (SV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and ejection rate (ER) were significantly decreased; heart rate (HR) was significantly increased; and both filling rate (FR) and cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. At maximum exercise, postoperative EDV, SV, ER and FR were significantly decreased; and there was no significant difference in either HR or EF, resulting in a significantly decreased CO. A ratio of CO and FR at maximum exercise to at rest was significantly decreased after surgery, as compared with that before surgery. According to the number of lobe resection, similar findings for all parameters, except for EF, were observed in the group of two lobe or more resection (n=13); and only two parameters, ER and FR, had the same tendency as those mentioned above in the group of a single lobe resection (n=16). The age group of 60 years or less (n=14) had similar findings for all parameters. In the group of 65 years or more (n=10), resting HR after surgery was not different from that before surgery; and postoperative CO was significantly decreased at rest, but not different from preoperative value at maximum exercise. In conclusion, left ventricular function associated with lung resection is reflected by decreased EDV and SV resulting from reduced pre-load. These changes may be corrected at rest, but not corrected at maximum exercise, resulting in decreased CO. More noticeable decrease in EDV and SV seems to be associated with larger lung resection. In older patients, HR is not corrected well, resulting in a decrease in CO at rest. (N.K.)

  2. Measurement of effective left ventricular ejection fraction by radiocardiography associated with cardiac chamber scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vernejoul, P; Fauchet, M; Rimbert, J -N; Gambini, D; Agnely, J [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France)

    1976-03-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction is usually measured by cineangiocardiography. When radiocardiography and cardiac chamber scanning are associated, it allows an effective left ventricular ejection fraction assessment. Ejection fractions calculated by both methods are the same in normal subjects. They are different in the case of left valvular heart disease with insufficiency. The whole regurgitation fraction can be calculated from this difference.

  3. Measurement of effective left ventricular ejection fraction by radiocardiography associated with cardiac chamber scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernejoul, Pierre de; Fauchet, Michel; Rimbert, J.-N.; Gambini, Denis; Agnely, Jacqueline

    1976-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction is usually measured by cineangiocardiography. When radiocardiography and cardiac chamber scanning are associated, it allows an effective left ventricular ejection fraction assessment. Ejection fractions calculated by both methods are the same in normal subjects. They are different in the case of left valvular heart disease with insufficiency. The whole regurgitation fraction can be calculated from this difference [fr

  4. Left anterior descending coronary artery dissection during ventricular tachycardia ablation – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordic Kresimir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fascicular left ventricular tachycardia (VT is the second most frequent idiopathic left VT in the setting of a structurally normal heart. Catheter ablation is curative in most patients with low complication rates. We report a case of ostial left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD occlusion during fascicular ventricular tachycardia ablation.

  5. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrium reverse remodeling after mitral regurgitation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucia R; Meneghelo, Zilda M; Le Bihan, David C S; Barretto, Rodrigo B M; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2014-11-06

    Left atrium enlargement has been associated with cardiac events in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Left atrium reverse remodeling (LARR) occur after surgical correction of MR, but the preoperative predictors of this phenomenon are not well known. It is therefore important to identify preoperative predictors for postoperative LARR. We enrolled 62 patients with chronic severe MR (prolapse or flail leaflet) who underwent successful mitral valve surgery (repair or replacement); all with pre- and postoperative echocardiography. LARR was defined as a reduction in left atrium volume index (LAVI) of ≥ 25%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of LARR. LARR occurred in 46 patients (74.2%), with the mean LAVI decreasing from 85.5 mL/m2 to 49.7 mL/m2 (p <0.001). These patients had a smaller preoperative left ventricular systolic volume (p =0.022) and a higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p =0.034). LVEF was identified as the only preoperative variable significantly associated with LARR (odds ratio, 1.086; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.178). A LVEF cutoff value of 63.5% identified patients with LARR of ≥ 25% with a sensitivity of 71.7% and a specificity of 56.3%. LARR occurs frequently after mitral valve surgery and is associated with preoperative LVEF higher than 63.5%.

  6. Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Ringgård, Viktor Kromann; Vistisen, Simon Tilma; Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Sloth, Erik; Juhl-Olsen, Peter

    2017-09-11

    Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic determinants of cardiac function obtained by ultrasonography during PLE. In this randomised, blinded, controlled laboratory study, 30 piglets (21.9 ± 1.3 kg) had bilateral PLE (75 mL/kg) induced. Subsequently, the piglets were randomised to intervention as follows: fluid loading (80 mL/kg/h for 1.5 h, n = 12), norepinephrine infusion (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 μg/kg/min (15 min each, n = 12)) or control (n = 6). Main outcome was left ventricular preload measured as left ventricular end-diastolic area. Secondary endpoints included contractility and afterload as well as global measures of circulation. All endpoints were assessed with echocardiography and invasive pressure-flow measurements. PLE decreased left ventricular end-diastolic area, mean arterial pressure and cardiac output (p values  0.05) to baseline. Left ventricular contractility increased with norepinephrine infusion (p = 0.002), but was not affected by fluid loading (p = 0.903). Afterload increased in both active groups (p values > 0.001). Overall, inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged during intervention (p values ≥ 0.085). Evacuation of PLE caused numerical increases in left ventricular end-diastolic area, but only significantly so in controls (p = 0.006). PLE significantly reduced left ventricular preload. Both fluid and norepinephrine treatment reverted this effect and normalised global haemodynamic parameters. Inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged. The haemodynamic significance of PLE may be underestimated during fluid or norepinephrine administration, potentially masking the presence of PLE.

  7. Contrast media for left ventricular angiography. A comparison between Cardio-Conray and iopamidol.

    OpenAIRE

    Gwilt, D J; Nagle, R E

    1984-01-01

    Forty consecutive patients with coronary artery disease undergoing left ventricular angiography took part in a randomised double blind trial comparing a conventional contrast medium sodium meglumine iothalamate (Cardio-Conray) with the low osmolar agent iopamidol. Iopamidol produced a smaller rise in heart rate and a smaller fall in left ventricular systolic pressure, but the changes in left ventricular and diastolic pressure and maximum rate of change of pressure (dP/dt max) were not differe...

  8. Left ventricular approach for recording His bundle potential in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y S; Lien, W P

    1975-06-01

    The electrical potentials of the His bundle (HB) were recorded from the left ventricular endocardial surface in 28 patients ranging from 16 to 63 years of age. In 14 of the patients the left bundle branch (LB) potentials were also obtained. Placement of a bipolar electrode catheter tip toward the interventricular septum, right at and also 1 to 2 cm below the aortic valve, resulted in stable recordings of both potentials in successive cardiac cycles even at performing atrial or HB pacing from the right heart. The following intervals were measured in milliseconds (msec): P-A, A-H, H, H-V, LB, and LB-V. The average values in 12 patients (average age 26 plus or minus 7 years and average heart rate 90 plus or minus 16 beats per minute) with normal A-V conduction were as follows: P-A 28 plus or minus 7, A-H 76 plus or minus 16, H 19 plus or minus 3 and H-V 45 plus or minus 6 msec. The average values for LB and LB-V in 10 of these 12 patients were 15 plus or minus 3 and 25 plus or minus 3 msec respectively. Validation of the His bundle electrogram (HBE) from the left ventricular endocardial surface was based on simultaneous recordings of the intracardiac electrograms from both left and right sides of the heart in 18 patients. The individual average values for the intervals obtained from both sides of the heart in these patients were statistically not different, except that the H potential was slightly longer in duration fr m the left heart (P equals 0.05). Among these, 16 showed simultaneous onset of the H potentials, and the LB-V and RB-V conduction times from comparable points were almost the same. Indications for the left sided electro-physiologic studies include the following situations: (a) inability to record H from the right of the heart; (b) giant right atrium; and (c) possibly during atrial fibrillation.

  9. Sympathetic stimulation alters left ventricular relaxation and chamber size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwash, I G; Morgan, D E; Koilpillai, C J; Blackmore, G L; Johnstone, D E; Armour, J A

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, and chamber dimensions induced by efferent sympathetic nerve stimulation were investigated in nine anesthetized open-chest dogs in sinus rhythm. Supramaximal stimulation of acutely decentralized left stellate ganglia augmented heart rate, LV systolic pressure, and rate of LV pressure rise (maximum +dP/dt, 1,809 +/- 191 to 6,304 +/- 725 mmHg/s) and fall (maximum -dP/dt, -2,392 +/- 230 to -4,458 +/- 482 mmHg/s). It also reduced the time constant of isovolumic relaxation, tau (36.5 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 ms). Simultaneous two-dimensional echocardiography recorded reductions in end-diastolic and end-systolic LV cross-sectional chamber areas (23 and 31%, respectively), an increase in area ejection fraction (32%), and increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses (14 and 13%, respectively). End-systolic and end-diastolic wall stresses were unchanged by stellate ganglion stimulation (98 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 9 dyn x 10(3)/cm2; 6.4 +/- 2.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 dyn x 10(3)/cm2, respectively). Atrial pacing to similar heart rates did not alter monitored indexes of contractility. Dobutamine and isoproterenol induced changes similar to those resulting from sympathetic neuronal stimulation. These data indicate that when the efferent sympathetic nervous system increases left ventricular contractility and relaxation, concomitant reductions in systolic and diastolic dimensions of that chamber occur that are associated with increasing wall thickness such that LV wall stress changes are minimized.

  10. Routine evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vido Diane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has excellent capabilities to assess ventricular systolic function. Current clinical scenarios warrant routine evaluation of ventricular diastolic function for complete evaluation, especially in congestive heart failure patients. To our knowledge, no systematic assessment of diastolic function over a range of lusitropy has been performed using CMR. Methods and Results Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed in 31 subjects (10 controls who underwent CMR and compared with Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE evaluation of mitral valve (MV and pulmonary vein (PV blood flow. Blood flow in the MV and PV were successfully imaged by CMR for all cases (31/31,100% while TTE evaluated flow in all MV (31/31,100% but only 21/31 PV (68% cases. Velocities of MV flow (E and A measured by CMR correlated well with TTE (r = 0.81, p Conclusion We have shown that there is homology between CMR and TTE for the assessment of diastolic inflow over a wide range of conditions, including normal, impaired relaxation and restrictive. There is excellent agreement of quantitative velocity measurements between CMR and TTE. Diastolic blood flow assessment by CMR can be performed in a single scan, with times ranging from 20 sec to 3 min, and we show that there is good indication for applying CMR to assess diastolic conditions, either as an adjunctive test when evaluating systolic function, or even as a primary test when TTE data cannot be obtained.

  11. Left Ventricular Stroke Volume Quantification by Contrast Echocardiography – Comparison of Linear and Flow-Based Methods to Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dele-Michael, Abiola O.; Fujikura, Kana; Devereux, Richard B; Islam, Fahmida; Hriljac, Ingrid; Wilson, Sean R.; Lin, Fay; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Echocardiography (echo) quantified LV stroke volume (SV) is widely used to assess systolic performance after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study compared two common echo approaches – predicated on flow (Doppler) and linear chamber dimensions (Teichholz) – to volumetric SV and global infarct parameters quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Multimodality imaging was performed as part of a post-AMI registry. For echo, SV was measured by Doppler and Teichholz methods. Cine-CMR was used for volumetric SV and LVEF quantification, and delayed-enhancement CMR for infarct size. Results 142 patients underwent same-day echo and CMR. On echo, mean SV by Teichholz (78±17ml) was slightly higher than Doppler (75±16ml; Δ=3±13ml, p=0.02). Compared to SV on CMR (78±18ml), mean difference by Teichholz (Δ=−0.2±14; p=0.89) was slightly smaller than Doppler (Δ−3±14; p=0.02) but limits of agreement were similar between CMR and echo methods (Teichholz: −28, 27 ml, Doppler: −31, 24ml). For Teichholz, differences with CMR SV were greatest among patients with anteroseptal or lateral wall hypokinesis (p<0.05). For Doppler, differences were associated with aortic valve abnormalities or root dilation (p=0.01). SV by both echo methods decreased stepwise in relation to global LV injury as assessed by CMR-quantified LVEF and infarct size (p<0.01). Conclusions Teichholz and Doppler calculated SV yield similar magnitude of agreement with CMR. Teichholz differences with CMR increase with septal or lateral wall contractile dysfunction, whereas Doppler yields increased offsets in patients with aortic remodeling. PMID:23488864

  12. The influence of right ventricular apical pacing on left atrial volume in patients with normal left ventricular function

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    AR Moaref1

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right ventricular apical (RVA pacing has been reported to induce several deleterious effects particularly in the presence of structural heart disease but can also involve patients with normal left ventricular (LV function. Left atrial (LA enlargement is one of these effects, but the majority of studies have measured LA dimension rather than volume.Objective: The present prospective study was designed to assess the effect of RVA pacing on LA volume in patients with normal LV function.Patients and Methods: The study comprised 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fraction ≥ 45% and LV end diastolic dimension ≤ 56 mm who underwent single-or dual- chamber pacemaker implantation in RVA and followed for LA volume measurement and pacemaker analysis at least during the ensuing 4.2 months. Results: In all, 21 patients were excluded from the study due to five spontaneous wide QRS complex (≥120msec, one recent acute coronary syndrome,one significant valvular heart disease, three pacing frequency <90%, eight death or losing follow up in three cases. In remaining 20 patients, LA volume ragned from 21 to 54 mm3 with mean of 37.3±9.7 mm3 prior to pacemaker implantation that increased to 31 to 103 mm3 (54.3±17.0 during follow-up (P<0.001.Conclusion: RVA pacing might lead to an increase in LA volume even in patients with normal LV function.

  13. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in chronic renal failure patients on chronic hemodialysis in Dr. Cipto-Mangunkusumo Hospital : the association with left ventricular mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Alwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Fourty three patients with chronic renal failure undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia/Cipto-Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, since October 2003 until February 2004, were examined for echocardiography (2-D, M-mode, Doppler imaging.Diastolic dysfunction was found in 58.1 % of chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis. There was no significant difference between left ventricular mass in the group with or without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:105-8Keywords: Left ventricular mass, diastolic function, chronic renal failure, hemodyalisis

  14. Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shal'nova, S.A.; Smolenskij, A.V.; Shamarin, V.M.; Ehktova, T.V.; Berzak, N.V.; Zemtsova, N.A.; Timofeeva, S.G.; Zhavoronkova, E.A.; Muromtseva, G.A.; Arkad'eva, M.A.; Deev, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Echocardiography was used for the study of prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in 839 liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular myocardial mass 134 g/m 2 ) was 10.3, 13.4 and 22.5 % in liquidators with normal blood pressure, borderline hypertension and hypertension, respectively. Liquidators with normal blood pressure had significantly greater left ventricular myocardial mass than normotensive men from general population while liquidators and non liquidators with hypertension had equal values of this parameter [ru

  15. Studies of left ventricular volume estimation from single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Mitsuharu; Joja, Ikuo; Aono, Kaname; Yanagi, Hidekiyo; Indo, Haruaki; Seno, Yoshimasa; Teramoto, Shigeru; Nagaya, Isao.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the comparative accuracy of 99m Tc cardiac blood pool Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for the measurement of left ventricular volume in 20 patients undergoing SPECT and single plane contrast left ventriculography (LVG). Left ventricular volume was calculated based on the total number of voxels in left ventricle. End-diastolic left ventricular volume (EDV) and end-systolic left ventricular volume (ESV) calculated from SPECT were compared with those from LVG. SPECT volume values showed a high degree of correlation with those by LVG (r = 0.923 for EDV, r = 0.903 for ESV). We appreciated the usefulness and accuracy of SPECT in measuring left ventricular volume because of its three-dimensional information. (author)

  16. Late deterioration of left ventricular function after right ventricular pacemaker implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, Barbara; Muntean, Bogdan G; Lin, Tina; Gemein, Christopher; Schmitz, Kathrin; Schauerte, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) pacing induces a left bundle branch block pattern on ECG and may promote heart failure. Patients with dual chamber pacemakers (DCPs) who present with progressive reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) secondary to RV pacing are candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study analyzes whether upgrading DCP to CRT with the additional implantation of a left ventricular (LV) lead improves LV function in patients with reduced LVEF following DCP implantation. Twenty-two patients (13 males) implanted with DCPs and a high RV pacing percentage (>90%) were evaluated in term of new-onset heart failure symptoms. The patients were enrolled in this retrospective single-center study after obvious causes for a reduced LVEF were excluded with echocardiography and coronary angiography. In all patients, DCPs were then upgraded to biventricular devices. LVEF was analyzed with a two-sided t-test. QRS duration and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed with the unpaired t-test. LVEF declined after DCP implantation from 54±10% to 31±7%, and the mean QRS duration was 161±20 ms during RV pacing. NT-pro BNP levels were elevated (3365±11436 pmol/L). After upgrading to a biventricular device, a biventricular pacing percentage of 98.1±2% was achieved. QRS duration decreased to 108±16 ms and 106±20 ms after 1 and 6 months, respectively. There was a significant increase in LVEF to 38±8% and 41±11% and a decrease in NT-pro BNP levels to 3088±2326 pmol/L and 1860±1838 pmol/L at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Upgrading to CRT may be beneficial in patients with DCPs and heart failure induced by a high RV pacing percentage.

  17. Vortex flow during early and late left ventricular filling in normal subjects: quantitative characterization using retrospectively-gated 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance and three-dimensional vortex core analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Calkoen, Emmeline E; Westenberg, Jos J M; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J

    2014-09-27

    LV diastolic vortex formation has been suggested to critically contribute to efficient blood pumping function, while altered vortex formation has been associated with LV pathologies. Therefore, quantitative characterization of vortex flow might provide a novel objective tool for evaluating LV function. The objectives of this study were 1) assess feasibility of vortex flow analysis during both early and late diastolic filling in vivo in normal subjects using 4D Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with retrospective cardiac gating and 3D vortex core analysis 2) establish normal quantitative parameters characterizing 3D LV vortex flow during both early and late ventricular filling in normal subjects. With full ethical approval, twenty-four healthy volunteers (mean age: 20±10 years) underwent whole-heart 4D Flow CMR. The Lambda2-method was used to extract 3D LV vortex ring cores from the blood flow velocity field during early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling. The 3D location of the center of vortex ring core was characterized using cylindrical cardiac coordinates (Circumferential, Longitudinal (L), Radial (R)). Comparison between E and A filling was done with a paired T-test. The orientation of the vortex ring core was measured and the ring shape was quantified by the circularity index (CI). Finally, the Spearman's correlation between the shapes of mitral inflow pattern and formed vortex ring cores was tested. Distinct E- and A-vortex ring cores were observed with centers of A-vortex rings significantly closer to the mitral valve annulus (E-vortex L=0.19±0.04 versus A-vortex L=0.15±0.05; p=0.0001), closer to the ventricle's long-axis (E-vortex: R=0.27±0.07, A-vortex: R=0.20±0.09, p=0.048) and more elliptical in shape (E-vortex: CI=0.79±0.09, A-vortex: CI=0.57±0.06; vortex. The circumferential location and orientation relative to LV long-axis for both E- and A-vortex ring cores were similar. Good to strong correlation was found between vortex shape and

  18. An angiographic study of left- and right-ventricular function in patients with alcoholic heart and dilatation cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.P.; Samko, A.N.; Smetnev, A.S.; Grudtsyn, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    An angiographic study of left- and right-ventricular function in 57 patients with alcoholic heart and dilatation cardiomyopathy demonstrated preclinical disorders of left-ventricular myocardial contractility and more marked right-ventricular changes in patients with second-stage chronic alcoholism. In cases of dilatation cardiomyopathy, left-ventricular dysfunction was predominant, while right-venricular changes were less pronouced

  19. Risk factors and predictors of Torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction receiving Dofetilide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henriette Sloth; Elming, Hanne; Seibaek, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors of Torsade de pointes (TdP) ventricular tachycardia in patients medicated with a class III antiarrhythmic drug (dofetilide) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction with heart failure (HF) or recent myocardial infarction (MI). The 2 Danish...

  20. Passive and active ventricular elastances of the left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Eddie YK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Description of the heart as a pump has been dominated by models based on elastance and compliance. Here, we are presenting a somewhat new concept of time-varying passive and active elastance. The mathematical basis of time-varying elastance of the ventricle is presented. We have defined elastance in terms of the relationship between ventricular pressure and volume, as: dP = EdV + VdE, where E includes passive (Ep and active (Ea elastance. By incorporating this concept in left ventricular (LV models to simulate filling and systolic phases, we have obtained the time-varying expression for Ea and the LV-volume dependent expression for Ep. Methods and Results Using the patient's catheterization-ventriculogram data, the values of passive and active elastance are computed. Ea is expressed as: ; Epis represented as: . Ea is deemed to represent a measure of LV contractility. Hence, Peak dP/dt and ejection fraction (EF are computed from the monitored data and used as the traditional measures of LV contractility. When our computed peak active elastance (Ea,max is compared against these traditional indices by linear regression, a high degree of correlation is obtained. As regards Ep, it constitutes a volume-dependent stiffness property of the LV, and is deemed to represent resistance-to-filling. Conclusions Passive and active ventricular elastance formulae can be evaluated from a single-beat P-V data by means of a simple-to-apply LV model. The active elastance (Ea can be used to characterize the ventricle's contractile state, while passive elastance (Ep can represent a measure of resistance-to-filling.

  1. Patterns of left ventricular remodeling among patients with essential and secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Dan; Stoicescu, Laurentiu; Buzdugan, Elena; Donca, Valer

    2013-12-01

    High blood pressure causes left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a negative prognostic factor among hypertensive patients. To assess left ventricular geometric remodeling patterns in patients with essential hypertension or with hypertension secondary to parenchymal renal disease. We analyzed data from echocardiograms performed in 250 patients with essential hypertension (150 females) and 100 patients with secondary hypertension (60 females). The interventricular septum and the left ventricular posterior wall thickness were measured in the parasternal long-axis. Left ventricular mass was calculated using the Devereaux formula. The most common remodeling type in females and males with essential hypertension were eccentric and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (cLVH), respectively. Among patients with secondary arterial hypertension, cLVH was most commonly observed in both genders. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was higher among patients with secondary hypertension. The left ventricular mass index and the relative left ventricular wall thickness were higher in males and also in the secondary hypertension group. Age, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension, influenced remodeling patterns. We documented a higher prevalence of LVH among patients with secondary hypertension. The type of ventricular remodeling depends on gender, age, type of hypertension, blood pressure values and the duration of hypertension.

  2. Measurement of right and left ventricular ejection fraction in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynjolf, I.; Qvist, J.; Mygind, T.; Jordening, H.; Dorph, S.; Munck, O.

    1983-08-01

    Three techniques for measurement of right (RVEF) and two techniques for left (LVEF) ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated in five dogs. RVEF was measured with a first-pass radionuclide technique using erythrocytes labelled in vitro with Technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate (MDP) and compared with RVEF measured with a thermodilution technique. Thermodilution-determined RVEF was compared with RVEF values measured with cine angiocardiography. LVEF was measured with a radionuclide ECG-gated equilibrium technique and compared with cine angiocardiography. Measurements were performed before and during a continuous infusion of dopamine. There was an excellent correlation between RVEF measured with the first-pass and the thermodilution technique. LVEF measured with the ECG-gated equilibrium technique correlated well with cine angiocardiography.

  3. Left ventricular diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    In 302 patients with confirmed coronary disease we determined the left ventricular diastolic function with the Nuclear Stethoscope by the aid of the Peak Filling Rate (PFR) and the Time to Peak Filling Rate (TPFR). Moreover we investigated the ejection fraction (EF). 201 patients had already suffered a myocardial infarction, of these 99 an anterior wall and 102 an inferior wall infarction. The remaining 101 patients had a CAD without a history of myocardial infarction. The PFR was 2.19 ± 0.65 EDV/sec in the 99 patients after anterior wall infarction and 2.62 ± 0.85 EDV/sec in the 102 patients after inferior wall infarction and 2.79 ± 0.85 EDV/sec in 101 patients with coronary artery disease without a history of myocardial infarction. For the PFR there could be found a statistically significant difference between normal patients and patients after anterior wall infarction (p [de

  4. Myocardial perfusion in type 2 diabetes with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Birger; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether acute angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition would improve myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve in a subpopulation of normotensive patients with diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), both independent risk factors of coronary...... disease. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated the response of regional myocardial perfusion to acute ACE inhibition with i.v. infusion of perindoprilat (vs saline infusion as control, minimum interval 3 days) in 12 diabetic patients with LVH. Myocardial perfusion was quantified...... with controls, maximal perfusion was reduced in patients (1.8+/-0.6 vs 2.5+/-1.0 ml min(-1) g(-1); P2.7+/-1.0 vs 3.6+/-1.3; P=0.059). During perindoprilat infusion, myocardial perfusion reserve in patients increased to 3.9+/-0.9 ( P

  5. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  6. Outcomes of patients with right ventricular failure on milrinone after left ventricular assist device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Athanasios; Paone, Gaetano; Brewer, Robert J; Nemeh, Hassan W; Borgi, Jamil; Morgan, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have grouped together both patients requiring right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) with patients requiring prolonged milrinone therapy after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We retrospectively identified 149 patients receiving LVADs and 18 (12.1%) of which developed right ventricular (RV) failure. We then separated these patients into those requiring RVADs versus prolonged milrinone therapy. This included 10 patients who were treated with prolonged milrinone and eight patients who underwent RVAD placement. Overall, the RV failure group had worse survival compared with the non-RV failure cohort (p = 0.038). However, this was only for the subgroup of patients who required RVADs, who had a 1, 6, 12, and 24 month survival of 62.5%, 37.5%, 37.5%, and 37.5%, respectively, versus 96.8%, 92.1%, 86.7%, and 84.4% for patients without RV failure (p milrinone therapy for RV failure had similar survivals compared with patients without RV failure. In the RV failure group, age, preoperative renal failure, and previous cardiac surgery were predictors of the need for prolonged postoperative milrinone. As LVADs become a more widely used therapy for patients with refractory, end-stage heart failure, it will be important to reduce the incidence of RV failure, as it yields significant morbidity and increases cost.

  7. Effect of chronic right ventricular apical pacing on left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Abuissa, Hussam; Jones, Philip G; Thompson, Randall C; Bateman, Timothy M; McGhie, A Iain; Ramza, Brian M; Steinhaus, David M

    2005-03-15

    The determinants of change in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) over time in patients with impaired LV function at baseline have not been clearly established. Using a nuclear database to assess changes in LV function over time, we included patients with a baseline LVEF of 25% to 40% on a gated single-photon emission computed tomographic study at rest and only if second-gated photon emission computed tomography performed approximately 18 months after the initial study showed an improvement in LVEF at rest of > or =10 points or a decrease in LVEF at rest of > or =7 points. In all, 148 patients qualified for the EF increase group and 59 patients for the EF decrease group. LVEF on average increased from 33 +/- 4% to 51 +/- 8% in the EF increase group and decreased from 35 +/- 4% to 25 +/- 5% in the EF decrease group. The strongest multivariable predictor of improvement of LVEF was beta-blocker therapy (odds ratio 3.9, p = 0.002). The strongest independent predictor of LVEF decrease was the presence of a permanent right ventricular apical pacemaker (odds ratio 6.6, p = 0.002). Thus, this study identified beta-blocker therapy as the major independent predictor for improvement in LVEF of > or =10 points, whereas a permanent pacemaker (right ventricular apical pacing) was the strongest predictor of a LVEF decrease of > or =7 points.

  8. Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography and Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Natalie A; Patel, Ravi; Zimmerman, Josh; Ma, Jianing; Stoddard, Greg; Selzman, Craig; Morrissey, Candice K

    2018-02-15

    To determine whether intraoperative measures of right ventricular (RV) function using transesophageal echocardiography are associated with subsequent RV failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Single tertiary-level, university-affiliated hospital. The study comprised 100 patients with systolic heart failure undergoing elective LVAD implantation. Transesophageal echocardiographic images before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed to quantify RV function using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S'), fractional area change (FAC), RV global longitudinal strain, and RV free wall strain. A chart review was performed to determine which patients subsequently developed RV failure (right ventricular assist device placement or prolonged inotrope requirement ≥14 days). Nineteen patients (19%) subsequently developed RV failure. Postbypass FAC was the only measure of RV function that distinguished between the RV failure and non-RV failure groups (21.2% v 26.5%; p = 0.04). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of an abnormal RV FAC (failure after LVAD implantation were 84%, 20%, and 0.52, respectively. No other intraoperative measure of RV function was associated with subsequent RV failure. RV failure increased ventilator time, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Intraoperative measures of RV function such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular systolic velocity, and RV strain were not associated with RV failure after LVAD implantation. Decreased postbypass FAC was significantly associated with RV failure but showed poor discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Characteristics in Fetal Aortic Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kevin G.; Schidlow, David; Freud, Lindsay; Escobar-Diaz, Maria; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) has shown promise in averting progression of mid-gestation aortic stenosis (AS) to hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a subset of patients. Patients who achieve biventricular circulation after FAV frequently have left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD). This study evaluates DD in fetuses with AS by comparing echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function in fetuses undergoing FAV (n=20) to controls (n=40) and evaluates for LV factors associated with DD in FAV patients. We also compared pre- and post-FAV DD variables (n=16). Median gestational age (24 weeks, range 18–29 weeks) and fetal heart rate were similar between FAV and controls. Compared to controls, FAV patients had universally abnormal LV diastolic parameters including fused mitral inflow E and A waves (p=0.008), higher E velocity(p<0.001), shorter mitral inflow time (p=0.001), lower LV lateral annulus E′ (p<0.001), septal E′ (p=0.003) and higher E/E′ (p<0.001) than controls. FAV patients had abnormal right ventricular mechanics with higher tricuspid inflow E velocity (p<0.001), and shorter tricuspid inflow time (p=0.03). Worse LV diastolic function (lower LV E′) was associated with higher endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) grade (r=0.74, p<0.001), large LV volume (r=0.55, p=0.013) and sphericity (r=0.58, P=0.009) and with lower LV pressure by mitral regurgitation jet (r=−0.68, p<0.001). Post-FAV, fewer patients had fused mitral inflow E and A than pre-FAV (p=0.05) and septal E′ was higher (=0.04). In conclusion, fetuses with mid-gestation AS have evidence of marked DD. Worse DD is associated with larger, more spherical LV, with more extensive EFE and lower LV pressure. PMID:24819899

  10. Tissue characteristics in left ventricular hypertrophy using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Ueno, Yuji; Arita, Mikio; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    For 15 normotensive patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), 10 hypertensive patients with concentric hypertrophy (CH), and five normal subjects (N), we examined changes in myocardial T 1 and T 2 values related to the cardiac cycle. The usefulness of those values in differentiating diseases with left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated. Left ventricular (LV) short-axis spin echo images and inversion recovery images were obtained at endsystolic and diastolic cardiac phases, and T 1 and T 2 images were calculated. The regional wall thickness (WT) and T 1 and T 2 values were measured in the anterior septum, anterior wall, lateral wall, posterior wall and posterior septum. Myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were significantly decreased in systole (T 1 : 185.6±37.9 msec, T 2 : 24.4±6.3 msec, mean±SD) compared to those in diastole (T 1 : 249.2±56.7 msec, T 2 : 31.7±9.4 msec). In both the ASH and CH groups, significant correlations were observed between diastolic T 1 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.80, p 2 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.58, p 1 values in the ASH group (343.4±40.5 msec) were significantly higher than those of the CH group (247.3±21.4 msec), although the mean wall thickness values were similar in both groups. The T 1 /WT and T 2 /WT were significantly lower in the CH group than those in the ASH and N groups. In conclusion, myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were related not only to the cardiac cycle, but to wall thickness and to types of hypertrophy. The T 1 and T 2 values may be useful for distinguishing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from hypertrophy due to hypertension. (author)

  11. Left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with systemic hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru; Kanao, Keisuke

    1985-01-01

    To study the prevalence and significance of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in mild to moderate systemic hypertension (HT), cardiac blood pool imagings with Tc-99 m were obtained in 10 normal subjects and 27 patients with HT. The patients with HT did not show any evidence of coronary heart disease, renal insufficiency, cerebrovascular accident or diabetes mellitus. They were divided into 3 groups; (1) HT-1 (n=10): without evidence of echocardiographic (UCG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), (2) HT-2 (n=8): with evidence of ECG-LVH without UCG-LVH, (3) HT-3 (n=9): with evidence of UCG-LVH. UCG-LVH was defined when posterior or interventricular septal tall thickness exceeded 13 mm at end-diastole. From UCG findings LV mass was calculated and from UCG findings and auscultating brachial systolic pressure LV peak-systolic wall stress (WS) was obtained. Cardiac blood pool imagings were performed at modified LAO at rest and during exercise stress. Indices of LV systolic function (rest ejection fraction, mean ejection rate during the first third of ejection and exercise ejection fraction response) were essentially similar in normal subjects and all HT groups. In contrast, LV diastolic filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3 FR mean) decreased significantly in any group of HT, and it was prominent in HT-3. In patients with HT, 1/3 FR mean did not correlate with blood pressure, LV peak-systolic WS, LV systolic functions and LV end-diastolic volume. But it correlated inversely with LV mass (r=-0.84). These results suggest that impairment of early diastolic LV filling can be detected before systolic cardiac impairment and LVH develop, and it is, at least in part, relate to the LV mass. (author)

  12. Effect of a single oral dose of milrinone on left ventricular diastolic performance in the failing human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Piscione; B.E. Jaski; G.J. Wenting (Gert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn 14 patients with severe congestive heart failure, left ventricular pressure (measured by tip manometer) and derived variables were measured before and every 10 minutes after administration of oral milrinone (10 mg) for 50 minutes along with measurements of coronary sinus blood flow

  13. Pseudonormal and restrictive filling patterns predict left ventricular dilation and cardiac death after a first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Poulsen, S H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) filling patterns, as determined by mitral E-wave deceleration time (DT) and color M-mode flow propagation velocity (Vp), on cardiac death and serial changes in LV volumes after a first myocardial infarction (MI). BACKGR...

  14. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  15. Left ventricular mass in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling David Kaunang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Systematic exercise leads to increased left ventricular mass, which may be misleading in a differential diagnosis of heart disease in athletes (physiologic hypertrophy versus pathologic hypertrophy. T he cause of left ventricular hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, analytic study, from September to December 2012 in male adolescents aged 15-18 years. The case group included athletes from the Bina Taruna Football Club Manado, while the control group included non-athlete adolescents. All subjects underwent history-taking, physical examinations and further supporting examinations. Left ventricular mass was measured by cardiovascular echocardiography (Esaote Mylab 4.0 and calculated based on a formula. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass of > 134 g/m2 body surface area. Results Subjects' mean left ventricular masses were 359.69 (SD 188.4; 95%CI 283.58 to 435.81 grams in the athlete group and 173.04 (SD 50.69; 95%CI 152.56 to 103.51 grams in the non· athlete group, a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001. Ventricular hypertrophy was found 76.9% compared to 11.5% in  the non-athlete group (P= 0.0001. Conclusion Left ventricular mass in athletes is bigger than in non-athletes. In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy is more cornmon in male adolescent athletes than in non-athletes.

  16. Impact of left ventricular geometry on prognosis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (the LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E.; Cramariuc, D.; Simone, G. de

    2008-01-01

    , and myocardial infarction) in 937 hypertensive patients with LV hypertrophy during 4.8 years losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography substudy. METHODS AND RESULTS: LV geometry was determined from LV mass/body surface area......AIMS: Less is known about the relation between in-treatment left ventricular (LV) geometry and risk of cardiovascular events. We assessed LV geometric patterns on baseline and annual echocardiograms as time-varying predictors of the primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular death, stroke...... including LV geometric patterns as time-varying variables and adjusting for treatment, Framingham risk score, race, and time-varying systolic blood pressure, the patterns independently predicted higher risk of primary composite endpoints [HR 2.99 (1.16-7.71) for concentric remodelling, HR 1.79 (1...

  17. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, patrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, patrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  18. Remote Left Ventricular Hemodynamic Monitoring Using a Novel Intracardiac Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondritzki, Thomas; Boehme, Philip; White, Jason; Park, Jin Woo; Hoffmann, Jessica; Vogel, Julia; Kolkhof, Peter; Walsh, Stuart; Sandner, Peter; Bischoff, Erwin; Dinh, Wilfried; Hüser, Jörg; Truebel, Hubert

    2018-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) remains the most common reason for hospital admission in patients aged >65 years. Despite modern drug therapy, mortality and readmission rates for patients hospitalized with HF remain high. This necessitates further research to identify early patients at risk for readmission to limit hospitalization by timely adjustment of medical therapy. Implantable devices can monitor left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remotely and continuously detect the early signs of decompensation to trigger interventions and reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF. Here, we report the first preclinical study validating a new batteryless and easy to implant LV-microelectromechanical system to assess LV performance. A miniaturized implantable wireless pressure sensor was adapted for implantation in the LV apex. The LV-microelectromechanical system sensor was tested in a canine model of HF. The wireless pressure sensor measurements were compared with invasive left heart catheter-derived measurements at several time points. During different pharmacological challenge studies with dobutamine or vasopressin, the device was equally sensitive compared with invasive standard procedures. No adverse events or any observable reaction related to the implantation and application of the device for a period of 35 days was observed. Our miniaturized wireless pressure sensor placed in the LV (LV-microelectromechanical system) has the potential to become a new telemetric tool to earlier identify patients at risk for HF decompensation and to guide the treatment of patients with HF. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Left ventricular calcification following postpartum toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella C Pak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome (TSS is a rare but lethal clinical event that can occur during the postpartum period. Early recognition and intervention is critical to improve patient outcomes. This is a case of TSS complicated by cardiac arrest and left ventricular calcification. This is a case report of streptococcal TSS in a 29-year-old female in the postpartum period who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and a purpuric rash. Her hospital course was characterized by multiple organ failure, including respiratory distress syndrome, liver failure, renal failure, and coagulopathy. She was found to have acute compartment syndrome, which resulted in a below-the-knee amputation. She deteriorated further after experiencing cardiac arrest and the development of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with hemorrhagic transformation. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed evidence of dystrophic myocardial calcification in the left ventricle. She improved clinically but remained ventilator dependent upon discharge to an extended acute care facility. Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy can result in myocardial calcification. As dystrophic calcification can significantly affect cardiac function, clinicians should rule out cardiac calcification in patients who have had severe septic shock.

  20. Rapid estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction in acute myocardial infarction by echocardiographic wall motion analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, J; Rokkedal Nielsen, J; Launbjerg, J

    1992-01-01

    Echocardiographic estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction (ECHO-LVEF) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained by a new approach, using visual analysis of left ventricular wall motion in a nine-segment model. The method was validated in 41 patients using radionuclide...

  1. Videodensitometric assessment of right and left ventricular functions by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hisao; Yoshiga, Osamu; Shibao, Keigo

    1987-01-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction (DS) ventriculography was performed in a series of 50 patients with heart diseases to determine right and left ventricular volumes and systolic indices. Right ventricular volume and right ventricular ejection fraction obtained by DS ventriculography were well correlated with those by geometric methods. In 43 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of 55 % or greater, end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction in the right ventricle did not differ from those in the left ventricle ; however, both the 1/3 ejection fraction and the peak ejection rate of the right ventricle were significantly lower than those of the left ventricle, suggesting the different modes of left and right ventricular contraction. In the other seven patients with chronic left ventricular failure, right ventricular systolic function may be preserved, even when left ventricular function is severely impaired. Digital subtraction ventriculography has proved to be a simple, useful method in the quanlitative and quantitative assessments of the right and left ventricles. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Pattern of left ventricular geometry in hypertension: a study of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardioxasular morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The main aim of this study was to deterine the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular geometric patterns among hypertensives in Kano, Nigeria. Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design, and ...

  3. Rupture of Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm Associated with Left Ventricular Noncompaction and Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Aydoğdu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 27-year-old patient with ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm (SVA, left ventricular noncompaction and mitral valve prolapse. Whether the coexistence of ruptured SVA, left ventricular noncompaction and mitral valve prolapse is coincidental or due to a defect in a common developmental pathway requires further research.

  4. Comparing impedance cardiography and echocardiography in the assessment of reduced left ventricular systolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaszuba, Elzbieta; Scheel, Sergej; Odeberg, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of chronic heart failure is a big challenge for a general practitioner. Assessment of left ventricular function is essential for the diagnosis of heart failure and the prognosis. A gold standard for identifying left ventricular function is echocardiography...

  5. [Rare cause of heart failure in an elderly woman in Djibouti: left ventricular non compaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoure, P L; Lamblin, G; Bertani, A; Eve, O; Kaiser, E

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the first case of left ventricular non compaction diagnosed in Djibouti. The patient was a 74-year-old Djiboutian woman with symptomatic heart failure. Echocardiography is the key tool for assessment of left ventricular non compaction. This rare cardiomyopathy is probably underdiagnosed in Africa.

  6. Second statement of the working group on electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Estes, E Harvey; Bang, Lia E

    2011-01-01

    The Working Group on Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, appointed by the Editor of the Journal of Electrocardiology, presents the alternative conceptual model for the ECG diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is stressed that ECG is a record of electrica...

  7. Our experience with implantation of VentrAssist left ventricular assist device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiriyur Shivalingappa Jayanthkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative anaesthetic management of the VentrAssist TM left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a challenge for anaesthesiologists because patients presenting for this operation have long-standing cardiac failure and often have associated hepatic and renal impairment, which may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of administered drugs and render the patients coagulopathic. The VentrAssist is implanted by midline sternotomy. A brief period of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for apical cannulation of left ventricle is needed. The centrifugal pump, which produces non-pulsatile, continuous flow, is positioned in the left sub-diaphragmatic pocket. This LVAD is preload dependent and afterload sensitive. Transoesophageal echocardiography is an essential tool to rule out contraindications and to ensure proper inflow cannula position, and following the implantation of LVAD, to ensure right ventricular (RV function. The anaesthesiologist should be prepared to manage cardiac decompensation and acute desaturation before initiation of CPB, as well as RV failure and severe coagulopathic bleeding after CPB. Three patients had undergone implantation of VentrAssist in our hospital. This pump provides flow of 5 l/min depending on preload, afterload and pump speed. All the patients were discharged after an average of 30 days. There was no perioperative mortality.

  8. Ventricular distension and diastolic coronary blood flow in the anaesthetized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattullo, D; Linden, R J; Losano, G; Pagliaro, P; Westerhof, N

    1993-01-01

    There appears to be no agreement as to whether or not an increase in diastolic left ventricular pressure and/or volume can cause a decrease in diastolic coronary blood flow. We investigated the problem in the anaesthetized dog using a flaccid freely distensible latex balloon inserted into the left ventricle with the animal on extracorporeal circulation and the coronary perfusion pressure constant at about 45 mm Hg. Maximal vasodilatation and suppression of autoregulation in coronary vasculature was obtained by the intracoronary infusion of dipyridamole (10-40 mg/h). Ventricular volume was changed in steps of 10 ml from 10 to 70 ml and back to 10 ml, whilst recording coronary blood flow and left ventricular pressure in the left circumflex coronary artery. Over a range of ventricular volumes from 20 to 50 ml and a concomitant rise in diastolic ventricular pressure to about 20 mm Hg there was no change in the diastolic coronary flow. Only when the ventricular volume was more than two times the control value (i.e. exceeded 50 ml) and left ventricular pressure was more than 20 mm Hg, was there a decrease in coronary flow. During the return of the volume to the control level there was a fall in diastolic flow and ventricular contractility with respect to the values obtained when the volume was increased; these two effects were transient lasting less than 10 min. It was not considered that any of the three models of the coronary circulation, waterfall, intramyocardial pump or varying elastance model could explain our results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a maglev centrifugal left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgreen, Greg W; Loree, Howard M; Bourque, Kevin; Dague, Charles; Poirier, Victor L; Farrar, David; Hampton, Edward; Wu, Z Jon; Gempp, Thomas M; Schöb, Reto

    2004-10-01

    The fluid dynamics of the Thoratec HeartMate III (Thoratec Corp., Pleasanton, CA, U.S.A.) left ventricular assist device are analyzed over a range of physiological operating conditions. The HeartMate III is a centrifugal flow pump with a magnetically suspended rotor. The complete pump was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and experimental particle imaging flow visualization (PIFV). A comparison of CFD predictions to experimental imaging shows good agreement. Both CFD and experimental PIFV confirmed well-behaved flow fields in the main components of the HeartMate III pump: inlet, volute, and outlet. The HeartMate III is shown to exhibit clean flow features and good surface washing across its entire operating range.

  10. Left cardiac sympathetic denervation for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; Crotti, Lia; Facchini, Mario; de Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Paul, Thomas; Ferrandi, Chiara; Koolbergen, Dave R.; Odero, Attilio; Schwartz, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a potentially lethal disease characterized by adrenergically mediated ventricular arrhythmias manifested especially in children and teenagers. Beta-blockers are the cornerstone of therapy, but some patients do not have a complete response to

  11. Percutaneous Repair of Postoperative Mitral Regurgitation After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, David P; Adamson, Robert; Gollapudi, Raghava; Dembitsky, Walter; Jaski, Brian

    2018-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation commonly improves after implantation of a left ventricular assist device without concomitant valvular repair owing to the mechanical unloading of the left ventricle. However, the development (or persistence) of significant mitral regurgitation after implantation of a left ventricular assist device is associated with adverse clinical events. We present a case of a left ventricular assist device patient who successfully underwent a percutaneous MitraClip procedure for repair of persistent late postoperative mitral insufficiency with demonstrable clinical and hemodynamic improvement. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Normal left ventricular wall motion measured with two-dimensional myocardial tagging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, P; Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F

    1993-01-01

    contraction towards the center of the left ventricle, a motion of the base of the heart towards the apex, and a rotation of the left ventricle around its long axis. The direction of left ventricular rotation changed from early systole to late systole. The base and middle levels of the left ventricle rotated...

  13. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-05-25

    Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate with placebo among patients with a

  14. Determinants of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P; Marques Pocinho, R; Alves, M; Virella, D; Palma Dos Reis, R

    2018-02-02

    The progression of hypertensive heart disease leads to the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the determinants for LVDD in patients with hypertension. This is a secondary analysis of data of Impedance Cardiography in the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Arterial Hypertension (IMPEDDANS) Study. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for univariable analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to model for LVDD occurrence and discriminative capacity of the model assessed by the value of the area under the curve given by the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Older age (65 vs. 58 years, p<0.001), longer duration of hypertension (160 vs. 48 months, p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (59.8 vs. 15.9%, p<0.001), tobacco smoking (17.8 vs. 3.8%, p=0.016), higher systolic blood pressure (133 vs. 124mmHg, p=0.001) and slower heart rate (62 vs. 66bpm, p=0.023) were associated with LVDD. Multivariate model identified uncontrolled hypertension (AdjOR 36.90; 95% CI 7.94-171.58; p<0.001), smoking (AdjOR 6.66; 95% CI 1.63-27.26; p=0.008), eccentric hypertrophy (AdjOR 3.59; 95% CI 0.89-14.39; p=0.072), duration of hypertension (AdjOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02-1.05; p<0.001) and concentric remodeling (AdjOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.93; p=0.041) as the more determinant for occurrence of LVDD. The discriminative capacity of the model was AUC=0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.98). The occurrence of LVDD in hypertensive patients was strongly associated to long-lasting, uncontrolled hypertension, tobacco smoking, concentric remodeling and eccentric hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Pressure-independent relationship of aortic characteristic impedance with left ventricular mass and geometry in untreated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Giacomo; Hametner, Bernhard; Battista, Francesca; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether aortic characteristic impedance (Zc), that is, the ratio between the pulsatile change in pressure and flow in the proximal aorta, is related to left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry independently of blood pressure (BP). A total of 438 never-treated hypertensive individuals (men 62%, age 48 ± 11 years, BP 147/90 ± 16/10  mm Hg) underwent echocardiography and 24 h BP monitoring. Aortic pressure waveform was obtained from radial tonometry with a generalized transfer function (SphygmoCor). Using a validated aortic blood flow model based on higher order Windkessel theory (ARCSolver), aortic Zc, forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) wave amplitudes and their ratio (Pb/Pf = reflection magnitude) were calculated from central waveform. After adjusting for age, BMI, and 24-h SBP, aortic Zc was higher in individuals with left ventricular hypertrophy (0.230 ± 0.09 vs. 0.205 ± 0.07 arbitrary units, P = 0.04 in women; 0.232 ± 0.07 vs. 0.214 ± 0.06 arbitrary units, P < 0.05 in men). Women with left ventricular concentric remodeling had higher adjusted Zc (0.225 ± 0.08 vs. 0.203 ± 0.07 arbitrary units, P = 0.04), whereas men did not differ (0.218 ± 0.07 vs. 0.218 ± 0.07 arbitrary units, P = 0.64). After controlling for age, BMI, 24 h SBP, and other relevant variables, aortic Zc independently predicted left ventricular mass (β = 0.14, P < 0.05) and relative wall thickness (β = 0.21, P < 0.01) in women, and left ventricular mass in men (β = 0.11, P < 0.05), whereas other arterial function parameters had no independent relation with left ventricular mass or geometry. Aortic Zc has a significant association with left ventricular mass and a sex-specific one with left ventricular concentric geometry in hypertension. These effects are independent from, and additional to, those of 24 h SBP.

  16. Assessment of cardiac performance with quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography: sequential left ventricular ejection fraction, normalized left ventricular ejection rate, and regional wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.C.; Berger, H.J.; Costin, J.C.; Freedman, G.S.; Wolberg, J.; Cohen, L.S.; Gotischalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    Sequential quantitative first pass radionuclide angiocardiograms (RA) were used to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular ejection rate (LVER), and to assess regional wall motion (RWM) in the anterior (ANT) and left anterior oblique (LAO) positions. Studies were obtained with a computerized multicrystal scintillation camera suitable for acquiring high count-rate data. Background was determined in a new fashion by selecting frames temporally from the left ventricular region of interest time-activity curve. A ''representative'' cardiac cycle was formed by summing together counts over three to six cardiac cycles. From this background corrected, high count-rate ''representative''cardiac cycle, LVEF, LVER, and RWM were determined. In 22 patients with normal sinus rhythm in the absence of significant valvular regurgitation, RA LVEF correlated well with that measured by contrast angiography (r = 0.95). LVER correlated well with LVEF measured at contrast angiography (r = 0.90) and allowed complete separation of those with normal (LVER = 3.4 +- 0.17 sec -1 ) and abnormal (LVER = 1.22 +- 0.11 sec -1 ) (P < 0.001) left ventricular performance. This separation was independent of background. Isoproterenol infusion in five normal subjects caused LVER to increase by 81 +- 17% while LVEF increased by 10 +- 2.0%. RWM was correctly defined in 21/22 patients and 89% of left ventricular segments with abnormal wall motion

  17. Evaluation of ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy before and after aortic valve replacement using magnetic resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerbacht, Hugo P.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Lamb, Hildo J.; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Vliegen, Hubert W.; de Roos, Albert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van der Wall, Ernst E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of different electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH criteria) using left ventricular mass index (LVMI) determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, the relation between LVMI regression after aortic valve replacement and

  18. Clinical impact of ' in-treatment' wall motion abnormalities in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicala, S.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Left ventricular systolic wall motion abnormalities have prognostic value. Whether wall motion detected by serial echocardiographic examinations predicts prognosis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy ( LVH) without clinically recognized atherosclerotic disease ha...

  19. Count-based left ventricular volume determination utilizing a left posterior oblique view for attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, M.A.; Kalff, V.; Koral, K.

    1984-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the inherent error of the left ventricular volume measurement from the gated equilibrium blood pool scintigram utilizing the count-based technique. The study population consisted of 26 patients who had undergone biplane contrast ventriculography. The patients were imaged with a parallel-hole collimator in the left anterior oblique position showing the septum to best advantage. A reference blood sample was counted and radionuclide volumes calculated without correction for attenuation. Attenuation corrected volumes were derived with the factor 1/e/sup -/+d/, where d = distance from skin marker to center of the left ventricle in the orthogonal left posterior oblique view and μ = linear attenuation coefficient. A series of μ values from 0.08 to 0.15 cm -1 was evaluated. The tightest 95% confidence limits achieved for an end-diastolic 150-ml ventricle were +/- 44ml, and for an end-systolic 75-ml ventricle +/- 32 ml. In view of the magnitude of inherent error, the count-based volume measurement may be more suitable for group analyses and in cases in which an individual patient serves as his own control

  20. Medical Image of the week: left ventricular non-compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoubyari R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 38-year-old woman with history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented to emergency department with worsening exertional dyspnea and orthopnea for the past 2-3 months. She also reported a 14 pound weight gain within the 2 weeks prior to presentation. She denied any prior history of cardiac or pulmonary disease. Also, there was no family history of heart disease. She denies any recent sick contacts, smoking, alcohol drinking, or substance abuse. Physical exam revealed jugular venous pressure of 10 cm H2O and significant bilateral lower extremity pitting edema. Chest x-ray showed an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Brain naturetic peptide (BNP was 2,917 pg/mL. A subsequent echocardiogram revealed a left ventricular (LV ejection fraction of 23% with severe global LV hypokinesia with moderate mitral regurgitation. Thyroid panel as well as iron panel were within normal range. Other laboratories were unremarkable. For the new onset systolic heart failure, a coronary angiography was ...

  1. Current cardiac imaging techniques for detection of left ventricular mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Aksuyek S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of left ventricular (LV mass has both prognostic and therapeutic value independent of traditional risk factors. Unfortunately, LV mass evaluation has been underestimated in clinical practice. Assessment of LV mass can be performed by a number of imaging modalities. Despite inherent limitations, conventional echocardiography has fundamentally been established as most widely used diagnostic tool. 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE is now feasible, fast and accurate for LV mass evaluation. 3DE is also superior to conventional echocardiography in terms of LV mass assessment, especially in patients with abnormal LV geometry. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT are currently performed for LV mass assessment and also do not depend on cardiac geometry and display 3-dimensional data, as well. Therefore, CMR is being increasingly employed and is at the present standard of reference in the clinical setting. Although each method demonstrates advantages over another, there are also disadvantages to receive attention. Diagnostic accuracy of methods will also be increased with the introduction of more advanced systems. It is also likely that in the coming years new and more accurate diagnostic tests will become available. In particular, CMR and CCT have been intersecting hot topic between cardiology and radiology clinics. Thus, good communication and collaboration between two specialties is required for selection of an appropriate test.

  2. Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction by radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.; Rasmussen, S.; Hesse, B.; Dige-Petersen, H.; Folke, K.; Godtfredsen, J.; Jensen, G.; Fabricius, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide angiocardiography is a non-invasive gamma camera investigation for evaluation and quantification of heart performance. We investigated the reliability of the method in measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). The accuracy was determined by measuring EF in 29 patients by both radionuclide angiocardiography and conventional single-plane cineventriculography. The two methods correlated well: r=0.92; y=0.86x+0.07. The precision of the method was evaluated as follows: The coefficient of variance was 6% for duplicate determinations performed on the same day (n=27) and 5% for determinations with 1-3 days interval (n=21). The interobserver variation expressed by the coefficient of variance was maximally 6% with the radionuclide method (n=29, three observers). The intraobserver variation was 4% compared to 9% with cineventriculography (P<0.01). Radionuclide angiocardiography is a reliable way of measuring EF. As the method is non-invasive, it is well suited for sequential determinations of EF in the same patient. (authors)

  3. MR image analysis: Longitudinal cardiac motion influences left ventricular measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovic, Patrick; Hemmink, Maarten; Parizel, Paul M.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Paelinck, Bernard P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Software for the analysis of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass using border detection in short-axis images only, is hampered by through-plane cardiac motion. Therefore we aimed to evaluate software that involves longitudinal cardiac motion. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive patients underwent 1.5-Tesla cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the entire heart in the long-axis and short-axis orientation with breath-hold steady-state free precession imaging. Offline analysis was performed using software that uses short-axis images (Medis MASS) and software that includes two-chamber and four-chamber images to involve longitudinal LV expansion and shortening (CAAS-MRV). Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was assessed by using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Compared with MASS software, CAAS-MRV resulted in significantly smaller end-diastolic (156 ± 48 ml versus 167 ± 52 ml, p = 0.001) and end-systolic LV volumes (79 ± 48 ml versus 94 ± 52 ml, p < 0.001). In addition, CAAS-MRV resulted in higher LV ejection fraction (52 ± 14% versus 46 ± 13%, p < 0.001) and calculated LV mass (154 ± 52 g versus 142 ± 52 g, p = 0.004). Intraobserver and interobserver limits of agreement were similar for both methods. Conclusion: MR analysis of LV volumes and mass involving long-axis LV motion is a highly reproducible method, resulting in smaller LV volumes, higher ejection fraction and calculated LV mass.

  4. Subclinical atherosclerosis in obese adolescents with normal left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Amina M; Atwa, Hoda A; El-Eraky, Azza Z; El-Aziz, Mohamed A

    2011-09-01

    To assess the impact of obesity on carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular (LV) mass in obese adolescents. The study included 52 obese adolescents (mean age 14.16+/-2.64 years) and 52 healthy adolescents who served as a control group (mean age 12+/-2.3 years), who were attended the outpatient clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. The study population was submitted for medical history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations (fasting blood sugar and lipid profile), and echocardiographic examination of LV mass and dimensions. Assessment of carotid intima-media thickness was carried out by using carotid duplex. All children had normal LV function. Obese adolescents had a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and low HDL-C compared to the control group. Also, there was a significant increase in blood pressure, carotid intima media thickness, LV mass, and LV mass index. There was a significant correlation between BMI and dyslipidemia, blood pressure, carotid intima/media thickness, LV mass, and posterior wall thickness. Carotid intima-media thickness had a significant correlation with increased LDL-C and low HDL-C, blood pressure, LV mass, and posterior wall thickness. Obesity in childhood and adolescents is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Although obese children had no LV dysfunction, yet there are LV structure changes.

  5. PERIOPERATIVE PERIOD FOLLOWING HEART TRANSPLANTATION WITH SEVERE LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use donor hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is controversial. This category of heart recipients has increasing risk of early graft failure. We proposed that heart transplantation (HT with LVH ≥1.5 cm may be successful if performed in selective category patients from alternate transplant list. This study included 10 pati- ents (2 female and 8 male at the age 26–62 (44 ± 3, who needed urgent HT. This study showed that recipients with LVH ≥1.5 cm demanded more high and long inotropic support with adrenalin and dopamine, more fre- quent use of levosimendan infusion (in 40% of cases and intraaortic balloon conterpulsation (in 50% of cases. However we didn’t observed any difference in survival rate (90.0% vs 89.0% and ICU time (4.8 ± 0.6 days vs 4.1 ± 0.4 days between HT recipients with and without LVH. Our study showed that HT from donor with LVH ≥1.5 cm may be performed in patients, demanding urgent HT, with acceptable early posttransplant results. 

  6. Incremental first pass technique to measure left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, R.; Gulliford, P.; Hoggard, C.; Critchley, M.

    1980-01-01

    An incremental first pass technique was devised to assess the acute effects of any drug on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with or without a physiological stress. In particular, the effects of the vasodilater isosorbide dinitrate on LVEF before and after exercise were studied in 11 patients who had suffered cardiac failure. This was achieved by recording the passage of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate through the heart at each stage of the study using a gamma camera computer system. Consistent values for four consecutive first pass values without exercise or drug in normal subjects illustrated the reproducibility of the technique. There was no significant difference between LVEF values obtained at rest and exercise before or after oral isosorbide dinitrate with the exception of one patient with gross mitral regurgitation. The advantages of the incremental first pass technique are that the patient need not be in sinus rhythm, the effects of physiological intervention may be studied and tests may also be repeated at various intervals during long term follow-up of patients. A disadvantage of the method is the limitation in the number of sequential measurements which can be carried out due to the amount of radioactivity injected. (U.K.)

  7. Problems in clinical assessment of left ventricular peak filling rate with radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Kim, Bong-Ha; Tsuneoka, Yutaka

    1987-02-01

    With an increased clinical application of early peak diastolic filling rate (PFR) using radionuclide ventriculography, problems of its clinical significance have emerged. The study was designed to answer the following questions: 1) accuracy of PFR measurement, 2) normalization of PFR, and 3) whether PFR may reflect left ventricular relaxation rate (LVRR). In measuring PFR, an elevated framing rate was required, and the optimal rate was 20 msec/F. Second sound heart gating technique proved to be complementary to conventional ECG R wave gating technique in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic volume curves and mean filling rate associated with changes in the range of R-R interval. PFR which was normalized with end-diastolic volume (EDV) did not necessarily reflect measured PFR because of individual differences of EDV. An experiment on the relationship of mitral valve pressure to blood flow in dogs revealed that PFR was influenced by not only LVRR but also left atrial pressure. These results may raise a question of the rationale for using the measurement of PFR, as well as its technical problems, in the objective evaluation of LVRR. (Namekawa, K.).

  8. Clinical usefulness of cine MRI for evaluation of left ventricular volume and diagnosis of heart and great vessel diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Anno, Hirofumi; Uritani, Tomizo [Fujita-Gakuen Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan); and others

    1990-01-01

    ECG-gated cine mode magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 20 patients with various heart deseases. Left ventricular volume (LVV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated on MR images obtained in left ventricular vertical and horizontal long axis views. The findings were compared with those obtained from left ventriculography. There was a significant positive correlation between MR imaging and ventriculography for both LVV and LVEF (p<0.001). In Marfan syndrome after surgery for dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, MR imaging was capable of visualizing not only the whole aorta in a single plane but also enlargement of the aortic root. It also depicted asynergy and thinned wall of the infarcted myocardium for myocardial infarction; an enlarged left auricle, the thickened septum, and constricted outflow tract for idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis; shunt flow for ventricular septum defect; and an enlarged aortic root for aortitis syndrome. Using ventriculography as the standard, cine MR imaging was frequently false positive for the detection of mitral regurgitation. There was, however, good concordance between MR imaging and ventriculography in detecting aortic regurgitation. In addition, MR imaging was equivalent to color Doppler technique for detecting valvular regurgitation. (N.K.).

  9. Clinical usefulness of cine MRI for evaluation of left ventricular volume and diagnosis of heart and great vessel diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Anno, Hirofumi; Uritani, Tomizo

    1990-01-01

    ECG-gated cine mode magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 20 patients with various heart deseases. Left ventricular volume (LVV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated on MR images obtained in left ventricular vertical and horizontal long axis views. The findings were compared with those obtained from left ventriculography. There was a significant positive correlation between MR imaging and ventriculography for both LVV and LVEF (p<0.001). In Marfan syndrome after surgery for dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, MR imaging was capable of visualizing not only the whole aorta in a single plane but also enlargement of the aortic root. It also depicted asynergy and thinned wall of the infarcted myocardium for myocardial infarction; an enlarged left auricle, the thickened septum, and constricted outflow tract for idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis; shunt flow for ventricular septum defect; and an enlarged aortic root for aortitis syndrome. Using ventriculography as the standard, cine MR imaging was frequently false positive for the detection of mitral regurgitation. There was, however, good concordance between MR imaging and ventriculography in detecting aortic regurgitation. In addition, MR imaging was equivalent to color Doppler technique for detecting valvular regurgitation. (N.K.)

  10. Ventricular fibrillation in an ambulatory patient supported by a left ventricular assist device: highlighting the ICD controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boilson, Barry A; Durham, Lucian A; Park, Soon J

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) provide an effective means of managing advanced pump failure as a means of bridging to cardiac transplantation or as permanent therapy. Although ventricular arrhythmias remain common post-LVAD implantation, such therapy may allow malignant arrhythmias to be tolerated hemodynamically. This report describes the clinical findings in a patient who had likely been in a ventricular tachyarrhythmia for several days and presented in ventricular fibrillation, ambulatory, and mentating normally. This report, with previous similar reports, is additive to the body of evidence that LVADs alter the physiologic impact of ventricular arrhythmias in advanced heart failure and highlights the need for thoughtful programming of implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies in these patients.

  11. Influence of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in normal Japanese subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Aoki, Toshikazu; Makino, Katsutoshi; Yamamuro, Masashi; Nakai, Kyudayu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of age on left ventricular performance, multistage supine ergometer exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed in 92 normal subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 24 to 86 years and were free of cardiopulmonary disease and diabetes. Age-related changes in exercise duration, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), cardiac output (CO) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dv/dt, systolic and diastolic time indexes of dv/dt, and peak systolic pressure/left ventricular end-systolic volume (PSP/LVESV) were analyzed at rest and during the peak exercise stage. Age-related decrease in LVEDV and peak diastolic dv/dt were significant at rest. The time indexes of ECG R to peak systolic dv/dt and time of end-systole to peak diastolic dv/dt also were prolonged with age. Both maximum heart rate and exercise duration were shown to decline with age. No age-related difference was observed in LVESV, LVEF or PSP/LVESV either at rest or during exercise. However, the change of LVEF and LVESV during exercise was less in subjects aged 60 or more. These results indicate decreased left ventricular function during exercise in elderly subjects. (author)

  12. Silent left ventricular dysfunction during routine activity after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayden, D.S.; Wackers, F.J.; Zaret, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate prospectively the occurrence and significance of postinfarction transient left ventricular dysfunction, 33 ambulatory patients who underwent thrombolytic therapy after myocardial infarction were monitored continuously for 187 +/- 56 min during normal activity with a radionuclide left ventricular function detector at the time of hospital discharge. Twelve patients demonstrated 19 episodes of transient left ventricular dysfunction (greater than 0.05 decrease in ejection fraction, lasting greater than or equal to 1 min), with no change in heart rate. Only two episodes in one patient were associated with chest pain and electrocardiographic changes. The baseline ejection fraction was 0.52 +/- 0.12 in patients with transient left ventricular dysfunction and 0.51 +/- 0.13 in patients without dysfunction (p = NS). At follow-up study (19.2 +/- 5.4 months), cardiac events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death) occurred in 8 of 12 patients with but in only 3 of 21 patients without transient left ventricular dysfunction (p less than 0.01). During submaximal supine bicycle exercise, only two patients demonstrated a decrease in ejection fraction greater than or equal to 0.05 at peak exercise; neither had a subsequent cardiac event. These data suggest that transient episodes of silent left ventricular dysfunction at hospital discharge in patients treated with thrombolysis after myocardial infarction are common and associated with a poor outcome. Continuous left ventricular function monitoring during normal activity may provide prognostic information not available from submaximal exercise test results

  13. Use of gated N-13-NH3 micro-PET to examine left ventricular function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanski, Mariusz K.; Kruizinga, Silvana; Tio, Rene A.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Schaefers, Michael A.; Stegger, Lars; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Hillege, Hans L.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    Introduction: Myocardial perfusion gating techniques offer the possibility of measurement of left ventricular end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in clinical and preclinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate left ventricular

  14. The effect of postoperative medical treatment on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Meghana R K; Ugur, Murat; Bavaria, Joseph E; Kshettry, Vibhu R; Groh, Mark A; Petracek, Michael R; Jones, Kent W; Suri, Rakesh M; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2015-03-01

    The study objective was to analyze factors associated with left ventricular mass regression in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement with a newer bioprosthesis, the Trifecta valve pericardial bioprosthesis (St Jude Medical Inc, St Paul, Minn). A total of 444 patients underwent aortic valve replacement with the Trifecta bioprosthesis from 2007 to 2009 at 6 US institutions. The clinical and echocardiographic data of 200 of these patients who had left ventricular hypertrophy and follow-up studies 1 year postoperatively were reviewed and compared to analyze factors affecting left ventricular mass regression. Mean (standard deviation) age of the 200 study patients was 73 (9) years, 66% were men, and 92% had pure or predominant aortic valve stenosis. Complete left ventricular mass regression was observed in 102 patients (51%) by 1 year postoperatively. In univariate analysis, male sex, implantation of larger valves, larger left ventricular end-diastolic volume, and beta-blocker or calcium-channel blocker treatment at dismissal were significantly associated with complete mass regression. In the multivariate model, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) indicated that male sex (3.38 [1.39-8.26]) and beta-blocker or calcium-channel blocker treatment at dismissal (3.41 [1.40-8.34]) were associated with increased probability of complete left ventricular mass regression. Patients with higher preoperative systolic blood pressure were less likely to have complete left ventricular mass regression (0.98 [0.97-0.99]). Among patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, postoperative treatment with beta-blockers or calcium-channel blockers may enhance mass regression. This highlights the need for close medical follow-up after operation. Labeled valve size was not predictive of left ventricular mass regression. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Surgical treatment of congenital obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedinović, I; Letica, D; Sokolić, J

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the classification and all types of left ventricular outflow tract obstructions. The possibilities of operative therapies are surveyed as well. Results of surgical treatment in 34 patients with obstruction to left ventricular outflow are shown. The majority of patients underwent operation under extracorporeal circulation (84.4%), while the rest were operated by means of the inflow occlusion technique (14.7%). The obtained results were compared with those from the literature. The importance of echocardiographic evaluation of location of the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and the appropriate choice of a surgical technique according to the patient's age are emphasized.

  16. Value of radionuclide angiocardiography for determination of left ventricular volume in patients with valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konieczna, S.; Madeja, G.; Gosiewska-Marcinkowska, E.; Szumilak, B.; Brodzki, L.M.; Leszek, P.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usability of the Massardo method in calculating the left ventricular volume in patients with valvular defect. The group consisted of 21 patients with mitral defect. Left ventricular volumes obtained by contrast ventriculography were used for reference. The correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.94, SEE=29 ml, V nucl =0.94 V c.vent +11. The end-systolic and end-diastolic outlines were marked manually. We concluded that the Massardo methods is an effective method of calculating the left ventricular volume also in group of patients with mitral defect. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  17. Adiponectin, insulin resistance, and left ventricular structure in dipper and nondipper essential hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Mea, Paolo; Lupia, Mario; Bandolin, Valentina; Guzzon, Samuele; Sonino, Nicoletta; Vettor, Roberto; Fallo, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived protein with insulin-sensitizing and antiatherogenic properties. Failure to decrease blood pressure (BP) normally during night in hypertensive patients has been independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy. We examined the relationship between adiponectin levels, insulin sensitivity, and left ventricular structure in 40 newly diagnosed never-treated patients with essential hypertension, including 20 patients with a normal night-time pressure decrease (ie, dippers) and 20 patients with BP persistently elevated throughout the 24-h period (ie, nondippers). All subjects had grade 1-2 hypertension, aged 18 to 65 years, no diabetes mellitus, no obesity, no hyperlipidemia, and no cardiopulmonary, renal, or hepatic disease. The two groups of patients were similar for age, sex, body mass index, and had no differences for clinic, 24-h, and diurnal BP, and 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal heart rate, as well as glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index) were higher (P < .01), and adiponectin levels were lower (P < .005) in nondippers than in dippers. Adiponectin correlated inversely with HOMA index and insulin levels (r = -0.58, and r = -0.62, respectively, P < .001) in the entire population. Nondippers showed left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and measure of early and late diastolic peak flow velocity ratio similar to those of dippers. In the absence of major cardiovascular risk factors, nondipper essential hypertensive patients show more prominent insulin resistance and lower adiponectin compared to dippers. Therapeutic modulation of adiponectin or insulin resistance might provide additional benefit to the conventional antihypertensive treatment.

  18. Effect of well-controlled gestational diabetes on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Yazdan; Habibi, Danial; Nasri, Khadijeh; Alinejad, Saeed; Taherahmad, Hassan; Arjmand Shabestari, Ali; Nematinejad, Ali

    2018-06-17

    There are some evidences supporting the relation between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of well-controlled GDM on morphological and functional myocardium. We designed a prospective cross-sectional study to evaluate left ventricular (LV) diastolic function of 60 neonates born from mothers with well-controlled GDM (case group) on days of 3-5 after birth. The infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) group were divided into two groups: diabetic mothers treated only with diet (class A) and group of mothers on medical therapy by insulin or metformin (class B). Traditional echocardiography and pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD), tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed for all the neonates. The study group consisted of 60 neonates as males (M) = 32, (0.53%) and females (F) = 28, (0.46%). Using M-mode echocardiography, interventricular septum thickness (IVS), and LV mass were significantly higher in IDM than control group (p = .0001). The PWD showed both a significantly more peak mitral flow at early diastolic wave (E) and an early filling deceleration time (E-DT) (p = .0001). Tissue Doppler echocardiography parameters A' (cm/s) (p = .0001), E' (cm/s) (p = .002), and E'/A' ratio (p = .0001), left ventricular myocardial performance index (LVMPI), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) were outstandingly different between the two groups (p = .0001, respectively). Evaluating the GDM group mothers of class A and class B, no significant difference was noted in PWD or TDI parameters compared with the healthy ones. It seems that neonates of mothers with well-controlled GDM are still at increased risk of cardiac hypertrophy, subclinical diastolic dysfunction, and impaired left ventricular relaxation. This can be interpreted that focusing only on glycemic control is not enough to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  19. Pulsatile flow in ventricular catheters for hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Á.; Galarza, M.; Thomale, U.; Schuhmann, M. U.; Valero, J.; Amigó, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    The obstruction of ventricular catheters (VCs) is a major problem in the standard treatment of hydrocephalus, the flow pattern of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) being one important factor thereof. As a first approach to this problem, some of the authors studied previously the CSF flow through VCs under time-independent boundary conditions by means of computational fluid dynamics in three-dimensional models. This allowed us to derive a few basic principles which led to designs with improved flow patterns regarding the obstruction problem. However, the flow of the CSF has actually a pulsatile nature because of the heart beating and blood flow. To address this fact, here we extend our previous computational study to models with oscillatory boundary conditions. The new results will be compared with the results for constant flows and discussed. It turns out that the corrections due to the pulsatility of the CSF are quantitatively small, which reinforces our previous findings and conclusions. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  20. Relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco J; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose A; Gonzalez, Carmen; Martín, Joaquin; Pascual, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass. Cross-sectional study that included 392 never treated hypertensive individuals. Measurement of office, 24-h ambulatory, and central blood pressure (obtained using applanation tonometry) and determination of left ventricular mass by echocardiography were performed in all patients. In a multiple regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender and metabolic syndrome, 24-h blood pressure was more closely related to ventricular mass than the respective office and central blood pressures. Systolic blood pressures always exhibited a higher correlation than diastolic blood pressures in all 3 determinations. The correlation between left ventricular mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure was higher than that of office (P<.002) or central systolic blood pressures (P<.002). Changes in 24-h systolic blood pressure caused the greatest variations in left ventricular mass index (P<.001). In our population of untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients, left ventricular mass index is more closely related to 24-h ambulatory blood pressure than to office or central blood pressure. Central blood pressure does not enable us to better identify patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. His-Purkinje system-related incessant ventricular tachycardia arising from the left coronary cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Sato, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman who had His-Purkinje system-related incessant ventricular tachycardia with a narrow QRS configuration. The ventricular tachycardia was ablated successfully in the left coronary cusp where the earliest endocardial activation had been recorded. We hypothesize that a remnant of the subaortic conducting tissue was the source of the ventricular arrhythmias.

  2. Left ventricular dysfunction in patients with suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gavilanes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of right heart catheterization in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. METHODS: We evaluated clinical, functional, and hemodynamic data from all patients who underwent right heart catheterization because of diagnostic suspicion of PAH-in the absence of severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVD, significant changes in pulmonary function tests, and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy findings consistent with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism-between 2008 and 2013 at our facility. RESULTS: During the study period, 384 patients underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization at our facility. Pulmonary hypertension (PH was confirmed in 302 patients (78.6%. The mean age of those patients was 48.7 years. The patients without PH showed better hemodynamic profiles and lower levels of B-type natriuretic peptide. Nevertheless, 13.8% of the patients without PH were categorized as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Of the 218 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 40 (18.3% and 178 (81.7% were diagnosed with PH associated with LVD (PH-LVD and with PAH, respectively. The patients in the HP-LVD group were significantly older than were those in the PAH group (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The proportional difference between the PAH and PH-LVD groups was quite significant, considering the absence of echocardiographic signs suggestive of severe LVD during the pre-catheterization investigation. Our results highlight the fundamental role of cardiac catheterization in the diagnosis of PAH, especially in older patients, in whom the prevalence of LVD that has gone undiagnosed by non-invasive tests is particularly relevant.

  3. Left ventricular mass in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalla, J; Pombo, M; Del Arco, A; de la Torre, J; Urdiales, D; García-Alegría, J

    2013-01-01

    The HIV infection has been associated with an increased incidence of vascular events. Left ventricular mass (LVM) is independently associated with greater overall mortality. Various studies have shown that patients with HIV infection have higher LVM than the uninfected population. We aim to describe the distribution of LVM in an extensive series of patients with HIV infection, and the factors associated with its increase. A cross-sectional study was performed in HIV-infected patients followed in our center from 1 December 2009 to 28 February 2011. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed in all patients who gave their consent. Demographic variables, viroimmunological status, cardiovascular risk factors, vascular risk at 10 years (VR10) and history of exposure to antiretroviral drugs were collected. LVM was considered to be the quantitative dependent variable. A univariate analysis was performed, including in the multivariate analysis those variables with P<,05. A TTE was performed in 400 patients, and the LVM was calculated in 388. Mean age was 45 years, 75.5 males. Mean LVM was 39.54g/m(2.7)(95% CI: 38.35-40.73). Age, height, body mass index, VR10, hypertension, dyslipidemia, different medications within the cardiovascular area and having taken nevirapine have been used in the history of the patient were associated to greater LVM. In the multivariate analysis, use of nevirapine in the history of the patient and VR10 remained in the model. VR10 may be associated with greater LVM. The relationship with nevirapine may respond to an indication bias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Frequency-dependent left ventricular performance in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to determine whether sex differences in humans extend to the dynamic response of the left ventricular (LV) chamber to changes in heart rate (HR). Several observations suggest sex influences LV structure and function in health; moreover, this physiology is also affected in a sex-specific manner by aging. Eight postmenopausal women and eight similarly aged men underwent a cardiac catheterization-based study for force-interval relationships of the LV. HR was controlled by right atrial (RA) pacing, and LV +dP/dt(max) and volume were assessed by micromanometer-tipped catheter and Doppler echocardiography, respectively. Analysis of approximated LV pressure-volume relationships was performed using a time-varying model of elastance. External stroke work was also calculated. The relationship between HR and LV +dP/dt(max) was expressed as LV +dP/dt(max) = b + mHR. The slope (m) of the relationship was steeper in women compared with men (11.8 ± 4.0 vs. 6.1 ± 4.1 mmHg·s(-1)·beats(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.01). The greater increase in contractility in women was reproducibly observed after normalizing LV +dP/dt(max) to LV end-diastolic volume (LVVed) or by measuring end-systolic elastance. LVVed and stroke volume decreased more in women. Thus, despite greater increases in contractility, HR was associated with a lesser rise in cardiac output and a steeper fall in external stroke work in women. Compared with men, women exhibit greater inotropic responses to incremental RA pacing, which occurs at the same time as a steeper decline in external stroke work. In older adults, we observed sexual dimorphism in determinants of LV mechanical performance.

  5. Left ventricular assist device exchange: the Toronto General Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Hideki; Ribeiro, Roberto V P; Billia, Filio; Cusimano, Robert J; Yau, Terrence M; Badiwala, Mitesh V; Stansfield, William E; Rao, Vivek

    2017-08-01

    As support times for left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) become longer, several complications requiring device exchange may occur. To our knowledge, this is the first Canadian report regarding implantable LVAD exchange. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive, unique patients implanted with an LVAD between June 2006 and October 2015 at Toronto General Hospital. In total, 122 patients were impanted with an LVAD during the study period. Eight patients required LVAD exchange, and 1 patient had 2 replacements (9 of 122, 7.3%). There were 7 HeartMate II (HMII), 1 HVAD and 1 DuraHeart pumps exchanged. Two of these exchanges occurred early at the time of initial implant, whereas 7 occurred late (range 8-623 d). Six exchanges were made owing to pump thrombosis. Of the 3 exchanges made for other causes, 1 HMII exchange was owing to a driveline fracture, 1 DuraHeart patient had early inflow obstruction requiring exchange to HMII at the initial implant, and the third had a suspected inflow obstruction with no evidence of thrombosis at the time of the procedure. The mean support time before exchange was 225 days, and time from exchange to transplant, death or ongoing support was 245 days. Three patients were successfully bridged to transplant, and at the time of data collection 2 were supported awaiting transplant. Three patients died after a mean duration of 394.3 days (range 78-673 d) of support postreplacement. Four cases were successfully performed using a subcostal approach. Pump thrombosis is the most common cause for LVAD exchange, which can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality. The subcostal approach may be the preferred procedure for an HMII exchange when indicated.

  6. Arterial wave reflection and subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Takei, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takuya; Koshaka, Shun; Palmieri, Vittorio; Elkind, Mitchell Sv; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2011-03-01

    Increased arterial wave reflection is a predictor of cardiovascular events and has been hypothesized to be a cofactor in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Whether increased wave reflection is inversely associated with left-ventricular (LV) systolic function in individuals without heart failure is not clear. Arterial wave reflection and LV systolic function were assessed in 301 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using two-dimensional echocardiography and applanation tonometry of the radial artery to derive central arterial waveform by a validated transfer function. Aortic augmentation index (AIx) and wasted energy index (WEi) were used as indices of wave reflection. LV systolic function was measured by LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annulus peak systolic velocity (Sm), peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Participants with history of coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, LVEF less than 50% or wall motion abnormalities were excluded. Mean age of the study population was 68.3 ± 10.2 years (64.1% women, 65% hypertensive). LV systolic function by TDI was lower with increasing wave reflection, whereas LVEF was not. In multivariate analysis, TDI parameters of LV longitudinal systolic function were significantly and inversely correlated to AIx and WEi (P values from 0.05 to 0.002). In a community cohort without heart failure and with normal LVEF, an increased arterial wave reflection was associated with subclinical reduction in LV systolic function assessed by novel TDI techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate the prognostic implications of this relationship.

  7. LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION IN COPD WITH OR WITHOUT COR PULMONALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a disease state characterised by the presence of airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema, which is progressive and partially reversible. Right ventricular failure (cor pulmonale is a well-known complication of COPD. But, it also involves left ventricle leading to systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction, which maybe present with associated RV failure and also as a separate entity. Diastolic dysfunction is due to defective filling of the left ventricle because of the hyperinflated lung. On the other hand, systolic dysfunction maybe secondary to RV failure due to the effects of hypoxia in the cardiac muscle fibres as a part of the systemic hypoxaemia or it may be due to the effects of the circulatory inflammatory mediators leading to atherosclerosis and ischaemia of cardiac muscles. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective study of 100 patients of COPD classified according to GOLD criteria with or without cor pulmonale admitted to our hospital in the period of January 2014 to October 2015 meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Investigations like chest x-ray, spirometry, 2D-echocardiography and electrocardiography were done and data was collected. Data were pooled and interpreted using standard statistical methods. RESULTS Prevalence of COPD was common after middle age, the peak being around 5th and 6 th decade of life without much gender inequality. Cor pulmonale was found in 65% patients of COPD, of which more number were in the severe COPD. LV systolic dysfunction was found in 44% of all COPD patients and LV diastolic dysfunction was found in 59% of cases. LV diastolic dysfunction was found in 64% and LV systolic dysfunction was found in 49% of patients of COPD with cor pulmonale. LV systolic dysfunction was found in 62% of COPD patients who showed a resting hypoxaemia (SpO2 <90%. CONCLUSION In our study of 100 COPD patients, we found LV diastolic dysfunction

  8. The left ventricle as a mechanical engine: from Leonardo da Vinci to the echocardiographic assessment of peak power output-to-left ventricular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Frank L; Guarini, Giacinta; Ballo, Piercarlo; Carluccio, Erberto; Maiello, Maria; Capozza, Paola; Innelli, Pasquale; Rosa, Gian M; Palmiero, Pasquale; Galderisi, Maurizio; Razzolini, Renato; Nodari, Savina

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of the heart as a mechanical engine dates back to the teachings of Leonardo da Vinci, who was the first to apply the laws of mechanics to the function of the heart. Similar to any mechanical engine, whose performance is proportional to the power generated with respect to weight, the left ventricle can be viewed as a power generator whose performance can be related to left ventricular mass. Stress echocardiography may provide valuable information on the relationship between cardiac performance and recruited left ventricular mass that may be used in distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Peak power output-to-mass, obtained during exercise or pharmacological stress echocardiography, is a measure that reflects the number of watts that are developed by 100 g of left ventricular mass under maximal stimulation. Power output-to-mass may be calculated as left ventricular power output per 100 g of left ventricular mass: 100× left ventricular power output divided by left ventricular mass (W/100 g). A simplified formula to calculate power output-to-mass is as follows: 0.222 × cardiac output (l/min) × mean blood pressure (mmHg)/left ventricular mass (g). When the integrity of myocardial structure is compromised, a mismatch becomes apparent between maximal cardiac power output and left ventricular mass; when this occurs, a reduction of the peak power output-to-mass index is observed.

  9. Prognostic implications of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Møller, J E; Nørager, B

    2001-01-01

    of the mitral and pulmonary venous flow, and the propagation velocity of early mitral flow by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography in 183 consecutive patients at day 5-7 following their first acute MI. Patients were classified into four groups: group A: preserved LV systolic and diastolic function (n = 73......%) and D (38%) compared to A (2%) (p class >or=II (p = 0.006), and age (0.008) as predictors of cardiac death or readmission due to heart failure. The presence of LV diastolic dysfunction with preserved......The contribution of diastolic dysfunction in patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function to impaired functional status and cardiac mortality in myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. In the present study, assessment of LV diastolic function was performed by Doppler analysis...

  10. Nuclear medical determination of left ventricular diastolic function in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.; Laesser, W.K.; Kullich, W.; Stoiberer, I.; Klein, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 64 patients with coronary heart disease, the left ventricular diastolic function was determined by means of a new nuclear medical method (nuclear stethoscope). The investigations revealed an abnormal diastolic filling in 85.9% of the cases on the basis of the parameters peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate as manifestation of a disturbed ventricular function

  11. Serial Doppler echocardiographic assessment of left and right ventricular performance after a first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Poulsen, S H

    2001-01-01

    We sought to investigate the relation between left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function assessed with the Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI), to assess serial changes, and to investigate the prognostic value of biventricular assessment of cardiac function after a f...

  12. Effect of endocardial trabeculae on left ventricular measurements and measurement reproducibility at cardiovascular MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papavassiliu, T.; Kuhl, H.P.; Schroder, M.; Suselbeck, T.; Bondarenko, O.; Bohm, C.K.; van de Beek, A.; Hofman, M.M.; van Rossum, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively assess the effect of including or excluding endocardial trabeculae in left ventricular (LV) measurements and the reproducibility of these measurements at cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with true fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP).

  13. Impact of fasting glucose on electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in an elderly general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Z; Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships between fasting plasma glucose (FPG), other cardiovascular risk markers and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as detected by electrocardiography. METHODS: Subjects were selected randomly from groups defined by FPG. Traditional risk markers were assessed. LVH...

  14. Benefits of lifelong exercise training on left ventricular function after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Stevens, G.G.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Endurance exercise training induces cardio-protective effects, but athletes are not exempted from a myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies suggests that exercise training attenuates pathological left ventricular remodelling following myocardial infarction. We tested the

  15. The effects of levosimendan in cardiac surgery patients with poor left ventricular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Stefan G.; Lorsomradee, Suraphong; Cromheecke, Stefanie; van der Linden, Philippe J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with poor left ventricular function often require inotropic drug support immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass. Levosimendan improves cardiac function by a novel mechanism of action compared to currently available drugs. We hypothesized that, in patients with severely

  16. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  17. Sudden death in patients with myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Scott D; Zelenkofske, Steve; McMurray, John J V

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of sudden death from cardiac causes is increased among survivors of acute myocardial infarction with reduced left ventricular systolic function. We assessed the risk and time course of sudden death in high-risk patients after myocardial infarction. METHODS: We studied 14......,609 patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both after myocardial infarction to assess the incidence and timing of sudden unexpected death or cardiac arrest with resuscitation in relation to the left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Of 14,609 patients, 1067 (7 percent) had an event...... percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.18 percent) after 2 years. Patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30 percent or less were at highest risk in this early period (rate, 2.3 percent per month; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 2.8 percent). Nineteen percent of all sudden deaths...

  18. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. AIM: To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. METHODS: Right (RVEF), left......, which is a strong prognostic marker in heart failure, independently depends on both left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone....... ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were determined in 105 consecutive patients by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (FP-RNV) and multiple ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV), respectively. BNP was analyzed by immunoassay...

  19. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L; Russ, Kaspar; Olesen, Uffe H; Hesse, Birger; Kjaer, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. Right (RVEF), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were determined in 105 consecutive patients by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (FP-RNV) and multiple ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV), respectively. BNP was analyzed by immunoassay. Mean LVEF was 0.51 (range 0.10-0.83) with 36% having a reduced LVEF (left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone.

  20. Measurement of global and regional left ventricular performance with isotope technique in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, P.-A.; Svensson, M.; Lilja, B.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate left ventricular function in coronary artery disease, radionuclide measurements of global and regional ejection fraction (EF), regional wall motion and phase analyses of left ventricular contraction were performed by equilibrium technique, using sup(99m)Tc. One group of patients with angina pectoris and one group with myocardial infarction were compared with a control group. All above-mentioned parameters significantly separated the infarction group from the reference group both at rest and during work, while the group of patients with angina pectoris showed disturbances mainly during work, such as impaired ability to increase global and regional ejection fraction and regional wall motion. Adding regional analysis and phase analysis to the global EF determination increases the possibility of studying the left ventricular function. However, this addition has a limited value in detecting impaired left ventricular function compared to the determination of just global EF in patients with angina pectoris and in patients with myocardial infarction. (author)

  1. The importance of left ventricular function for long-term outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Rasoul, Saman; Huurnink, Willem; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reiffers, Stoffer; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Tio, Rene A.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; De Boer, Menko-Jan; Zijlstra, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Background: In the present study we sought to determine the long-term prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), assessed by planar radionuclide ventriculography (PRV), after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

  2. Novel Left Ventricular Assist Systems® I and II for Cardiac Recovery: The Driver

    OpenAIRE

    Cervino, Claudio; Nasini, Victor; Sroka, Agnieszka; Diluch, Armando; Cáceres, Miguel; Sellanes, Miguel; Malusardi, Adriano; del Rio, Miguel; Pham, Si M.; Liotta, Domingo

    2005-01-01

    We have recently described the Novel Left Ventricular Assist Systems® (Novel LVAS®) I and II, which avoid cannulation of cardiac chambers and synchronize pumping with the patient's electrocardiogram.

  3. Predictors of transient left ventricular dysfunction following transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure in pediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mounir Agha

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Transcatheter PDA closure causes a significant decrease in left ventricular performance early after PDA closure, which recovers completely within 1 month. Preclosure global longitudinal strain can be a predictor of postclosure myocardial dysfunction.

  4. Echocardiographic assessment of fetal left ventricular function in hypertensive disorder of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaozhen; Liu Shaozhong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate fetal left ventricular function in hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP). Methods: Fetuses of hypertensive (84) and normotensive (147) mothers were enrolled in this study. The fetal left ventricular ejection fractions, E/A ratios of mitral valves, left atrial shortening fractions and Tei indexes of the two groups were measured on fetal echocardiography. Results: The left ventricular ejection fractions (P=0.040), E/A ratios of the mitral valves (P=0.042) and the left atrial shortening fractions (P=0.036) in fetuses of HDP were significantly smaller than those of the normal group whereas the Tei indexes (P=0.030) were significantly larger than those of the normal group. Conclusion: The hypertensive disorder of pregnancy may cause decreased systolic, diastolic and global function of the fetal left ventricle. (authors)

  5. Beneficial aspects of real time flow measurements for the management of acute right ventricular heart failure following continuous flow ventricular assist device implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiliopoulos Sotirios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal management of acute right heart failure following the implantation of a left ventricular assist device requires a reliable estimation of left ventricular preload and contractility. This is possible by real-time pump blood flow measurements. Clinical case We performed implantation of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device in a 66 years old female patient with an end-stage heart failure on the grounds of a dilated cardiomyopathy. Real-time pump blood flow was directly measured by an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the outflow graft. Diagnosis The progressive decline of real time flow and the loss of pulsatility were associated with an increase of central venous pressure, inotropic therapy and progressive renal failure suggesting the presence of an acute right heart failure. Diagnosis was validated by echocardiography and thermodilution measurements. Treatment Temporary mechanical circulatory support of the right ventricle was successfully performed. Real time flow measurement proved to be a useful tool for the diagnosis and ultimately for the management of right heart failure including the weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  6. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  7. Primary cardiac tumor presenting as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and complex arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R; Achen, S; O'Brien, M T; Jackson, N D; Gordon, S

    2017-10-01

    An adult female mixed breed dog presented for recurrent collapsing episodes over several weeks. Holter evaluation revealed periods of sinus arrest and echocardiography identified a soft tissue mass with subsequent severe dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. The patient was euthanized five days after presentation for severe dyspnea. Necropsy revealed an irregular mass circumferentially lining the left ventricular outflow tract as well as multiple myocardial metastases. The final diagnosis was an undifferentiated pleomorphic endocardial sarcoma. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Patterns of left ventricular remodeling among patients with essential and secondary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu,Dan; Stoicescu,Laurentiu; Buzdugan,Elena; Donca,Valer

    2013-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure causes left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a negative prognostic factor among hypertensive patients. Aim: To assess left ventricular geometric remodeling patterns in patients with essential hypertension or with hypertension secondary to parenchymal renal disease. Material and Methods: We analyzed data from echocardiograms performed in 250patients with essential hypertension (150 females) and 100 patients with secondary hypertension (60 females). The interven...

  9. Impact of aortic prosthesis-patient mismatch on left ventricular mass regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassal, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Bedir M; Elsadeck, Nabil

    2014-06-01

    Prostheses used for aortic valve replacement may be small in relation to body size, causing prosthesis-patient mismatch and delaying left ventricular mass regression. This study examined the effect of prosthesis-patient mismatch on regression of left ventricular mass after aortic valve replacement. We prospectively studied 96 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement between 2007 and 2012. Mean and peak gradients and indexed effective orifice area were measured by transthoracic echocardiography at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Patient-prosthesis mismatch was defined as indexed effective orifice area ≤0.85 cm(2)·m(-2). Moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch was present in 25% of patients. There were no significant differences in demographic and operative data between patients with and without prosthesis-patient mismatch. Left ventricular dimensions, posterior wall thickness, transvalvular gradients, and left ventricular mass decreased significantly after aortic valve replacement in both groups. The interventricular septal diameter and left ventricular mass index regression, and left ventricular ejection fraction were better in patients without prosthesis-patient mismatch. There was a significant positive correlation between the postoperative indexed effective orifice area of each valve prosthesis and the rate of left ventricular mass regression. Prosthesis-patient mismatch leads to higher transprosthetic gradients and impaired left ventricular mass regression. A small-sized valve prosthesis does not necessarily result in prosthesis-patient mismatch, and may be perfectly adequate in patient with small body size. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. The survival of patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Previous studies have reported mixed results whether survival is similar to those patients with heart failure and reduced EF (HF-REF).......A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Previous studies have reported mixed results whether survival is similar to those patients with heart failure and reduced EF (HF-REF)....

  11. Effect of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction on Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne K. Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA volumes are known to be increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and are a predictor of adverse outcome. In addition, LA function is impaired and is presumed to be due to left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction as a result of hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. In the current study, we assess the incremental effect of outflow tract obstruction (and concomitant mitral regurgitation on LA function as assessed by LA strain. Patients with HCM (50 obstructive, 50 nonobstructive were compared to 50 normal controls. A subset of obstructive patients who had undergone septal myectomy was also studied. Utilising feature-tracking software applied to cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, LA volumes and functional parameters were calculated. LA volumes were significantly elevated and LA ejection fraction and strain were significantly reduced in patients with HCM compared with controls and were significantly more affected in patients with obstruction. LA volumes and function were significantly improved after septal myectomy. LVOT obstruction and mitral regurgitation appear to further impair LA mechanics. Septal myectomy results in a significant reduction in LA volumes, paralleled by an improvement in function.

  12. Quantification of left ventricular regional functions using ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Validation of left ventricular systolic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Takahashi, Naoto; Iwahara, Shin-ichiro; Munakata, Kazuo; Hosoya, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a program to quantify regional left ventricular (LV) function and wall motion synchrony using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). This preliminary study was undertaken to validate the use of this program for estimating regional LV systolic function. Patients were subjected to MPS by 99m Tc-sestamibi at rest. The study included 20 patients who were confirmed to have a low probability of coronary artery disease (LPG; low probability group), 19 heart disease patients who were examined by MPS and equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) (ERG; ERNA group), and 24 patients who were examined by MPS and 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) (2DEG; 2DE group). The values of the ejection fraction (EF) and peak ejection rate (PER) were estimated. The global functions evaluated by this program were compared with those obtained by ERNA in the ERG. For regional assessment, the reference values of the functional indices were obtained for 17 LV segments in LPG. The Z score, (reference average value of the segment-patient's value of the segment)/reference standard deviation of the segment, was used for the evaluation of regional functions; a score equal to or greater than 2 was defined as abnormal. Semiquantitative visual interpretation of 2DE was used as the standard to assess wall motion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of these criteria and the relationship between 2DE grading and Z scoring were validated in 2DEG. The values of the global EF and PER evaluated by this program correlated with those determined by ERNA (r=0.76 and 0.58, respectively; p -10 ). The potential of this program to quantify the regional systolic function was validated. (author)

  13. Modern nuclear cardiac imaging in diagnosis and clinical management of patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidov, A; Hachamovitch, R; Berman, D S

    2004-12-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) has become a large social burden in modern Western society, with very high morbidity and mortality and extremely large financial costs. The largest cause of CHF is coronary heart disease, with ventricular dysfunction that may or may not be reversible by revascularization. Thus, evaluation of the viable myocardial tissue in patients with ischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has important clinical and therapeutic implications. Furthermore, since patients with ventricular dysfunction are at higher operative risk, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons are commonly faced with issues regarding the balance between the potential risk vs benefit of revascularization procedures. Cardiac nuclear imaging [myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and positron emission tomography (PET)] provide objective information that augments standard clinical and angiographic assessments of patients with ventricular dysfunction with respect to diagnosis (etiology), prognosis, and potential benefit from intervention. Development of the technology and methodology of gated MPS, now the routine method for MPS, allows assessment of the extent and severity of inducible ischemia as well as hypoperfused but viable myocardium, and also provides measurements of LV ejection fraction, regional wall motion, LV volume measurements, diastolic function and LV geometry. With PET, myocardial metabolism and blood flow reserve can be added to the measurements provided by nuclear cardiology procedures. This paper provides insight into the current evidence regarding settings in which nuclear cardiac imaging procedures are helpful in assessment of patients in the setting of coronary artery disease with severe LV dysfunction. A risk-benefit approach to MPS results is proposed, with principal focus on identifying patients at risk for major cardiac events who may benefit from myocardial revascularization.

  14. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts

  15. Left ventricular hypertrophy in children, adolescents and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Baptista de Almeida Faro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and to identify variables associated with this condition in under 25-year-old patients with sickle cell anemia.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of children, adolescents and young adults with sickle cell anemia submitted to a transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. The mass of the left ventricle was determined by the formula of Devereux et al. with correction for height, and the percentile curves of gender and age were applied. Individuals with rheumatic and congenital heart disease were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy and compared according to clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory variables.RESULTS: A total of 37.6% of the patients had left ventricular hypertrophy in this sample. There was no difference between the groups of patients with and without hypertrophy according to pathological history or clinical characteristics, except possibly for the use of hydroxyurea, more often used in the group without left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy presented larger left atria and lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, reticulocyte index and a higher albumin:creatinine ratio in urine.CONCLUSION: Left ventricular hypertrophy was observed in more than one-third of the young patients with sickle cell anemia with this finding being inversely correlated to the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and reticulocyte index and directly associated to a higher albumin/creatinine ratio. It is possible that hydroxyurea had had a protective effect on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  16. Quantitative analysis of left ventricular strain using cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Sebastian J., E-mail: sebastian.buss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz, Felix; Mereles, Derliz [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hosch, Waldemar [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Galuschky, Christian; Schummers, Georg; Stapf, Daniel [TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Munich (Germany); Hofmann, Nina; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hardt, Stefan E. [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate whether cardiac computed tomography (CCT) can determine left ventricular (LV) radial, circumferential and longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with congestive heart failure. Background: Echocardiography allows for accurate assessment of strain with high temporal resolution. A reduced strain is associated with a poor prognosis in cardiomyopathies. However, strain imaging is limited in patients with poor echogenic windows, so that, in selected cases, tomographic imaging techniques may be preferable for the evaluation of myocardial deformation. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 27) with congestive heart failure who underwent a clinically indicated ECG-gated contrast-enhanced 64-slice dual-source CCT for the evaluation of the cardiac veins prior to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were included. All patients underwent additional echocardiography. LV radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rates were analyzed in identical midventricular short axis, 4-, 2- and 3-chamber views for both modalities using the same prototype software algorithm (feature tracking). Time for analysis was assessed for both modalities. Results: Close correlations were observed for both techniques regarding global strain (r = 0.93, r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). Similar trends were observed for regional radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain (r = 0.88, r = 0.84 and r = 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). The number of non-diagnostic myocardial segments was significantly higher with echocardiography than with CCT (9.6% versus 1.9%, p < 0.001). In addition, the required time for complete quantitative strain analysis was significantly shorter for CCT compared to echocardiography (877 ± 119 s per patient versus 1105 ± 258 s per patient, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of LV strain

  17. Measurement and comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction utilizing first transit and gated scintiangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.W.; Herbig, F.K.; Daly, J.L.; Walter, K.E.

    1975-01-01

    Paired serial radionuclide scans were used for determinations of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in open chest dogs with constant cardiac output and varying ventricular rates following the left atrial injection of 99m-Tc human serum albumin. Values of LVEF obtained by first transit (high frequency) data analysis and ECG-gated scintiphotography were obtained over a wide range of ventricular rate and stroke volume. The results of this study show no significant difference in LVEF as determined by both of these methods of data acquisition and analysis and demonstrate the feasibility of rapid serial determination of LVEF by radioisotope techniques

  18. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beacock, David John

    2002-07-01

    This thesis has described the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the investigation of left ventricular dimensions and systolic function. This has been performed in conditions of left ventricular dysfunction, in congestive cardiac failure and following anterior myocardial infarction. The reproducibility of measurements of left ventricular dimensions using MRI has been presented. Such measurements were shown to be reproducible between different MRI studies of normal volunteers and patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, measurements from different MRI studies obtained from two commercially different systems were reproducible for the same subject groups. Ventricular dimensions and systolic function was evaluated in adult normal volunteers of different ages. Although left ventricular volumes and mass remained unchanged, detailed studies of the systolic images revealed significant differences between the two age groups. Differences in left ventricular cavity volumes and mass between patients with congestive heart failure and age-matched normal volunteers were also investigated. Left ventricular volumes and myocardial mass were assessed in a group of patients following anterior myocardial infarction. End-systolic volume was significantly increased compared to age-matched volunteers, but no changes in end-diastolic volume or myocardial mass was observed. Serial re-evaluation of these patients revealed no other changes over the subsequent six months. All these patients were treated with optimal medical therapy (thrombolysis, aspirin, beta-blockade and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition). Thus, the use of this therapy may attenuate the process of left ventricular remodelling. Regional wall thickness was measured in the post-infarct patients. Wall thickening was significantly reduced both in the infarcted regions and in myocardium remote to the infarction. In contrast to previous echocardiographic studies, no 'hypercontractility' was

  19. A modified Glenn shunt reduces right ventricular stroke work during left ventricular assist device therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Petter; Vikholm, Per; Hellgren, Laila

    2016-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement and remains hard to predict. We hypothesized that partial surgical exclusion of the RV with a modified Glenn shunt during LVAD treatment would reduce RV stroke work. An LVAD was implanted in eight pigs and a modified Glenn shunt was constructed. A conductance pressure-volume catheter was placed in the right ventricle through the apex. Haemodynamic data and pressure-volume loops were obtained at the following time periods: (i) baseline, (ii) open shunt, (iii) LVAD with closed shunt and (iii) LVAD and open shunt. During LVAD therapy, the right atrial (RA) pressure increased from 9 mmHg (9-9) to 15 mmHg (12-15), P = 0.01. RV stroke volume increased from 30 ml (29-40) to 51 ml (42-53), P work increased to 708 mmHg ml (654-1193) from 535 mmHg ml (424-717), P = 0.04, compared with baseline. During LVAD therapy in combination with a Glenn shunt, the RA pressure decreased from 15 mmHg (12-15) to 10 mmHg (7-11) when compared with LVAD therapy only, P = 0.01. A decrease in RV stroke work from 708 mmHg ml (654-1193) to 465 mmHg ml (366-711), P = 0.04, was seen when the LVAD was combined with a shunt, not significantly different from the baseline value (535 mmHg ml). The developed pressure in the right ventricle decreased from 29 mmHg (26-32) to 21 mmHg (20-24), P work during the use of the shunt with LVAD treatment. A modified Glenn shunt reduced RV volumes, RV stroke work and RA pressure during LVAD therapy in an experimental model of heart failure in pigs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethical challenges with the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rady Mohamed Y

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The left ventricular assist device was originally designed to be surgically implanted as a bridge to transplantation for patients with chronic end-stage heart failure. On the basis of the REMATCH trial, the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services approved permanent implantation of the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy in Medicare beneficiaries who are not candidates for heart transplantation. The use of the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy raises certain ethical challenges. Left ventricular assist devices can prolong the survival of average recipients compared with optimal medical management of chronic end-stage heart failure. However, the overall quality of life can be adversely affected in some recipients because of serious infections, neurologic complications, and device malfunction. Left ventricular assist devices alter end-of-life trajectories. The caregivers of recipients may experience significant burden (e.g., poor physical health, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder from destination therapy with left ventricular assist devices. There are also social and financial ramifications for recipients and their families. We advocate early utilization of a palliative care approach and outline prerequisite conditions so that consenting for the use of a left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy is a well informed process. These conditions include: (1 direct participation of a multidisciplinary care team, including palliative care specialists, (2 a concise plan of care for anticipated device-related complications, (3 careful surveillance and counseling for caregiver burden, (4 advance-care planning for anticipated end-of-life trajectories and timing of device deactivation, and (5 a plan to address the long-term financial burden on patients, families, and caregivers. Short-term mechanical circulatory devices (e

  1. Assessment of cardiac blood pool imaging in patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Ono, Yasuo; Kohata, Tohru; Tsubata, Shinichi; Kamiya, Tetsuroh.

    1993-01-01

    We performed cardiac blood pool imagings with Tc-99m at rest and during supine ergometer exercise to evaluate left ventricular performance in 14 patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. All catheterized patients were divided into two subgroups: 8 patients with peak systolic left ventricular to descending aortic pressure gradients of less than 50 mmHg (LPG group) and 6 patients with peak systolic gradients of more than 50 mmHg (HPG group). Control group included 10 patients without stenotic coronary lesions after Kawasaki disease. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained as systolic index; both filling fraction during the first third of diastole (1/3FF) and mean filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3FR mean) were obtained as diastolic indices. None of the patients had abnormal findings on 201 Tl imaging. LVEF at rest in HPG group was significantly higher than those in control group, but LVEF in HPG group did not increase after exercise. It increased significantly in control group and LPG group. 1/3 FF in HPG group was significantly lower not only at rest but also during exercise. 1/3 FR mean at rest was not different significantly among the 3 groups. However, 1/3FR mean during exercise in LPG group was significantly lower; and 1/3 FR mean during exercise was significantly lower in HPG group than LPG group. The ratio of left ventricular muscular mass to left ventricular end-diastolic volume (M/V) calculated from left ventricular cineangiograms was different significantly among the 3 groups. The M/V ratio showed a correlation with LVEF and 1/3 FF both at rest and during exercise. These results would indicate that systolic function was impaired on exercise in severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis and diastolic function was impaired on exercise in mild and severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. This may correlate with left ventricular hypertrophy and interaction of systolic function. (author)

  2. Comparison of the accuracy of three angiographic methods for calculating left ventricular volume measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Lin; Cui Wei; Shi Hanwen; Tian Yingping; Wang Weigang; Feng Yanguang; Huang Xueyan; Liu Zhisheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the relative accuracy of three methods measuring left ventricular volume by X-ray ventriculography: single plane area-length method, biplane area-length method, and single-plane Simpson's method. Methods: Left ventricular casts were obtained within 24 hours after death from 12 persons who died from non-cardiac causes. The true left ventricular cast volume was measured by water displacement. The calculated volume of the casts was obtained with 3 angiographic methods, i.e., single-plane area-length method, biplane area-length method, and single-plane Simpson's method. Results: The actual average volume of left ventricular casts was (61.17±26.49) ml. The left ventricular volume was averagely (97.50±35.56) ml with single plane area-length method, (90.51±36.33) ml with biplane area-length method, and (65.00± 23.63) ml with single-plane Simpson's method. The left ventricular volumes calculated with single-plane and biplane area-length method were significantly larger than that the actual volumes (P 0.05). The left ventricular volumes calculated with single-plane and biplane area-length method were significantly larger than those calculated with single-plane Simpson's method (P 0.05). The over-estimation of left ventricular volume by single plane area-length method (36.34±17.98) ml and biplane area-length method (29.34±15.59) ml was more obvious than that calculated by single-plane Simpson's method (3.83±8.48) ml. Linear regression analysis showed that there was close correlations between left ventricular volumes calculated with single plane area-length method, biplane area-length method, Simpson's method and the true volume (all r>0.98). Conclusion: Single-plane Simpson's method is more accurate than single plane area-length method and biplane area-length method for left ventricular volume measurement; however, both the single-plane and biplane area-length methods could be used in clinical practice, especially in those imaging modality

  3. Association between circulating fibroblast growth factor 23, α-Klotho, and the left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular mass in cardiology inpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Shibata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, with its co-receptor Klotho, plays a crucial role in phosphate metabolism. Several recent studies suggested that circulating FGF23 and α-Klotho concentrations might be related to cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with advanced renal failure. PURPOSE: Using data from 100 cardiology inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis, the association of circulating levels of FGF23, α-Klotho, and other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related parameters with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and left ventricular mass (LVM was analyzed. METHODS AND RESULTS: LVEF was measured using the modified Simpson method for apical 4-chamber LV images and the LVM index (LVMI was calculated by dividing the LVM by body surface area. Univariate analysis showed that log transformed FGF23, but not that of α-Klotho, was significantly associated with LVEF and LVMI with a standardized beta of -0.35 (P<0.001 and 0.26 (P<0.05, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D as covariates into the statistical model, log-transformed FGF23 was found to be a statistically positive predictor for decreased left ventricular function and left ventricular hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: In cardiology department inpatients, circulating FGF23 concentrations were found to be associated with the left ventricular mass and LVEF independent of renal function and other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related parameters. Whether modulation of circulating FGF23 levels would improve cardiac outcome in such a high risk population awaits further investigation.

  4. LEFT-VENTRICULAR BEAT-TO-BEAT PERFORMANCE IN ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION - CONTRIBUTION OF FRANK-STARLING MECHANISM AFTER SHORT RATHER THAN LONG RR INTERVALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOSSELINK, ATM; BLANKSMA, PK; CRIJNS, HJGM; VANGELDER, IC; DEKAM, PJ; HILLEGE, HL; NIEMEIJER, MG; LIE, KI; MEIJLER, FL

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to evaluate control mechanisms of the varying left ventricular performance in atrial fibrillation. Background. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by a randomly irregular ventricular response, resulting in continuous variation in left ventricular beat-to-beat

  5. Left ventricular beat-to-beat performance in atrial fibrillation: Contribution of Frank-Starling mechanism after short rather than long intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, A.T.M.; Blanksma, P.K.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.; Gelder, I.C. van; Kam, P.J. de; Hillege, H.L.; Niemeijer, M.G.; Lie, K.I.; Meijler, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate control mechanisms of the varying left ventricular performance in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by a randomly irregular ventricular response, resulting in continuous variation in left ventricular beat-to-beat mechanical behavior and

  6. Multicenter Evaluation of Octreotide as Secondary Prophylaxis in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keyur B; Gunda, Sampath; Emani, Sitaramesh; Kanwar, Manreet K; Uriel, Nir; Colombo, Paolo C; Uber, Patricia A; Sears, Melissa L; Chuang, Joyce; Farrar, David J; Brophy, Donald F; Smallfield, George B

    2017-11-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common complications after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation. More than one third of patients with incident bleed go on to develop recurrent GI bleeding. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, is proposed to reduce the risk of recurrent GI bleeding in this population. This multicenter, retrospective analysis evaluated 51 continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients who received secondary prophylaxis with octreotide after their index GI bleed from 2009 to 2015. All patients had a hospitalization for GI bleed and received octreotide after discharge. Patient demographics, medical and medication history, and clinical characteristics of patients who rebled after receiving octreotide were compared with non-rebleeders. These data were also compared with matched historical control patients previously enrolled in the HMII (HeartMate II) clinical trials, none of whom received octreotide, to provide a context for the bleeding rates. Twelve patients (24%) who received secondary octreotide prophylaxis developed another GI bleed, whereas 39 (76%) did not. There were similar intergroup demographics; however, significantly more bleeders had a previous GI bleeding history before left ventricular assist device placement (33% versus 5%; P =0.02) and greater frequency of angiodysplasia confirmed during endoscopy (58% versus 23%; P =0.03). Fewer patients in this study experienced a recurrent GI bleed compared with a matched historical control group that did not receive octreotide (24% versus 43%; P =0.04). Patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device receiving secondary prophylaxis with octreotide had a significantly lower GI bleed recurrence compared with historical controls not treated with octreotide. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these data. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Study of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in recently diagnosed hypertensives in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CORRECTION: The conclusion on the PDF of this article was replaced on 17th April 2016. The corrected PDF is now available by clicking on the link below.Background & Objectives: Ectopic Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is now well established as a cause of left sided heart failure and as a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events. It is attributed mostly to systemic hypertension. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in recently diagnosed hypertensives in Nepalese population using echocardiography. Materials & Methods: Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed on 120 newly diagnosed patients of systemic hypertension. Transmitral Doppler indexes of diastolic function, Valsalva maneuver applied to the same mitral inflow pattern, pulsed tissue Doppler of the mitral annulus, deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time and pulmonary venous flow pattern.Results: The age of the patients in our study ranged from 20 to 84 years with mean age of 50years±14.13 years (standard deviation and male:female ratio being 1.35:1. Hypertensive patients were highest in age group 45-64 years followed by 25-44 years in both the genders. Majority of the patients had stage 1 hypertension (44.16% followed by stage 2 HTN in 34.17% and pre-hypertension in 21.67%. The majority of the patients in our study had Grade 1 LVDD (66.67%, 10.83% patients had Grade II LVDD, only 2.50% had non-restrictive Grade III LVDD and none had LVDD-IV. Stage II hypertensives had more LVDD(I+II+III: 39/41-95.12% than stage I hypertensives(39/53-73.58% and pre-hypertensives (8/26-30.77%. The association between stages of systemic HTN and LVDD was found to be highly statistically significant (p=0.002. Conclusion: Our study showed that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common entity in Nepalese population with systemic hypertension.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:14-18.

  8. Estimation of left ventricular operating stiffness from Doppler early filling deceleration time in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M J; Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Smedira, N; Rodriguez, L; Prior, D; Thomas, J D

    2001-02-01

    Shortened early transmitral deceleration times (E(DT)) have been qualitatively associated with increased filling pressure and reduced survival in patients with cardiac disease and increased left ventricular operating stiffness (K(LV)). An equation relating K(LV) quantitatively to E(DT) has previously been described in a canine model but not in humans. During several varying hemodynamic conditions, we studied 18 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Transesophageal echocardiographic two-dimensional volumes and Doppler flows were combined with high-fidelity left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) pressures to determine K(LV). From digitized Doppler recordings, E(DT) was measured and compared against changes in LV and LA diastolic volumes and pressures. E(DT) (180 +/- 39 ms) was inversely associated with LV end-diastolic pressures (r = -0.56, P = 0.004) and net atrioventricular stiffness (r = -0.55, P = 0.006) but had its strongest association with K(LV) (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). K(LV) was predicted assuming a nonrestrictive orifice (K(nonrest)) from E(DT) as K(nonrest) = (0.07/E(DT))(2) with K(LV) = 1.01 K(nonrest) - 0.02; r = 0.86, P < 0.001, DeltaK (K(nonrest) - K(LV)) = 0.02 +/- 0.06 mm Hg/ml. In adults with cardiac disease, E(DT) provides an accurate estimate of LV operating stiffness and supports its application as a practical noninvasive index in the evaluation of diastolic function.

  9. Beat-to-beat left ventricular performance in atrial fibrillation: radionuclide assessment with the computerized nuclear probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Lachman, A.B.; Zaret, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    There is wide beat-to-beat variability in cycle length and left ventricular performance in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, left ventricular ejection fraction and relative left ventricular volumes were evaluated on a beat-to-beat basis with the computerized nuclear probe, an instrument with sufficiently high sensitivity to allow continuous evaluation of the radionuclide time-activity curve. Of 18 patients with atrial fibrillation, 5 had mitral stenosis, 6 had mitral regurgitation, and 7 had coronary artery disease. Fifty consecutive beats were analyzed in each patient. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction ranged from 17 to 51%. There was substantial beat-to-beat variation in cycle length and left ventricular ejection fraction in all patients, including those with marked left ventricular dysfunction. In 14 patients who also underwent multiple gated cardiac blood pool imaging, there was an excellent correlation between mean ejection fraction derived from the nuclear probe and gated ejection fraction obtained by gamma camera imaging (r . 0.90). Based on beat-to-beat analysis, left ventricular function was dependent on relative end-diastolic volume and multiple preceding cycle lengths, but not preceding end-systolic volumes. This study demonstrates that a single value for left ventricular ejection fraction does not adequately characterize left ventricular function in patients with atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, both the mean beat-to-beat and the gated ejection fraction may underestimate left ventricular performance at rest in such patients

  10. Vortex flow during early and late left ventricular filling in normal subjects : Quantitative characterization using retrospectively-gated 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance and three-dimensional vortex core analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbaz, M.S.M.; Calkoen, E.E.; Westenberg, J.J.M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Roest, A.A.W.; Van der Geest, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background LV diastolic vortex formation has been suggested to critically contribute to efficient blood pumping function, while altered vortex formation has been associated with LV pathologies. Therefore, quantitative characterization of vortex flow might provide a novel objective tool for

  11. Regional ejection fraction: a quantitative radionuclide index of regional left ventricular performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, D.E.; Wynne, J.; Uren, R.; Parker, J.A.; Idoine, J.; Siegel, L.C.; Neill, J.M.; Cohn, P.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Left ventricular regional ejection fractions were derived from background-corrected, time-activity curves in 43 patients assessed by both gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography and left ventricular contrast angiography. From a single, modified left anterior oblique projection, the regional change in background corrected counts was determined in each of three anatomic regions. The normal range for regional radionuclide ejection fraction was determined in 10 patients with normal contrast ventriculograms and without obstructive coronary artery disease at coronary arteriography. Regional ejection fraction was compared with percent segmental axis shortening and extent of akinetic segments in corresponding regions of the contrast ventriculogram. Radionuclide and roentgenographic methods were in agreement as to the presence or absence of abnormal wall motion in 83 of 99 left ventricular regions (84%) in 33 patients evaluated prospectively. Comparison of regional ejection fraction demonstrated significant differences between regions with roentgenographically determined normokinesis hypokinesis, and akinesis. We conclude that the left ventricular regional ejection fraction provides a reliable quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular performance

  12. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Ana, E-mail: baptista-ana@hotmail.com; Magalhães, Pedro; Leão, Sílvia; Carvalho, Sofia; Mateus, Pedro; Moreira, Ilídio [Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Unidade de Vila Real (Portugal)

    2015-08-15

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m{sup 2} for women or ≥ 116 g/m{sup 2} for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m{sup 2} (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m{sup 2}] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%). Nine (19.1%) showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5), a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5)

  13. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Ana; Magalhães, Pedro; Leão, Sílvia; Carvalho, Sofia; Mateus, Pedro; Moreira, Ilídio

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m 2 for women or ≥ 116 g/m 2 for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m 2 (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m 2 ] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%). Nine (19.1%) showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5), a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5)

  14. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m2 for women or ≥ 116 g/m2 for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. Results: A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m2 (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m2] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%. Nine (19.1% showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5, a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. Conclusion: In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5.

  15. Diastolic And Systolic Right Ventricular Dysfunction Precedes Left Ventricular Dysfunction In Patients Paced From Right Ventricular Apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi SK

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac dysfunction after right ventricular (RV apical pacing is well known but its extent, time frame of appearance and individual effect on left ventricular (LV, RV systolic and diastolic parameters has not evaluated in a systematic fashion. Methods: Patients with symptomatic bradycardia and ACC-AHA Class I indication for permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI were implanted a single chamber (VVI pacemaker. They were followed prospectively by echocardiographic examination which was done at baseline, 1 week, 1 month and 6 months after implantation. Parameters observed were chamber dimensions (M-line, chamber volumes, cardiac output (modified Simpson's method, systolic functions (ejection fraction, pre-ejection period, ejection time and ratio and diastolic functions( isovolumic relaxation time & deceleration time of left and right heart. Results: Forty eight consecutive patients (mean age 65.6±11.8 yrs, 66.7% males, mean EF 61.82±10.36% implanted a VVI pacemaker were enrolled in this study. The first significant change to appear in cardiac function after VVI pacing was in diastolic properties of RV as shown by increase in RV isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT from 65.89±15.93 to 76.58±17.00 ms,(p<0.001 at 1week and RV deceleration time (DT from 133.84±38.13 to 153.09±31.41 ms, (p=0.02 at 1 month. Increase in RV internal dimension (RVID from 1.26±0.41 to 1.44±0.44, (p<0.05 was also noticed at 1 week. The LV diastolic parameters were significantly altered after 1 month with increase in LV-IVRT from 92.36±21.47 to 117.24±27.21ms, (p<0.001 and increase in LV DT from 147.56±31.84 to 189.27±28.49ms,(p<0.01. This was followed by LV systolic abnormality which appeared at 6 months with an increase in LVPEP from 100.33±14.43 to 118.41±21.34ms, (p<0.001 and increase in LVPEP/LVET ratio from 0.34±0.46 to 0.44±0.10, (p<0.001]. The reduction in LV EF was manifested at 6 months falling from 61.82±10.36% to52.52±12.11%, (p<0

  16. Angiographic determination of the left-ventricular myocardial volume with the help of digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, digital image processing could for the first time be introduced as a new method to screen the myocardium in the left-ventricular angiocardiography. The method makes a reliable quantitative determination of the muscle mass of the left ventricle possible. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Left ventricular function during lethal and sublethal endotoxemia in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, R.D.; Nightingale, L.M.; Kish, P.; Weber, P.B.; Loegering, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that after a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of endotoxin, cardiac contractility was depressed in nonsurviving dogs. The canine cardiovascular system is unlike humans in that dogs have a hepatic vein sphincter that is susceptible to adrenergic stimulation capable of raising hepatic and splanchnic venous pressures. The authors retested the hypothesis that lethality after endotoxin administration is associated with cardiac contractile depression in pigs, because of the hepatic circulation in this species is similar to that of humans. They compared cardiac mechanical function of pigs administered a high dose (250 μg/kg) or a low dose (100 μg/kg) endotoxin by use of the slope of the end-systolic pressure-diameter relationship (ESPDR) as well as other measurements of cardiac performance. In all the pigs administered a high dose, ESPDR demonstrated a marked, time-dependent depression whereas we observed no significant ESPDR changes after low endotoxin doses. The other cardiodynamic variables were uninterpretable, due to the significant changes in heart rate, end-diastolic diameter (preload), and aortic diastolic pressure (afterload). Plasma myocardia depressant factor activity accumulated in all endotoxin-administered animals, tending to be greater in the high-dose group. In this group, both subendocardial blood flow and global function were depressed, whereas pigs administered the low dose endotoxin demonstrated slight, but nonsignificant, increases in flow and function. These observations indicate that myocardial contractile depression is associated with a lethal outcome to high doses of endotoxin. Myocardial perfusion was measured using radiolabeled microspheres infused into the left atria

  18. Effect of Hemodialysis on Left and Right Ventricular Volume and Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jin Suk; Koh, Chang Soon

    1985-01-01

    With the improvement of hemodialysis, the course of thc discase in patient with endstage renal disease has been clearly improved. Nevertheless, among several shortcomings to our present mode of renal replacement therapy, cardiovascular complications have been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors such as anemia, arteriovenous shunting of blood, intermittent extracorporeal circulation and hypertension may be contributing. But little is known about the quantitative cardiac hemodynamic characteristics occurred during hemodialysis. The purpose of this study is to observe the sequential hemodynamic changes before, during and after the hemodialysis and to investigate: reliable parameters in the detection of ventricular dysfunction. In the present study, equilibrium radionuclide cardiac angiography was performed and left and right ventricular volume indices, ejection phase indices of both ventricular, performance were measured in the 16 stable patients with chronic renal failure treated with maintenance hemodialysis sequentially i.e. before, during (carly and late phase) and after the hemodialysis. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The indices of the left ventricular function were not changed during the hemodialysis but increased after the hemodialysis. 2) The indices of the right ventricular function(EF, SVI) were significantly decreased in the early phase (15, 30 minutes after starting extracorporeal circulation) but recovered after the hemodialysis, 3) The ratio of right ventricular to left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly decreased in the early phase and the lung volume indices were significantly increased at the same phase. As a conclusion, hemodialysis improves left ventricular function maybe du to increased contractility, and effects on the right ventricular function maybe due to the increased lung volume in the early phase of hemodialysis.

  19. Effect of Hemodialysis on Left and Right Ventricular Volume and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jin Suk; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-09-15

    With the improvement of hemodialysis, the course of thc discase in patient with endstage renal disease has been clearly improved. Nevertheless, among several shortcomings to our present mode of renal replacement therapy, cardiovascular complications have been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors such as anemia, arteriovenous shunting of blood, intermittent extracorporeal circulation and hypertension may be contributing. But little is known about the quantitative cardiac hemodynamic characteristics occurred during hemodialysis. The purpose of this study is to observe the sequential hemodynamic changes before, during and after the hemodialysis and to investigate: reliable parameters in the detection of ventricular dysfunction. In the present study, equilibrium radionuclide cardiac angiography was performed and left and right ventricular volume indices, ejection phase indices of both ventricular, performance were measured in the 16 stable patients with chronic renal failure treated with maintenance hemodialysis sequentially i.e. before, during (carly and late phase) and after the hemodialysis. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The indices of the left ventricular function were not changed during the hemodialysis but increased after the hemodialysis. 2) The indices of the right ventricular function(EF, SVI) were significantly decreased in the early phase (15, 30 minutes after starting extracorporeal circulation) but recovered after the hemodialysis, 3) The ratio of right ventricular to left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly decreased in the early phase and the lung volume indices were significantly increased at the same phase. As a conclusion, hemodialysis improves left ventricular function maybe du to increased contractility, and effects on the right ventricular function maybe due to the increased lung volume in the early phase of hemodialysis.

  20. Left ventricular aneurysm in short axis: a comparison of magnetic resonance, ultrasound and thallium-201 SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Short axis magnetic resonance images of a left ventricular aneurysm were compared to similar views obtained by echocardiography and by thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography. Images of the dyskinetic left ventricular apex and the contractile left ventricular base were analyzed and compared. Unlike the previously reported orthogonal plane magnetic resonance images, short axis imaging provided representative and quantitative information in views comparable to those obtained by standard noninvasive imaging techniques. These data indicate that short axis magnetic resonance imaging is capable of identifying and sizing the aneurysmal and the residual segments of the left ventricle. The findings may be of prognostic value in patients with left ventricular aneurysm

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Is it the Result or Cause of Disease Progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adusumalli, Srinath; Mazurek, Jeremy A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to define pulmonary hypertension in the setting of left heart disease (PH-LHD), discuss its epidemiology and pathophysiology, and highlight the cause and effect relationship it has with disease progression in the setting of cardiomyopathy. Both pulmonary hypertension (PH) and heart failure are becoming increasingly common. As such, PH-LHD is now the most common form of PH. The pathophysiology of the condition relates to backward transmission of elevated left ventricular filling pressures into the pulmonary circulation and, ultimately, right ventricular (RV) strain/dysfunction. It is evident that these pathophysiologic processes are both the effect and cause of left heart disease progression. In this review, we describe the complex relationship between disease progression in left ventricular cardiomyopathy and PH-LHD. Clinicians and researchers should take note of the importance of PH-LHD and RV dysfunction to appropriately risk stratify patients and develop therapies for the condition.

  2. Aortopathy in Congenital Heart Disease in Adults: Aortic Dilatation with Decreased Aortic Elasticity that Impacts Negatively on Left Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Koichiro

    2013-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve and/or coarctation of the aorta are consistently associated with ascending aortic and para-coarctation medial abnormalities. Medial abnormalities in the ascending aorta are prevalent in other types of patients with a variety of forms congenital heart disease (CHD), such as single ventricle, persistent truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great arteries, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, tetralogy of Fallot. These abnormalities encompass a wide age range, and may predispose to dilatation, aneurysm, and rupture that necessitates aortic valve and root surgery. This dilatation can develop in CHD patients without stenotic region. These CHDs exhibit ongoing dilatation of the aortic root and reduced aortic elasticity and increased aortic stiffness that may relate to intrinsic properties of the aortic root. The concept of aortic dilatation is shifting a paradigm of aortic dilatation, as so called post stenotic dilatation, to primary intrinsic aortopahy. These aortic dilatation and increased stiffness can induce aortic aneurysm, rupture of the aorta and aortic regurgitation, but also provoke left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced coronary artery flow and left ventricular failure. We can recognize this association of aortic pathophysiological abnormality, aortic dilation and aorto-left ventricular interaction as a new clinical entity: "aortopathy".

  3. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. Background: QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with ...

  4. Clinical value of regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Sayuri; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Akifumi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Sada, Yoshiharu; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kurisu, Satoshi; Shiode, Nobuo; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-09-01

    Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) gradually regressed after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SV1 + RV5/6) is possibly the most widely used criterion for ECG-LVH. The aim of this study was to determine whether decrease in Sokolow-Lyon voltage reflects left ventricular reverse remodeling detected by echocardiography after AVR. Of 129 consecutive patients who underwent AVR for severe aortic stenosis, 38 patients with preoperative ECG-LVH, defined by SV1 + RV5/6 of ≥3.5 mV, were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. The patients were divided into ECG-LVH regression group (n = 19) and non-regression group (n = 19) according to the median value of the absolute regression in SV1 + RV5/6. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess determinants of ECG-LVH regression among echocardiographic indices. ECG-LVH regression group showed significantly greater decrease in left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions than Non-regression group. ECG-LVH regression was independently determined by decrease in the left ventricular mass index [odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.69, p = 0.048], left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.03-1.41, p = 0.014), and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.06-1.52, p = 0.0047). ECG-LVH regression could be a marker of the effect of AVR on both reducing the left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions. The effect of AVR on reverse remodeling can be estimated, at least in part, by regression of ECG-LVH.

  5. Nonischemic Left Ventricular Scar as a Substrate of Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death in Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Rigato, Ilaria; De Lazzari, Manuel; Susana, Angela; Niero, Alice; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Migliore, Federico; Rizzo, Stefania; Giorgi, Benedetta; De Conti, Giorgio; Sarto, Patrizio; Serratosa, Luis; Patrizi, Giampiero; De Maria, Elia; Pelliccia, Antonio; Basso, Cristina; Schiavon, Maurizio; Bauce, Barbara; Iliceto, Sabino; Thiene, Gaetano; Corrado, Domenico

    2016-07-01

    The clinical profile and arrhythmic outcome of competitive athletes with isolated nonischemic left ventricular (LV) scar as evidenced by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance remain to be elucidated. We compared 35 athletes (80% men, age: 14-48 years) with ventricular arrhythmias and isolated LV subepicardial/midmyocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (group A) with 38 athletes with ventricular arrhythmias and no LGE (group B) and 40 healthy control athletes (group C). A stria LGE pattern with subepicardial/midmyocardial distribution, mostly involving the lateral LV wall, was found in 27 (77%) of group A versus 0 controls (group C; P<0.001), whereas a spotty pattern of LGE localized at the junction of the right ventricle to the septum was respectively observed in 11 (31%) versus 10 (25%; P=0.52). All athletes with stria pattern showed ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant right bundle branch block morphology, 13 of 27 (48%) showed ECG repolarization abnormalities, and 5 of 27 (19%) showed echocardiographic hypokinesis of the lateral LV wall. The majority of athletes with no or spotty LGE pattern had ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant left bundle branch block morphology and no ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities. During a follow-up of 38±25 months, 6 of 27 (22%) athletes with stria pattern experienced malignant arrhythmic events such as appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock (n=4), sustained ventricular tachycardia (n=1), or sudden death (n=1), compared with none of athletes with no or LGE spotty pattern and controls. Isolated nonischemic LV LGE with a stria pattern may be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death in the athlete. Because of its subepicardial/midmyocardial location, LV scar is often not detected by echocardiography. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Paradox image: a noninvasive index of regional left-ventricular dyskinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Idoine, J.; Zielonka, J.; Neill, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paradox image, a functional image of regional dyskinesis derived from the equilibrium (gated) radionuclide ventriculogram, was constructed by subtracting the background-corrected end-diastolic frame from the background-corrected end-systolic frame. In 11 patients showing dyskinesis by contrast ventriculography, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox ranged from 3.6 to 55.6% (21.44% +- 4.45 s.e.m.). In 11 patients with normokinesis and in eight patients with hypookinesis by contrast ventriculography, the left-ventricular picture elements demonstrating paradox were less than 1.1% in all cases. In nine patients with akinesis, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox was 2.05% +- 0.96 s.e.m. and was less than 2% in seven patients. There was also an excellent agreement between the location of dyskinesis on the paradox image and that by contrast ventriculography. The paradox image is a sensitive indicator of left-ventricular dyskinesis and should be useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected left-ventricular asynergy

  7. Population-specific left ventricular hypertrophy in three groups from the northeastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P K; Hazarika, N C; Biswas, D; Kalita, H C; Mahanta, J

    2010-01-01

    People living in the hills are continuously exposed to strenuous physical activity for their day-to-day work. Besides hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy in different populations may be related to continuous physical activity. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure and sociodemographic information of 12 252 subjects > or = 30 years of age from three different population groups living in Mizoram (hilly) and Assam (plain) were recorded. Of them, 8058 were from Mizoram and 3180 and 1014 were Indigenous Assamese and tea garden workers of Assam. Among the subjects from Mizoram the percentage of smokers (41.9%), mean (SD) BMI (21.9 [3.8]) and waist-hip ratio (0.87 [0.02]) were significantly higher than in those from other groups. Tea garden workers had a higher mean systolic blood pressure (145.2 [25.7]) and diastolic blood pressure (87.6 [13.6]). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was highest among tea garden workers (16.5%) followed by people from Mizoram (3.7%) and the indigenous Assamese (2%) people. In spite of a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension among the indigenous Assamese community than among those from Mizoram, left ventricular hypertrophy was found to be lower in the former. High prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among tea garden workers was possibly related to a higher prevalence of hypertension but the higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among people from Mizoram might be related to more physical activity.

  8. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation.

  9. Echocardiographic assessment of the different left ventricular geometric patterns in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Cunha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identiy left ventricular geometric patterns in hypertensive patients on echocardiography, and to correlate those patterns with casual blood pressure measurements and with the parameters obtained on a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: We studied sixty hypertensive patients, grouped according to the Joint National Committee stages of hypertension.. Using the single- and two-dimensional Doppler Echocardiography, we analyzed the left ventricular mass and the geometric patterns through the correlation of left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness. On ambulatory blood pressure monitoring we assessed the means and pressure loads in the different geometric patterns detected on echocardiography RESULTS: We identified three left ventricular geometric patterns: 1 concentric hypertrophy, in 25% of the patients; 2 concentric remodeling, in 25%; and 3 normal geometry, in 50%. Casual systolic blood pressure was higher in the group with concentric hypertrophy than in the other groups (p=0.001. Mean systolic pressure in the 24h, daytime and nighttime periods was also higher in patients with concentric hypertrophy, as compared to the other groups (p=0.003, p=0.004 and p=0.007. Daytime systolic load and nighttime diastolic load were higher in patients with concentric hypertrophy ( p=0.004 and p=0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular geometric patterns show significant correlation with casual systolic blood pressure, and with means and pressure loads on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

  10. Surgical myocardial revascularization in patients with reduced systolic left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Piergiorgio; Iafrancesco, Mauro; Massetti, Massimo

    2018-04-20

    Surgical myocardial revascularization in patients with reduced left ventricular function has been a matter of debate for decades. Recently published 10-years extension follow-up of the STICH trial have conclusively demonstrated benefit of surgical myocardial revascularization in patients with significant coronary artery disease and low left ventricular ejection fraction. However, selection of patients for surgery remains challenging as well as decision to perform percutaneous rather than surgical revascularization in this class of patients. New evidence helped to clarify the role of preoperative patients' characteristics as risk factors for surgery and to identify those patients who may benefit the most from surgery. Focus of this review is to review epidemiology, aetiology and pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in patients with reduced left ventricular function, role of viability and results of observational and investigational studies on revascularization in patients with reduced left ventricular function with a particular emphasis on relative indication of coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention and the surgical implications of development of ischemic mitral regurgitation or ischemic left ventricular aneurysm.

  11. The application of phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion imaging to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianfeng; Wang Yuetao

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony is closely related to the severity of cardiovascular disease, it is essential to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony accurately for early prediction of adverse cardiac events and prognosis assessment of the cardiac resynchronization therapy. As a new technology to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony, the phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion imaging (GMPI) can get both quantitative indicators of regional myocardial perfusion, evaluation of regional myocardial viability and scar tissue, as well as quantitative analysis of left ventricular function and left ventricular mechanical synchrony, it has broad application prospects in cardiovascular disease to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony and prognosis assessment. This review mainly described the applications of GMPI phase analysis in the cardiovascular disease. (authors)

  12. Dipyridamole-thallium tests are predictive of severe cardiac arrhythmias in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragoca, M.A.; Canziani, M.E.; Gil, M.A.; Castiglioni, M.L.; Cassiolato, J.L.; Barbieri, A.; Lima, V.C.; Draibe, S.A.; Martinez, E.E.

    1991-01-01

    In a population of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and a high prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) undergoing chronic hemodialysis, the authors investigated the association between the results of dipyridamole-thallium tests (DTTs) and the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. They observed a positive significant association between positive DTTs and the occurrence of severe forms of ventricular arrhythmias. A significant association was also observed between the presence of severe LVH and the occurrence of severe ventricular arrhythmias. However, no association was found between the presence of LVH and the positivity of the DTT. As most of their patients with positive DTTs had unimpaired coronary circulations, they conclude that positive DTTs, although falsely indicative of impaired myocardial blood supply, does have an important clinical relevance, indicating increased risk of morbidity (and, possibly, mortality) due to ventricular arrhythmias in a population of CRF patients submitted to chronic renal function replacement program

  13. Quantitation of right and left ventricular volume with MR imaging in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxt, L.M.; Katz, J.; Kolb, T.; Czegledy, F.P.; Barst, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper tests the utility of MR imaging in quantitating changes in ventricular volume and function in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) volumes were determined in six patients with PPH and in eight controls. Short-axis images were obtained from the cardiac apex to the base at ED and ES, and the ventricular cavities were planimetered. Volumes were computed by summing the areas of the cavities times the thickness of the sections (12-14 mm). The intersection gap (1-3 mm) was averaged between adjacent sections. Results were indexed to the subject's body surface area. This technique was verified by comparison of results obtained by this method with the water displacement volumes of ventricular casts of eight excised bovine hearts and six water-filled balloons. Linear regression and the unpaired Students t test were used to test significance

  14. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42) and 24.17 ± 4.39 ... Aortic root diameter (Ao), left atrial dimension (LAD), left ventricu- ... Key: *Statistically significant, a= Chi-square, SCA= sickle cell anaemia, SD= standard deviation. ..... of fluctuations in response to changes in sympathetic.

  15. Left ventricular lipoma with pseudoaneurysm-like appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarai, Shun-ichi; Yaginuma, Gen-ya; Abe, Kazuo; Hamasaki, Azumi; Ishikawa, Kazunori; Tanaka, Daizo

    2010-06-01

    We describe an extremely rare cardiac lipoma, with electrocardiographic changes in ST segments and T waves, suggesting ischemic heart disease. The abnormal electrocardiogram was identified during a routine physical examination of an asymptomatic 57-year-old man. Coronary angiography showed no stenotic or occlusive lesions in the coronary arteries except that the left anterior descending artery followed a winding course in the apical region. Left ventriculography revealed a pseudoaneurysm-like mass around the apical portion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cardiac lipoma that communicated with the left ventricle and resembled a pseudoaneurysm. After complete resection of the lipoma and left ventricle patch plasty, the postoperative course was uneventful. Histologically, the tumor was an intramyocardiac lipoma with no evidence of malignancy. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe an intramyocardiac lipoma resembling a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm.

  16. Factors influencing left ventricular hypertrophy in children and adolescents with or without family history of premature myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Result : The results showed that among the studied variables, gender, age, body mass index, and blood pressure were associated with the left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion: Considering the results and previous studies in this field, it was observed that left ventricular hypertrophy exists at early ages, which is very dangerous and can lead to heart diseases at early ages. Factors such as being overweight, having high blood pressure, and being male cause left ventricular hypertrophy and lead to undiagnosable heart diseases.

  17. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF, and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. Objective: To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. Methods: A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind, and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e' were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. Results: One hundred seventeen patients (82.9% were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months. LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m2 ± 10.6 mL/m2 to 22.6 mL/m2 ± 1.1 mL/m2, p < 0.001 compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m2 ± 14.3 mL/m2 to 37.5 mL/m2 ± 14.5 mL/m2, p = ns. Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001 but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns. The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001. Conclusion: Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  18. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos, E-mail: simonens@cardiol.br [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m{sup 2} ± 10.6 mL/m{sup 2} to 22.6 mL/m{sup 2} ± 1.1 mL/m{sup 2}, p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.3 mL/m{sup 2} to 37.5 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.5 mL/m{sup 2}, p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  19. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos; Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m 2 ± 10.6 mL/m 2 to 22.6 mL/m 2 ± 1.1 mL/m 2 , p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m 2 ± 14.3 mL/m 2 to 37.5 mL/m 2 ± 14.5 mL/m 2 , p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure

  20. Left ventricular assist device (lvad design features: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Bogdanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 8 million people in our country suffer from heart failure. About one million of these people die each year [1]. The problem of ventricular assist device creating - a mechanical device used for partial or complete replacement of heart function - is investigated for a long time (according to [2] just in our country since the 1970s. Today plenty of encouraging results are received. There is a number of VAD models which are successfully applied to patients with heart failure. After implantation, patients conduct a way of life that is normal in many respects: they are in the family, often they have an opportunity to work in their former specialty. Some of them live with the device about 8 years [3].According to [4] for 2010 the estimated total number of long-term devices implanted in the United States per year is over 1,700 (the population of the U.S. is 305 million, compared with over 430 per year in Europe (the population of Europe is 731 million. Unfortunately, people who need a heart transplant are much more.The principle of VAD is that being connected to the left ventricle with one cannula and to the ascending aorta with the other cannula the pump fully or partially replaces the function of the natural heart. This scheme allows the use of VAD in two ways: as a "bridge to transplantation" when the device is used temporarily until the donor heart is found, and a "bridge to recovery", when through the use of VAD the function of the heart muscle is recovered.VAD system can be divided into three subsystems: blood pump, power supply system and control system (Fig. 1.Each subsystem can be the subject of separate study. Special role in the development of VAD plays medical side of the issue. Successful research and development require interaction with qualified professionals in this field. The development of VAD is a multidisciplinary problem which demands fulfilment of a number of requirements.One of the most active programs in implantation of

  1. Increased left ventricular mass in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, A; Tarnow, L; Parving, H H

    1998-01-01

    in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed in 17 type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (albuminuria [median (range)], 345 (135-2,846) mg/24 h) and compared with 34 normotensive, normoalbuminuric (10 [3......-30] mg/24 h) type 1 diabetic patients matched for arterial blood pressure (mean +/- SD) ([134/77] +/- [13/7] vs. [129/78] +/- [12/7] mmHg), age (40 +/- 11 vs. 42 +/- 10 years), duration of diabetes (28 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 6 years), and BMI (24.2 +/- 4.2 vs. 24.6 +/- 2.4 kg/m2). RESULTS: Left ventricular......OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy increases the risk of premature cardiovascular disease and sudden death, particularly in type 1 diabetic patients. One possible mechanism for this risk may be left ventricular hypertrophy. In our study, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular structure and function...

  2. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: An allometric comparative analysis of different ECG markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomini, MP; Valentinuzzi, M E; Arini, P D; Ingallina, F; Barone, V

    2011-01-01

    Allometry, in general biology, measures the relative growth of a part in relation to the whole living organism. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the heart adaptation to excessive load (systolic or diastolic). The increase in left ventricular mass leads to an increase in the electrocardiographic voltages. Based on clinical data, we compared the allometric behavior of three different ECG markers of LVH. To do this, the allometric fit AECG δ + β (VM) relating left ventricular mass (estimated from ecocardiographic data) and ECG amplitudes (expressed as the Cornell-Voltage, Sokolow and the ECG overall voltage indexes) were compared. Besides, sensitivity and specificity for each index were analyzed. The more sensitive the ECG criteria, the better the allometric fit. In conclusion: The allometric paradigm should be regarded as the way to design new and more sensitive ECG-based LVH markers.

  3. Assessment of left ventricular wall motion and function by cross-sectional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akifumi; Hirata, Shunkichi; Ishikawa, Kyozo

    1982-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of cross-sectional echocardiography (CSE) was evaluated with M-mode echocardiography and radionuclide cardioangiography (RCG) in 50 cases including 30 patients with myocardial infarction. Segmental wall motion by CSE was highly correlated with segmental wall motion and left ventricular ejection fraction by RCG (r = 0.89 in the former, r = -0.84 in the latter). On the other hand, the left ventricular ejection fraction by M-mode echocardiography revealed a fairly well correlation with that by RCG ( r = 0.68). These results suggest that, as compared with RCG, CSE is quite useful in an evaluation of left ventricular function and in a detection of segmental wall motion abnormalities. (author)

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI.

  5. Relation of the Number of Parity to Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Avşar, Şahin; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Keskin, Taha; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Kaya, Adnan; Uzun, Ahmet Okan; Akyol, Burcu; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Kozan, Ömer

    2017-07-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) has been relatively less studied than other cardiac changes during pregnancy. Previous studies revealed a mild diastolic deterioration during pregnancy. However, these studies did not evaluate the long-term effect of parity on left ventricular diastolic function. A comprehensive study evaluating the long-term effect of parity on diastolic function is required. A total of 710 women with various number of parity were evaluated through echocardiography to reveal the status of diastolic function. Echocardiographic parameters were compared among the women by parity number and categorized accordingly: none, 0 to 4 and 4 4 parity and that had 21 and 5.8 times higher than nulliparous group, respectively. In conclusion, according to the present study, grand multiparity but not multiparity, severely deteriorates left ventricular diastolic function. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the risk of gradual diastolic dysfunction after each pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aortic stenosis with abnormal eccentric left ventricular remodeling secondary to hypothyroidism in a Bourdeaux Mastiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Minozzo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper describes a case of congenital aortic stenosis with eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy associated with hypothyroidism in a 1-year-old Bourdeaux Mastiff dog. The dog had ascites, apathy, alopecic and erythematous skin lesions in different parts of the body. A two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed aortic valve stenosis, with poststenotic dilation in the ascending aorta. The same exam showed eccentric hypertrophy and dilation of the left ventricle during systole and diastole. Aortic stenosis usually results in concentric left ventricular hypertrophy instead of eccentric hypertrophy; and therefore, this finding was very unusual. Hypothyroidism, which is uncommon in young dogs, may be incriminated as the cause of ventricular dilation, making this report even more interesting. Because hypothyroidism would only result in dilatation, the eccentric hypertrophy was attributed to pressure overload caused by aortic stenosis. Thus, cardiac alterations of this case represent a paradoxical association of both diseases.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik

    2007-01-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  8. Determination of left ventricular volume using gated blood pool tomography comparison with contrast ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ping; Mo Lijun; Liu Xiujie

    1992-01-01

    48 patients with cardiac disease were studied with gated blood pool tomography to determine left ventricular volume at end diastole, end-systole and ejection fraction. The volumes were calculated from serial short-axis tomograms by multiplying the number of pixels and the known volume of each pixel. Excellent correlation was found between blood pool tomography and contrast ventriculographic volume. At end-diastole, r = 0.91 (P < 0.01); at end-systole, r = 0.95 (P < 0.01); for left ventricular ejection fraction, r 0.90 (P < 0.01). The results suggest that gated blood pool tomography is a promising noninvasive and direct method for measuring left ventricular volume

  9. Measurement of absolute left ventricular volume by radionuclide angiography: a technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khawaja, I.M.; Lahiri, Avijit; Raftery, E.B.; Medical Research Council, Harrow

    1988-01-01

    Absolute left ventricular volumes have important clinical implications in the evaluation of cardiac performance. Several invasive and noninvasive techniques have been reported, none of which can be considered ideal for this purpose. Contrast angiography, echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography are open to criticism. Different radioisotopic approaches are described with emphasis on the importance of accurate separation of left ventricular activity, the selection of background activity, and the correction for photon attenuation by body tissues. Improper use of statistics and validation techniques have obscured the value of these techniques. In the absence of a 'gold standard' there should be a 'radioisotopic' left ventricular volume with established independent characteristics, repeatability and reproducibility by which new approaches can be judged. (author)

  10. Correlation of radiological assessment of congestive heart failure with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, P.G.; Kahn, A.; Kallman, C.E.; Rojas, K.A.; Bodenheimer, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) has been considered a reliable indicator of left ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to correlate the radiologic assessment of congestive heart failure with LVEDP. The population of the study consisted of 85 consecutive cases in four ranges of LVEDP ( 24). The PA chest radiographs obtained 1 day prior to cardiac catherization were assessed for radiological evidence of congestive heart failure and were graded from normal to abnormal (0-3). The results will be summarized in the authors' presentation. The discordance of radiological assessment of congestive heart failure in patients with elevated LVEDP will be discussed in light of recent advances in pathophysiologic understanding of left ventricular function and the impact of new classes of drugs in the management of these patients

  11. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic wall thickening using multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas S; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Daniel V

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic echocard......BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the heart provides both anatomical and functional information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of left ventricular contractile function in relation to two-dimensional transthoracic...... echocardiography (TTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated 64-slice MDCT and TTE. Regional left ventricular contractile function was measured by percent systolic wall thickening (SWT) in 16 myocardial segments using MDCT, and compared...

  12. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkvatan, A.; Yelgec, N.S.; Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  13. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkvatan, A. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yelgec, N.S. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  14. Left ventricular function abnormalities as a manifestation of silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C R; Conti, C R; Pepine, C J

    1986-11-01

    A large body of evidence exists indicating that left ventricular dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with severe coronary artery disease and represents silent or asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. Such dysfunction probably occurs early in the time course of every ischemic episode in patients with coronary artery disease whether symptoms are eventually manifested or not. The pathophysiology of silent versus symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemia appears to be identical. Silent ischemia-related left ventricular dysfunction can be documented during spontaneous or stress-induced perturbations in the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. It also may be detected by nitroglycerin-induced improvement in ventricular function or by salutary changes in wall motion following revascularization. Silent left ventricular dysfunction is a very early occurrence during ischemia and precedes electrocardiographic abnormalities. In this light, its existence should always be kept in mind when dealing with patients with ischemic heart disease. It can be hypothesized that because silent ischemia appears to be identical to ischemia with symptoms in a pathophysiologic sense, prognosis and treatment in both cases should be the same.

  15. Noninvasive prediction of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Tarek A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3 different available methods for estimating left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) noninvasively in patients with coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). We used 3 equations for noninvasive estimation of LVEDP: The equation of Mulvagh et al., LVEDP(1) = 46 - 0.22 (IVRT) - 0.10 (AFF) - 0.03 (DT) - (2 ÷ E/A) + 0.05 MAR; the equation of Stork et al., LVEDP(2) = 1.06 + 15.15 × Ai/Ei; and the equation of Abd-El-Aziz, LVEDP(3) = [0.54 (MABP) × (1 - EF)] - 2.23. ( A, A-wave velocity; AFF, atrial filling fraction; Ai, time velocity integral of A wave; DT, deceleration time; E, E-wave velocity; Ei, time velocity integral of E wave; IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time; MABP, mean arterial blood pressure; MAR, time from termination of mitral flow to the electrocardiographic R wave; Ti, time velocity integral of total wave.) LVEDP measured by catheterization was correlated with LVEDP(1) (r = 0.52, P Aziz, LVEDP = [0.54 MABP × (1 - EF)] - 2.23, appears to be the most accurate, reliable, and easily applied method for estimating LVEDP noninvasively in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and an LVEDP < 20 mm Hg. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of left ventricular function by tissue Doppler and speckle-derived strain rate echocardiography after percutaneous ductus closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoogzar, Hamid; Shakiba, Ali Mohammad; Derakhshan, Dorna; Ajami, Gholamhossein; Cheriki, Sirous; Borzouee, Mohammad; Edraki, Mohammad Reza; Mehdizadegan, Nima

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function before and after transcatheter percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. 21 children (age >6 months old) diagnosed with hemodynamically significant PDA underwent percutaneous PDA closure. Conventional, Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging and speckled-derived strain rate echocardiography were done at pre-closure, 1 day (early) and 1 month (late) post-closure. Mean age of the patients (female/male: 1.3) was 17.54 ± 24.7 months with the mean PDA diameter of 3.6 ± 0.8 mm. Systolic measures (ejection fraction, shortening fraction) reduced significantly early after PDA closure (P closure status. Early and late diastolic flow velocities of mitral (E M and A M) reduced considerably in early and late post-closure time (P closure. After 1 month, E'M increased considerably. (P = 0.01) but E'M/A'M had an insignificant rise (P > 0.05). E M/E'M ratio did not change in early post-closure but it had a considerable reduction in the subsequent month compared with the pre- and early post-closure (P closure (P closure causes a significant decrease in left ventricular performance early after PDA closure which recovers completely within 1 month. Also PDA size can affect post-closure left ventricular function.

  17. Effects of perfusion detect on the measurement of left ventricular mass, ventricular volume and post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2002-01-01

    The presence of perfusion defect may influence the left ventricular mass (LVM) measurement by quantitative gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (QGS), and ischemic myocardium, usually showing perfusion defect may produce post-stress LV dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluated the effects of extent and reversibility of perfusion defect on the automatic measurement of LVM by QGS and to investigate the effect of reversibility of perfusion defect on post-stress LV dysfunction. Forty-six patients (male/female=34:12, mean age=64 years) with perfusion defect on myocardial perfusion SPECT underwent rest and post-stress QGS. Forty patients (87%) showed reversible defect. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF), and LV myocardial volume were obtained from QGS by autoquant program, and LVM was calculated by multiplying the LV myocardial volume by the specific gravity of myocardium. LVMs measured at rest and post-stress QGS showed good correlation, and higher correlation was founded in the subjects with fixed perfusion defect and with small defect (smaller than 20%). There were no significant differences in EDVs, ESVs and EFs between obtained by rest and post-stress QGS in patients with fixed myocardial defect. Whereas, EF obtained by post-stress QGS was lower than that by rest QGS in patients with reversible defect and 10 (25%) of them showed decreases in EF more than 5% in post-stress QGS, as compared to that of rest QGS. Excellent correlations of EDVs, ESVs, EFs between rest and post-stress QGS were noted. Patients with fixed defect had higher correlation between defect can affect LVM measurement by QGS and patients with reversible defect shows post-stress LV dysfunction more frequently than patients with fixed perfusion defect

  18. The 4th Report of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Estes, Harvey E; Schocken, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    The 4th Report provides a brief review of publications focused on the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy published during the period of 2010 to 2016 by the members of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. The Working Group recommended...... that ECG research and clinical attention be redirected from the estimation of LVM to the identification of electrical remodeling, to better understanding the sequence of events connecting electrical remodeling to outcomes. The need for a re-definition of terms and for a new paradigm is also stressed....

  19. Extraction and analysis of left ventricular contours in cardiac radionuclide angiographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of cardiac scintigraphic sequences is commonly realized with the help of functional or parametric images. The decomposition of the original sequence into a linear combination of the main temporal behaviors yields, after orthogonalization, a set of parametric images representing the pure temporal behaviors present in the original data. The properties of these images are used to extract automatically the left ventricular boundary. The Fourier Descriptors method is then used to get a quantified analysis of the shape of the ventricle. Because of their property of invariance by change of scale, the Fourier descriptors method applied on a sequence of left ventricular contours yields a quantified assessment of the cardiac contraction

  20. De novo development of eosinophilic myocarditis with left ventricular assist device support as bridge to transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Naveen L; Park, Soon J; Daly, Richard C; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Edwards, William D

    2010-10-01

    The de novo development of myocarditis during left ventricular assist device support for dilated cardiomyopathy has not been previously described. We report a case of severe eosinophilic myocarditis associated with the use of leukotriene-receptor antagonist montelukast that developed during left ventricular assist device support accompanied by intra-device thrombus formation that was hemodynamically tolerated and subsequently discovered in the explanted heart. There may be no visible change in cardiac function as assessed by echocardiography, but the diagnosis should be entertained with the development of peripheral eosinophilia. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of left ventricular function by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT using multidimTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jin; Song Wenzhong; Chen Mingxi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of left ventricular function by gated SPECT using the software Multidim TM . Methods: Rest gated SPECT was performed on 42 cases involved 26 normal subjects and 16 patients with myocardial infarct (MI). All cases underwent rest equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) within 1 w. Results: (1)End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)were calculated using the software MultidimtMand ERNA. The correlation coefficient between the two Methods was 0.90,0.89,0.92 respectively(P TM , but the EDV and ESV value measured by this software maybe high with small heart. (authors)

  2. A prospective study found impaired left ventricular function predicted job retirement after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn E; Sørensen, Henrik T; Skagen, Knud

    2004-01-01

    adjusting for confounding factors, reduced LVEF was an independent predictor of retirement. Based on a stratified analysis, being female (RR=3.90, 95% CI=1.18-12.62) or having heavy physical job demands (RR=3.83, 95% CI=1.02-14.30) had a more pronounced impact on retirement for patients with LVEF 35......%, compared with patients with better left ventricular function. CONCLUSION: We conclude that impaired left ventricular systolic function is a prognostic determinant of retirement from the job market after acute MI....

  3. Improved determination of left ventricular volume with myocardial tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshock, R.M.; Takai, H.; Baker, K.V.; Clarke, G.D.; McDonald, G.G.; Parkey, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cine MR imaging can be used to determine ventricular volume and ejection fraction. However, definition of the endocardial surface can be difficult, leading some investigators to suggest that black-blood studies are preferable. Grid tagging with use of spatial modulation of magnetization has been used to improve assessments of wall motion. The purpose of this paper, is to determine if grid tagging would also facilitate definition of the endocardial border for volume and ejection fraction calculations. Grid tagging based on spatial modulation of magnetization was implemented on a Toshiba 0.5-T MR imaging device. Standard RAO images were obtained in 10 normal volunteers with use of standard cine MR imaging sequences (33/22) with and without grid tagging. Images were analyzed to determine ventricular volume, cardiac output and wall motion. Images obtained without tagging generally showed good contrast at end diastole, but definition of the endocardial border was frequently more difficult in middle to late systole. Images with tagging provided significantly better definition of endocardial borders, particularly during systole

  4. Adjustable, physiological ventricular restraint improves left ventricular mechanics and reduces dilatation in an ovine model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Lee, Lawrence; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, R Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-03-13

    Ventricular restraint is a nontransplantation surgical treatment for heart failure. The effect of varying restraint level on left ventricular (LV) mechanics and remodeling is not known. We hypothesized that restraint level may affect therapy efficacy. We studied the immediate effect of varying restraint levels in an ovine heart failure model. We then studied the long-term effect of restraint applied over a 2-month period. Restraint level was quantified by use of fluid-filled epicardial balloons placed around the ventricles and measurement of balloon luminal pressure at end diastole. At 4 different restraint levels (0, 3, 5, and 8 mm Hg), transmural myocardial pressure (P(tm)) and indices of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were determined in control (n=5) and ovine heart failure (n=5). Ventricular restraint therapy decreased P(tm) and MVO2, and improved mechanical efficiency. An optimal physiological restraint level of 3 mm Hg was identified to maximize improvement without an adverse affect on systemic hemodynamics. At this optimal level, end-diastolic P(tm) and MVO2 indices decreased by 27% and 20%, respectively. The serial longitudinal effects of optimized ventricular restraint were then evaluated in ovine heart failure with (n=3) and without (n=3) restraint over 2 months. Optimized ventricular restraint prevented and reversed pathological LV dilatation (130+/-22 mL to 91+/-18 mL) and improved LV ejection fraction (27+/-3% to 43+/-5%). Measured restraint level decreased over time as the LV became smaller, and reverse remodeling slowed. Ventricular restraint level affects the degree of decrease in P(tm), the degree of decrease in MVO2, and the rate of LV reverse remodeling. Periodic physiological adjustments of restraint level may be required for optimal restraint therapy efficacy.

  5. Patient-prosthesis mismatch and left ventricular remodelling after implantation of Shelhigh SuperStentless aortic valve prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germing, A; Lindstaedt, M; Holt, S; Reber, D; Mügge, A; Laczkovics, A; Fritz, M

    2008-08-01

    Aortic valve replacement is a standard procedure for the treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis. Due to lower flow velocities stentless valves are associated with a more effective regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in comparison to stented valves. However, mismatch between body surface area and valve size supports unfavourable hemodynamic results. The aim of the study was to analyze hemodynamic parameters by echocardiography after implantation of the Shelhigh SuperStentless bioprosthesis and to analyze the occurrence of patient-prosthesis mismatch and left ventricular remodelling in this specific valve type. A total of 20 patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent implantation of a Shelhigh Super Stentless prosthesis. Clinical and echocardiographic assessment was done prior to, immediate after and six months after surgery. All surgical procedures were successful, no surgery-related complication was documented perioperatively. One patient died after development of multiorgan failure. Echocardiography during the first eight days after surgery showed mean gradients of 16 mmHg, mean valve orifice areas of 1.8 cm(2) and indexed effective orifice areas at 0.95 cm(2)/m(2). Six-months follow-up data were obtained in 19/20 patients. There were no relevant changes in echocardiographic hemodynamic findings at the time of follow-up measurements. Significant regression of left ventricular hypertrophy was shown (P=0.0088). A patient-prosthesis mismatch occurred in one patient (0.54 cm(2)/m(2)). No recurrent symptoms were documented. Patient-prosthesis mismatch after implantation of SuperStentless Shelhigh prosthesis is rare. A significant regression of left ventricular hypertrophy could be shown after six months. Hemodynamic valve function assessed by echocardiography may be predicted early after surgery.

  6. Cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol, metrizamide, and amidotrizoate after intracoronary and left ventricular injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schraeder, R.; Wolpers, H.G.; Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Hellige, G.

    1984-05-01

    The acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol, metrizamide, and amidotrizoate during coronary arteriography and left ventriculography have been compared in anesthetized closed-chest dogs. The influence of these contrast media on hemodynamics, coronary circulation, ECG and physicochemical properties of coronary sinus blood were evaluated. Following intracoronary injection, iopamidol and metrizamide cause positive inotropism while amidotrizoate initially induces cardiodepression. All contrast solutions lead to marked increase of myocardial blood flow. Electrocardiographic changes are greater after amidotrizoate. A fall of cationic content in coronary sinus blood is seen after each contrast medium. Amidotrizoate leads to more decrease of potassium and both ionized and total calcium. Increase of osmolality and hydrogen ionic content is greater after amidotrizoate than after iopamidol and metrizamide. Following left ventricular injection, marked peripheral vasodilation, as seen after amidotrizoate, does not occur after low osmolality compounds. There are no significant differences between iopamidol and metrizamide in spite of the slightly higher osmolality of the former. Thus, both contrast materials should be equivalent with respect to their acute cardiovascular side effects under clinical conditions. Advantages of low osmolality radiological contrast media are discussed.

  7. Left ventricular synchrony assessed by phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuetao; Wang Jianfeng; Yang Minfu; Niu Rong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of Cedars-Sinai quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) phase analysis for left ventricular synchrony assessment in healthy subjects. Methods: Seventy-four healthy subjects (41 males, 33 females,average age: (60±13) years) underwent both rest and exercise 99 Tc m -MIBI G-MPI. QGS software was used to analyze the reconstructed rest gated SPECT images automatically, and then the parameters of left ventricular synchrony including phase bandwidth (BW) and phase standard deviation (SD) were obtained. The influences of gender and age (age<60 years, n=36; age ≥ 60 years, n=38) on left ventricular systolic synchronicity were analyzed. The phase angle for original segmental contraction was measured to determine the onset of the ventricular contraction using 17-segment model. Forty healthy subjects were selected by simple random sampling method to evaluate the intra-observer and interobserver repeatability of QGS phase analysis software. Two-sample t test and linear correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The BW and SD of left ventricular in healthy subjects were (37.22 ±11.71)°, (11.84±5.39)° respectively. Comparisons between male and female for BW and SD yielded no statistical significance (BW: (36.00±9.70)°, (38.73±13.84)°; SD: (11.88±5.56)°, (11.79±5.26)°; t=0.96 and-0.07, both P>0.05); whereas the older subjects (age≥60 years) had larger BW than the others (age<60 years ; (39.95± 12.65)°, (34.33± 10.00)°; t=-2.11, P<0.05) and no statistical significance was shown for SD between the two age groups ((11.18±4.31)°, (12.54±6.33)°; t=1.08, P>0.05). Of the 74 subjects, the mechanical activation started from the ventricular base to apex in 54 subjects (73%), and from apex to base in only 20 subjects (27%). High repeatability of phase analysis was observed for both intra-observer and inter-observer (r=0.867-0.906, all P<0.001). Conclusions: Good left ventricular segmental synchrony is shown in healthy

  8. Evaluation of left ventricular hypertrophy using thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, echocardiography and vectorcardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yasunori; Owada, Kenji; Suzuki, Shigebumi

    1983-01-01

    Thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH). Twelve out of 40 patients had pressure overloading (Aortic stenosis: 5, Hypertension: 7), 14 patients had volume overloading (Aortic regurgitation: 9, Mitral regurgitation: 5) and 14 had idiopathic cardiomyopathy (Hypertrophic type (HCM): 8, Congestive type (CCM): 6), respectively. LV area, LV uptake index and Wall uptake ratio were calculated from left anterior oblique view of 201 Tl myocardial images. These three indices of both pressure overloading and volume overloading were significantly higher than those of controls. The degree of LVH was indicated by both LV area and LV uptake index. LV area was significantly larger in volume overloading than in pressure overloading. In idiopathic cardiomyopathy, these three indices of HCM and LV area and LV uptake index of CCM were significantly increased compared with those of controls. LV area of CCM was significantly larger than that of HCM, while Wall uptake ratio of HCM was significantly higher than that of CCM. LV uptake index and Wall uptake ratio of HCM became higher according as left ventricular cavity became smaller. LV area of CCM became larger in proportion as left ventricular cavity became larger and as left ventricular wall thickness became thinner. (author)

  9. Value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Shiga, Kouji; Umamoto, Ikuo

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy in 80 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 50 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Twenty persons without either coronary artery stenosis or heart disease were served as controls. Areas surrounded by maximum count points on the line of each 10deg on the short axis slice through the mid-cavity of the left ventricle were obtained at 10 minutes and at 3 hours after exercise. Transient dilation index (TDI) was obtained by dividing the area on early image by that on delayed image. TDI was significantly higher in patients with two or three vessel disease in the IHD group than the control group. High TDI was observed in 8% for one vessel disease, 40% for two vessel disease, and 80% for three vessel disease, contributing to the detection of multivessel IHD. In the HCM group of 80 patients, 24 (48%) had high TDI which was frequently associated with a history of chest pain and positive ECG findings at exercise. When these 24 HCM patients underwent exercise blood pool scintiscanning, left ventricular enddiastolic volume was similar before and at 10 minutes after exercise. These findings suggest that transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity after exercise may reflect subendocardial ischemia in both IHD and HCM. TDI would become a useful indicator for transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity. (N.K.)

  10. Functional reserve of the ischemic left ventricle with ventricular aneurysm to afterload stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuiki, Kai; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Hayasaka, Makio

    1985-01-01

    The response of left ventricular function to afterload stress was assessed using DSA for eight patients with old anterior myocardial infarction and ventricular aneurysm including that of the anterior wall. After initial DSA in the basal state, methoxamine was infused intravenously (1 to 2 mg/min). When aortic systolic blood pressure increased by 30 to 50 mmHg, a second DSA was performed for each patient. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions were calculated by the area-length method, and regional wall motion was assessed by the visual method according to the AHA classification and the curvature radius of the apical ventricular aneurysm was calculated. Methoxamine induced neither acute heart failure nor angina pectoris in the present series. The heart rates decreased, and there were a significant increase in end-systolic volumes (p ES ). However, ΔESV and ΔR ES did not correlate; ΔR ES was much greater in two patients, who were relatively old. Their aneurysms were circumscribed within the left ventricular anterior wall, their ejection fractions were relatively increased; and their onsets of acute myocardial infarction were relatively recent. (J.P.N.)

  11. On the calculation of principle curvatures of the left-ventricular surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Piet; Choi, Hon Fai; D'hooge, Jan; Rademakers, Frank E

    2008-01-01

    A local description of the shape of the left ventricle is relevant in assessing the process of adverse ventricular remodeling, associated with most cardiac pathologies, and in monitoring reverse remodeling by therapy. To quantify local shape of the left ventricle, one can calculate the curvature of its epicardial or endocardial surface. The 3D geometry of the heart and especially the ventricles, can typically be described using finite element meshes. From a mathematical point of view these meshes provide a local parametrization of the surface in the 3-dimensional space. We discuss the analytic derivation of the principle curvatures of the left-ventricular surfaces given their smooth finite-element meshes and apply this derivation to assess the regional shape of the normal porcine left ventricle.

  12. Determination of left ventricular function parameters and myocardial mass: comparison of MRI and EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelitz, D.E.; Enzweiler, C.N.H.; Wiese, T.H.; Lembcke, A.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Borges, A.; Zytowski, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Comparative volumetric assessment of the left ventricle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electron beam tomography (EBT) in patients with ischemic and dilated cardiac disease. Methods: Thirty-two patients underwent cine MRI and EBT in the multislice mode. All studies were triggered to the ECG. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), enddiastolic (EDV) and endsystolic volume (ESV), and myocardial mass (MM) were determined by 3D-volumetry by MRI and EBT and results were compared. Results: The correlation between MRI and EBT for EF, EDV, ESV, and MM were r=0.86, r=0.95, r=0.95, and r=0.93, respectively. Conclusions: There is an excellent correlation between MRI and EBT in determining left-ventricular parameters. Both methods are suitable for volumetric assessment of the left ventricie. (orig.) [de

  13. Evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function obtained by quantitative gated SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin for left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Kazunobu; Nakajima, Tohru; Iseki, Harukazu; Abe, Sumihisa; Handa, Shunnosuke; Suzuki, Yutaka [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    The quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software is able to calculate LV volumes and visualize LV wall motion and perfusion throughout the cardiac cycle using an automatic edge detection algorithm of the left ventricle. We evaluated the reliability of global and regional LV function assessment derived from QGS by comparing it with the results from left ventriculo-cineangiography (LVG). In 20 patients with left ventricular dysfunction who underwent ECG gated {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT, the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated. The QGS-assessed regional wall motion was determined using the cinematic display. QGS-derived EDV, ESV and LVEF correlated well with those by LVG (p<0.001 for each). There was a good correlation between wall motion score (WMS) derived from the QGS and the LVG (r=0.40, p<0.05). In some patients with extensive myocardial infarction, there was a discrepancy in the regional wall motion results between QGS and LVG. The ECG-gated SPECT using QGS is useful to evaluate global and regional LV functions in left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  14. Accuracy of right and left ventricular functional assessment by short-axis vs axial cine steady-state free-precession magnetic resonance imaging: intrapatient correlation with main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta phase-contrast flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Susan H; Wald, Rachel; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Deva, Djeven; Crean, Andrew M; Nguyen, Elsie; Paul, Narinder S; Ley, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    The left ventricle (LV) is routinely assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using short-axis orientation; it remains unclear whether the right ventricle (RV) can also be adequately assessed in this orientation or whether dedicated axial orientation is required. We used phase-contrast (PC) flow measurements in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ascending aorta (Aorta) as nonvolumetric standard of reference and compared RV and LV volumes in short-axis and axial orientations. A retrospective analysis identified 30 patients with cardiac MRI data sets. Patients underwent MRI (1.5 T or 3 T), with retrospectively gated cine steady-state free-precession in axial and short-axis orientations. PC flow analyses of MPA and Aorta were used as the reference measure of RV and LV output. There was a high linear correlation between MPA-PC flow and RV-stroke volume (SV) short axis (r = 0.9) and RV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 1.4 mL for RV axial and -2.3 mL for RV-short-axis vs MPA-PC flow. There was a high linear correlation between Aorta-PC flow and LV-SV short-axis (r = 0.9) and LV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 4.8 m for LV short axis and 7.0 mL for LV axial vs Aorta-PC flow. There was no significant difference (P = .6) between short-axis-LV SV and short-axis-RV SV. No significant impact of the slice acquisition orientation for determination of RV and LV stroke volumes was found. Therefore, cardiac magnetic resonance workflow does not need to be extended by an axial data set for patients without complex cardiac disease for assessment of biventricular function and volumes. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Autonomic Predictors of Hospitalization Due to Heart Failure Decompensation in Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system balance can be significantly deteriorated during heart failure exacerbation. However, it is still unknown whether these changes are only the consequence of heart failure decompensation or can also predict development thereof. Objectives were to verify if simple, non-invasive autonomic parameters, such as baroreflex sensitivity and short-term heart rate variability can provide independent of other well-known clinical parameters information on the risk of heart failure decompensation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.In 142 stable patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, baroreflex sensitivity and short-term heart rate variability, as well as other well-known clinical parameters, were analyzed. During 23 ± 9 months of follow-up 19 patients were hospitalized due to the heart failure decompensation (EVENT.Pre-specified cut-off values of baroreflex sensitivity (≤2.4 ms/mmHg and low frequency power index of heart rate variability (≤19 ms2 were significantly associated with the EVENTs (hazard ratio 4.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-14.54 and 5.41, 95% CI 1.87-15.65 respectively. EVENTs were also associated with other parameters, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA class, diuretic use, renal function, brain natriuretic peptide and hemoglobin level, left atrial size, left and right ventricular heart failure signs. After adjusting baroreflex sensitivity and low frequency power index for each of the abovementioned parameters, autonomic parameters were still significant predictors of hospitalization due to the heart failure decompensation.Simple, noninvasive autonomic indices can be helpful in identifying individuals with increased risk of hospitalization due to the heart failure decompensation among clinically stable patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, even when adjusted for other well-known clinical parameters.

  16. The left atrium, atrial fibrillation, and the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Devereux, R.B.; Lyle, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    was superior to atenolol-based treatment for reducing new-onset AF and complications, especially stroke, associated with new-onset or pre-existing AF. Potential mechanisms of AF prevention by angiotensin receptor blockade supported by LIFE results include greater reduction in left atrial size and LV......The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study provided extensive data on predisposing factors, consequences, and prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Randomized losartan-based treatment...... hypertrophy. Differential effects of antihypertensive treatment on the left atrium and left ventricle may help prevent AF and reduce risk of stroke associated with hypertensive heart disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  17. Effect of Renin-Angiotensin Blockers on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Serene Si-Ning; Sia, Ching-Hui; Ngiam, Nicholas Jinghao; Tan, Benjamin Yong-Qiang; Lee, Poay Sian; Tay, Edgar Lik-Wui; Kong, William Kok-Fai; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2017-06-01

    Studies have shown that medical therapy with renin-angiotensin blockers (RABs) may benefit patients with aortic stenosis (AS). However, its use and efficacy remains controversial, including in patients with low flow (LF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We examined the effects of RAB use on LV remodeling in patients with severe AS with preserved LVEF, analyzing the differential effects in patients with LF compared with normal flow (NF). This is a retrospective study of 428 consecutive subjects from 2005 to 2014 with echocardiographic diagnosis of severe AS and preserved LVEF. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were systematically collected and analyzed. Two hundred forty-two (57%) patients had LF. Sixty-four LF patients (26%) were treated with RAB. Patients on RAB treatment had a higher incidence of hyperlipidemia (69% vs 44%) and diabetes mellitus (53% vs 34%). Severity of AS in terms of valve area, transvalvular mean pressure gradient, and aortic valve resistance were similar between both groups as was the degree of LV diastolic function. The RAB group demonstrated significantly lower LV mass index with a correspondingly lower incidence of concentric LV hypertrophy. Regardless of the duration of RAB therapy, patients had increased odds of having a preserved LV mass index compared with those without RAB therapy. In conclusion, RAB therapy may be associated with less LV pathological remodeling and have a role in delaying patients from developing cardiovascular complications of AS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiac MRI and Transthoracic Echocardiography of Left Ventricular Myocardial Noncompaction in A Patient with Congestive Heart Failure: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eui Min; Byun, Joo Nam [Chosun University Hospital College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Soonchunhyang University Hospital Bucheon College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We report a case of a 38-year-old male presenting with new-onset dyspnea, that was diagnosed as left ventricular noncompaction by transthoracic echocardiographic and cardiac MR. The tests revealed left ventricular systolic dysfunction with prominent trabeculations associated with deep intertrabecular recesses and an enddiastolic noncompacted to compacted ratio of 2.5 in the whole apical wall and mid-ventricular anterolateral and inferolateral walls. Delayed gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI revealed subepicardial mid-wall hyperenhancement of the midventricular anteroseptal and inferoseptal walls, which suggested myocardial fibrosis. We review the pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic approach of the left ventricular noncompaction associated with congestive heart failure

  19. Correlation between Left Ventricular Global and Regional Longitudinal Systolic Strain and Impaired Microcirculation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Christophersen, Thomas Brøcher

    2012-01-01

    investigated if LRS and GLS imaging is superior to conventional measures of left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: In a consecutive population of first time AMI patients, who underwent successful revascularization, we performed comprehensive TTE. GLS and LRS were obtained from the three standard apical views...... elevation myocardial infarction. The GLS was -15.2 [-19.3;-10.1]% in the total population of 183 patients. Total wall motion score index (WMSI) in the population was 1.19 [1;1.5]. Eighty-five patients suffered from culprit lesion in left anterior descending artery (LAD). The CFR in these patients was 1......Objectives: We investigated the correlation between left ventricular global and regional longitudinal systolic strain (GLS and LRS) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Furthermore, we...

  20. Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation with Concomitant Aortic Valve and Ascending Aortic Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenges, Katharina; Panholzer, Bernd; Cremer, Jochen; Haneya, Assad

    2018-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is nowadays a routine therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. We present the case of a 74-year-old male patient who was admitted to our center with terminal heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy and ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic valve regurgitation. The LVAD implantation with simultaneous aortic valve and supracoronary ascending aortic replacement was successfully performed.

  1. State of Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function in Patients with Postinfarction Cardiosclerosis and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Kravchun

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions. Comorbidity of obesity and postinfarction remodeling potentiate the increase of the heart size, dilatation of the heart cavities on the background of inotropic myocardial function reduction. In most patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis and obesity, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction manifested by a type of relaxation disturbance.

  2. Independent prognostic value of left ventricular mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Leósdóttir, Margrét

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the independent prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the prediction of incident cardiac events in a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHOD: 415 women and 999 men aged 56-79 years, included between 2002...

  3. Overexpressed connective tissue growth factor in cardiomyocytes attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by angiotensin II perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yan, Hua; Guang, Gong-Chang; Deng, Zheng-Rong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the improving effects of specifically overexpressed connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in cardiomyocytes on mice with hypertension induced by angiotensin II (AngII) perfusion, 24 transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of CTGF (Tg-CTGF) were divided into two equal groups that were perfused with acetic acid and AngII, respectively, for 7 days. Another 24 cage-control wild-type C57BL/6 mice (NLC) were divided and treated identically. Blood pressure was detected by caudal artery cannulation. Cardiac structural and functional changes were observed by echocardiography. Cardiac fibrosis was detected by Masson staining. After AngII perfusion, blood pressures of NLC and Tg-CTGF mice, especially those of the formers, significantly increased. Compared with NLC + AngII group, Tg-CTGF + AngII group had significantly lower left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole and left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole as well as significantly higher left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (P tissues (P < 0.05). Tg-CTGF can protect AngII-induced cardiac remodeling of mice with hypertension by mitigating inflammatory response. CTGF may be a therapy target for hypertension-induced myocardial fibrosis, but the detailed mechanism still needs in-depth studies.

  4. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, F; Dalla Pozza, A; Sonino, N; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Federspil, G; Ermani, M; Catena, C; Soardo, G; Di Piazza, L; Bernardi, S; Bertolotto, M; Pinamonti, B; Fabris, B; Sechi, L A

    2009-11-01

    Insulin resistance is recognized as the pathophysiological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A relation between insulin sensitivity and left ventricular morphology and function has been reported in essential hypertension, where a high prevalence of NAFLD has been recently found. We investigated the inter-relationship between left ventricular morphology/function, metabolic parameters and NAFLD in 86 never-treated essential hypertensive patients subdivided in two subgroups according to the presence (n = 48) or absence (n = 38) of NAFLD at ultrasonography. The two groups were similar as to sex, age and blood pressure levels. No patient had diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or other risk factors for liver disease. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD, and were associated with NAFLD at univariate analysis. Patients with NAFLD had similar prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy compared to patients without NAFLD, but a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (62.5 vs 21.1%, P 220 ms. Diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.040) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.012) remained independently associated with NAFLD at backward multivariate analysis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with insulin resistance and abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function in a cohort of patients with essential hypertension, suggesting a concomitant increase of metabolic and cardiac risk in this condition.

  5. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis increases the risk of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brotánek, J.; Ort, Michael; Kubánek, M.; Stiborová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, Suppl.2 (2013), s. 64-70 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : left ventricular diastolic dysfunction * cirrhosis * liver * alcohol Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2013

  6. Psychological distress in patients with a left ventricular assist device and their partners : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, C.J.; Denollet, J.; Caliskan, K.; de Jonge, N.; Constantinescu, A.; Young, Q.; Kaan, A.; Pedersen, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure,and may have a significant psychological impact on both patients and their partners. Hence, we examined the distress levels of LVAD patients and their partners. Methods: Anxiety,

  7. Psychological distress in patients with a left ventricular assist device and their partners : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Corline; Denollet, Johan; Caliskan, Kadir; de Jonge, N; Constantinescu, Alina; Young, Quincy; Kaan, Annemarie; Pedersen, Susanne S

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure, and may have a significant psychological impact on both patients and their partners. Hence, we examined the distress levels of LVAD patients and their partners. METHODS: Anxiety,

  8. Gene Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Geometry and Function in Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Scaglione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism was analyzed in 198 hypertensives with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and in 235 hypertensives without LVH. Circulating TGFβ1 levels, procollagen type III levels, microalbuminuria, and left ventricular geometry and function were evaluated in all the hypertensives with LVH subgrouped according to T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism. Circulating TGFβ1 was evaluated by ELISA technique, procollagen type III by a specific radioimmunoassay, microalbuminuria by radioimmunoassay, and left ventricular geometry and function by echocardiography. All groups were comparable for gender, age, and sex. Regarding T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism, prevalence of TC or CC genotypes was significantly (P<.05 higher in hypertensives with LVH than hypertensives without LVH TC and CC LVH hypertensives were characterized by a higher prevalence of subjects with microalbuminuria (P<.05 TC and CC versus TT, by increased levels of TGFβ1, procollagen type III, urinary albumin excretion, LVM, LVM/h2.7, and lower values of left ventricular ejection fraction (P<.05 TC and CC versus TT. Our data suggest that T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism was associated with clinical characteristics adequate to recognize a subset of LVH hypertensives with a higher severity of hypertension.

  9. Relationship between left ventricular dysfunction and depression following myocardial infarction : data from the MIND-IT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melle, JP; de Jonge, P; Ormel, J; Crijns, HJGM; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Honig, A; Schene, AH; van den Berg, MP

    2005-01-01

    Aims Depression in patients following myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an increased risk of mortality, but this association may be confounded by cardiac disease severity. We explored the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and depression in MI patients.

  10. Hemodynamic effects of iodixanol and iohexol during ventriculography in patients with compromised left ventricular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A; van Dijk, RB; Brekke, O; Orozco, L; den Heijer, P; Crijns, HJGM

    A crossover study was performed to compare the hemodynamic effects of the isoosmolar contrast agent iodixanol (Visipaque(R)) 320 mg I/ml to those of the low-osmolar iohexol (Omnipaque(R)) 350 mg I/ml. The main hypothesis was that iodixanol and iohexol would affect left ventricular end-diastolic

  11. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: emerging role in poor left ventricular function severe aortic stenosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. John Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has become an established treatment option for high risk elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Its role in less high risk patients is being evaluated in clinical trials. Patients with severely impaired left ventricular function may be another group who may benefit from this emerging percutaneous treatment option.

  12. The management of patients with aortic regurgitation and severe left ventricular dysfunction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Athar A; Brunton, Alan P T; Mahmood, Ammad H; Dobbin, Stephen; Pozzi, Andrea; McMinn, Jenna F; Sinclair, Andrew J E; Gardner, Roy S; Petrie, Mark C; Curry, Phil A; Al-Attar, Nawwar H K; Pettit, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases was performed. Original research articles reporting all-cause mortality following surgery in patients with aortic regurgitation and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) were identified. Nine of the 10 eligible studies were observational, single-center, retrospective analyses. Survival ranged from 86 to 100% at 30 days; 81 to 100% at 1 year and 68 to 84% at 5 years. Three studies described an improvement in mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following aortic valve replacement (AVR) of 5-14%; a fourth study reported an increase in mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 9% in patients undergoing isolated AVR but not when AVR was combined with coronary artery bypass graft and/or mitral valve surgery. Three studies demonstrated improvements in functional New York Heart Association (NYHA) class following AVR. Additional studies are needed to clarify the benefits of AVR in patients with more extreme degrees of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and the potential roles of cardiac transplantation and transaortic valve implantation.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction in the mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, Gustav J.; Bouts, Annemiek; Blankesteijn, W. Matthijs; Peeters, Tim H. J. M.; Vilanova, Anna; van Prooijen, Mischa C.; Sanders, Honorius M. H. F.; Heijman, Edwin; Nicolay, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    The cardiac muscle architecture lies at the basis of the mechanical and electrical properties of the heart, and dynamic alterations in fiber structure are known to be of prime importance in healing and remodeling after myocardial infarction. In this study, left ventricular remodeling was

  14. Decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in the human heart with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stride, Nis; Larsen, Steen; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is associated with a shift in substrate utilization and a compromised energetic state. Whether these changes are connected with mitochondrial dysfunction is not known. We hypothesized that the cardiac phenotype in LVSD could...

  15. Left ventricular functional, structural and energetic effects of normal aging: Comparison with hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehill D Parikh

    Full Text Available Both aging and hypertension are significant risk factors for heart failure in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine how aging, with and without hypertension, affects left ventricular function.Cross-sectional study of magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy-based measurements of left ventricular structure, global function, strains, pulse wave velocity, high energy phosphate metabolism in 48 normal subjects and 40 treated hypertensive patients (though no other cardiovascular disease or diabetes stratified into 3 age deciles from 50-79 years.Normal aging was associated with significant increases in systolic blood pressure, vascular stiffness, torsion, and impaired diastolic function (all P<0.05. Age-matched hypertension exacerbated the effects of aging on systolic pressure, and diastolic function. Hypertension alone, and not aging, was associated with increased left ventricular mass index, reduced energetic reserve, reduced longitudinal shortening and increased endocardial circumferential shortening (all P<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that these unique hypertensive features were significantly related to systolic blood pressure (P<0.05.1 Hypertension adds to the age-related changes in systolic blood pressure and diastolic function; 2 hypertension is uniquely associated with changes in several aspects of left ventricular structure, function, systolic strains, and energetics; and 3 these uniquely hypertensive-associated parameters are related to the level of systolic blood pressure and so are potentially modifiable.

  16. Integrated genomic approaches implicate osteoglycin (Ogn) in the regulation of left ventricular mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petretto, Enrico; Sarwar, Rizwan; Grieve, Ian; Lu, Han; Kumaran, Mande K.; Muckett, Phillip J.; Mangion, Jonathan; Schroen, Blanche; Benson, Matthew; Punjabi, Prakash P.; Prasad, Sanjay K.; Pennell, Dudley J.; Kiesewetter, Chris; Tasheva, Elena S.; Corpuz, Lolita M.; Webb, Megan D.; Conrad, Gary W.; Kurtz, Theodore W.; Kren, Vladimir; Fischer, Judith; Hubner, Norbert; Pinto, Yigal M.; Pravenec, Michal; Aitman, Timothy J.; Cook, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac gene expression are complex traits regulated by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to the heart. To dissect the major determinants of LVM, we combined expression quantitative trait locus1 and quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analyses of the cardiac

  17. Blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy during American-style football participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Rory B; Wang, Francis; Isaacs, Stephanie K; Malhotra, Rajeev; Berkstresser, Brant; Kim, Jonathan H; Hutter, Adolph M; Picard, Michael H; Wang, Thomas J; Baggish, Aaron L

    2013-07-30

    Hypertension, a strong determinant of cardiovascular disease risk, has been documented among elite, professional American-style football (ASF) players. The risk of increased blood pressure (BP) and early adulthood hypertension among the substantially larger population of collegiate ASF athletes is not known. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study to examine BP, the incidence of hypertension, and left ventricular remodeling among collegiate ASF athletes. Resting BP and left ventricular structure were assessed before and after a single season of competitive ASF participation in 6 consecutive groups of first-year university athletes (n=113). ASF participation was associated with significant increases in systolic BP (116±8 versus 125±13 mm Hg; Phistory of hypertension were the strongest independent predictors of postseason BP. Among linemen, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (2 of 64 [3%] versus 20 of 64 [31%]; P<0.001) and change in left ventricular mass correlated with intraseason change in systolic BP (R=0.46, P<0.001). Collegiate ASF athletes may be at risk for clinically relevant increases in BP and the development of hypertension. Enhanced surveillance and carefully selected interventions may represent important opportunities to improve later-life cardiovascular health outcomes in this population.

  18. New method for cardiac resynchronization therapy: Transapical endocardial lead implantation for left ventricular free wall pacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kassai (Imre); C. Foldesi (Csaba); A. Szekely (Andrea); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCoronary sinus lead placement for transvenous left ventricular (LV) pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has a significant failure rate at implant and a significant dislocation rate during follow-up. For these patients, epicardial pacing lead implantation is the most

  19. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in GUSTO IV ACS: an important risk marker of mortality in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhout, Cynthia M; Lauer, Michael S; Fu, Yuling

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on admission electrocardiography with adverse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7443 non-ST-elevation ACS patients in Global Utilization of STrategies to Open occluded arteries ...

  20. Availability of 111In-labeled platelet scintigraphy in patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takatoshi; Kubota, Masahiro; Iwakubo, Akifumi

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) were examined with indium-111-labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy to identify intracardiac thrombi and to investigate the effect of antithrombotic agents on thrombogenesitiy within the LVA. Indium-111-platelet scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100% in detecting LVA mural thrombi. Among 6 patients showing false-negative scintigraphic studies, 4 was managed on antiplatelet therapy. Of 9 patients showing active platelet deposition on initial study, including 8 not receiving antiplatelet therapy, 5 were treated with tichlopidine (300 mg/day) for 29.8±5.0 days. For the 5 patients, 2 had resolution and the 3 others had interruption of intraaneurysmal deposition in the second platelet study. For one patient receiving the third platelet study after warfarin therapy, it took two weeks to completely interrupt platelet deposition within the LVA. ECG gated radionuclide ventriculography and thallium-201 myocardial SPECT were also performed to assess left ventricular wall motion of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial blood perfusion. Thallium-201 SPECT showed apical or anteroapical perfusion defects. Radionuclide ventriculography pinpointed all 18 apical and anteroseptal aneurysms. A comparison between the thrombus positive group and the thrombus negative group revealed no statistical differences in LVEF and the period from the last myocardial infarction to the initial platelet scanning. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scintigraphy may be useful for identifying active left ventricular mural thrombi and for judging antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. (Namekawa, K)

  1. Availability of /sup 111/In-labeled platelet scintigraphy in patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Takatoshi; Kubota, Masahiro; Iwakubo, Akifumi and others

    1989-03-01

    Eighteen patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) were examined with indium-111-labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy to identify intracardiac thrombi and to investigate the effect of antithrombotic agents on thrombogenesitiy within the LVA. Indium-111-platelet scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100% in detecting LVA mural thrombi. Among 6 patients showing false-negative scintigraphic studies, 4 was managed on antiplatelet therapy. Of 9 patients showing active platelet deposition on initial study, including 8 not receiving antiplatelet therapy, 5 were treated with tichlopidine (300 mg/day) for 29.8+-5.0 days. For the 5 patients, 2 had resolution and the 3 others had interruption of intraaneurysmal deposition in the second platelet study. For one patient receiving the third platelet study after warfarin therapy, it took two weeks to completely interrupt platelet deposition within the LVA. ECG gated radionuclide ventriculography and thallium-201 myocardial SPECT were also performed to assess left ventricular wall motion of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial blood perfusion. Thallium-201 SPECT showed apical or anteroapical perfusion defects. Radionuclide ventriculography pinpointed all 18 apical and anteroseptal aneurysms. A comparison between the thrombus positive group and the thrombus negative group revealed no statistical differences in LVEF and the period from the last myocardial infarction to the initial platelet scanning. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scintigraphy may be useful for identifying active left ventricular mural thrombi and for judging antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. (Namekawa, K).

  2. Effect of candesartan treatment on left ventricular remodeling after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbaek, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2010-01-01

    In hypertension, angiotensin receptor blockers can augment regression of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. It is not known whether this also is the case after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic stenosis (AS). To test the hypothesis that treatment with candesartan in addition to con...

  3. Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping: A Case Study of Functional Assessment in Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio

    2000-01-01

    Electromechanical mapping is a new diagnostic tool that can be used to identify viable myocardium. In the case reported here, the technique was used before intervention to map areas of viable myocardium; post-intervention mapping showed improved mechanical function of the revascularized areas. Electromechanical mapping offers the potential of assessing left ventricular function in the cardiac catheterization laboratory before and after interventional procedures.

  4. Left ventricular twist and circumferential strain in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Olsen, N. T.; Moesgaard, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    During the cardiac cycle, the ventricle undergoes a twisting motion because of the oblique orientation of the left ventricular (LV) myofibers. This can be quantified by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE). In mitral regurgitation (MR) in humans, the short axis deformation has been suggested...

  5. Characterization of the Left-Sided Substrate in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Benjamin; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Yamashita, Seigo; Komatsu, Yuki; Pillois, Xavier; Sacher, Frédéric; Mahida, Saagar; Wielandts, Jean-Yves; Sellal, Jean-Marc; Frontera, Antonio; Al Jefairi, Nora; Derval, Nicolas; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, François; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Cochet, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    The correlates of left ventricular (LV) substrate in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are largely unknown. Thirty-two patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (47±14 years; 6 women) were included. RV and LV dysplasia were defined from multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Arrhythmias were characterized as right-sided or left-sided on 12-lead ECG recordings at baseline and during isoproterenol testing. In 14 patients, the imaging substrate was compared with voltage mapping and local abnormal ventricular activity. Imaging abnormalities were found in 32 (100%) and 21 (66%) patients on the RV and LV, respectively, intramyocardial fat on multidetector computed tomography being the most sensitive feature. LV involvement related to none of the Task Force criteria. Right-sided arrhythmias were more frequent than left-sided arrhythmias (P=0.003) although the latter were more frequent in case of LV involvement (P=0.02). The agreement between low voltage and fat on multidetector computed tomography was high on the RV when using either endocardial unipolar or epicardial bipolar data (κ=0.82 and κ=0.78, respectively) but lower on the LV (κ=0.54 for epicardial bipolar). LV local abnormal ventricular activity was found in all patients with LV involvement, and none of the others. The density of local abnormal ventricular activity within fat areas was similar between the RV and LV (P=0.57). LV substrate is frequent in arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy, but poorly identified by current diagnostic strategies. Left-sided arrhythmias are more frequent in case of LV involvement. LV fat hosts the same density of local abnormal ventricular activity as RV fat, but is less efficiently detected by voltage mapping. These results support the need for alternative diagnostic strategies to identify LV dysplasia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Programming in Patients With a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Travis D; Hale, Leslie; Arteaga, Christopher; Xu, Meng; Keebler, Mary; Schlendorf, Kelly; Danter, Matthew; Shah, Ashish; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Ellis, Christopher R

    2018-02-23

    Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) but are often hemodynamically tolerated. Optimal implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) tachy-programming strategies in patients with LVAD have not been determined. We sought to determine if an ultra-conservative ICD programming strategy in patients with LVAD affects ICD shocks. Adult patients with an existing ICD undergoing continuous flow LVAD implantation were randomized to standard ICD programming by their treating physician or an ultra-conservative ICD programming strategy utilizing maximal allowable intervals to detection in the ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia zones with use of ATP. Patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices were also randomized to CRT ON or OFF. Patients were followed a minimum of 6 months. The primary outcome was time to first ICD shock. Among the 83 patients studied, we found no statistically significant difference in time to first ICD shock or total ICD shocks between groups. In the ultra-conservative group 16% of patients experienced at least one shock compared with 21% in the control group ( P =0.66). There was no difference in mortality, arrhythmic hospitalization, or hospitalization for heart failure. In the 41 patients with CRT ICDs fewer shocks were observed with CRT-ON but this was not statistically significant: 10% of patients with CRT-ON (n=21) versus 38% with CRT-OFF (n=20) received shocks ( P =0.08). An ultra-conservative programming strategy did not reduce ICD shocks. Programming restrictions on ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation zone therapy should be reconsidered for the LVAD population. The role of CRT in patients with LVAD warrants further investigation. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01977703. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Do diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension predispose to left ventricular free wall rupture in acute myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, T; Hildebrant, P; Køber, L

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age <65 years and a history of coronary artery disease offers some protection from protection.......Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age

  8. Diastolic left ventricular function in preterm infants with a patent ductus arteriosus: a serial Doppler echocardiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Lothar; Stiller, Brigitte; Koch, Heike; Koehne, Petra; Lange, Peter

    2004-02-01

    In very low birth weight neonates, a left-to-right shunt via persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may interact with diastolic left ventricular function, but specific changes of Doppler parameters have yet to be reported. In a serial transmitral Doppler study, we investigated the impact of a PDA on diastolic function parameters. Twenty-two patients with and without PDA were examined on day 3.8+/-1 and day 14+/-2 after birth. By the first examination, 13 out of 22 patients had a PDA; by the second examination, the number was still 8 out of 22. Peak early and atrial flow velocities (44.8+/-15 and 50.1+/-13 cm/s, respectively) were higher (pclosure of the PDA. When premature infants with a PDA experience a preload challenge, early and atrial peak velocities increase and IVRT shortens significantly. This coincidence of elevated transvalvular pressure differences and decreased IVRT in neonates with immature diastolic function can best be explained as a result of left atrial pressure elevation. Consequently, pulmonary venous pressure must be elevated, with its inherent effect on pulmonary capillary physiology. Thus, the monitoring of left ventricular diastolic function adds significant information to the care of preterm infants with a PDA.

  9. The Prognostic Value of Left Atrial Peak Reservoir Strain in Acute Myocardial Infarction Is Dependent on Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function and Left Atrial Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Andersen, Mads J; Valeur, Nana

    2013-01-01

    of PALS and left ventricular longitudinal strain (global longitudinal strain) in large-scale populations in regard to prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 843 patients (mean age 62.1+/-11.8; 74% male) with acute myocardial infarction and measured global longitudinal strain, left......BACKGROUND: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) during the reservoir phase has been proposed as a measure of left atrium function in a range of cardiac conditions, with the potential for added pathophysiological insight and prognostic value. However, no studies have assessed the interrelation...

  10. Assessment of left ventricular function at different levels of exercise using gold-195m in asymptomatic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, F.; Margonato, A.; Gerundini, P.; Vicedomini, G.; Gilardi, M.C.; Fregoso, A.; Bencivelli, W.; Milanesi, L.; Pozza, G.

    1985-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated by gold-195m first pass ventriculography in 10 diabetic patients with microangiopathy, in 10 diabetics without any complications, and in 10 healthy controls during maximum exercise. No differences among groups were present at rest, but at maximal exercise LVEF was significantly lower in microangiopathic patients than in the other two groups. Also muscle blood flow measured by xenon-133 washout was significantly lower during exercise in microangiopathic subjects. Small-vessel involvement of myocardium and muscle could play a role in the development of cardiovascular abnormalities during exercise in diabetics

  11. Perioperative management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D V; Kantrowitz, A; Pacholewicz, J; Salat, O; Paules, B R; Zhou, Y; Dawe, E J

    2000-01-01

    To describe perioperative management of calves that underwent left lateral thoracotomy, aortic cross-clamping, partial left heart bypass and implantation of a left ventricular assist device. A total of 43 healthy castrated male calves, weighing 121 +/- 24 kg. Diazepam (mean +/- SD, 0.26 +/- 0.07 mg/kg), ketamine (5.9 +/- 2.17 mg/kg) and isoflurane were used in the anesthetic management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device in the descending thoracic aorta. Other adjunctive agents administered were fentanyl (11 +/- 5.4 microg/kg), lidocaine (4.9 +/- 3.19 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.75%) and butorphanol (0.49 +/- 0.13 mg/kg). None of the calves regurgitated at induction or during intubation. A tube was used to drain the rumen and prevent bloat during the procedure. Partial left heart bypass was used to perfuse the caudal half of the body during the period of aortic cross clamp and device implantation. Initial mean systemic blood pressure was 96 +/- 25 mm Hg, and pressures measured in the auricular artery increased during aortic cross-clamping and bypass. Vasoconstrictor therapy was required to treat caudal arterial hypotension during the procedure in 9 calves. Mean systemic arterial pressures returned to baseline values by the end of the anesthetic period. Initial mean pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) were 22 +/- 3 mm Hg. A significant but transient increase in pulmonary arterial pressure occurred after both heparin and protamine administration. The described anesthetic protocol was effective for thoracotomy and implantation of an intra-aortic left ventricular assist device in normal calves. Partial left ventricular bypass was a useful adjunct during the period of aortic cross clamp. The doses of heparin and protamine administered were effective. Responsibility to monitor oxygenation of the cranial half of the animal continues during the bypass period as hypoxemia due to pulmonary dysfunction will not be detected by the perfusionist.

  12. Effect of age on left ventricular function during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; DePace, N.L.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in 79 patients with coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 50% narrowing of one or more major coronary arteries). Fifty patients under the age of 60 years (group I) and 29 patients 60 years or older (group II) were studied. Radionuclide angiograms were obtained at rest and during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. The history of hypertension, angina or Q wave myocardial infarction was similar in both groups. Multivessel coronary artery disease was present in 30 patients (60%) in group I and in 19 patients (66%) in group II (p . not significant). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the hemodynamic variables (at rest or during exercise) of left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and cardiac index. Exercise tolerance was higher in group I than in group II (7.8 +/- 0.4 versus 5.7 +/- 0.4 minutes, p . 0.009), although the exercise heart rate and rate-pressure product were not significantly different between the groups. There was poor correlation between age and ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume at rest and during exercise. Abnormal left ventricular function at rest or an abnormal response to exercise was noted in 42 patients (84%) in group I and in 25 patients (86%) in group II (p . not significant). Thus, in patients with coronary artery disease, age does not influence left ventricular function at rest or response to exercise. Older patients with coronary artery disease show changes in left ventricular function similar to those in younger patients with corresponding severity of coronary artery disease

  13. Assessment of left ventricular function: comparison between radionuclide angiography and semiquantitative two-dimensional echocardiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottsauner-Wolf, M.; Schedlmayer-Duit, J.; Porenta, G.; Gwechenberger, M.; Huber, K.; Glogar, D.; Probst, P.; Sochor, H.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of global left ventricular function is important in the follow-up of cardiac patients and is a good prognostic indicator in acute cardiac situations. We compared quantitative measurements of global left ventricular function made with radionuclide angiography (RNA) and contrast cardiac ventriculography (CVG) to visual semiquantitative estimates from two-dimensional echocardiographic images (2D-echo). Three hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent RNA were assessed with 2D-echo within 3 months. In addition, 92 of these patients also underwent CVG (correlation of ejection fraction between CVG and RNA: r=0.82; P<0.0001). The RNA mean ejection fractions in the four 2D-echo groups (0=normal, 1=slightly, 2=moderate, or 3=severe reduced left ventricular function) differed markedly (P<0.0001); however, there was overlapping among the groups (2D-echo score/RNA ejection fraction: 0=57.3%±12.8%; 1=46.0%±12.9%; 2=29.6%± 12.2%; and 3=24.6%±11.5%) and the difference between 2D-echo scores 2 and 3 was not significant. 2D-echo showed a good concordance in RNA classes (0=≥505; 1=35%-49%; 2=21%-34%; and 3=≤20% ejection fraction) 0 (133/166; 80%) and 3 (18/30; 60%) but low concordance in classes 1 (27/82; 33%) and 2 (21/61; 34%). For accurate assessment of global left ventricular ejection fraction, visual semiquantitative judgement of a 2D echocardiographic image is limited in comparison to CVG or RNA, especially in patients with a slight or moderate reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Prevalence, clinical significance, and natural history of left ventricular apical aneurysms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martin S; Finley, John J; Bos, J Martijn; Hauser, Thomas H; Manning, Warren J; Haas, Tammy S; Lesser, John R; Udelson, James E; Ackerman, Michael J; Maron, Barry J

    2008-10-07

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic heart disease characterized by a diverse clinical and phenotypic spectrum. This study reports the prevalence, morphology, clinical course, and management of an underrecognized subgroup of HCM patients with left ventricular apical aneurysms. Of 1299 HCM patients, 28 (2%) were identified with left ventricular apical aneurysms, including a pair of identical twins. Aneurysms were recognized at a wide age range (26 to 83 years), including 12 patients (43%) who were rims, and were associated with transmural (and often more extensive) myocardial scarring identified by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Apical aneurysms were recognized by echocardiography in only 16 of 28 patients (57%) but by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the 12 patients undetected by echocardiography. Left ventricular chamber morphology varied; however, 19 patients (68%) showed an "hourglass" contour, with midventricular hypertrophy producing muscular narrowing and intracavitary gradients in 9 patients (74+/-42 mm Hg). Sarcomeric protein missense mutations known to cause other phenotypic expressions of HCM were present in 3 patients. Over 4.1+/-3.7 years of follow-up, 12 patients (43%) with left ventricular apical aneurysms experienced adverse disease complications (event rate, 10.5%/y), including sudden death, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharges, nonfatal thromboembolic stroke, and progressive heart failure and death. Patients with left ventricular apical aneurysms represent an underappreciated subset in the heterogeneous HCM disease spectrum with important clinical implications, often requiring a high index of suspicion and cardiovascular magnetic resonance for identification. Apical aneurysms in HCM are associated with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and raise novel treatment considerations.

  15. Longitudinal Assessment of Left Ventricular Mass in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimur Dad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is related to development of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Blood pressure reduction has been shown to reduce left ventricular mass in ADPKD; however, moderators and predictors of response to lower blood pressure are unknown. Methods: This was a post hoc cohort analysis of HALT PKD study A, a randomized placebo controlled trial examining the effect of low blood pressure and single versus dual renin−angiotensin blockade in early ADPKD. Participants were hypertensive ADPKD patients 15 to 49 years of age with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR > 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 across 7 centers in the United States. Predictors included age, sex, baseline eGFR, systolic blood pressure, total kidney volume, serum potassium, and urine sodium, potassium, albumin, and aldosterone. Outcome was left ventricular mass index (LVMI measured using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging at months 0, 24, 48, and 60. Results: Reduction in LVMI was associated with higher baseline systolic blood pressure and larger kidney volume regardless of blood pressure control group assignment (P < 0.001 for both. Male sex and baseline eGFR were associated with a positive annual slope in LVMI (P < 0.001 and P = 0.07, respectively. Conclusion: Characteristics associated with higher risk of progression in ADPKD, including higher systolic blood pressure, larger kidney volume, and lower eGFR are associated with improvement in LVMI with intensive blood pressure control, whereas male sex is associated with a smaller slope of reduction in LVMI. Keywords: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular mass index

  16. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Left ventricular rupture postmitral valve replacement: Surviving a catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bisoyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the dreaded mechanical complications of mitral valve replacement (MVR is rupture of the left ventricle (LV. This report describes the early diagnosis and successful repair of rupture of posterior wall of LV in an elderly patient who underwent MVR. We have discussed the risk factors and perioperative issues implicated in such complication. The anesthesiologist as an intra-operative echocardiographer can aid in identifying the patient at risk. Though important surgical steps are necessary to prevent the complication; nonetheless, the anesthesiologist needs to take key measures in the perioperative period.

  18. Is right ventricular mid-septal pacing superior to apical pacing in patients with high degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricular function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Mao, Ye; Liu, Shao-hua; Wu, Qiong; Luo, Qing-zhi; Pan, Wen-qi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Ling, Tian-you; Chen, Ying; Gu, Gang; Shen, Wei-feng; Wu, Li-qun

    2014-06-01

    We are aimed to investigate whether right ventricular mid-septal pacing (RVMSP) is superior to conventional right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) in improving clinical functional capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricle (LV) function. Ninety-two patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately reduced LVEF (ranging from 35% to 50%) were randomly allocated to RVMSP (n=45) and RVAP (n=47). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic LVEF, and distance during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) were determined at 18 months after pacemaker implantation. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Compared with baseline, NYHA functional class remained unchanged at 18 months, distance during 6MWT (485 m vs. 517 m) and LVEF (36.7% vs. 41.8%) were increased, but BNP levels were reduced (2352 pg/ml vs. 710 pg/ml) in the RVMSP group compared with those in the RVAP group, especially in patients with LVEF 35%-40% (for all comparisons, Pfunction capacity and LV function measurements were not significantly changed in patients with RVAP, despite the pacing measurements being similar in both groups, such as R-wave amplitude and capture threshold. RVMSP provides a better clinical utility, compared with RVAP, in patients with high-degree atrioventricular block and moderately depressed LV function whose LVEF levels ranged from 35% to 40%.

  19.  Effect of Thrombolytic Therapy on the Incidence of Early Left Ventricular Infarct Expansion in Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namir Ghanim Al-Tawil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To determine the incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion within five days after first anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and the effect of early thrombolytic therapy on the incidence of early infarct expansion compared with late thrombolytic therapy.Methods: In a prospective study of 101 patients (75males and 26 females, with the first attack of acute anterior myocardial infarction, their ages ranged from 40-80 years (mean age: 61.07±10.78 who had been admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of Hawler Teaching Hospital for the period from July 2007 through to September 2009. Those who received alteplase ≤3 hours of acute myocardial infarction were labelled as group-I (49 patients and those who received alteplase >3-12 hours were labelled as group-II (52 patients.Results: The incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion was diagnosed by 2D-echocardiography and was found to be 17.8�20Group I patients had a lower incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion (8.16�20compared with group-II (26.92�20 p=0.014. Patients with early left ventricular infarct expansion had a higher frequency rate of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (94.44�20compared to patients without early left ventricular infarct expansion (8.43�20p<0.001. There was a significant difference in the incidence of in-hospital mortality between the patients who developed early left ventricular infarct expansion (11.1�20compared with patients without early left ventricular infarct expansion (1.2�20p=0.025.Conclusion: Early reperfusion therapy in acute anterior myocardial infarction can decrease the incidence of early left ventricular infarct expansion, preserve left ventricular systolic function and decrease in-hospital mortality.

  20. Management of severe ischemic cardiomyopathy: left ventricular assist device as destination therapy versus conventional bypass and mitral valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Simon; Tchantchaleishvili, Vahtang; Schaff, Hartzell V; Daly, Richard C; Suri, Rakesh M; Dearani, Joseph A; Topilsky, Yan; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle D; Park, Soon J

    2014-04-01

    Patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction assist device as destination therapy is reserved for patients who are too high risk for conventional surgery. We evaluated our outcomes with conventional surgery within this population and the comparative effectiveness of these 2 therapies. We identified patients who underwent conventional surgery or left ventricular assist device as destination therapy for severe ischemic cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction assist device as destination therapy. We compared baseline patient characteristics and outcomes in terms of end-organ function and survival. A total of 88 patients were identified; 55 patients underwent conventional surgery (63%), and 33 patients (37%) received a left ventricular assist device as destination therapy. Patients who received left ventricular assist device as destination therapy had the increased prevalence of renal failure, inotrope dependency, and intra-aortic balloon support. Patients undergoing conventional surgery required longer ventilatory support, and patients receiving a left ventricular assist device required more reoperation for bleeding. Mortality rates were similar between the 2 groups at 30 days (7% in the conventional surgery group vs 3% in the left ventricular assist device as destination therapy group, P = .65) and at 1 year (22% in the conventional surgery group vs 15% in the left ventricular assist device as destination therapy group, P = .58). There was a trend toward improved survival in patients receiving a left ventricular assist device compared with the propensity-matched groups at 1 year (94% vs 71%, P = .171). The operative mortality and early survival after conventional surgery seem to be acceptable. For inoperable or prohibitive-risk patients, left ventricular assist device as destination therapy can be offered with similar outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby

  1. Biomass fuel smoke exposure was associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs Peña, M S; Velazquez, E J; Rivera, J D; Alenezi, F; Wong, C; Grigsby, M; Davila-Roman, V G; Gilman, R H; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2017-07-01

    While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the relationship of biomass fuel use with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, adjusting for age, sex, height, body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, and tobacco use. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (80 biomass fuel users and 107 non-users) were included in this analysis (mean age 59 years, 58% women). After adjustment, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was associated with increased left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (P=.004), left atrial diameter (P=.03), left atrial area (four-chamber) (P=.004) and (two-chamber) (P=.03), septal E' (P=.006), and lateral E' (P=.04). Exposure to biomass fuel smoke was also associated with worse global longitudinal strain in the two-chamber view (P=.01). Daily biomass fuel use was associated with increased left ventricular size and decreased left ventricular systolic function by global longitudinal strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Left ventricular wall motion abnormalities evaluated by factor analysis as compared with Fourier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Ikuno, Yoshiyasu; Nishikimi, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Factor analysis was applied to multigated cardiac pool scintigraphy to evaluate its ability to detect left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in 35 patients with old myocardial infarction (MI), and in 12 control cases with normal left ventriculography. All cases were also evaluated by conventional Fourier analysis. In most cases with normal left ventriculography, the ventricular and atrial factors were extracted by factor analysis. In cases with MI, the third factor was obtained in the left ventricle corresponding to wall motion abnormality. Each case was scored according to the coincidence of findings of ventriculography and those of factor analysis or Fourier analysis. Scores were recorded for three items; the existence, location, and degree of asynergy. In cases of MI, the detection rate of asynergy was 94 % by factor analysis, 83 % by Fourier analysis, and the agreement in respect to location was 71 % and 66 %, respectively. Factor analysis had higher scores than Fourier analysis, but this was not significant. The interobserver error of factor analysis was less than that of Fourier analysis. Factor analysis can display locations and dynamic motion curves of asynergy, and it is regarded as a useful method for detecting and evaluating left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. (author)

  3. Quantitation of left ventricular dimensions and function by digital video subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.; Norris, S.L.; Gerber, K.H.; Slutsky, R.A.; Ashburn, W.L.; Baily, N.

    1982-01-01

    Digital video subtraction angiography (DVSA) after central intravenous administration of contrast media was used in experimental animals and in patients with suspected coronary artery disease to quantitate left ventricular dimensions and regional and global contractile function. In animals, measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes, wall thickness, ejection fraction, segmental contraction, and cardiac output correlated closely with sonocardiometry or thermodilution measurements. In patients, volumes and ejection fractions calculated from mask mode digital images correlated closely with direct left ventriculography. Global and segmental contractile function was displayed in patients by ejection shell images, stroke volume images, and time interval difference images. Central cardiovascular function was also quantitated by measurement of pulmonary transit time and calculation of pulmonary blood volume from digital fluoroscopic images. DVSA was shown to be useful and accurate in the quantitation of central cardiovascular physiology

  4. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction after transcatheter closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Mohammed Omar; Arfi, Muhammed Amin; Nicole, Sekarski; Payot, Maurice; Hussain, Arif; Qureshi, Shakeel

    2005-11-01

    A 12-year-old boy reported in outpatient department with history of shortness of breath and dyspnoea on moderate exertion. Physical examination was significant for bounding pulses and for a continuous murmur III/VI, best heard at the left upper sternal border. Echocardiography confirmed a large patent arterial duct with shortening fraction of 33%. He underwent successful transcatheter closure of the patent arterial, using Amplatzer duct occluder 12/10. Few hours later echocardiography revealed an unexpected, yet important depression of left ventricular systolic function with shortening fraction decreasing to 24% and then two weeks later decreasing further to 20%. At a follow-up after four months, he had improved clinically but left ventricular dysfunction still persisted with shortening fraction of 24%.

  5. Exploring energy loss by vector flow mapping in children with ventricular septal defect: Pathophysiologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Takanashi, Manabu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Ando, Hisashi; Kimura, Sumito; Oka, Norihiko; Miyaji, Kagami; Ishii, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Vector flow mapping is a novel echocardiographic flow visualization method, and it has enabled us to quantitatively evaluate the energy loss in the left ventricle (intraventricular energy loss). Although intraventricular energy loss is assumed to be a part of left ventricular workload itself, it is unclear what this parameter actually represents. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss. We enrolled 26 consecutive children with ventricular septal defect (VSD). On echocardiography vector flow mapping, intraventricular energy loss was measured in the apical 3-chamber view. We measured peak energy loss and averaged energy loss in the diastolic and systolic phases, and subsequently compared these parameters with catheterization parameters and serum brain natrium peptide (BNP) level. Diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were strongly and positively correlated with right ventricular systolic pressure (r=0.76, 0.68, and 0.56, p<0.0001, = 0.0001, and 0.0029, respectively) and right ventricular end diastolic pressure (r=0.55, 0.49, and 0.49, p=0.0038, 0.0120, and 0.0111, respectively). In addition, diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were significantly correlated with BNP (r=0.75, 0.69 and 0.49, p<0.0001, < 0.0001, and=0.0116, respectively). In children with VSD, elevated right ventricular pressure is one of the factors that increase energy loss in the left ventricle. The results of the present study encourage further studies in other study populations to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss for its possible clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac pacing in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block: impact of pacing site for optimizing left ventricular resynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappone, C; Rosanio, S; Oreto, G; Tocchi, M; Gulletta, S; Salvati, A; Dicandia, C; Santinelli, V; Mazzone, P; Veglia, F; Ding, J; Sallusti, L; Spinelli, J; Vicedomini, G

    2000-07-01

    Acute left ventricular pacing has been associated with hemodynamic improvement in patients with congestive heart failure and wide QRS complex. We hypothesized that pacing two left ventricular sites simultaneously would produce faster activation and better systolic function than single-site pacing. We selected 14 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class III or IV) in normal sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block and QRS > 150 ms. An 8F dual micromanometer catheter was placed in the aorta for measuring +dP/dt (mmHg/s), aortic pulse pressure (mmHg), and end-diastolic pressure (mmHg). Pacing leads were positioned via coronary veins at the posterior base and lateral wall. Patients were acutely paced VDD at the posterior base, lateral wall, and both sites (dual-site) with 5 atrioventricular delays (from 8 ms to PR -30 ms). Pacing sequences were executed in randomized order using a custom external computer (FlexStim, Guidant CRM). Dual-site pacing increased peak +dP/dt significantly more than posterior base and lateral wall pacing. Dual-site and posterior base pacing raised aortic pulse pressure significantly more than lateral wall pacing. Dual-site pacing shortened QRS duration by 22 %, whereas posterior base and lateral wall pacing increased it by 2 and 12%, respectively (p = 0.006). In heart failure patients with left bundle branch block, dual-site pacing improves systolic function more than single-site stimulation. Improved ventricular activation synchrony, expressed by paced QRS narrowing, may account for the additional benefit of dual- vs single-site pacing in enhancing contractility. This novel approach deserves consideration for future heart failure pacing studies.

  7. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X(2) test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max. interval was found in 33% of patients, indiabetic group

  8. Coronary oscillatory flow amplitude is more affected by perfusion pressure than ventricular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, R; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    1990-06-01

    In this study on the isolated, maximally vasodilated, blood-perfused cat heart we investigated the relation between left ventricular developed pressure (delta Piv) and coronary oscillatory flow amplitude (diastolic minus systolic flow, delta F) at different levels of constant perfusion pressure (Pp). We hypothesized that the effect of cardiac contraction on the phasic flow results from the changing elastic properties of cardiac muscle. The coronary vessel compartment can, as can the left ventricular lumen compartment, be described by a time-varying elastance. This concept predicts that the effect of left ventricular pressure on delta F is small, whereas the effect of Pp is considerable. Both the waterfall model and the intramyocardial pump model predict the inverse. The relation between delta Piv and delta F at a Pp of 10 kPa is delta F = (4.71 +/- 3.08).delta Piv + 337 +/- 75 (slope in ml.min-1.100 g-1.kPa-1 and intercept in ml.min-1.100 g-1; n = 7); the relation between (constant levels of) Pp and delta F at a constant delta Piv of 10 kPa is delta F = 51.Pp + 211 (slope in ml.min-1.100 g-1.kPa-1 and intercept in ml.min-1.100 g-1; n = 6). The differences in slope are best predicted by the time-varying elastance concept.

  9. Early Right Ventricular Apical Pacing-Induced Gene Expression Alterations Are Associated with Deterioration of Left Ventricular Systolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic high-dose right ventricular apical (RVA pacing may have deleterious effects on left ventricular (LV systolic function. We hypothesized that the expression changes of genes regulating cardiomyocyte energy metabolism and contractility were associated with deterioration of LV function in patients who underwent chronic RVA pacing. Sixty patients with complete atrioventricular block and preserved ejection fraction (EF who underwent pacemaker implantation were randomly assigned to either RVA pacing (n=30 group or right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT pacing (n=30 group. The mRNA levels of OPA1 and SERCA2a were significantly lower in the RVA pacing group at 1 month’s follow-up (both p<0.001. Early changes in the expression of selected genes OPA1 and SERCA2a were associated with deterioration in global longitudinal strain (GLS that became apparent months later (p=0.002 and p=0.026, resp. The altered expressions of genes that regulate cardiomyocyte energy metabolism and contractility measured in the peripheral blood at one month following pacemaker implantation were associated with subsequent deterioration in LV dyssynchrony and function in patients with preserved LVEF, who underwent RVA pacing.

  10. Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction by first pass radionuclide cardioangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, T; Imai, Y; Kagawa, M; Hayashi, M; Kozuka, T [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1980-02-01

    The left ventricular ejection fraction can be assessed by recording the passage of peripherally administered radioactive bolus through the heart which is first pass method. In this study, the accuracy and validity of first pass method were examined in the patients with cardiac catheterization. After sup(99m)Tc-HSA as a bolus was injected intravenouslly, the time-activity curve was recorded with a scintillation camera and online minicomputer system. The ejection fraction was calculated by the average of three cardiac cycles which corresponded to the left ventricular volume changes during each cardiac cycles. The results correlated well with those obtained by biplane cineangiography in the twenty patients without arrythmias (r = 0.89) and moreover, this technique was applied to the fifteen patients with atrial fibrillation such as mitral valvular diseases, congestive cardiomyopathy, Good correlation of the ejection fraction (r = 0.84) was obtained. The findings, however, demonstrated that the time-activity curve must be generated from the region of interest which fits the left ventricular blood pool precisely and must be corrected for the contribution arizing from noncardiac background structures (two matrix method). In conclusion, this noninvasive method appears particularly useful for serial evaluation of the patients with cardiac dysfunctions and would be available for the routine examination of ventricular functions.

  11. Pathophysiologic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain in asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, S.D.; Macfarlane, P.W.; McKillop, J.H.; Lorimer, A.R.; Dunn, F.G.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the significance of the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain, two groups of asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension were compared. The patients were similar in terms of age, smoking habit, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels, but differed in the presence (Group I, n = 23) or absence (Group II, n = 23) of the ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain. Group I patients had significantly more episodes of exercise-induced ST segment depression (14 versus 4, p less than 0.05) and reversible thallium perfusion abnormalities (11 of 23 versus 3 of 23, p less than 0.05) despite similar exercise capacity and absence of chest pain. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was detected on 24 h ambulatory ECG monitoring in two patients in Group I, but no patient in Group II. Coronary arteriography performed in 20 Group I patients demonstrated significant coronary artery disease in 8 patients. This study has shown that there is a subgroup of hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy and strain who have covert coronary artery disease. This can be detected by thallium perfusion scintigraphy, and may contribute to the increased risk known to be associated with this ECG abnormality

  12. Structural and Functional Phenotyping of the Failing Heart: Is the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Michael R; Kao, David P; Breathett, Khadijah K; Altman, Natasha L; Gorcsan, John; Gill, Edward A; Lowes, Brian D; Gilbert, Edward M; Quaife, Robert A; Mann, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and development of new therapies for diseases or syndromes depend on a reliable means of identifying phenotypes associated with distinct predictive probabilities for these various objectives. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) provides the current basis for combined functional and structural phenotyping in heart failure by classifying patients as those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and those with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Recently the utility of LVEF as the major phenotypic determinant of heart failure has been challenged based on its load dependency and measurement variability. We review the history of the development and adoption of LVEF as a critical measurement of LV function and structure and demonstrate that, in chronic heart failure, load dependency is not an important practical issue, and we provide hemodynamic and molecular biomarker evidence that LVEF is superior or equal to more unwieldy methods of identifying phenotypes of ventricular remodeling. We conclude that, because it reliably measures both left ventricular function and structure, LVEF remains the best current method of assessing pathologic remodeling in heart failure in both individual clinical and multicenter group settings. Because of the present and future importance of left ventricular phenotyping in heart failure, LVEF should be measured by using the most accurate technology and methodologic refinements available, and improved characterization methods should continue to be sought. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Echocardiographic Study of Left Ventricular Size and Cardiac Function in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carolina A; Potts, James E; Lam, Pei-Yoong; De Souza, Astrid M; Mugford, Gerald J; Sandor, George G S

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case-control study investigated cardiac dimensions and ventricular function in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared with controls. Echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index were made. Detailed measures of systolic and diastolic ventricular function were made including tissue Doppler imaging. Patients were stratified by body mass index ≤10th percentile (AN ≤ 10th) and >10th percentile (AN > 10th). Ninety-five AN patients and 58 controls were included. AN and AN ≤ 10th groups had reduced LV dimensions, LV mass index, left atrial size and cardiac index compared with controls. There were no differences between groups in measures of systolic function. Measures of diastolic tissue Doppler imaging were decreased in AN and AN ≤ 10th. No differences in echocardiographic measurements existed between controls and AN > 10th. Female adolescents with AN have preserved systolic function and abnormalities of diastolic ventricular function. AN ≤ 10th may be a higher risk group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Left ventricular volume determination from single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, S.R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Schmidt, W.P.; Cawthon, M.A.; Karl, R.D. Jr.; Bauman, J.M.; Howard, W.H. III; Rubal, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with that of contrast cineangiography in measuring left ventricular end-diastolic volume, 25 consecutive patients undergoing catheterizaiton for coronary artery or valvular heart disease were first evaluated scintigraphically. SPECT volume values showed a high degree of correlation with those determined by angiography with a standard error of the estimate of 23 ml. SPECT offers a highly accurate and essentially noninvasive method for measuring chamber volumes that is independent of geometric assumptions about ventricular configuration and chest wall attenuation and does not require blood sample counting

  15. Left ventricular volume determination from single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, S.R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Schmidt, W.P.; Cawthon, M.A.; Karl, R.D. Jr.; Bauman, J.M.; Howard, W.H. III; Rubal, B.J.

    1985-02-01

    To compare the accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with that of contrast cineangiography in measuring left ventricular end-diastolic volume, 25 consecutive patients undergoing catheterizaiton for coronary artery or valvular heart disease were first evaluated scintigraphically. SPECT volume values showed a high degree of correlation with those determined by angiography with a standard error of the estimate of 23 ml. SPECT offers a highly accurate and essentially noninvasive method for measuring chamber volumes that is independent of geometric assumptions about ventricular configuration and chest wall attenuation and does not require blood sample counting.

  16. Biventricular non-compaction with predominant right ventricular involvement, reduced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and pulmonary hypertension in a Hispanic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Sarmad; Cooper, Chad J; Quevedo, Karla; Rodriguez, Emmanuel; Hernandez, German T

    2013-01-01

    Male, 22 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Cardiomyopathy Symptoms: Shortness of breath • dispnoea • chest discomfort - Clinical Procedure: Echocardiogram • cardiac MRI Specialty: Cardiology. Challenging differential diagnosis. Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCM) is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by increased trabeculation in one or more segments of the ventricle. The left ventricle is most commonly affected. However, biventricular involvement or right ventricle predominance has also been described. Clinical features of NCM are non-specific and can range from being asymptomatic to symptoms of congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and systemic thromboembolism. 22-year-old Hispanic male presented with two month history of chest discomfort. Laboratory workup revealed an elevated brain-natriuretic-peptide of 1768 pg/ml. ECG and chest x-ray was nonspecific. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed prominent trabeculae and spongiform appearance of the left ventricle (LV) with an ejection-fraction of 15-20%; 5 of 9 segments of the LV were trabeculated with deep intertrabecular recesses also involving the right ventricle (RV) with demonstrated blood flow in these recesses on color-doppler. The biventricular spongiform appearance was morphologically suggestive for NCM with involvement of the RV. Confirmatory cardiac MRI was performed, demonstrating excessive trabeculation of the left-ventricular apex and mid-ventricular segments. Hypertrabecularion was exhibited at the apical and lateral wall of the RV. Cardiac catheterization showed an intact cardiac vessel system. The patient was discharged on heart failure treatment and was placed on the heart transplantation list. NCM is a unique disorder resulting in serious and severe complications. The majority of the reported cases describe the involvement of the left ventricle. However, the right ventricle should be taken into careful consideration. The early diagnosis may help to increase the event-free survival.

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of the Fetal Right and Left Ventricular Fractional Area Change Using Speckle Tracking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Greggory R; Klas, Berthold; Satou, Gary; Sklansky, Mark

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fractional area change (FAC) of the right and left ventricles in normal fetal hearts between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation using speckle-tracking software. The 4-chamber view of the fetal heart was obtained in 200 control fetuses between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The FAC was computed from the ventricular areas [((end-diastolic area) - (end-systolic area)/(end-diastolic area)) x 100] for the right and left ventricles and regressed against 7 independent biometric and age variables. The FAC was correlated with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) [((end-diastolic longitudinal length) - (end-systolic longitudinal length) /(end-diastolic longitudinal length)) x 100] obtained from the mid ventricular basal-apical lengths of the right and left ventricular chambers and the transverse fractional shortening (TFS) [((end-diastolic transverse length) - (end-systolic transverse length)/(end-diastolic transverse length)) x 100] from three transverse positions (base, mid, apical) located within each ventricular chamber. To evaluate potential clinical utility, the FAC, LFS, and TFS results were examined in 9 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). Regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between the FAC and the biometric and age independent variables (R 2 = 0.13 - 0.15). The FAC was significantly correlated with the LFS (R 2 =0.18 to 0.28) and TFS (R 2 = 0.13 to 0.33). The 9 fetuses with CHD illustrated the interrelationship between the FAC, LFS, and TFS when identifying abnormal ventricular function. This study reports results from measuring the FAC of the right and left ventricles, and demonstrates a correlation with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) and transverse fractional shortening (TFS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Regression in left ventricular mass after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation is unrelated to prosthetic valve size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morgan L; Schaff, Hartzell V; Suri, Rakesh M; Li, Zhuo; Sundt, Thoralf M; Dearani, Joseph A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    We examined the role of prosthesis-patient mismatch on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic valve regurgitation. We selected patients who had complete preoperative and follow-up echocardiograms with measurement of left ventricular mass. Patients were excluded who had moderate or greater aortic valve stenosis, concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, or mitral valve procedures. Patients' mean age was 55 ± 17 years; 21% were female. The mean preoperative indexed left ventricular mass was 150 ± 45 g/m(2). Patients with mildly (n = 44; mean indexed mass, 126 ± 15 g/m(2)), moderately (n = 31; mean indexed mass, 168 ± 11 g/m(2)), or severely (n = 15; mean indexed mass, 241 ± 34 g/m(2)) increased preoperative indexed left ventricular mass, were similar, except for lower ejection fractions, larger end-diastolic dimensions, and larger ventricular wall thicknesses in the severely enlarged group (P regression was unrelated to labeled valve size, prosthesis-patient mismatch, or measured indexed effective aortic valve area. A greater preoperative indexed left ventricular mass (P regression. Despite having greater left ventricular mass regression, patients with severe preoperative indexed left ventricular mass did not return to normal values (mean, 142 ± 25 g/m(2)). Left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation is unrelated to indexed prosthetic valve area. Although incomplete, regression is greatest in patients with the largest preoperative indexed left ventricular mass. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Choice of a General Anesthesia Technique in the Surgical Treatment of Postinfarct Left Ventricular Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To choose the optimum technique of general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of patients with postinfarct left ventricular aneurysms (PLVA.Materials and methods. Fifty-four patients operated on for PLVA were examined. They were divided into 4 groups according to the basic technique of general anesthesia: 1 intravenous anesthesia based on propofol and fentanyl; 2 inhalation sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 3 inhalation isoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 4 general anesthesia in combination with epidural blockade. Central hemodynamics was investigated by the thermodilution technique and the perioperative period was also studied.Results and discussion. None of the general anesthesia techniques affected the development of perioperative complications. However, with decreased myocardial reserves, high thoracic epidural anesthesia should be applied with caution as it causes a significant desympathization, which may lead to impairments of the autoregulatory mechanisms of coronary blood flow and aggravate existing contractile disorders. Intravenous and inhalation anesthesia techniques provide a fair hemodynamic stability at all stages of surgical treatment. Inhalation anesthesia has a number of advantages: less cost and the possibility of rapid activation of patients in the early postoperative period.

  20. The Heartmate III: design and in vivo studies of a maglev centrifugal left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loree, H M; Bourque, K; Gernes, D B; Richardson, J S; Poirier, V L; Barletta, N; Fleischli, A; Foiera, G; Gempp, T M; Schoeb, R; Litwak, K N; Akimoto, T; Kameneva, M; Watach, M J; Litwak, P

    2001-05-01

    A compact implantable centrifugal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) (HeartMate III) featuring a magnetically levitated impeller is under development. The goal of our ongoing work is to demonstrate feasibility, low hemolysis, and low thrombogenicity of the titanium pump in chronic bovine in vivo studies. The LVAD is based on so-called bearingless motor technology and combines pump rotor, drive, and magnetic bearing functions in a single unit. The impeller is rotated (theta z) and levitated with both active (X, Y) and passive (Z, theta x, theta y) suspension. Six prototype systems have been built featuring an implantable titanium pump (69 mm diameter, 30 mm height) with textured blood contacting surfaces and extracorporeal electronics. The pumps were implanted in 9 calves (< or = 100 kg at implant) that were anticoagulated with Coumadin (2.5 < or = INR < or = 4.0) throughout the studies. Six studies were electively terminated (at 27-61 days), 1 study was terminated after the development of severe pneumonia and lung atelectasis (at 27 days) another study was terminated after cardiac arrest (at 2 days) while a final study is ongoing (at approximately 100 days). Mean pump flows ranged from 2 to 7 L/min, except for brief periods of exercise at 6 to 9 L/min. Plasma free hemoglobin ranged from 4 to 10 mg/dl. All measured biochemical indicators of end organ function remained within normal range. The pumps have met performance requirements in all 9 implants with acceptable hemolysis and no mechanical failures.

  1. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects

  2. Impact of left ventricular assist device speed adjustment on exercise tolerance and markers of wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Christopher S; Salamonsen, Robert; Keogh, Anne M; Woodard, John; Ayre, Peter; Prichard, Roslyn; Kotlyar, Eugene; Macdonald, Peter S; Jansz, Paul; Spratt, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    Left ventricular assist devices are crucial in rehabilitation of patients with end-stage heart failure. Whether cardiopulmonary function is enhanced with higher pump output is unknown. 10 patients (aged 39±16 years, mean±SD) underwent monitored adjustment of pump speed to determine minimum safe low speed and maximum safe high speed at rest. Patients were then randomized to these speed settings and underwent three 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) and symptom-limited cardiopulmonary stress tests (CPX) on separate days. Pump speed settings (low, normal and high) resulted in significantly different resting pump flows of 4.43±0.6, 5.03±0.94, and 5.72±1.2 l/min (Pexercise (Pexercise time (p=.27). Maximum workload achieved and peak oxygen consumption were significantly different comparing low to high pump speed settings only (Prelease was significantly reduced at higher pump speed with exercise (Prelease consistent with lower myocardial wall stress. This did not, however, improve exercise tolerance.