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Sample records for flow battery applications

  1. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  2. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  3. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  4. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS. With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with proper sizing is necessary. To this end, this paper proposes the employment of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, which possesses a long cycle life and high energy efficiency, for residential users with PV systems. It further proposes methods of computing the capital and maintenance cost of VRB systems and evaluating battery efficiency based on VRB electrochemical characteristics. Furthermore, by considering the cost and efficiency of VRB, the prevalent time-of-use electricity price, the solar feed-in tariff, the solar power profile and the user load pattern, an optimal sizing algorithm for VRB systems is proposed. Simulation studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. New Alkali Metal Flow Battery for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This seedling task is to develop new lithium-based flow batteries that will provide several fold improvements in specific energy, cost, simplicity and lifetimes,...

  6. Hierarchical porous poly (ether sulfone) membranes with excellent capacity retention for vanadium flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongju; Li, Dandan; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-06-01

    A hierarchical poly (ether sulfone) (PES) porous membrane is facilely fabricated via a hard template method for vanadium flow battery (VFB) application. The construction of this hierarchical porous membrane is prepared via removing templates (phenolphthalein). The pore size can be well controlled by optimizing the template content in the cast solution, ensuring the membrane conductivity and selectively. The prepared hierarchical porous membrane can combine high ion selectivity with high proton conductivity, which renders a good electrochemical performance in a VFB. The optimized hierarchical porous membrane shows a columbic efficiency of 94.52% and energy efficiency of 81.66% along with a superior ability to maintain stable capacity over extended cycling at a current density of 80 mA cm-2. The characteristics of low cost, proven chemical stability and high electrochemical performance afford the hierarchical PES porous membrane great prospect in VFB application.

  7. New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; West, William C.; Kindler, Andrew; Smart, Marshall C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic and wind farms require advanced energy storage systems on a massive scale to make the alternate (green) energy options practical. The daunting requirements of such large-scale energy systems such as long operating and cycle life, safety, and low cost are not adequately met by state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as vanadium flow cells, lead-acid, and zinc-bromine batteries. Much attention is being paid to redox batteries specifically to the vanadium redox battery (VRB) due to their simplicity, low cost, and good life characteristics compared to other related battery technologies. NASA is currently seeking high-specific- energy and long-cycle-life rechargeable batteries in the 10-to-100-kW range to support future human exploration missions, such as planetary habitats, human rovers, etc. The flow batteries described above are excellent candidates for these applications, as well as other applications that propose to use regenerative fuel cells. A new flow cell technology is proposed based on coupling two novel electrodes in the form of solvated electron systems (SES) between an alkali (or alkaline earth) metal and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), separated by an ionically conducting separator. The cell reaction involves the formation of such SES with a PAH of high voltage in the cathode, while the alkali (or alkaline earth metal) is reduced from such an MPAH complex in the anode half-cell. During recharge, the reactions are reversed in both electrodes. In other words, the alkali (alkaline earth) metal ion simply shuttles from one M-PAH complex (SES) to another, which are separated by a metal-ion conducting solid or polymer electrolyte separator. As an example, the concept was demonstrated with Li-naphthalene//Li DDQ (DDQ is 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano- 1,4-benzoquinone) separated by lithium super ion conductor, either ceramic or polymer (solid polymer or gel polymer) electrolytes. The

  8. Investigating improvements on redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, AM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available storage devices coupled to most of their applications. Lead-acid batteries have long been used as the most economical option to store electricity in many small scale applications, but lately more interest have been shown in redox flow batteries. The low...

  9. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  10. Solution casting Nafion/polytetrafluoroethylene membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Xiangguo; Sun, Cui; Dai, Jicui; Liu, Haiping; Su, Jing; Li, Faqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nafion/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) blend membranes were prepared by solution casting method. ► The blend membranes were tested for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. ► The blend membranes show lower vanadium ion permeability than that of recast Nafion membrane. ► In VRB single cell test, the blend membrane shows superior performances than that of pure recast Nafion. -- Abstract: Solution casting method was adopted using Nafion and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) solution to prepare Nafion/PTFE blend membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application. The physicochemical properties of the membranes were characterized by using water uptake, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). The electrochemical properties of the membranes were examined by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and single cell test. Despite the high miscibility of PTFE with Nafion, the addition of hydrophobic PTFE reduces the water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity of blend membranes. But PTFE can increase the crystallinity, thermal stability of Nafion/PTFE membranes and reduce the vanadium permeability. The blend membrane with PTFE (30 wt%, N 0.7 P 0.3 ) was chosen and investigated for VRB single cell test. The energy efficiency of this VRB with N 0.7 P 0.3 membrane was 85.1% at current density of 50 mA cm −2 , which was superior to that of recast Nafion (r-Nafion) membrane (80.5%). Self-discharge test shows that the decay of open circuit potential of N 0.7 P 0.3 membrane is much lower than that of r-Nafion membrane. More than 50 cycles charge–discharge test proved that the N 0.7 P 0.3 membrane possesses high stability in long time running. Chemical stabilities of the chosen N 0.7 P 0.3 membrane are further proved by soaking the membrane for 3 weeks in highly oxidative V(V) solution. All results suggest that the addition of PTFE is a simple and effective way to

  11. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  12. Study of zinc electrodes for single flow zinc/nickel battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Jie; Yang, Yu-sheng; Wen, Yue-hua; Wang, Xin-dong; Cao, Gao-ping

    Zinc deposition from alkaline zincate solution in single flow zinc/nickel battery has been investigated. The effect of different substrates such as copper, cadmium and lead were examined by using cyclic voltammetry and cathodic polarization technique. It was found that the cadmium substrate is better than the others. Zinc deposition was carried out by using galvanostatic technique, and the deposits were examined by SEM. The results demonstrated that there is no zinc dendrite on the cadmium substrate in flowing electrolyte. Coulombic and voltage efficiencies of 98 and 88%, respectively, are obtained in a small laboratory cell.

  13. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  14. Composite Nafion 117-TMSP membrane for Fe-Cr redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, Gunawan, Y. B.; Mursid, S. P.; Harjogi, D.

    2016-04-01

    The modification of Nafion 117 - TMSP (trimethoxysylilprophanthiol) composite membrane has been conducted by in-situ sol-gel method followed by characterization of structural and properties of material using spectroscopic techniques. The performance of composite membrane has then been examined in the single stack module of Fe-Cr Redox Flow Battery. It was found that the introduction of silica from TMSP through sol-gel process within the Nafion 117 membrane produced composite membrane that has slightly higher proton conductivity values as compared to the pristine of Nafion 117 membrane observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The degree of swelling of water in the composite membrane demonstrated greatly reduced than a pristine Nafion 117 signifying low water cross over. The SEM-EDX measurements indicated that there was no phase separation occurred suggesting that silica nanoparticles are distributed homogeneously within the composite membrane. The composite membrane used as separator in the system of Fe-Cr Redox Flow Battery revealed no cross mixing (crossover) occurred between anolyte and catholyte in the system as observed from the total voltage measurements that closed to the theoretical value. The battery efficiency generally increased as the volume of the electrolytes enlarged.

  15. All-Iron Redox Flow Battery Tailored for Off-Grid Portable Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Michael C; Phillips, Adam; Weber, Adam Z

    2015-12-07

    An all-iron redox flow battery is proposed and developed for end users without access to an electricity grid. The concept is a low-cost battery which the user assembles, discharges, and then disposes of the active materials. The design goals are: (1) minimize upfront cost, (2) maximize discharge energy, and (3) utilize non-toxic and environmentally benign materials. These are different goals than typically considered for electrochemical battery technology, which provides the opportunity for a novel solution. The selected materials are: low-carbon-steel negative electrode, paper separator, porous-carbon-paper positive electrode, and electrolyte solution containing 0.5 m Fe2 (SO4 )3 active material and 1.2 m NaCl supporting electrolyte. With these materials, an average power density around 20 mW cm(-2) and a maximum energy density of 11.5 Wh L(-1) are achieved. A simple cost model indicates the consumable materials cost US$6.45 per kWh(-1) , or only US$0.034 per mobile phone charge. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of surface transport properties on the performance of carbon plastic electrodes for flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xihe; Souier, Tewfik; Chiesa, Matteo; Vassallo, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, carbon nanotube (MWNT)-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites are potential candidates to replace traditional activated carbon electrodes for the next generation of fuel-cells, super capacitors and flow batteries. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to separate the surface conduction from bulk conduction in 15% HDPE-MWNT and 19% carbon black (CB)-HDPE composites for zinc-bromine flow battery electrodes. While exhibiting superior bulk conductivity, the interfacial conductivity of MWNT-filled composites is lower than that of CB-filled composites. High resolution conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) imaging and current-voltage (I-V) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the sub-surface electronic transport of the composite. Unlike the CB-composite, the fraction of conducting MWNTs near the surface is very low compared to their volume fraction. In addition, the non-linear I-V curves reveal the presence of a tunneling junction between the tip and the polymer-coated MWNTs. The tunneling resistance is as high as 1 GΩ, which strongly affects the electronic/electrochemical transfer at the interface of the electrolyte and the surface of the composite, which is evident in the voltammetric and EIS observations

  17. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    OpenAIRE

    Orita, A; Verde, MG; Sakai, M; Meng, YS

    2016-01-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactio...

  18. Porous glass membranes for vanadium redox-flow battery application - Effect of pore size on the performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mögelin, H.; Yao, G.; Zhong, H.; dos Santos, A. R.; Barascu, A.; Meyer, R.; Krenkel, S.; Wassersleben, S.; Hickmann, T.; Enke, D.; Turek, T.; Kunz, U.

    2018-02-01

    The improvement of redox-flow batteries requires the development of chemically stable and highly conductive separators. Porous glass membranes can be an attractive alternative to the nowadays most common polymeric membranes. Flat porous glass membranes with a pore size in the range from 2 to 50 nm and a thickness of 300 and 500 μm have been used for that purpose. Maximum values for voltage efficiency of 85.1%, coulombic efficiency of 97.9% and energy efficiency of 76.3% at current densities in the range from 20 to 60 mA cm-2 have been achieved. Furthermore, a maximum power density of 95.2 mW cm-2 at a current density of 140 mA cm-2 was gained. These results can be related to small vanadium crossover, high conductivity and chemical stability, confirming the great potential of porous glass membranes for vanadium redox-flow applications.

  19. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  20. A study of the Fe(III)/Fe(II)-triethanolamine complex redox couple for redox flow battery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.H.; Zhang, H.M.; Qian, P.; Zhou, H.T.; Zhao, P.; Yi, B.L.; Yang, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the Fe(III)/Fe(II)-triethanolamine(TEA) complex redox couple in alkaline medium and influence of the concentration of TEA were investigated. A change of the concentration of TEA mainly produces the following two results. (1) With an increase of the concentration of TEA, the solubility of the Fe(III)-TEA can be increased to 0.6 M, and the solubility of the Fe(II)-TEA is up to 0.4 M. (2) In high concentration of TEA with the ratio of TEA to NaOH ranging from 1 to 6, side reaction peaks on the cathodic main reaction of the Fe(III)-TEA complex at low scan rate can be minimized. The electrode process of Fe(III)-TEA/Fe(II)-TEA is electrochemically reversible with higher reaction rate constant than the uncomplexed species. Constant current charge-discharge shows that applying anodic active materials of relatively high concentrations facilitates the improvement of cell performance. The open-circuit voltage of the Fe-TEA/Br 2 cell with the Fe(III)-TEA of 0.4 M, after full charging, is nearly 2.0 V and is about 32% higher than that of the all-vanadium batteries, together with the energy efficiency of approximately 70%. The preliminary exploration shows that the Fe(III)-TEA/Fe(II)-TEA couple is electrochemically promising as negative redox couple for redox flow battery (RFB) application

  1. Cobalt and Vanadium Trimetaphosphate Polyanions: Synthesis, Characterization, and Electrochemical Evaluation for Non-aqueous Redox-Flow Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Julia M; Zhang, Shiyu; Gvozdik, Nataliya; Jiang, Yanfeng; Avena, Laura; Stevenson, Keith J; Cummins, Christopher C

    2018-01-17

    An electrochemical cell consisting of cobalt ([Co II/III (P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 4-/3- ) and vanadium ([V III/II (P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 3-/4- ) bistrimetaphosphate complexes as catholyte and anolyte species, respectively, was constructed with a cell voltage of 2.4 V and Coulombic efficiencies >90% for up to 100 total cycles. The [Co(P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 4- (1) and [V(P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 3- (2) complexes have favorable properties for flow-battery applications, including reversible redox chemistry, high stability toward electrochemical cycling, and high solubility in MeCN (1.09 ± 0.02 M, [PPN] 4 [1]·2MeCN; 0.77 ± 0.06 M, [PPN] 3 [2]·DME). The [PPN] 4 [1]·2MeCN and [PPN] 3 [2]·DME salts were isolated as crystalline solids in 82 and 68% yields, respectively, and characterized by 31 P NMR, UV/vis, ESI-MS(-), and IR spectroscopy. The [PPN] 4 [1]·2MeCN salt was also structurally characterized, crystallizing in the monoclinic P2 1 /c space group. Treatment of 1 with [(p-BrC 6 H 4 ) 3 N] + allowed for isolation of the one-electron-oxidized spin-crossover (SCO) complex, [Co(P 3 O 9 ) 2 ] 3- (3), which is the active catholyte species generated during cell charging. The success of the 1-2 cell provides a promising entry point to a potential future class of transition-metal metaphosphate-based all-inorganic non-aqueous redox-flow battery electrolytes.

  2. Novel sulfonated poly (ether ether keton)/polyetherimide acid-base blend membranes for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Lihua; Ding, Yue; Liu, Biqian; Han, Xutong; Song, Yanlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPEEK/PEI acid-base blend membranes are prepared for VRB applications. • The acid-base blend membranes have much lower vanadium ion permeability. • The energy efficiency of SPEEK/PEI maintain around 86.9% after 50 cycles. - Abstract: Novel acid-base blend membranes composed of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The blend membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity, water uptake, vanadium ion permeability and mechanical properties were measured. As a result, the acid-base blend membranes exhibit higher water uptake, IEC and lower vanadium ion permeability compared to Nafion117 membranes and all these properties decrease with the increase of PEI. In VRB single cell test, the VRB with blend membranes shows lower charge capacity loss, higher coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) than Nafion117 membrane. Furthermore, the acid-base blend membranes present stable performance up to 50 cycles with no significant decline in CE and EE. All experimental results indicate that the SPEEK/PEI (S/P) acid-base blend membranes show promising prospects for VRB

  3. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  4. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Akihiro; Verde, Michael G.; Sakai, Masanori; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-10-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems. We use nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water solubility of flavin mononucleotide. A redox flow battery using flavin mononucleotide negative and ferrocyanide positive electrolytes in strong base shows stable cycling performance, with over 99% capacity retention over the course of 100 cycles. We hypothesize that this is enabled due to the oxidized and reduced forms of FMN-Na being stabilized by resonance structures.

  5. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.

    2017-12-26

    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  6. Carbon felt and carbon fiber - A techno-economic assessment of felt electrodes for redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Carbon felt electrodes belong to the key components of redox flow batteries. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to uncover the production costs of PAN- and rayon-based carbon felt electrodes. Raw material costs, energy demand and the impact of processability of fiber and felt are considered. This innovative, interdisciplinary approach combines deep insights into technical, ecologic and economic aspects of carbon felt and carbon fiber production. Main results of the calculation model are mass balances, cumulative energy demands (CED) and the production costs of conventional and biogenic carbon felts supplemented by market assessments considering textile and carbon fibers.

  7. Redox Species of Redox Flow Batteries: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-18

    Due to the capricious nature of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, large-scale energy storage devices are increasingly required to make the best use of the renewable power. The redox flow battery is considered suitable for large-scale applications due to its modular design, good scalability and flexible operation. The biggest challenge of the redox flow battery is the low energy density. The redox active species is the most important component in redox flow batteries, and the redox potential and solubility of redox species dictate the system energy density. This review is focused on the recent development of redox species. Different categories of redox species, including simple inorganic ions, metal complexes, metal-free organic compounds, polysulfide/sulfur and lithium storage active materials, are reviewed. The future development of redox species towards higher energy density is also suggested.

  8. Preparation and properties of sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies/The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-04-02

    In order to develop novel membranes for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with low self-discharge rate and low cost, sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) (SPFEK) was synthesized directly via aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation of bisphenol fluorene with 60% sulfonated difluorobenzophenone and 40% difluorobenzophenone. The SPFEK membrane shows the lower permeability of vanadium ions. The open circuit voltage evaluation demonstrates that the SPFEK membrane is superior to Nafion 117 membrane in self-discharge test. Both energy efficiencies (EE) and power densities of the VRB single cell based on the SPFEK membrane are higher than those of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane at the same current densities. The highest coulombic efficiency (CE) of VRB with SPFEK membrane is 80.3% while the highest CE of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane is 77.0%. The SPFEK membrane shows the comparative stability to Nafion 117 membrane in VO{sub 2}{sup +} electrolyte. The experimental results suggest that SPFEK membrane is a promising ion exchange membrane for VRB. (author)

  9. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  10. Optimal power flow management for distributed energy resources with batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazvinga, Henerica; Zhu, Bing; Xia, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV-diesel-battery hybrid system is proposed. • Model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs. • Power flows are analysed in a 24-h period. • Results provide a practical platform for decision making. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal energy management model of a solar photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid power supply system for off-grid applications. The aim is to meet the load demand completely while satisfying the system constraints. The proposed model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs and finds the optimal power flow, taking into account photovoltaic power availability, battery bank state of charge and load power demand. The optimal solutions are compared for cases when the objectives are weighted equally and when a larger weight is assigned to battery wear. A considerable increase in system operational cost is observed in the latter case owing to the increased usage of the diesel generator. The results are important for decision makers, as they depict the optimal decisions considered in the presence of trade-offs between conflicting objectives

  11. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  12. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  13. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  14. Properties investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/polyacrylonitrile acid-base blend membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Yu, Lihong; Liu, Le; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-11-12

    Acid-base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-section morphology as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy images show. The acid-base interaction of ionic cross-linking and hydrogen bonding between SPEEK and PAN could effectively reduce water uptake, swelling ratio, and vanadium ion permeability, and improve the performance and stability of blend membrane. Because of the good balance of proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability, blend membrane with 20 wt % PAN (S/PAN-20%) showed higher Coulombic efficiency (96.2% vs 91.1%) and energy efficiency (83.5% vs 78.4%) than Nafion 117 membrane at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) when they were used in VRFB single cell. Besides, S/PAN-20% membrane kept a stable performance during 150 cycles at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) in the cycle life test. Hence the SPEEK/PAN acid-base blend membrane could be used as promising candidate for VRFB application.

  15. Cost-driven materials selection criteria for redox flow battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmello, Rylan; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Smith, Kyle C.

    2016-10-01

    Redox flow batteries show promise for grid-scale energy storage applications but are presently too expensive for widespread adoption. Electrolyte material costs constitute a sizeable fraction of the redox flow battery price. As such, this work develops a techno-economic model for redox flow batteries that accounts for redox-active material, salt, and solvent contributions to the electrolyte cost. Benchmark values for electrolyte constituent costs guide identification of design constraints. Nonaqueous battery design is sensitive to all electrolyte component costs, cell voltage, and area-specific resistance. Design challenges for nonaqueous batteries include minimizing salt content and dropping redox-active species concentration requirements. Aqueous battery design is sensitive to only redox-active material cost and cell voltage, due to low area-specific resistance and supporting electrolyte costs. Increasing cell voltage and decreasing redox-active material cost present major materials selection challenges for aqueous batteries. This work minimizes cost-constraining variables by mapping the battery design space with the techno-economic model, through which we highlight pathways towards low price and moderate concentration. Furthermore, the techno-economic model calculates quantitative iterations of battery designs to achieve the Department of Energy battery price target of 100 per kWh and highlights cost cutting strategies to drive battery prices down further.

  16. One-Step Cationic Grafting of 4-Hydroxy-TEMPO and its Application in a Hybrid Redox Flow Battery with a Crosslinked PBI Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenjun; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Chen, Ruiyong

    2017-08-24

    By using a one-step epoxide ring-opening reaction between 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (4-hydroxy-TEMPO) and glycidyltrimethylammonium cation (GTMA + ), we synthesized a cation-grafted TEMPO (g + -TEMPO) and studied its electrochemical performance against a Zn 2+ /Zn anode in a hybrid redox flow battery. To conduct Cl - counter anions, a crosslinked methylated polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane was prepared and placed between the catholyte and anolyte. Compared to 4-hydroxy-TEMPO, the positively charged g + - TEMPO exhibits enhanced reaction kinetics. Moreover, flow battery tests with g + -TEMPO show improved Coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies and cycling stability over 140 cycles. Crossover of active species through the membrane was not detected. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  18. Polyarene mediators for mediated redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnick, Frank M.; Ingersoll, David; Liang, Chengdu

    2018-01-02

    The fundamental charge storage mechanisms in a number of currently studied high energy redox couples are based on intercalation, conversion, or displacement reactions. With exception to certain metal-air chemistries, most often the active redox materials are stored physically in the electrochemical cell stack thereby lowering the practical gravimetric and volumetric energy density as a tradeoff to achieve reasonable power density. In a general embodiment, a mediated redox flow battery includes a series of secondary organic molecules that form highly reduced anionic radicals as reaction mediator pairs for the reduction and oxidation of primary high capacity redox species ex situ from the electrochemical cell stack. Arenes are reduced to stable anionic radicals that in turn reduce a primary anode to the charged state. The primary anode is then discharged using a second lower potential (more positive) arene. Compatible separators and solvents are also disclosed herein.

  19. Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wei, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-12-15

    RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equipotential between the first and second electrodes. The first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.

  20. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  1. Overview of photovoltaic and battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, J. D.; Hellman, Karl H.

    1989-10-01

    The use of solar cells and batteries for power generation and vehicle propulsion is examined. Issues such as energy uses and fuel sources, solar electric power, energy storage for solar photovoltaic systems, batteries for electric cars and applications for other mobile sources are also discussed.

  2. Battery operated preconcentration-assisted lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheonjung; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Han, Sung Il; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Dohwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Chung, Seok; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2017-07-11

    Paper-based analytical devices (e.g. lateral flow assays) are highly advantageous as portable diagnostic systems owing to their low costs and ease of use. Because of their low sensitivity and detection limits for biomolecules, these devices have several limitations in applications for real-field diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate a paper-based preconcentration enhanced lateral flow assay using a commercial β-hCG-based test. Utilizing a simple 9 V battery operation with a low power consumption of approximately 81 μW, we acquire a 25-fold preconcentration factor, demonstrating a clear sensitivity enhancement in the colorimetric lateral flow assay; consequently, clear colors are observed in a rapid kit test line, which cannot be monitored without preconcentration. This device can also facilitate a semi-quantitative platform using the saturation value and/or color intensity in both paper-based colorimetric assays and smartphone-based diagnostics.

  3. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  4. Application of nonwovens in batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, H.G. [Freudenberg Nonwovens, Weinheim (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens are textile products that are manufactured directly from fibers. According to ISO 9092: 1988 nonwovens are defined as a manufactured sheet, web or batt of directionally or randomly oriented fibers, bonded by friction, and/or cohesion, and/or adhesion excluding paper and products which are woven, tufted, stitchbonded incorporating binding yarns or filaments, or felted by wetmilling whether or not additionally needled. The fibers may be of natural or man-made origin. They may be staple or continuous filaments or be formed in situ. The production of nonwovens can be described as taking place in three stages, although modern technology allows an overlapping of the stages. The three stages are: web formation, web bonding, and finishing treatments. The opportunity to combine different raw materials and different techniques accounts for the diversity of the industry and its products. This diversity is enhanced by the ability to engineer nonwovens to have specific properties and to perform specific tasks. This paper describes the production and applications of nonwovens in primary and secondary electric batteries.

  5. Battery related cobalt and REE flows in WEEE treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, P; Rotter, V S; Ueberschaar, M

    2015-11-01

    In batteries associated with waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), battery systems can be found with a higher content of valuable and critical raw materials like cobalt and rare earth elements (REE) relative to the general mix of portable batteries. Based on a material flow model, this study estimates the flows of REE and cobalt associated to WEEE and the fate of these metals in the end-of-life systems. In 2011, approximately 40 Mg REE and 325 Mg cobalt were disposed of with WEEE-batteries. The end-of-life recycling rate for cobalt was 14%, for REE 0%. The volume of waste batteries can be expected to grow, but variation in the battery composition makes it difficult to forecast the future secondary raw material potential. Nevertheless, product specific treatment strategies ought to be implemented throughout the stages of the value chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  7. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  8. Critical length scales for flow phenomena in liquid metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Douglas; Weier, Tom

    2017-11-01

    Liquid metal batteries, a new technology for grid-scale energy storage, are composed of three liquid layers and therefore subject to a wide variety of fluid dynamical phenomena, both beneficial and detrimental. Some, like thermal convection and electrovortex flow, drive finite flow regardless of the size, current density, and temperature of the battery. Others, like the Tayler instability and the metal pad instability, occur only in certain parameter regimes - almost always dependent on length scale. I will discuss critical length scales, considering implications for battery design in light of fundamental fluid dynamics. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number CBET-1552182.

  9. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-02-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  10. Electrochemical flow-based solution-solid growth of the Cu2O nanorod array: potential application to lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong Ho; Park, Sun Hwa; Hyun, Seung Min; Kim, Jeong Won; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Jae Yong

    2014-09-14

    The catalyzed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth has been well developed to synthesize semiconductor nanowires with controlled diameters. The SLS growth occurs in the longitudinal direction of nanowires, due to the directional anisotropy driven by the metal catalysts where chemical precursors are introduced. In the present study, we report a selective, template-free, and environmentally-friendly electrochemical flow-based solution-solid (electrochemical flow-SS) growth of the Cu2O nanorod array. The anisotropy for directional growth without any catalysts is generated by the electrical field in a flowing electrolyte of ultra-dilute CuSO4. The filamentary anisotropy originates from electric field enhancement on pyramidal nanocrystals in the electrolyte of low ionic conductivity (13 μS cm(-1)). The Cu2O and Cu nanorods are able to be selectively synthesized by controlling the electrolyte pH and oxygen dissolution into the electrolyte. The synthesized Cu2O nanorod array shows excellent electrochemical properties as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries; the specific capacities increase from 323 to 1206 mA h g(-1) during 500 cycles. The capacity enhancement is due to the phase transformation from Cu2O to CuO, nano-restructuring of nanorods into fragmented nanoparticles, and the progressive generation of an electroactive polymeric gel-like layer on the surface of the nanoparticles. The electrochemical flow-SS growth of Cu2O nanorods is expected to contribute to further development of other functional nanorods.

  11. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  12. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  13. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  14. Fundamental studies of uranium and neptunium redox flow batteries (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Y.; Yamamura, T.; Watanabe, N.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic power generation entails production of so-called minor actinides and accumulation of depleted uranium. The theoretical and experimental investigations are underway to transmute minor actinides for minimizing the long-term radiotoxicity and reducing the radioactive waste. The utilization, however, would be alternative means. The actinide redox couples, An(VI)/An(V) and An(IV)/An(III), have excellent properties as battery active materials. Here j the uranium and neptunium redox flow batteries for the electric power storage are discussed from the electrochemical properties of U, Np, Pu and Am [1,2]. One of the required properties for the batteries for electric power storage is high energy efficiency, which is defined by the ratio of the discharge energy to the charge energy. These energies are dependent on the rapidness of kinetics in the electrode reactions, namely the standard rate constants and also the internal resistance of the battery

  15. Pulsating electrolyte flow in a full vanadium redox battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C. Y.; Cao, H.; Chng, M. L.; Han, M.; Birgersson, E.

    2015-10-01

    Proper management of electrolyte flow in a vanadium redox battery (VRB) is crucial to achieve high overall system efficiency. On one hand, constant flow reduces concentration polarization and by extension, energy efficiency; on the other hand, it results in higher auxiliary pumping costs, which can consume around 10% of the discharge power. This work seeks to reduce the pumping cost by adopting a novel pulsing electrolyte flow strategy while retaining high energy efficiency. The results indicate that adopting a short flow period, followed by a long flow termination period, results in high energy efficiencies of 80.5% with a pumping cost reduction of over 50%.

  16. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  17. Sealed metal-hydride batteries for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, R. D.

    Nickel and silver-metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications by Eagle-Picher. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems. Nickel-metal hydride batteries have twice the gravimetric energy density of nickel-cadmium batteries and twice the volumetric energy density of nickel-hydrogen batteries. Silver-metal hydride batteries have the potential of three times the energy density of nickel-metal hydride. Aerospace metal hydride batteries are hermetically sealed, operate at low pressure and are prismatic in geometry. They exhibit excellent overcharge and overdischarge capability. The objective of current programs at Eagle-Picher is to develop high energy density, long cycle life metal-hydride batteries for the aerospace market and to establish a testing database to support future applications.

  18. Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhang, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    Conventional zinc bromide electrolytes offer low ionic conductivity and often trigger severe zinc dendrite growth in zinc-bromine flow batteries. Here we report an improved electrolyte modified with methanesulfonic acid, which not only improves the electrolyte conductivity but also ameliorates zinc dendrite. Experimental results also reveal that the kinetics and reversibility of Zn2+/Zn and Br2/Br- are improved in this modified electrolyte. Moreover, the battery's internal resistance is significantly reduced from 4.9 to 2.0 Ω cm2 after adding 1 M methanesulfonic acid, thus leading to an improved energy efficiency from 64% to 75% at a current density of 40 mA cm-2. More impressively, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of about 78% at a current density of as high as 80 mA cm-2 when the electrode is replaced by a thermally treated one. Additionally, zinc dendrite growth is found to be effectively suppressed in methanesulfonic acid supported media, which, as a result, enables the battery to be operated for 50 cycles without degradation, whereas the one without methanesulfonic acid suffers from significant decay after only 40 cycles, primarily due to severe zinc dendrite growth. These superior results indicate methanesulfonic acid is a promising supporting electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries.

  19. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  20. Numerical modeling of an all vanadium redox flow battery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jonathan R.; Brunini, Victor E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a capability to simulate reduction-oxidation (redox) flow batteries in the Sierra Multi-Mechanics code base. Specifically, we focus on all-vanadium redox flow batteries; however, the capability is general in implementation and could be adopted to other chemistries. The electrochemical and porous flow models follow those developed in the recent publication by [28]. We review the model implemented in this work and its assumptions, and we show several verification cases including a binary electrolyte, and a battery half-cell. Then, we compare our model implementation with the experimental results shown in [28], with good agreement seen. Next, a sensitivity study is conducted for the major model parameters, which is beneficial in targeting specific features of the redox flow cell for improvement. Lastly, we simulate a three-dimensional version of the flow cell to determine the impact of plenum channels on the performance of the cell. Such channels are frequently seen in experimental designs where the current collector plates are borrowed from fuel cell designs. These designs use a serpentine channel etched into a solid collector plate.

  1. High-Performance Oligomeric Catholytes for Effective Macromolecular Separation in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NRFBs) represent an attractive technology for energy storage from intermittent renewable sources. In these batteries, electrical energy is stored in and extracted from electrolyte solutions of redox-active molecules (termed catholytes and anolytes) that are passed through an electrochemical flow cell. To avoid battery self-discharge, the anolyte and catholyte solutions must be separated by a membrane in the flow cell. This membrane prevents crossover of the redox active molecules, while simultaneously allowing facile transport of charge-balancing ions. A key unmet challenge for the field is the design of redox-active molecule/membrane pairs that enable effective electrolyte separation while maintaining optimal battery properties. Herein, we demonstrate the development of oligomeric catholytes based on tris(dialkylamino)cyclopropenium (CP) salts that are specifically tailored for pairing with size-exclusion membranes composed of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs). Systematic studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of oligomer size/structure on properties that are crucial for flow battery performance, including cycling stability, charge capacity, solubility, electron transfer kinetics, and crossover rates. These studies have led to the identification of a CP-derived tetramer in which these properties are all comparable, or significantly improved, relative to the monomeric counterpart. Finally, a proof-of-concept flow battery is demonstrated by pairing this tetrameric catholyte with a PIM membrane. After 6 days of cycling, no crossover is detected, demonstrating the promise of this approach. These studies provide a template for the future design of other redox-active oligomers for this application. PMID:29532018

  2. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskinson, B; Marshak, MP; Suh, C; Er, S; Gerhardt, MR; Galvin, CJ; Chen, XD; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Gordon, RG; Aziz, MJ

    2014-01-08

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind or solar power output(1,2). In contrast, flow batteries can independently scale the power (electrode area) and energy (arbitrarily large storage volume) components of the system by maintaining all of the electro-active species in fluid form(3-5). Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts(6,7). Here we describe a class of energy storage materials that exploits the favourable chemical and electro-chemical properties of a family of molecules known as quinones. The example we demonstrate is ametal-free flow battery based on the redox chemistry of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS). AQDS undergoes extremely rapid and reversible two-electron two-proton reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in sulphuric acid. An aqueous flow battery with inexpensive carbon electrodes, combining the quinone/hydroquinone couple with the Br-2/Br- redox couple, yields a peak galvanic power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) at 1.3 A cm(-2). Cycling of this quinone-bromide flow battery showed >99 per cent storage capacity retention per cycle. The organic anthraquinone species can be synthesized from inexpensive commodity chemicals(8). This organic approach permits tuning of important properties such as the reduction potential and solubility by adding functional groups: for example, we demonstrate that the addition of two hydroxy groups to AQDS increases the open circuit potential of the cell by 11% and we describe a pathway for further increases in cell voltage. The use of p-aromatic redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals

  3. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  4. Double-membrane triple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushan, Yan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2018-03-13

    A redox flow battery is provided having a double-membrane (one cation exchange membrane and one anion exchange membrane), triple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and one electrolyte positioned between and in contact with the two membranes). The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte. This design physically isolates, but ionically connects, the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte. The physical isolation offers great freedom in choosing redox pairs in the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte, making high voltage of redox flow batteries possible. The ionic conduction drastically reduces the overall ionic crossover between negative electrolyte and positive one, leading to high columbic efficiency.

  5. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2017-11-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  6. Recent developments in organic redox flow batteries: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P.; Shah, A. A.; Sanz, L.; Flox, C.; Morante, J. R.; Xu, Q.; Mohamed, M. R.; Ponce de León, C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2017-08-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have emerged as prime candidates for energy storage on the medium and large scales, particularly at the grid scale. The demand for versatile energy storage continues to increase as more electrical energy is generated from intermittent renewable sources. A major barrier in the way of broad deployment and deep market penetration is the use of expensive metals as the active species in the electrolytes. The use of organic redox couples in aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes is a promising approach to reducing the overall cost in long-term, since these materials can be low-cost and abundant. The performance of such redox couples can be tuned by modifying their chemical structure. In recent years, significant developments in organic redox flow batteries has taken place, with the introduction of new groups of highly soluble organic molecules, capable of providing a cell voltage and charge capacity comparable to conventional metal-based systems. This review summarises the fundamental developments and characterization of organic redox flow batteries from both the chemistry and materials perspectives. The latest advances, future challenges and opportunities for further development are discussed.

  7. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  8. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  9. Determining the Limiting Current Density of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs are used as energy storage systems for intermittent renewable power sources. The performance of VRFBs depends on materials of key components and operating conditions, such as current density, electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition. Mass transfer overpotential is affected by the electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition, which is related to the limiting current density. In order to investigate the effect of operating conditions on mass transport overpotential, this study established a relationship between the limiting current density and operating conditions. First, electrolyte solutions with different states of charge were prepared and used for a single cell to obtain discharging polarization curves under various operating conditions. The experimental results were then analyzed and are discussed in this paper. Finally, this paper proposes a limiting current density as a function of operating conditions. The result helps predict the effect of operating condition on the cell performance in a mathematical model.

  10. Metal-air flow batteries using oxygen enriched electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-ping; Andrei, Petru; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Chen, Xujie

    2017-08-01

    A metal air flow battery includes an electrochemical reaction unit and an oxygen exchange unit. The electrochemical reaction unit includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and an ionic conductive membrane between the anode and the cathode, an anode electrolyte, and a cathode electrolyte. The oxygen exchange unit contacts the cathode electrolyte with oxygen separate from the electrochemical reaction unit. At least one pump is provided for pumping cathode electrolyte between the electrochemical reaction unit and the oxygen exchange unit. A method for producing an electrical current is also disclosed.

  11. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  12. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l-1). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l-1 is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  13. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  14. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  15. Flow batteries for microfluidic networks: configuring an electroosmotic pump for nonterminal positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chiyang; Lu, Joann J; Jia, Zhijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiayan; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-04-01

    A micropump provides flow and pressure for a lab-on-chip device, just as a battery supplies current and voltage for an electronic system. Numerous micropumps have been developed, but none is as versatile as a battery. One cannot easily insert a micropump into a nonterminal position of a fluidic line without affecting the rest of the fluidic system, and one cannot simply connect several micropumps in series to enhance the pressure output, etc. In this work we develop a flow battery (or pressure power supply) to address this issue. A flow battery consists of a +EOP (in which the liquid flows in the same direction as the field gradient) and a -EOP (in which the liquid flows opposite to the electric field gradient), and the outlet of the +EOP is directly connected to the inlet of the -EOP. An external high voltage is applied to this outlet-inlet joint via a short gel-filled capillary that allows ions but not bulk liquid flow, while the +EOP's inlet and the -EOP's outlet (the flow battery's inlet and outlet) are grounded. This flow battery can be deployed anywhere in a fluidic network without electrically affecting the rest of the system. Several flow batteries can be connected in series to enhance the pressure output to drive HPLC separations. In a fluidic system powered by flow batteries, a hydraulic equivalent of Ohm's law can be applied to analyze system pressures and flow rates.

  16. A multi-electron redox mediator for redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochun; Yang, Liuqing; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tianran; Lin, Haibin; Yao, Qiaofeng; Lee, Jim Yang

    2018-02-01

    The lithium-sulfur flow battery (LSFB) is a new addition to the rechargeable lithium flow batteries (LFBs) where sulfur or a sulfur compound is used as the cathode material against the lithium anode. We report here our evaluation of an organic sulfide - dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as 1) a catholyte of a LFB and 2) a multi-electron redox mediator for discharging and charging a solid sulfur cathode without any conductive additives. The latter configuration is also known as the redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow battery (RTLSFB). The LFB provides an initial discharge capacity of 131.5 mAh g-1DMTS (1.66 A h L-1), which decreases to 59 mAh g-1DMTS (0.75 A h L-1) after 40 cycles. The RTLSFB delivers a significantly higher application performance - initial discharge capacity of 1225.3 mAh g-1sulfur (3.83 A h L-1), for which 1030.9 mAh g-1sulfur (3.23 A h L-1) is still available after 40 cycles. The significant increase in the discharge and charge duration of the LFB after sulfur addition indicates that DMTS is better used as a redox mediator in a RTLSFB than as a catholyte in a LFB.

  17. A Battery-Aware Algorithm for Supporting Collaborative Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Sami; Chang-Yit, Cheryl

    Battery-powered devices such as laptops, cell phones, and MP3 players are becoming ubiquitous. There are several significant ways in which the ubiquity of battery-powered technology impacts the field of collaborative computing. First, applications such as collaborative data gathering, become possible. Also, existing applications that depend on collaborating devices to maintain the system infrastructure must be reconsidered. Fundamentally, the problem lies in the fact that collaborative applications often require end-user computing devices to perform tasks that happen in the background and are not directly advantageous to the user. In this work, we seek to better understand how laptop users use the batteries attached to their devices and analyze a battery-aware alternative to Gnutella’s ultrapeer selection algorithm. Our algorithm provides insight into how system maintenance tasks can be allocated to battery-powered nodes. The most significant result of our study indicates that a large portion of laptop users can participate in system maintenance without sacrificing any of their battery. These results show great promise for existing collaborative applications as well as new applications, such as collaborative data gathering, that rely upon battery-powered devices.

  18. Composite Solid Electrolyte for Li Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.; Peled, E.

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical, bulk and interfacial properties of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) based composite solid electrolyte (CSE) comprising LiI, PEO, and Al2O3 have been evaluated for Li battery applications. The bulk interfacial and transport properties of the CSEs seem to strongly depend on the alumina particle size. For the CSE films with 0.05 micron alumina while the bulk conductivity is around 10(exp -4) (mho/cm) at 103 C, the Li ion transport number seems to be close to unity at the same temperature. Compared to the PEO electrolyte this polymer composite electrolyte seems to exhibit robust mechanical and interfacial properties. We have studied three different films with three different alumina sizes in the range 0.01-0.3 micron. Effects of Al2O3 particle size on the electrochemical performance of polymer composite electrolyte is discussed. With TiS2 as cathode a 10 mAh small capacity cell was charged and discharged at C/40 and C/20 rates respectively.

  19. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Delnick, F.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Miller, D.L. (Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  20. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  1. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries for U.S. Army Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, J. F; Carter, R. H; Xu, K; Wong, E. I; Nguyen, P. A; Hgo, E. H; Wetzel, E. D

    2007-01-01

    ... supplementary power for light load applications. To enable this concept, we have designed load-bearing properties directly into the battery electrodes and electrolyte such that each component is itself multifunctional...

  2. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-08

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  3. Progress in Application of CNTs in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery is widely used in the fields of portable devices and electric cars with its superior performance and promising energy storage applications. The unique one-dimensional structure formed by the graphene layer makes carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties and becomes a hot material in the research of lithium-ion battery. In this paper, the applicable research progress of carbon nanotubes in lithium-ion battery is described, and its future development is put forward from its two aspects of being not only the anodic conductive reinforcing material and the cathodic energy storage material but also the electrically conductive framework material.

  4. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hang; Semenikhin, Oleg; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al-NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ˜10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design.

  5. Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Semenikhin, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate flexible fiber-based Al–NaOCl galvanic cells fabricated using fiber drawing process. Aluminum and copper wires are used as electrodes, and they are introduced into the fiber structure during drawing of the low-density polyethylene microstructured jacket. NaOCl solution is used as electrolyte, and it is introduced into the battery after the drawing process. The capacity of a 1 m long fiber battery is measured to be ∼10 mAh. We also detail assembly and optimization of the electrical circuitry in the energy-storing fiber battery textiles. Several examples of their applications are presented including lighting up an LED, driving a wireless mouse and actuating a screen with an integrated shape-memory nitinol wire. The principal advantages of the presented fiber batteries include: ease of fabrication, high flexibility, simple electrochemistry and use of widely available materials in the battery design. (paper)

  6. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  7. Porous graphene nanocages for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Du, Peng; Wen, Jianguo; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2017-03-07

    An active material composition includes a porous graphene nanocage and a source material. The source material may be a sulfur material. The source material may be an anodic material. A lithium-sulfur battery is provided that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode of the lithium-sulfur battery includes a porous graphene nanocage and a sulfur material and at least a portion of the sulfur material is entrapped within the porous graphene nanocage. Also provided is a lithium-air battery that includes a cathode, an anode, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte, where the cathode includes a porous graphene nanocage and where the cathode may be free of a cathodic metal catalyst.

  8. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  9. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  10. Polymer nanocomposites for lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Gregar, Kathleen Carrado

    2006-07-18

    A single ion-conducting nanocomposite of a substantially amorphous polyethylene ether and a negatively charged synthetic smectite clay useful as an electrolyte. Excess SiO2 improves conductivity and when combined with synthetic hectorite forms superior membranes for batteries. A method of making membranes is also disclosed.

  11. Unbiased, complete solar charging of a neutral flow battery by a single Si photocathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedege, Kristina; Bae, Dowon; Dražević, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Solar redox flow batteries have attracted attention as a possible integrated technology for simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. In this work, we review current efforts to design aqueous solar flow batteries in terms of battery electrolyte capacity, solar conversion efficiency...... and depth of solar charge. From a materials cost and design perspective, a simple, cost-efficient, aqueous solar redox flow battery will most likely incorporate only one semiconductor, and we demonstrate here a system where a single photocathode is accurately matched to the redox couples to allow...... for a complete solar charge. The single TiO2 protected Si photocathode with a catalytic Pt layer can fully solar charge a neutral TEMPO-sulfate/ferricyanide battery with a cell voltage of 0.35 V. An unbiased solar conversion efficiency of 1.6% is obtained and this system represents a new strategy in solar RFBs...

  12. Characterization of lithium batteries for application to photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Ortiz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)

  13. Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Vanommering, G.; Puester, N. H.; Puglisi, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    A bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery which effectively addresses all key requirements for a spacecraft power system, including long-term reliability and low mass, is discussed. The design of this battery is discussed in the context of system requirements and nickel-hydrogen battery technology in general. To achieve the ultimate goal of an aerospace application of a bipolar Ni-H2 battery several objectives must be met in the design and development of the system. These objectives include: maximization of reliability and life; high specific energy and energy density; reasonable cost of manufacture, test, and integration; and ease in scaling for growth in power requirements. These basic objectives translate into a number of specific design requirements, which are discussed.

  14. Design and Analysis of Generic Energy Management Strategy for Controlling Second-Life Battery Systems in Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Monem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, second-life battery systems have received a growing interest as one of the most promising alternatives for decreasing the overall cost of the battery storage systems in stationary applications. The high-cost of batteries represents a prominent barrier for their use in traction and stationary applications. To make second-life batteries economically viable for stationary applications, an effective power-electronics converter should be selected as well. This converter should be supported by an energy management strategy (EMS, which is needed for controlling the power flow among the second-life battery modules based on their available capacity and performance. This article presents the design, analysis and implementation of a generic energy management strategy (GEMS. The proposed GEMS aims to control and distribute the load demand between battery storage systems under different load conditions and disturbances. This manuscript provides the experimental verification of the proposed management strategy. The results have demonstrated that the GEMS can robustly handle any level of performance inequality among the used-battery modules with the aim to integrate different levels (i.e., size, capacity, and chemistry type of the second-life battery modules at the same time and in the same application.

  15. Reactivation of dead sulfide species in lithium polysulfide flow battery for grid scale energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Zhou, Guangmin; Shi, Feifei; Zhuo, Denys; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Zu, Chenxi; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Rufan; Huang, Xuanyi; Cui, Yi

    2017-09-06

    Lithium polysulfide batteries possess several favorable attributes including low cost and high energy density for grid energy storage. However, the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium (called "dead" sulfide species) leads to continuous capacity degradation in high mass loading cells, which represents a great challenge. To address this problem, herein we propose a strategy to reactivate dead sulfide species by reacting them with sulfur powder with stirring and heating (70 °C) to recover the cell capacity, and further demonstrate a flow battery system based on the reactivation approach. As a result, ultrahigh mass loading (0.125 g cm -3 , 2 g sulfur in a single cell), high volumetric energy density (135 Wh L -1 ), good cycle life, and high single-cell capacity are achieved. The high volumetric energy density indicates its promising application for future grid energy storage.Lithium polysulfide batteries suffer from the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium. Here the authors show a reactivation strategy by a reaction with cheap sulfur powder under stirring and heating to recover the cell capacity.

  16. Tackling capacity fading in vanadium flow batteries with amphoteric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Fabio J.; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-11-01

    Capacity fading and poor electrolyte utilization caused by electrolyte imbalance effects are major drawbacks for the commercialization of vanadium flow batteries (VFB). The influence of membrane type (cationic, anionic, amphoteric) on these effects is studied by determining the excess and net flux of each vanadium ion in an operating VFB assembled with a cation exchange membrane (CEM), Nafion® NR212, an anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumatech FAP-450, and an amphoteric ion exchange membrane (AIEM) synthesized in-house. It is shown that the net vanadium flux, accompanied by water transport, is directed towards the positive side for the CEM and towards the negative side for the AEM. The content of cation and anion exchange groups in the AIEM is adjusted via radiation grafting to balance the vanadium flux between the two electrolyte sides. With the AIEM the net vanadium flux is significantly reduced and capacity fading due to electrolyte imbalances can be largely eliminated. The membrane's influence on electrolyte imbalance effects is characterized and quantified in one single charge-discharge cycle by analyzing the content of the four different vanadium species in the two electrolytes. The experimental data recorded herewith conclusively explains the electrolyte composition after 80 cycles.

  17. Mechanistic understanding of monosaccharide-air flow battery electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel M.; Tsang, Tsz Ho; Chetty, Leticia; Aloi, Sekotilani; Liaw, Bor Yann

    Recently, an inexpensive monosaccharide-air flow battery configuration has been demonstrated to utilize a strong base and a mediator redox dye to harness electrical power from the partial oxidation of glucose. Here the mechanistic understanding of glucose oxidation in this unique glucose-air power source is further explored by acid-base titration experiments, 13C NMR, and comparison of results from chemically different redox mediators (indigo carmine vs. methyl viologen) and sugars (fructose vs. glucose) via studies using electrochemical techniques. Titration results indicate that gluconic acid is the main product of the cell reaction, as supported by evidence in the 13C NMR spectra. Using indigo carmine as the mediator dye and fructose as the energy source, an abiotic cell configuration generates a power density of 1.66 mW cm -2, which is greater than that produced from glucose under similar conditions (ca. 1.28 mW cm -2). A faster transition from fructose into the ene-diol intermediate than from glucose likely contributed to this difference in power density.

  18. Li-ion battery recycling and cobalt flow analysis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Asari, Misuzu; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Batteries sometimes contain precious or toxic substances (e.g. nickel, cobalt, lead, mercury, cadmium). However, the collection and recycling rate of small batteries were low in Japan. We focus on cobalt in lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and conduct chemical analysis, questioner survey and flow analysis in Japan.Results of chemical analysis showed that the concentration of cobalt in Li-ion batteries was around 20% regardless of the year manufactured or the manufacturer. As a result of the con...

  19. A soluble-lead redox flow battery with corrugated graphite sheet and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lead redox flow battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors. A Banerjee D Saha T N Guru Row A K Shukla. Volume 36 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 163-170 ...

  20. High Voltage Batteries For Space And Near-Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitzendanner, Rob; Skelton, Jim; Walker, John; Terminesi, Dan; Bibo, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Satellites and other space systems continue to transition towards higher voltage power busses from more traditional 28V power systems. The International Space System (ISS) was built around a 120V power bus, and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) has adopted a similar design for reduced current and cable size/weight, compatibility, and improved power distribution. Other high voltage systems are employed to power electromechanical actuators on flight surfaces of re-entry modules and similar systems. The design and development of the batteries for these high voltage applications needs to be ever more vigilant with issues of system safety, cell monitoring and equilibration, power distribution and handling and operation procedures. Yardney Technical Products is developing the 120V batteries for the Orion CEV, 150V batteries for other space applications and a 200V battery for missile flight systems (as well as a 400V modular system for Naval applications). The design, modularity, electronics monitoring and control, manufacturing and operating considerations, and overall system safety concerns for these batteries are of special concern for such high voltage systems.

  1. Portable diffusion battery. It's application to measuring aerosol size characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.

    1972-01-01

    A miniature portable cluster-tube diffusion battery for measurement of the size and size distribution of submicron aerosols (1-100 nm) is described. A series of commercially available Collimated Holes Structures are mounted in sleeves with O-rings so that aerosol penetration can be measured at a number of outlets along the series. The CHS are stainless-steel discs of several different diameters and thicknesses, containing a large number of nearly circular holes. The actual length of the apparatus is about 2 ft but the equivalent length is 3.25 mi. Calculated curves of penetration versus particle size are used to evaluate size distribution and show that the equivalent size frequently reported from one measurement with a rectangular diffusion battery is practically meaningless. The value depends as much on the characteristics and mode of the operation of the diffusion battery as on the aerosol; the longer the battery and the lower the air flow, the greater the equivalent size will appear to be. Graphical plots of the cumulative size distribution of room aerosol and silver aerosol are illustrated for large battery and miniature battery measurements and appear to be in close agreement. Measurements on radon daughters in uranium mines with the miniature batteries show activity median diameters from 0.1 to 0.17 micron, with standard deviations from 2 to 4. Two similar measurements made in the laboratory on room air tagged with about 50 pCi/l radon daughters show activity median diameters of 0.15 and 0.17 micron, with geometric standard deviations of 2.2 and 2.6, respectively

  2. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  3. Optimizing small wind turbine performance in battery charging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, Stephen; Muljadi, Eduard; Holz, Richard; Gevorgian, Vahan

    1995-05-01

    Many small wind turbine generators (10 kW or less) consist of a variable speed rotor driving a permanent magnet synchronous generator (alternator). One application of such wind turbines is battery charging, in which the generator is connected through a rectifier to a battery bank. The wind turbine electrical interface is essentially the same whether the turbine is part of a remote power supply for telecommunications, a standalone residential power system, or a hybrid village power system, in short, any system in which the wind generator output is rectified and fed into a DC bus. Field experience with such applications has shown that both the peak power output and the total energy capture of the wind turbine often fall short of expectations based on rotor size and generator rating. In this paper, the authors present a simple analytical model of the typical wind generator battery charging system that allows one to calculate actual power curves if the generator and rotor properties are known. The model clearly illustrates how the load characteristics affect the generator output. In the second part of this paper, the authors present four approaches to maximizing energy capture from wind turbines in battery charging applications. The first of these is to determine the optimal battery bank voltage for a given WTG. The second consists of adding capacitors in series with the generator. The third approach is to place an optimizing DC/DC voltage converter between the rectifier and the battery bank. The fourth is a combination of the series capacitors and the optimizing voltage controller. They also discuss both the limitations and the potential performance gain associated with each of the four configurations.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow Dynamic Patterns and Volumetric Flow Penetrations in the Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in the flow channel over the porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery with serpentine flow field design. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic fl...

  5. Application of non-aqueous solvents to batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.

    1984-02-01

    The successful application of organic and aquo-organic solvents in lithium batteries and in zinc bromine batteries is discussed. Results are presented for a comparison of propylene carbonate and 50 percent propylene carbonate/acetonitrile for lithium intercalation cells at 25 C 1 M LiAsF6 as electrolyte and discharge at 2 mA/sq cm. Higher cathode utilization and energy efficiencies are achieved in PC/AN. It was found that the self-discharge problem of the zinc/bromine battery may be overcome by dissolving bromine and bromide salt in water-immiscible dipolar aprotic solvent-proprionitrile (PN). Cells using this PN/H2O two-phase system have an energy efficiency above 75 percent and coulombic efficiency above 85 percent.

  6. Elimination of active species crossover in a room temperature, neutral pH, aqueous flow battery using a ceramic NaSICON membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcorn, Eric; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Pratt, Harry D.; Spoerke, Erik; Ingersoll, David

    2018-02-01

    Flow batteries are an attractive technology for energy storage of grid-scale renewables. However, performance issues related to ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fouling and crossover of species have limited the success of flow batteries. In this work we propose the use of the solid-state sodium-ion conductor NaSICON as an IEM to fully eliminate active species crossover in room temperature, aqueous, neutral pH flow batteries. We measure the room temperature conductivity of NaSICON at 2.83-4.67 mS cm-1 and demonstrate stability of NaSICON in an aqueous electrolyte with conductivity values remaining near 2.5 mS cm-1 after 66 days of exposure. Charge and discharge of a full H-cell battery as well as symmetric cycling in a flow battery configuration using NaSICON as an IEM in both cases demonstrates the capability of the solid-state IEM. Extensive analysis of aged cells through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and UV-vis spectroscopy show no contaminant species having crossed over the NaSICON membrane after 83 days of exposure, yielding an upper limit to the permeability of NaSICON of 4 × 10-10 cm2 min-1. The demonstration of NaSICON as an IEM enables a wide new range of chemistries for application to flow batteries that would previously be impeded by species crossover and associated degradation.

  7. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2014-12-01

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron-vanadium, and iron-chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. Proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  8. Measurement of 18650 format lithium ion battery vent mechanism flow parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael; Ferreira, Summer

    2017-11-01

    Under abuse conditions, decomposition reactions within a lithium-ion battery can lead to gas generation resulting in an internal pressure increase. To mitigate the risk of case rupture, commercially available lithium batteries generally contain a pressure relief vent. However, the process of cell venting still presents risks associated with the flow of flammable gases and liquid electrolyte. To better understand this flow, tests are performed on vent mechanisms from the commonly available 18650 format of lithium-ion battery. Experimentally determined flow parameters include opening pressure, effective area, and coefficient of discharge. The batteries tested have a vent mechanism located on the cell's positive terminal which presents a unique geometry. A test fixture was designed and constructed to pressurize the vent mechanism from a disassembled battery to the point of opening, at which point the opening pressure is recorded. Measurements of stagnation pressure within an accumulator and static pressure in a known cross-sectional area are used to solve for the opening area of the vent with compressible-isentropic flow relationships. An additional measurement of stagnation temperature allows for calculation of mass flow rate out of the system and thus coefficient of discharge. This work was funded by the US DOE OE's Energy Storage Program under contract SAND2017-8019 A.

  9. Silver based batteries for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, A. P.; Russell, S. J.; Serenyi, J. R.; Murphy, J. P.

    The present status of silver oxide-zinc technology and applications has been described by Karpinski et al. [A.P. Karpinski, B. Makovetski, S.J. Russell, J.R. Serenyi, D.C. Williams, Silver-Zinc: status of technology and applications, Journal of Power Sources, 80 (1999) 53-60], where the silver-zinc couple is still the preferred choice where high specific energy/energy density, coupled with high specific power/power density are important for high-rate, weight or size/configuration sensitive applications. Perhaps the silver oxide cathode can be considered one of the most versatile electrode materials. When coupled with other anodes and corresponding electrolyte management system, the silver electrode provides for a wide array of electrochemical systems that can be tailored to meet the most demanding, high power requirements. Besides zinc, the most notable include cadmium, iron, metal hydride, and hydrogen electrode for secondary systems, while primary systems include lithium and aluminum. Alloys including silver are also available, such as silver chloride, which when coupled with magnesium or aluminum are primarily used in many seawater applications. The selection and use of these couples is normally the result of a trade-off of many factors. These include performance, safety, risk, reliability, and cost. When high power is required, silver oxide-zinc, silver oxide-aluminum, and silver oxide-lithium are the most energetic. For moderate performance (i.e., lower power), silver oxide-zinc or silver-cadmium would be the system of choice. This paper summarizes the suitability of the silver-based couples, with an emphasis on the silver-zinc system, as primary or rechargeable power sources for high energy/power applications.

  10. Redox flow batteries for hybrid electric vehicles: progress and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rusllim Mohammad, M.; Sharkh, S.M.; Walsh, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been the focus of muchresearch over the last two decades as the world has sought improved energy utilization and reduced emissions. However, the lengthy charging time, modest range and relatively sluggish performance of batteries have restricted the commercialization of electric vehicles. Hybrid propulsion can overcome most of these shortcomings, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs)...

  11. Verified reduction of dimensionality for an all-vanadium redox flow battery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Ling, C. Y.; Birgersson, E.; Vynnycky, M.; Han, M.

    2015-04-01

    The computational cost for all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) models that seek to capture the transport phenomena usually increases with the number of spatial dimensions considered. In this context, we carry out scale analysis to derive a reduced zero-dimensional model. Two nondimensional numbers and their limits to support the model reduction are identified. We verify the reduced model by comparing its charge-discharge curve predictions with that of a full two-dimensional model. The proposed analysis leading to reduction in dimensionality is generic and can be employed for other types of redox flow batteries.

  12. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25?Wh?l?1). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167?Wh?l?1 is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0?M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functio...

  13. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  14. Lithium polymer battery development for electric vehicle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, P.; Lascaud, S. [Electricite de France, Moret-sur-Loing (France). R and D Dept.; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, Quimper (France); Bloch, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-10-01

    Bollore Technologies, EDF and CEA/CEREM started in 1993 a program for the development of a lithium polymer battery technology with a first objective: producing reproducible 40 Ah single cells. A cell design was selected and a manufacturing process based on extrusion was built up. 40 Ah single cells were produced by this process and are undergoing tests. The cycleability obtained at 0.4 and 4 Ah is between 300 and 400 cycles, is still in progress, with a specific capacity around 150 mAh/g of cathodic vanadium oxide. Power tests, thermal modelling and specific energy projections based on the same electrochemical performances confirm the interest of the lithium polymer battery for electric vehicle application. (orig.)

  15. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, Rodney [East Penn Manufacturing Company, Inc., Lyon Station, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  16. Elucidating effects of cell architecture, electrode material, and solution composition on overpotentials in redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, Alan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sacci, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delnick, Frank M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aaron, Douglas S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mench, Matthew M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-16

    Here, an improved method for quantitative measurement of the charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic overpotentials in redox flow batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is presented. The use of a pulse dampener in the hydraulic circuit enables the collection of impedance spectra at low frequencies with a peristaltic pump, allowing the measurement of finite diffusion resistances at operationally relevant flow rates. This method is used to resolve the rate-limiting processes for the V2+/V3+ redox couple on carbon felt and carbon paper electrodes in the vanadium redox flow battery. Carbon felt was limited by both charge transfer and ohmic resistance, while carbon paper was limited by charge transfer, finite diffusion, and ohmic resistances. The influences of vanadium concentration and flow field design also are quantified.

  17. Large-scale energy storage. Investigating improvements of redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and more sustainable energy source. One problem however lies with the intermittent nature of the solar energy source, coupled with a mismatch between generation and use. Redox flow batteries provide a means to bridge the time lag between the availability...

  18. A soluble-lead redox flow battery with corrugated graphite sheet and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... Abstract. A soluble-lead redox flow battery with corrugated-graphite sheet and reticulated-vitreous carbon as posi- tive and negative current collectors is assembled and performance tested. In the cell, electrolyte comprising of 1·5 M lead (II) methanesulfonate and 0·9 M methanesulfonic acid with sodium salt ...

  19. A high-performance carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhao, G.; An, L.; Zeng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for VRFBs. • The energy efficiency is up to 84.8% at 100 mA cm −2 . • The new electrode allows the peak power density to reach 508 mW cm −2 . - Abstract: Increasing the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), especially the energy efficiency and power density, is critically important to reduce the system cost to a level for widespread commercialization. Unlike conventional VRFBs with flow-through structure, in this work we create a VRFB featuring a flow-field structure with a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for the battery. This novel structure, exhibiting a significantly reduced ohmic loss through reducing electrode thickness, an increased surface area and improved electrocatalytic activity by coating carbon nanoparticles, allows the energy efficiency up to 84.8% at a current density of as high as 100 mA cm −2 and the peak power density to reach a value of 508 mW cm −2 . In addition, it is demonstrated that the battery with this proposed structure exhibits a substantially improved rate capability and capacity retention as opposed to conventional flow-through structured battery with thick graphite felt electrodes.

  20. Thermal analysis and two-directional air flow thermal management for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuahai; Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yongzhou; Li, Changhao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is a routine but crucial strategy to ensure thermal stability and long-term durability of the lithium-ion batteries. An air-flow-integrated thermal management system is designed in the present study to dissipate heat generation and uniformize the distribution of temperature in the lithium-ion batteries. The system contains of two types of air ducts with independent intake channels and fans. One is to cool the batteries through the regular channel, and the other minimizes the heat accumulations in the middle pack of batteries through jet cooling. A three-dimensional anisotropic heat transfer model is developed to describe the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion batteries with the integration of heat generation theory, and validated through both simulations and experiments. Moreover, the simulations and experiments show that the maximum temperature can be decreased to 33.1 °C through the new thermal management system in comparison with 42.3 °C through the traditional ones, and temperature uniformity of the lithium-ion battery packs is enhanced, significantly.

  1. Limiting the public cost of stationary battery deployment by combining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, A.; Battke, B.; Beuse, M. D.; Clausdeinken, J. H.; Schmidt, T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Batteries could be central to low-carbon energy systems with high shares of intermittent renewable energy sources. However, the investment attractiveness of batteries is still perceived as low, eliciting calls for policy to support deployment. Here we show how the cost of battery deployment can potentially be minimized by introducing an aspect that has been largely overlooked in policy debates and underlying analyses: the fact that a single battery can serve multiple applications. Batteries thereby can not only tap into different value streams, but also combine different risk exposures. To address this gap, we develop a techno-economic model and apply it to the case of lithium-ion batteries serving multiple stationary applications in Germany. Our results show that batteries could be attractive for investors even now if non-market barriers impeding the combination of applications were removed. The current policy debate should therefore be refocused so as to encompass the removal of such barriers.

  2. Next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are

  3. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 μg Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected

  4. Battery Storage Technologies for Electrical Applications: Impact in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Akinyele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are promising storage technologies for stationary applications because of their maturity, and the ease with which they are designed and installed compared to other technologies. However, they pose threats to the environment and human health. Several studies have discussed the various battery technologies and applications, but evaluating the environmental impact of batteries in electrical systems remains a gap that requires concerted research efforts. This study first presents an overview of batteries and compares their technical properties such as the cycle life, power and energy densities, efficiencies and the costs. It proposes an optimal battery technology sizing and selection strategy, and then assesses the environmental impact of batteries in a typical renewable energy application by using a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system as a case study. The greenhouse gas (GHG impact of the batteries is evaluated based on the life cycle emission rate parameter. Results reveal that the battery has a significant impact in the energy system, with a GHG impact of about 36–68% in a 1.5 kW PV system for different locations. The paper discusses new batteries, strategies to minimize battery impact and provides insights into the selection of batteries with improved cycling capacity, higher lifespan and lower cost that can achieve lower environmental impacts for future applications.

  5. Modeling and simulation of the zinc-nickel single flow batteries based on MATLAB/Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouguang Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the working principle of the zinc-nickel single flow batteries (ZNBs, this paper builds the electrochemical model and mechanical model, analyzes the effect of electrolyte flux on the battery performance and obtains a single cell with a 216 Ah charge-discharge capacity as an example, and thereafter conducts a simulation to obtain several results under the condition of constant current charge and discharge. The simulation results are well matched in comparison with the experimental results. An optimal flux exists during the charge and discharge, which indicates that the model can well simulate the charge and discharge characteristics of the ZNBs under the condition of constant current.

  6. Validating and improving a zero-dimensional stack voltage model of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2018-02-01

    Simple, computationally efficient battery models can contribute significantly to the development of flow batteries. However, validation studies for these models on an industrial-scale stack level are rarely published. We first extensively present a simple stack voltage model for the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. For modeling the concentration overpotential, we derive mass transfer coefficients from experimental results presented in the 1990s. The calculated mass transfer coefficient of the positive half-cell is 63% larger than of the negative half-cell, which is not considered in models published to date. Further, we advance the concentration overpotential model by introducing an apparent electrochemically active electrode surface which differs from the geometric electrode area. We use the apparent surface as fitting parameter for adapting the model to experimental results of a flow battery manufacturer. For adapting the model, we propose a method for determining the agreement between model and reality quantitatively. To protect the manufacturer's intellectual property, we introduce a normalization method for presenting the results. For the studied stack, the apparent electrochemically active surface of the electrode is 41% larger than its geometrical area. Hence, the current density in the diffusion layer is 29% smaller than previously reported for a zero-dimensional model.

  7. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  8. Metal-Free Aqueous Flow Battery with Novel Ultrafiltered Lignin as Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alolika [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States; Hamel, Jonathan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States; Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Zhu, Hongli [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States

    2018-03-05

    As the number of generation sources from intermittent renewable technologies on the electric grid increases, the need for large-scale energy storage devices is becoming essential to ensure grid stability. Flow batteries offer numerous advantages over conventional sealed batteries for grid storage. In this work, for the first time, we investigated lignin, the second most abundant wood derived biopolymer, as an anolyte for the aqueous flow battery. Lignosulfonate, a water-soluble derivative of lignin, is environmentally benign, low cost and abundant as it is obtained from the byproduct of paper and biofuel manufacturing. The lignosulfonate utilizes the redox chemistry of quinone to store energy and undergoes a reversible redox reaction. Here, we paired lignosulfonate with Br2/Br-, and the full cell runs efficiently with high power density. Also, the large and complex molecular structure of lignin considerably reduces the electrolytic crossover, which ensures very high capacity retention. The flowcell was able to achieve current densities of up to 20 mA/cm2 and charge polarization resistance of 15 ohm cm2. This technology presents a unique opportunity for a low-cost, metal-free flow battery capable of large-scale sustainable energy storage.

  9. Summary of 2017 NASA Workshop on Assessment of Advanced Battery Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    A workshop on assessment of battery technologies for future aerospace applications was held in Cleveland, OH on August 16-17. The focus of the workshop, hosted by NASA GRC, was to assess (1) the battery needs for future aerospace missions, (2) the state of battery technology and projected technology advances, and (3) the need for additional investments for future aerospace missions. The workshop had 109 attendees that included internationally recognized technology leaders from academia and national laboratories, high level executives from government and industry, small businesses, and startup companies. A significant portion of the workshop was focused on batteries for electrified aircraft. The presentation will summarize the finding on the state of battery technologies for electrified aircraft and will include assessment of current state of battery technology, gaps in battery technology for application in electrified aircraft, and recommended technology development options for meeting near-term and long-term needs of electrified aircraft.

  10. ETK's experience in the application of VRLA batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, I. [Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of the company Ericsson Nikola Tesla (ETK) in the application of VRLA batteries. After a short comment on conventional lead acid batteries, the paper explains the reasons for introduction of VRLA batteries and presents our experience considering their quality, performance, hydrogen evolution, safety, service life etc. Stress is put on some internal and external factors which affect useful life, such as positive grid corrosion, ambient temperature and charging voltage. ETK also gained experience in relation to adaptation of some UPS systems to VRLA batteries. The article concludes with the list of important advantages and disadvantages of VRLA batteries compared with the flooded ones. (orig.)

  11. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  12. Battery lifetime prediction by pattern recognition. Application to lead-acid battery life-cycling test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Sam P.; Spindler, W. C.

    1984-09-01

    A novel approach to battery lifetime prediction has been evaluated by application to life-cycling data collected for 108 ESB EV-106 6-V. golf cart batteries (tests conducted by TRW for NASA-Lewis). This approach utilized computerized pattern recognition methods to examine initial cycling measurements and classify each battery into one of two classes: "long-lived" or "short-lived". The classifier program was based on either a linear discriminant or nearest neighbor analysis of a training set consisting of: each member of the EV battery set which had failed; the relative lifetime of each member — normalized with respect to test conditions; and a set of "features" based on measurements of the initial behavior. The raw data set included capacity trends over the first 8 or 9 cycles and records of specific gravity and water-added for each cell after initial cycling. Features defined from these raw data included the individual data items as well as transformations and combinations of these data. All features were represented as standardized variables. It was shown that lifetime prediction of batteries within the two categories defined could be made with about 87% accuracy. It is concluded that for a similarly-manufactured battery set, relative lifetime prediction could be based on initial measurements of the same type examined here.

  13. Toward Improved Catholyte Materials for Redox Flow Batteries: What Controls Chemical Stability of Persistent Radical Cations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Tung, Siu on [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States; Silcox, Benjamin [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States; Curtiss, Larry A.; Thompson, Levi [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States; Zhang, Lu

    2017-10-16

    Catholyte materials are used to store positive charge in energized fluids circulating through redox flow batteries (RFBs) for electric grid and vehicle applications. Energy-rich radical cations (RCs) are being considered for use as catholyte materials, but to be practically relevant, these RCs (that are typically unstable, reactive species) need to have long lifetimes in liquid electrolytes under the ambient conditions. Only few families of such energetic RCs possess stabilities that are suitable for their use in RFBs; currently, the derivatives of 1,4- dialkoxybenzene look the most promising. In this study, we examine factors that define the chemical and electrochemical stabilities for RCs in this family. To this end, we engineered rigid bis-annulated molecules that by design avoid the two main degradation pathways for such RCs, viz. their deprotonation and radical addition. The decay of the resulting RCs are due to the single remaining reaction: O-dealkylation. We establish the mechanism for this reaction and examine factors controlling its rate. In particular, we demonstrate that this reaction is initiated by the nucleophile attack of the counter anion on the RC partner. The reaction proceeds through the formation of the aroxyl radicals whose secondary reactions yield the corresponding quinones. The O-dealkylation accelerates considerably when the corresponding quinone has poor solubility in the electrolyte, and the rate depends strongly on the solvent polarity. Our mechanistic insights suggest new ways of improving the RC catholytes through molecular engineering and electrolyte optimization.

  14. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  15. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Merle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone (cSPEEK membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  16. A Comparative Study of Lithium Ion to Lead Acid Batteries for use in UPS Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    batteries, which are currently used in UPS applications. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze how Li-ion batteries can become a useful alternative to present VRLA. In this study, three different electrochemical battery technologies were investigated; two of the most appealing Li-ion chemistries...... ion batteries are getting more and more attention for their use in the back-up power systems and UPSs, because of their superior characteristics, which include increased safety and higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. This fact allows them to be smaller in size and weight less than VRLA......Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems have incorporated in their structure an electrochemical battery which allows for smooth power supply when a power failure occurs. In general, UPS systems are based on lead acid batteries; mainly a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. Recently, lithium...

  17. Polyoxometalate active charge-transfer material for mediated redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Hudak, Nicholas; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2017-01-17

    Redox flow batteries including a half-cell electrode chamber coupled to a current collecting electrode are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, a separator is coupled to the half-cell electrode chamber. The half-cell electrode chamber comprises a first redox-active mediator and a second redox-active mediator. The first redox-active mediator and the second redox-active mediator are circulated through the half-cell electrode chamber into an external container. The container includes an active charge-transfer material. The active charge-transfer material has a redox potential between a redox potential of the first redox-active mediator and a redox potential of the second redox-active mediator. The active charge-transfer material is a polyoxometalate or derivative thereof. The redox flow battery may be particularly useful in energy storage solutions for renewable energy sources and for providing sustained power to an electrical grid.

  18. KOH etched graphite felt with improved wettability and activity for vanadium flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Xi, Jingyu; Zhou, Haipeng; Qiu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GF electrode is activated by KOH etching method for VFB application. • The wettability and activity of eGF electrode towards VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ couples are improved. • VFB with eGF electrode can run stable at current densities range from 50 to 250 mA cm −2 . • Cycling test at current density of 150 mA cm −2 confirms the superior durability of eGF electrode. - Abstract: In this work, a simple and effective method to activate graphite felt (GF) electrode by using KOH as etching agent is studied for vanadium flow battery (VFB) application. The surface of GF is etched by KOH at 800 °C to generate micropores and attain oxygen-containing functional groups, resulting in greatly improved electrolyte accessibility. Surface morphology, oxygen distribution and microstructure of the KOH etched graphite felts (eGFs) are characterized by SEM, EDX, XPS, XRD and Raman techniques. Due to the abundant exposed edge carbon sites and oxygen-containing functional groups introduced by KOH activation, electrochemical activity of eGFs towards both VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ redox couples are remarkably improved comparing with GF. In particular, eGF-2 (mass ratio of KOH/GF = 1.25) exhibits the best electrochemical activity and VFB performance among all eGFs. Moreover, the VFB with eGF-2 electrode can run at current density up to 250 mA cm −2 with the energy efficiency of 64%. Long-term cycle life test at higher current density of 150 mA cm −2 confirms the outstanding stability of eGF-2 electrode.

  19. A Membrane-Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-10-02

    Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short-lifetimes, and expensive ion-selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane-free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes and where vanadium is replaced by organic molecules. We show that the biphasic system formed by one acidic solution and one ionic liquid, both containing quinoyl species, behaves as a reversible battery without any membrane. This proof-of-concept of a membrane-free battery has an open circuit voltage of 1.4 V with a high theoretical energy density of 22.5 Wh L -1 , and is able to deliver 90 % of its theoretical capacity while showing excellent long-term performance (coulombic efficiency of 100 % and energy efficiency of 70 %). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. High-performance zinc bromine flow battery via improved design of electrolyte and electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Jiang, H. R.; Zeng, Y. K.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-07-01

    The zinc bromine flow battery (ZBFB) is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for large-scale energy storage attributed to its high energy density and low cost. However, it suffers from low power density, primarily due to large internal resistances caused by the low conductivity of electrolyte and high polarization in the positive electrode. In this work, chloride based salts including KCl and NH4Cl are investigated as supporting electrolyte to enhance electrolyte conductivity, while graphite-felt electrodes are thermally treated to improve electrocatalytic activity. It is found that the use of 4 M NH4Cl as a supporting electrolyte enables the battery to be operated at a current density of 40 mA cm-2 with an energy efficiency of 74.3%, whereas without the addition of a supporting electrolyte the battery only outputs an energy efficiency of 60.4%. In combination with a thermally treated graphite-felt electrode, efficiency further reaches up to 81.8% at the same current density. More impressively, we demonstrate that even at a high current density of up to 80 mA cm-2, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of 70%, representing one of the highest performances of ZBFBs in the open literature.

  1. In-situ investigation of hydrogen evolution behavior in vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T.S.; Xu, Q.; Zhou, X.L.; Zhang, Z.H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An in-situ method to investigate hydrogen evolution in VRFBs is developed. • The rate of hydrogen evolution during battery operation is quantified. • The gas evolution behaviors in the charge process of VRFBs are observed. - Abstract: In this work, we conceived and fabricated a three-electrode electrochemical cell and transparent vanadium redox flow battery to in-situ investigate the hydrogen evolution reaction during battery operation. Experimental results show that operating temperature has a strong influence on the HER rate. In particular, compared with V 3+ reduction reaction, HER is more sensitive to temperature variation. It is also found that, contrary to the conventional wisdom that side reactions occur at the late stage of the charge process, H 2 evolves at a relatively low SOC. About 0.26 and 1.94 mL H 2 were collected at an early (SOC lower than 20%) and end of the charge process, respectively, suggesting that attention to the hydrogen formation at the negative electrode in the early charge process should also be paid to during long-term battery operations. Moreover, the produced hydrogen gas at the negative side prefers to form macroscopically observable bubbles onto the electrode surface, covering the active sites for vanadium redox reactions, while oxygen evolution (including CO 2 production) at the positive side corrodes electrode surface and introduces certain oxygen-containing functional groups.

  2. Durability of polymeric materials used in zinc/bromine flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C., Jr.

    The lifetimes of zinc/bromine flow batteries may be limited by the durability of components which are fabricated from thermoplastic materials and exposed to the bromine-containing electrolyte. Examples of such components are flowframes and carbon-filled plastic electrodes. In early versions of the zinc/bromine battery, flowframes and electrodes were made from polypropylene and copolymers of propylene and ethylene. In later versions of the zinc/bromine battery, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was used as the material to fabricate flowframes and polyethylene was used as the material used to fabricate both flowframes and electrodes. We found that carbon-plastic electrodes made from polypropylene or polypropylene rich copolymers were swelled and chemically attacked by the bromine-containing electrolytes. As a result, warpage occurred and the battery failed. On the basis of accelerated aging studies we estimated the lifetimes of the electrode and its polypropylene based component to be 96 and 10 months, respectively. The enhanced stability of the electrode was attributed to the presence of carbon which is known to be an antioxidant for thermoxidation. In accelerated exposure tests, bromine-containing electrolytes were also found to attack and leach out the additives used in PVC flowframes. PVC itself was only slightly degraded by the electrolyte. A commercial fluorocarbon, Tefzel, which contains no additives, was determined to be stable in bromine-containing electrolytes and is recommended as a replacement for PVC. Currently, aging studies on carbon-filled polyethylene electrodes are in progress.

  3. Simulation of lithium ion battery replacement in a battery pack for application in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, M.; Kong, Q. H.; McGrory, J.; Fowler, M.

    2017-05-01

    The design and optimization of the battery pack in an electric vehicle (EV) is essential for continued integration of EVs into the global market. Reconfigurable battery packs are of significant interest lately as they allow for damaged cells to be removed from the circuit, limiting their impact on the entire pack. This paper provides a simulation framework that models a battery pack and examines the effect of replacing damaged cells with new ones. The cells within the battery pack vary stochastically and the performance of the entire pack is evaluated under different conditions. The results show that by changing out cells in the battery pack, the state of health of the pack can be consistently maintained above a certain threshold value selected by the user. In situations where the cells are checked for replacement at discrete intervals, referred to as maintenance event intervals, it is found that the length of the interval is dependent on the mean time to failure of the individual cells. The simulation framework as well as the results from this paper can be utilized to better optimize lithium ion battery pack design in EVs and make long term deployment of EVs more economically feasible.

  4. Development of Lithium Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries for Navy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    cooker to contain the explosion. Five to seven minutes after the circuit was shorted the first battery detonated and smoke appeared at the vent...blowing the lid off the pressure cooker and scattering the battery remains. 54 54 Test 8 Test 8 and 9 were conducted under similar conditions to...twenty power-source candidates (various batteries, thermoelectric generators, solar cells, engine generators, etc.), based on a matrix of hypotehtical

  5. Battery Diagnostics and Prognostics for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Technology Connection, Inc., in collaboration with Georgia Tech (Center for Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies) and our industrial partner, Eagle Pichers,...

  6. Synthetic Design of Polysulfone Membranes: Morphological Effect on Property and Performance in Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindt, Brandon

    This dissertation outlines a novel path towards improved understanding and function of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for redox flow batteries, a large-scale battery storage device. This research uses synthetic methods and nanotechnology through two different approaches to prepare tailored polymer membranes: 1) Ion exchange membranes with enhanced chemical structures to promote membrane morphology on the nano-scale were prepared. Specifically, functional polysulfones (PSUs) were synthesized from different pre-sulfonated monomers. These PSUs have controlled placement and content of unique sulfonic acid moieties. PEMs were fabricated and characterized. The new PEMs showed desirable physical properties and performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) cell. 2) Nanoporous PSU membranes were fabricated via post-hydrolysis of polylactide (PLA) from PLA-PSU-PLA triblock copolymer membranes. The controlled morphology and pore size of the resulting nanoporous membranes were evaluated by different microscopy and scattering techniques to understand structure-property relationships. Further, the resulting nanopore surface was chemically modified with sulfonic acid moieties. Membranes were analyzed and evaluated as separators for a VRFB. The chemically modified nanoporous PEMs exhibited unique behavior with respect to their ion conductivity when exposed to solutions of increasing acid concentration. In addition, the hierarchical micro-nanoporous membranes developed further showed promising structure and properties.

  7. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Burak; Arroyo Klein, Sebastian; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Trujillo, Juan José; Bremen, Lueder von; Kühn, Martin; Busse, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  8. Post-vehicle-application lithium-ion battery remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling capacity: Modeling and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Standridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A mathematical model is used to help determine the manufacturing capacity needed to support post-vehicle-application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of lithium-ion batteries over time.  Simulation is used in solving the model to estimate capacity in kWh.  Lithium-ion batteries that are commonly used in the electrification of vehicles cannot be simply discarded post-vehicle-application due to the materials of which they are composed.  Eventually, each will fail to hold a charge and will need to be recycled.  Remanufacturing, allowing a battery to return to a vehicle application, and repurposing, transforming a battery for use in a non-vehicle application, postpone recycling and increase value. The mathematical model and its solution using simulation test the hypothesis that the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production is a function of a single parameter:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured. Design/methodology/approach: Equations in the mathematical model represent the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production as dependent variables.  Independent variables are exogenous quantities as such as the demand for electrified vehicles of all types, physical properties of batteries such as their application life distribution including the time to recycling, and a single decision variable:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  Values of the dependent variables over time are estimated by simulation for values of the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries ranging from 0% to 85% in steps of 5%. Findings and Originality/value: The simulation results support important insights for investment in capacity for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application batteries as well as new batteries.  The capacity needed for

  9. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Dept.; Gaines, Linda G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2014-09-30

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  10. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  11. The Second Life Ageing of the NMC/C Electric Vehicle Retired Li-Ion Batteries in the Stationary Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz

    2016-01-01

    Despite the cost of li-ion batteries is gradually falling, the price for li-ion batteries is still too high in order to significantly impact the mass market adoption of e-mobility and household battery applications. It is expected that it might take another several years before lithium......-ion batteries obtain grid parity and Electric Vehicles (EVs) will become competitive in cost with conventional vehicles (Figure 1). In consequence, a different approach for battery cost reduction can be investigated....

  12. Redox‐Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox‐Active Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research on redox‐flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of “green”, safe, and cost‐efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal‐based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow‐battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox‐active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. PMID:28070964

  13. Calendar Ageing of LiFePO4/C Batteries in the Second Life Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    of the battery systems in the second life application are still unknown what brings significant economic risk and hinders second life battery usage. This work investigates the capacity and power degradation of the 2.5Ah nanophosphate LiFePO4/C cells under different the second life calendar ageing regimes....

  14. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  15. Versatility of MnO2 for lithium battery applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thackeray, MM

    1993-03-15

    Full Text Available that exist in the manganese dioxide family, the battery industry has used gamma-MnO2 exclusively as the positive electrode in these cells. With the advent of rechargeable lithium battery technology, research efforts have demonstrated that other MnO2...

  16. Integrating a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell into a redox flow battery for unassisted photocharging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shichao; Zong, Xu; Seger, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient photoelect......Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient...... photoelectrochemical reactions. Here we report an efficient SRFC based on a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell and a quinone/bromine redox flow battery for in situ solar energy conversion and storage. Using narrow bandgap silicon for efficient photon collection and fast redox couples for rapid interface charge...

  17. Kinetic enhancement via passive deposition of carbon-based nanomaterials in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Doug; Yeom, Sinchul; Kihm, Kenneth D.; Ashraf Gandomi, Yasser; Ertugrul, Tugrul; Mench, Matthew M.

    2017-10-01

    Addition of carbon-based nanomaterials to operating flow batteries accomplishes vanadium redox flow battery performance improvement. Initial efforts focus on addition of both pristine graphene and vacuum-filtered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film on carbon paper supporting electrodes. While the former is unable to withstand convective flow through the porous electrode, the latter shows measurable kinetic improvement, particularly when laid on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) side of the electrode; in contrast to the kinetic performance gain, a deleterious impact on mass transport is observed. Based on this tradeoff, further improvement is realized using perforated rGO films placed on the PEM side of the electrodes. Poor mass transport in the dense rGO film prompts identification of a more uniform, passive deposition method. A suspension of rGO flakes or Vulcan carbon black (XC-72R), both boasting two orders-of-magnitude greater specific surface area than that of common carbon electrodes, is added to the electrolyte reservoirs and allowed to passively deposit on the carbon paper or carbon felt supporting electrodes. For common carbon felt electrodes, addition of rGO flakes or XC-72R enables a tripling of current density at the same 80% voltage efficiency.

  18. Rapid detection of the positive side reactions in vanadium flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Le; Li, Zhaohua; Xi, Jingyu; Zhou, Haipeng; Wu, Zenghua; Qiu, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for rapid measurement of the positive side reactions in VFB is presented. • The SOC of positive electrolytes can be detected with resolution of 0.002%. • Side reaction ratios at different charge currents, flow rates are obtained. - Abstract: We present an optical detection method for rapid measurement of the positive side reactions in vanadium flow batteries (VFB). By measuring the transmittance of the positive electrolytes in VFB, the states of charge (SOC) of the positive electrolytes can be detected at very high resolution (better than 0.002% in the SOC range from 98% to 100%), due to the nonlinear transmittance spectra caused by the interactions between V(IV) and V(V) ions. The intensity of the positive side reactions of a VFB can be rapidly measured by a few steps, attributing to the fact that the positive side reactions occur only during the high voltage charging process. The ratios of the positive side reactions at different charge currents and different flow rates are obtained while causing no damage to the battery. This optical detection method can rapidly determine the optimal parameters of the VFB system, providing new means for studying the electrochemical reactions in the VFB system and rapid test in industrial production of VFBs.

  19. Issues and Challenges Facing Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries for Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyungyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Yoonji; Cho, Jaephil; Park, Minjoon

    2017-12-27

    With the advent of flexible electronics, lithium-ion batteries have become a key component of high performance energy storage systems. Thus, considerable effort is made to keep up with the development of flexible lithium-ion batteries. To date, many researchers have studied newly designed batteries with flexibility, however, there are several significant challenges that need to be overcome, such as degradation of electrodes under external load, poor battery performance, and complicated cell preparation procedures. In addition, an in-depth understanding of the current challenges for flexible batteries is rarely addressed in a systematical and practical way. Herein, recent progress and current issues of flexible lithium-ion batteries in terms of battery materials and cell designs are reviewed. A critical overview of important issues and challenges for the practical application of flexible lithium-ion batteries is also provided. Finally, the strategies are discussed to overcome current limitations of the practical use of flexible lithium-based batteries, providing a direction for future research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. “Wine-Dark Sea” in an Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Jeffrey A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Shkrob, Ilya A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vijayakumar, M. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, Zheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Milshtein, Jarrod D. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jun [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, Jeffery S. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Brushett, Fikile R. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wei, Xiaoliang [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    Redox-active organic materials (ROMs) have shown great promise for redox flow battery applications but generally encounter limited cycling efficiency and stability at relevant redox material concentrations in nonaqueous systems. Here we report a new heterocyclic organic anolyte molecule, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, that has high solubility, a low redox potential, and fast electrochemical kinetics. Coupling it with a benchmark catholyte ROM, the nonaqueous organic flow battery demonstrated significant improvement in cyclable redox material concentrations and cell efficiencies compared to the state-of-the-art nonaqueous systems. Especially, this system produced exceeding cyclability with relatively stable efficiencies and capacities at high ROM concentrations (>0.5 M), which is ascribed to the highly delocalized charge densities in the radical anions of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, leading to good chemical stability. As a result, this material development represents significant progress toward promising next-generation energy storage.

  1. Equivalent circuit modeling and simulation of the zinc nickel single flow battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouguang Yao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds the equivalent circuit model for a single cell of zinc nickel single flow battery (ZNB with 300 Ah. According to the experimental data of the single cell under 100 A pulse discharge conditions, the model parameters can be obtained by parameter identification, and the analytical expressions for each model parameter can be obtained by using the method of high degree polynomial fitting and exponential function fitting, then the mathematical model of the stack voltage can be built. The relative error of the simulation results for stack voltage is controlled within 3.2% by experimental comparison, which verifies the accuracy of the model and model parameters. The parameter formulas obtained by fitting method can effectively solve calculation problem of the battery parameters. And under 100 A constant-current discharge condition, the stack voltage of the battery is dropping relatively flat over about 110 minutes after loading current, and dropping dramatically within about 50 minutes at the end of discharge due to the increasing polarization.

  2. Nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yazami, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    ""The book has good technical depth, yet is still very readable. It contains many photos, illustrations, tables, and graphs of data that provide the reader with the insight needed to understand the phenomena being described and the processes occurring in lithium battery chemistry. Researchers as well as students studying lithium-ion batteries will find this book well worth reading. It provides insight into many different avenues for potentially improving lithium-ion battery performance. The reader will learn about these new ideas and gain a better understanding of what currently limits batt

  3. Novel Electrolytes for -100°C Lithium Battery Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires advanced high power primary lithium batteries for ultra low temperature applications. The key component that limits the performance at low temperature...

  4. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  5. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in electrolyte of lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, F R; Nóbrega, J A

    1997-12-19

    Electrolytes of lead-acid batteries can contain several impurities that reduce battery performance and lifetime. Nitrate ions are among these species because they can be reduced to ammonium in the lead electrode. In this work, an analytical method was developed to determine this anion in electrolytes of batteries used in telephone systems, in which nitrate concentration must be lower than 10 mg l(-1). The procedure consists in the reduction to nitrite in a copperized cadmium column followed by Griess's modified reaction. Due to the high sensitivity of this methodology, a large dispersion flow diagram (dispersion coefficient = 27.8) was projected. Thus, it was possible to eliminate the Schlieren effect and to obtain a NH (3)NH (+)(4) buffer in the sample zone in a suitable pH for reduction reaction (pH congruent with 8). Negative interference due to iron(III) was overcome by addition of excess iron (200 mg l(-1)). A relocatable filter was used to remove iron(III) hydroxide precipitate. This avoided adsorption on the surface of the filings and increase of back pressure. The analytical frequency is 80 measurements/h and the detection limit was estimated as 0.3 mg l(-1) in a 99.7% confidence level. A 2.2% relative standard deviation was obtained in a repeatability study (n = 10) by using a 25 mg l(-1) nitrate solution in a 3.6 mol l(-1) sulfuric acid medium. Recoveries from 95.5 to 104% were obtained by spiking 5.00 or 10.0 mg l(-1) of nitrate in samples of battery electrolyte.

  6. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  8. Emerging battery research in Indonesia: The role of nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, E.

    2015-12-01

    Development of lithium ion batteries will play an important role in achieving innovative sustainable energy. To reduce the production cost of such batteries, the Indonesian government has instituted a strategy to use local resources. Therefore, this technology is now part of the National Industrial Strategic Plan. One of the most important scientific challenges is to improve performance of lithium batteries. Neutron scattering is a very important technique to investigate crystal structure of electrode materials. The unique properties of neutrons, which allow detection of light elements such as lithium ions, are indispensable. The utilization of neutron scattering facilities at the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency will provide significant contributions to the development of improved lithium ion battery technologies.

  9. Application Solar Energy for Charging Battery Mobile Phone

    OpenAIRE

    Elmahdi, Mohamed Abdulhadi; Suparman, Sudjito; Pramono, Sholeh Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical power. A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or recharge able battery by forcing an electric current through it. Digital devices, especially mobile phones, need electricity that can be obtained from local electricity station converted into direct current using propri...

  10. 3D-printed conductive static mixers enable all-vanadium redox flow battery using slurry electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, Korcan; Rommerskirchen, Alexandra; Sengpiel, Robert; Gendel, Youri; Wessling, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    State-of-the-art all-vanadium redox flow batteries employ porous carbonaceous materials as electrodes. The battery cells possess non-scalable fixed electrodes inserted into a cell stack. In contrast, a conductive particle network dispersed in the electrolyte, known as slurry electrode, may be beneficial for a scalable redox flow battery. In this work, slurry electrodes are successfully introduced to an all-vanadium redox flow battery. Activated carbon and graphite powder particles are dispersed up to 20 wt% in the vanadium electrolyte and charge-discharge behavior is inspected via polarization studies. Graphite powder slurry is superior over activated carbon with a polarization behavior closer to the standard graphite felt electrodes. 3D-printed conductive static mixers introduced to the slurry channel improve the charge transfer via intensified slurry mixing and increased surface area. Consequently, a significant increase in the coulombic efficiency up to 95% and energy efficiency up to 65% is obtained. Our results show that slurry electrodes supported by conductive static mixers can be competitive to state-of-the-art electrodes yielding an additional degree of freedom in battery design. Research into carbon properties (particle size, internal surface area, pore size distribution) tailored to the electrolyte system and optimization of the mixer geometry may yield even better battery properties.

  11. A review on battery thermal management in electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guodong; Cao, Lei; Bi, Guanglong

    2017-11-01

    The global issues of energy crisis and air pollution have offered a great opportunity to develop electric vehicles. However, so far, cycle life of power battery, environment adaptability, driving range and charging time seems far to compare with the level of traditional vehicles with internal combustion engine. Effective battery thermal management (BTM) is absolutely essential to relieve this situation. This paper reviews the existing literature from two levels that are cell level and battery module level. For single battery, specific attention is paid to three important processes which are heat generation, heat transport, and heat dissipation. For large format cell, multi-scale multi-dimensional coupled models have been developed. This will facilitate the investigation on factors, such as local irreversible heat generation, thermal resistance, current distribution, etc., that account for intrinsic temperature gradients existing in cell. For battery module based on air and liquid cooling, series, series-parallel and parallel cooling configurations are discussed. Liquid cooling strategies, especially direct liquid cooling strategies, are reviewed and they may advance the battery thermal management system to a new generation.

  12. A high-performance dual-scale porous electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhu, X. B.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a simple and cost-effective method to form a dual-scale porous electrode by KOH activation of the fibers of carbon papers. The large pores (∼10 μm), formed between carbon fibers, serve as the macroscopic pathways for high electrolyte flow rates, while the small pores (∼5 nm), formed on carbon fiber surfaces, act as active sites for rapid electrochemical reactions. It is shown that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the carbon paper is increased by a factor of 16 while maintaining the same hydraulic permeability as that of the original carbon paper electrode. We then apply the dual-scale electrode to a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) and demonstrate an energy efficiency ranging from 82% to 88% at current densities of 200-400 mA cm-2, which is record breaking as the highest performance of VRFB in the open literature.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery with electrolyte flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, W.B.; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, J.W.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.

    2000-02-01

    A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. As in earlier one-dimensional models, the model accounts for transport of species and charge, and electrode porosity variations and electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures show good agreement with published experimental data, and are essentially identical to results published for one-dimensional models. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulations show that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell head space predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, W.B.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, John.

    1999-06-11

    A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. The model accounts for not only transport of species and charge, but also the electrode porosity variations and the electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures are compared to the experimental data with excellent agreement. Moreover, the simulation results. in conjunction with computer visualization and animation techniques, confirm that cell utilization in the temperature and current range of interest is limited by pore plugging or clogging of the front side of the cathode as a result of LiCl precipitation. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulation also shows that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell header predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.

  15. New Mechanism for the Reduction of Vanadyl Acetylacetonate to Vanadium Acetylacetonate for Room Temperature Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamie, Jack S. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Liu, Caihong [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Energy Storage and Conversion Energy Materials, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-12-29

    In this study, a new mechanism for the reduction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, VO(acac)2, to vanadium acetylacetonate, V(acac)3, is introduced. V(acac)3 has been studied for use in redox flow batteries (RFBs) for some time; however, contamination by moisture leads to the formation of VO(acac)2. In previous work, once this transformation occurs, it is no longer reversible because there is a requirement for extreme low potentials for the reduction to occur. Here, we propose that, in the presence of excess acetylacetone (Hacac) and free protons (H+), the reduction can take place between 2.25 and 1.5 V versus Na/Na+ via a one-electron-transfer reduction. This reduction can take place in situ during discharge in a novel hybrid Na-based flow battery (HNFB) with a molten Na–Cs alloy as the anode. The in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge is shown to allow the Coulombic efficiency of the HNFB to be ≈100 % with little or no capacity decay over cycles. In addition, utilizing two-electron-transfer redox reactions (i.e., V3+/V4+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples) per V ion to increase the energy density of RFBs becomes possible owing to the in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge. The concept of in situ recovery of material can lead to more advances in maintaining the cycle life of RFBs in the future.

  16. Development and analysis of a lithium carbon monofluoride battery-lithium ion capacitor hybrid system for high pulse-power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia H.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Waterman, Kyle G.; Myron, L. Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Although Li/CFx and Li/CFxMnO2 have two of the highest energy densities of all commercial lithium primary batteries known to date, they are typically current-limited and therefore are not used in high-power applications. In this work, a Li/CFxMnO2 battery (BA-5790) was hybridized with a 1000 F lithium ion capacitor to allow its use for portable electronic devices requiring 100 W 1-min pulses. An intelligent, power-management board was developed for managing the energy flow between the components. The hybrid architecture was shown to maintain the battery current to a level that minimized energy loss and thermal stress. The performance of the Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was compared to the standard Li/SO2 battery (BA-5590). The hybrid was shown to deliver the same number of 100 W pulse cycles as two BA-5590 batteries, resulting in a weight savings of 30% and a volumetric reduction of 20%. For devices requiring 8 h of operational time or less, a 5-cell Li/CFxMnO2 hybrid was found to be a lighter (55%) and smaller (45%) power source than the existing two BA-5590 battery option, and a lighter (42%) and smaller (27%) option than 1½ BA-5790 batteries alone. At higher power requirements (>100 W), further weight and size improvements can be expected.

  17. Li-NMC Batteries Model Evaluation with Experimental Data for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Baczyńska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the battery equivalent circuit for electric vehicle application. Moreover, the model described below is dedicated to lithium-ion types of batteries. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient and transparent method to develop a battery equivalent circuit model. Battery modeling requires, depending on the chosen method, either significant calculations or a highly developed mathematical model for optimization. The model is evaluated in comparison to the real data measurements, to present the performance of the method. Battery measurements based on charge/discharge tests at a fixed C-rate are presented to show the relation of the output voltage profiles with the battery state of charge. The pulse discharge test is presented to obtain the electric parameters of the battery equivalent circuit model, using a Thévenin circuit. According to the Reverse Trike Ecologic Electric Vehicle (VEECO RT characteristics used as a case study in this work, new values for vehicle autonomy and battery pack volume based on lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cells are evaluated.

  18. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO 4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF 6 . While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material. (paper)

  19. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  20. Naval application of battery optimized reactor integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N. H.; Kim, T. W.; Son, H. M.; Suh, K. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Past civilian N.S. Savanna (80 MW t h), Otto-Hahn (38 MW t h) and Mutsu (36 MW t h) experienced stable operations under various sea conditions to prove that the reactors were stable and suitable for ship power source. Russian nuclear icebreakers such as Lenin (90 MW t h x2), Arukuchika (150 MW t h x2) showed stable operations under severe conditions during navigation on the Arctic Sea. These reactor systems, however, should be made even more efficient, compact, safe and long life, because adding support from the land may not be available on the sea. In order to meet these requirements, a compact, simple, safe and innovative integral system named Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS) is being designed with such novel concepts as a primary liquid metal coolant, a secondary supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO 2 ) coolant, emergency reactor cooling system, safety containment and so on. NAVIS is powered by Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System (BORIS). An ultra-small, ultra-long-life, versatile-purpose, fast-spectrum reactor named BORIS is being developed for a multi-purpose application such as naval power source, electric power generation in remote areas, seawater desalination, and district heating. NAVIS aims to satisfy special environment on the sea with BORIS using the lead (Pb) coolant in the primary system. NAVIS improves the economical efficiency resorting to the SCO 2 Brayton cycle for the secondary system. BORIS is operated by natural circulation of Pb without needing pumps. The reactor power is autonomously controlled by load-following operation without an active reactivity control system, whereas B 4 C based shutdown control rod is equipped for an emergency condition. SCO 2 promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. Therefore, the SCO 2 Brayton

  1. Feasibility assessment of remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of end of vehicle application lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan Foster

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lithium-ion batteries that are commonly used in electric vehicles and plug-in electric hybrid vehicles cannot be simply discarded at the end of vehicle application due to the materials of which they are composed. In addition the US Department of Energy has estimated that the cost per kWh of new lithium-ion batteries for vehicle applications is four times too high, creating an economic barrier to the widespread commercialization of plug-in electric vehicles. (USDOE 2014. Thus, reducing this cost by extending the application life of these batteries appears to be necessary. Even with an extension of application life, all batteries will eventually fail to hold a charge and thus become unusable. Thus environmentally safe disposition must be accomplished. Addressing these cost and environmental issues can be accomplished by remanufacturing end of vehicle life lithium ion batteries for return to vehicle applications as well as repurposing them for stationary applications such as energy storage systems supporting the electric grid. In addition, environmental safe, “green” disposal processes are required that include disassembly of batteries into component materials for recycling. The hypotheses that end of vehicle application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling are each economic are examined. This assessment includes a forecast of the number of such batteries to ensure sufficient volume for conducting these activities.Design/methodology/approach: The hypotheses that end of vehicle application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling are economic are addressed using cost-benefit analysis applied independently to each. Uncertainty is associated with all future costs and benefits. Data from a variety of sources are combined and reasonable assumptions are made. The robustness of the results is confirmed by sensitivity analysis regarding each key parameter. Determining that a sufficient volume of end of vehicle application lithium

  2. Photovoltaic Power System with an Interleaving Boost Converter for Battery Charger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a photovoltaic (PV power system for battery charger applications. The charger uses an interleaving boost converter with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber to reduce voltage stresses of active switches at turn-off transition. Therefore, active switches of the charger can be operated with zero-voltage transition (ZVT to decrease switching losses and increase conversion efficiency. In order to draw the maximum power from PV arrays and obtain the optimal power control of the battery charger, a perturbation-and-observation method and microchip are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power management. Finally, a prototype battery charger is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power system for battery charger applications.

  3. Development of ultra-battery for hybrid-electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Louey, R.

    Transport is one of the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and fossil-fuels consumption. This has lead to a growing demand for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) to reduce air pollution and consumption of fossil fuels. CSIRO Energy Technology has developed the ultra-battery, a new technology that will reduce the cost and boost the performance of batteries in HEVs. The ultra-battery is a hybrid energy-storage device, which combines an asymmetric supercapacitor, and a lead-acid battery in one unit cell, taking the best from both technologies without the need for extra electronic controls. The capacitor will enhance the power and lifespan of the lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer in discharging and charging. Consequently, this hybrid technology is able to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The ultra-battery has been subjected to a variety of tests. To date, results show that the discharge and charge power of the ultra-battery is ∼50% higher and its cycle-life is at least three times longer than that of the conventional lead-acid counterpart. Furthermore, the ultra-battery is able to be produced as either flooded-electrolyte or valve-regulated designs in the existing lead-acid factory and also able to reconfigure for a variety of applications, such as conventional automobile, power tool, forklift, high-power uninterruptible power supply and remote-area power supply. The prototype ultra-batteries have been constructed and are under laboratory evaluation and field trial. The success of the ultra-battery will obviously make HEVs more affordable and widespread. This, in turn, will reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the urban environment and the consumption of limited supplies of fossil fuels.

  4. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  5. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  6. Bipolar silver zinc technology for primary battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, James; Karpinski, Alexander P.; Hoagland, Douglas

    The results of four ampere hour primary cells developed and tested in groups of 20 cell monoblocks and 100 cell batteries are presented. Discharges up to 200 amperes produced very stable voltages and full capacity yield typical of a monopolar design. Discharges at nominal current densities of 0.16 amperes/sq cm yielded excellent load voltages with flat discharge curves.

  7. A redox-flow battery with an alloxazine-based organic electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Beh, Eugene S.; Tong, Liuchuan; Chen, Qing; Valle, Alvaro; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Aziz, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.

    2016-09-01

    Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) can store large amounts of electrical energy from variable sources, such as solar and wind. Recently, redox-active organic molecules in aqueous RFBs have drawn substantial attention due to their rapid kinetics and low membrane crossover rates. Drawing inspiration from nature, here we report a high-performance aqueous RFB utilizing an organic redox compound, alloxazine, which is a tautomer of the isoalloxazine backbone of vitamin B2. It can be synthesized in high yield at room temperature by single-step coupling of inexpensive o-phenylenediamine derivatives and alloxan. The highly alkaline-soluble alloxazine 7/8-carboxylic acid produces a RFB exhibiting open-circuit voltage approaching 1.2 V and current efficiency and capacity retention exceeding 99.7% and 99.98% per cycle, respectively. Theoretical studies indicate that structural modification of alloxazine with electron-donating groups should allow further increases in battery voltage. As an aza-aromatic molecule that undergoes reversible redox cycling in aqueous electrolyte, alloxazine represents a class of radical-free redox-active organics for use in large-scale energy storage.

  8. Design and Evaluation of a Boron Dipyrrin Electrophore for Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Niklas; Cidarér, Clemens; Rohr, Camilla; Piescheck, Mathias; Ahrens, Johannes; Bröring, Martin; Schröder, Uwe

    2017-08-29

    A boron dipyrrin (BODIPY) dye was designed as a molecular single-component electrophore for redox flow batteries. All positions of the BODIPY core were assessed on the basis of literature data, in particular cyclic voltammetry and density functional calculations, and a minimum required substitution pattern was designed to provide solubility, aggregation, radical cation and anion stabilities, a large potential window, and synthetic accessibility. In-depth electrochemical and physical studies of this electrophore revealed suitable cathodic behavior and stability of the radical anion but rapid anodic decomposition of the radical cation. The three products that formed under the conditions of controlled oxidative electrolysis were isolated, and their structures were determined by spectroscopy and comparison with a synthetic model compound. From these structures, a benzylic radical reactivity, initiated by one-electron oxidation, was concluded to play the major role in this unexpected decomposition. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Towards an all-copper redox flow battery based on a copper-containing ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaltin, Stijn; Li, Yun; Brooks, Neil R; Sniekers, Jeroen; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2016-01-07

    The first redox flow battery (RFB), based on the all-copper liquid metal salt [Cu(MeCN)4][Tf2N], is presented. Liquid metal salts (LMS) are a new type of ionic liquid that functions both as solvent and electrolyte. Non-aqueous electrolytes have advantages over water-based solutions, such as a larger electrochemical window and large thermal stability. The proof-of-concept is given that LMSs can be used as the electrolyte in RFBs. The main advantage of [Cu(MeCN)4][Tf2N] is the high copper concentration, and thus high charge and energy densities of 300 kC l(-1) and 75 W h l(-1) respectively, since the copper(i) ions form an integral part of the electrolyte. A Coulombic efficiency up to 85% could be reached.

  10. Electrodeposition of preferentially oriented zinc for flow-assisted alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Divyaraj; Wei, Xia; Steingart, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2014-06-01

    Preferred orientation of zinc deposits during charging is shown to significantly improve performance and cycle life in flow-assisted alkaline zinc batteries, which has not been demonstrated earlier. The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compact zinc is found to have (11 2 bar 2) preferred orientation on brass, which contributes to ∼60% of the texture. The effect of charging current and zincate concentration on morphology was investigated in a rotating hull cell and correlated with anodic efficiency. Compact zinc deposits are found to have a fine-grained, bright finish and the highest anodic efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) proves that compact zinc corresponds to the minimum in the half-cell resistance. Morphological control using compact zinc could be accomplished using innovations such as pulse charging or enhanced mass-transfer to improve anode performance without affecting the cathode.

  11. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  12. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Influence of electrochemical cycling on the rheo-impedance of anolytes for Li-based Semi Solid Flow Batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayanan, Aditya; Wijnperle, Daniël; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Buchholz, D; Vaalma, C; Dou, X.; Passerini, S; Duits, Michael H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The recently launched concept of Semi-Solid Flow Batteries (SSFBs) shows a strong potential for flexible energy storage, but the liquid-dispersed state of the electrode materials introduces several aspects of which a scientific understanding is lacking. We studied the effect of electrochemical

  14. Modified performance test of vented lead acid batteries for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, K.W.; Fletcher, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of a modified performance test for vented lead acid batteries in stationary applications has been developed by the IEEE Battery Working Group. The modified performance test is defined as a test in the ''as found'' condition of the battery capacity and its ability to provide a high rate, short duration load (usually the highest rate of the duty cycle) that will confirm the battery's ability to meet the critical period of the load duty cycle, in addition to determining its percentage of rated capacity. This paper will begin by reviewing performance and service test requirements and concerns associated with both types of tests. The paper will then discuss the rationale for developing a modified performance test along with the benefits that can be derived from performing a modified performance test in lieu of a capacity test and/or a service test. The paper will conclude with an example on how to apply a modified performance test and test acceptance criteria

  15. Maintenance-free 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally mantenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizntal plae orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuraton as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminate preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated.

  16. Ethylenediamine-functionalized graphene oxide incorporated acid-base ion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Dan; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Haijun; Han, Xutong; Liu, Biqian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylenediamine functionalized graphene oxide. • Layered structure of functionalized graphene oxide block vanadium ions crossover. • Protonated N-containing groups suppress vanadium ions permeation. • Ion transport channels are narrowed by electrostatic interactions. • Vanadium crossover decreased due to enhanced Donnan effect and special structure. - Abstract: As a promising large-scale energy storage battery, vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is urgently needed to develop cost-effective membranes with excellent performance. Novel acid-base ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are fabricated based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix and modified graphene oxide (GO) by solution blending. N-based functionalized graphene oxide (GO-NH 2 ) is fabricated by grafting ethylenediamine onto the edge of GO via a facile method. On one hand, the impermeable layered structures effectively block ion transport pathway to restrain vanadium ions crossover. On the other hand, acid-base pairs form between −SO 3 − groups and N-based groups on the edge of GO nanosheets, which not only suppress vanadium ions contamination but also provide a narrow pathway for proton migration. The structure is beneficial for achieving an intrinsic balance between conductivity and permeability. By altering amounts of GO-NH 2 , a sequence of acid-base IEMs are characterized in detail. The single cells assembled with acid-base IEMs show self-discharge time for 160 h, capacity retention 92% after 100 cycle, coulombic efficiency 97.2% and energy efficiency 89.5%. All data indicate that acid-base IEMs have promising prospects for VRFB applications.

  17. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. → Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. → Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. → A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. → Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the improved electrode

  18. Novel oscillatory flow reactors for biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis explores the biotechnological applications of two novel scale-down oscillatory flow reactors (OFRs). A micro-bioreactor (working mostly in batch) and a continuous meso-reactor systems were developed based on a 4.4 mm internal diameter tube with smooth periodic constrictions (SPC), both operating under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). The first part is dedicated to the flow characterisation in the novel SPC geom...

  19. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barnes, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  20. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  1. Flow Sharing Systems for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This contribution reports about some analytical and simulation/experimental studies carried out on different flow control systems for mobile applications with respect to their ability to do flow sharing. All systems have two parallel actuators and are considered regarding functionality...

  2. Laser velocimeter application to oscillatory liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    A laser velocimeter technique was used to measure the mean velocity and the frequency characteristics of an oscillatory flow component generated with a rotating flapper in liquid flow system at Reynolds numbers approximating 93,000. The velocity information was processed in the frequency domain using a tracker whose output was used to determine the flow spectrum. This was accomplished with the use of an autocorrelator/Fourier transform analyzer and a spectrum averaging analyzer where induced flow oscillations up to 40 Hz were detected. Tests were conducted at a mean flow velocity of approximately 2 m/s. The experimental results show that the laser velocimeter can provide quantitative information such as liquid flow velocity and frequency spectrum with a possible application to cryogenic fluid flows.

  3. Lithium and lithium ion batteries for applications in microelectronic devices: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Ferrara, Seth; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Batteries employing lithium chemistry have been intensively investigated because of their high energy attributes which may be deployed for vehicle electrification and large-scale energy storage applications. Another important direction of battery research for micro-electronics, however, is relatively less discussed in the field but growing fast in recent years. This paper reviews chemistry and electrochemistry in different microbatteries along with their cell designs to meet the goals of their various applications. The state-of-the-art knowledge and recent progress of microbatteries for emerging micro-electronic devices may shed light on the future development of microbatteries towards high energy density and flexible design.

  4. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Madden, Thomas [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Wood III, David L [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Warrington, Curtis [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Manson, Hunter [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Smith, Mark A [ORNL; Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Loretz, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  5. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  6. Application of battery-based storage systems in household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Debarberis, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Battery system application in demand smoothening in distribution grids is analysed. ► Five European countries are studied with and without high photovoltaic deployment. ► A sensitivity analysis for different battery system parameters is performed. ► A simple battery system management is sufficient for low demand smoothening. ► More elaborate management is required for high demand smoothening. - Abstract: This article analyses in technical terms the application of battery-based storage systems for household-demand smoothening in electricity-distribution grids. The analysis includes case studies of Denmark, Portugal, Greece, France and Italy. A high penetration of photovoltaic systems in distribution grids is considered as an additional scenario. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to examine the smoothening effect of daily demand profiles for different configurations of the battery system. In general, battery-storage systems with low rated power and low battery capacity can smooth the demand sufficiently with the aid of a simple management process. For example, with 1 kW of peak demand, a 30–45% decrease in the variability of the daily demand profile can be achieved with a battery system of 0.1 kW rated power and up to 0.6 kW h battery capacity. However, further smoothening requires higher battery-system capacity and power. In this case, more elaborate management is also needed to use the battery system efficiently.

  7. Development of Integrally Molded Bipolar Plates for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsun Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs are potential energy storage systems for renewable power sources because of their flexible design, deep discharge capacity, quick response time, and long cycle life. To minimize the energy loss due to the shunt current, in a traditional design, a flow field is machined on two electrically insulated frames with a graphite plate in between. A traditional bipolar plate (BP of a VRB consists of many components, and thus, the assembly process is time consuming. In this study, an integrally molded BP is designed and fabricated to minimize the manufacturing cost. First, the effects of the mold design and injection parameters on frame formability were analyzed by simulation. Second, a new graphite plate design for integral molding was proposed, and finally, two integrally molded BPs were fabricated and compared. Results show that gate position significantly affects air traps and the maximum volume shrinkage occurs at the corners of a BP. The volume shrinkage can be reduced using a large graphite plate embedded within the frame.

  8. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  9. Lead-acid batteries with polymer-structured electrodes for electric-vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M. L.; Fullea, J.; Sáez, F.; Trinidad, F.

    Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established to work together in the development of lighter lead-acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to substitute the heavy lead alloy grids (mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge and discharge reactions) by lightweight metallised polymeric network structures (PNS) with reduced mesh dimensions in comparison to conventional grids. The network was then coated with conductive materials and corrosion resistant layers to conduct the current flow. In this paper, the electrode characteristics and the design features of the batteries prepared in the project will be described and their electrical performance presented.

  10. Nanomaterials: Science and applications in the lithium–sulfur battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lin

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Reliable and cost-effective technologies for electrical energy storage are in great demand in sectors of the global economy ranging from portable devices, transportation, and sustainable production of electricity from intermittent sources. Among the various electrochemical energy storage options under consideration, rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries remain the most promising platform for reversibly storing large amounts of electrical energy at moderate cost set by the inherent cell chemistry. The success of Li-S storage technology in living up to this promise calls for solutions to fundamental problems associated with the inherently low electrical conductivity of sulfur and sulfides, and the complex solution chemistry of lithiated sulfur compounds in commonly used electrolytes. These problems appear well posed for innovative solutions using nanomaterials and for fundamental answers guided by the tools of nanotechnology. Beginning with a review of the current understanding of Li-S battery chemistry and operation, this review discusses how advances in nano-characterization and theoretical studies of the Li-S system are helping advance the understanding of the Li-S battery. Factors that prevent Li-S cells from realizing the theoretical capacity set by their chemistry are discussed both in terms of the impressive advances in cell design enabled by nanomaterials and recent progress aimed at nanoengineering the cathode and other cell components. Perspectives and directions for future development of the Li-S storage platform are discussed based on accumulated knowledge from previous efforts in the field as well as from the accumulated experience of the writers of this review.

  11. The development of aluminum-air batteries for application in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, E. J.; Lott, S.

    1990-12-01

    The recently concluded program, jointly funded by ELTECH Research Corporation and the Department of Energy, focused upon the development of an aluminum-air battery system for electric vehicle applications. The operation of the aluminum-air battery involves the dissolution of aluminum to produce a current and aluminate. Initially the objectives were to evaluate and optimize the battery design that was developed prior to this program (designated as the B300 cell) and to design and evaluate the components of the auxiliary system. During the program, three additional tasks were undertaken, addressing needs identified by ELTECH and by Sandia National Laboratories. First, the capability to produce aluminum alloys as relatively large ingots (100 to 150 lbs), with the required electrochemical performance, was considered essential to the development of the battery. The second additional task was the adoption of an advanced cell (designated as the AT400 cell), designed by ELTECH in a different program. Finally, it was recognized that a system model would allow evaluation of the interactions of the several unit operations involved in the battery. Therefore, the development of a mathematical model, based upon material and energy balances for the battery, was undertaken. At a systems level, sufficient information was obtained in the completion of this program to support the design, fabrication and operation of a batch or solids-free battery system. For the first time, the components of the auxiliary system, i.e., a heat exchanger, carbon dioxide scrubber and hydrogen disposal technology, have been defined for a vehicle battery. Progress on each component or system is summarized in the following sections.

  12. Nb-based MXenes for Li-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2015-11-16

    Li-ion batteries depend critically on the stability and capacity of the electrodes. In this respect the recently synthesized two-dimensional MXenes are promising materials, as they combine an excellent Li-ion capacity with very high charging rates. We employ density functional theory to investigate the impact of Li adsorption on the structural and electronic properties of monolayer Nb2C and Nb2CX2. The Li ions are predicted to migrate easily on the pristine MXene due to a diffusion barrier of only 36 meV, whereas larger diffusion barriers are obtained for the functionalized MXenes.

  13. Electron tunneling in nanoscale electrodes for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hidenori; Narayanan, Rajaram; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the electrical current that may be obtained from a nanoscale electrochemical system is sensitive to the dimensionality of the electrode and the density of states (DOS). Considering the DOS of lower dimensional systems, such as two-dimensional graphene, one-dimensional nanotubes, or zero-dimensional quantum dots, yields a distinct variation of the current-voltage characteristics. Such aspects go beyond conventional Arrhenius theory based kinetics which are often used in experimental interpretation. The obtained insights may be adapted to other devices, such as solid-state batteries. It is also indicated that electron transport in such devices may be considered through electron tunneling.

  14. Profit by storage value analysis of battery energy storage applications; Profit durch Speicherung. Analyse zur Wirtschaftlichkeit von Batteriespeicher-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalov, A.; Chartouni, D.; Ohler, C.; Buehler, T.; Linhofer, G. [ABB-Forschungszentrum (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    Energy storage systems based on batteries can be employed profitably in power systems under specific circumstances. In the following manuscript three potential applications are analysed. It is shown that a battery energy storage system used as a primary reserve is the economically most viable application. (orig.)

  15. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nojan Aliahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDH-HFP porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphoneimide (LiTFSI and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP, with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10−3 S cm−1. Combining ceramic (LATP with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO electrodes and (i standard metallic current collectors and (ii paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i 123 mAh g−1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii 99.5 mAh g−1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  16. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute (INDI), Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Agarwal, Mangilal, E-mail: agarwal@iupui.edu [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute (INDI), Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g{sup −1} for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g{sup −1} for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  17. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK,NANCY H.; EIDLER,PHILLIP

    1999-10-01

    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  18. Lithium-Ion Battery Storage for the Grid—A Review of Stationary Battery Storage System Design Tailored for Applications in Modern Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems have gained increasing interest for serving grid support in various application tasks. In particular, systems based on lithium-ion batteries have evolved rapidly with a wide range of cell technologies and system architectures available on the market. On the application side, different tasks for storage deployment demand distinct properties of the storage system. This review aims to serve as a guideline for best choice of battery technology, system design and operation for lithium-ion based storage systems to match a specific system application. Starting with an overview to lithium-ion battery technologies and their characteristics with respect to performance and aging, the storage system design is analyzed in detail based on an evaluation of real-world projects. Typical storage system applications are grouped and classified with respect to the challenges posed to the battery system. Publicly available modeling tools for technical and economic analysis are presented. A brief analysis of optimization approaches aims to point out challenges and potential solution techniques for system sizing, positioning and dispatch operation. For all areas reviewed herein, expected improvements and possible future developments are highlighted. In order to extract the full potential of stationary battery storage systems and to enable increased profitability of systems, future research should aim to a holistic system level approach combining not only performance tuning on a battery cell level and careful analysis of the application requirements, but also consider a proper selection of storage sub-components as well as an optimized system operation strategy.

  19. Vanadium redox flow batteries to reach greenhouse gas emissions targets in an off-grid configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X.; De Kleine, Robert; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess energy storage role in reaching emissions targets in an off-grid model. • The energy storage technology is vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). • We evaluate life cycle GHG emissions and total cost of delivered electricity. • Generation mixes are optimized to meet emissions targets at the minimum cost. • For this model, integrating VRFB is economical to reach very low emissions targets. - Abstract: Energy storage may serve as a solution to the integration challenges of high penetrations of wind, helping to reduce curtailment, provide system balancing services, and reduce emissions. This study determines the minimum cost configuration of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB), wind turbines, and natural gas reciprocating engines in an off-grid model. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed to determine the system configuration needed to achieve a variety of CO 2 -eq emissions targets. The relationship between total system costs and life cycle emissions are used to optimize the generation mixes to achieve emissions targets at the least cost and determine when VRFBs are preferable over wind curtailment. Different greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions targets are defined for the off-grid system and the minimum cost resource configuration is determined to meet those targets. This approach determines when the use of VRFBs is more cost effective than wind curtailment in reaching GHG emissions targets. The research demonstrates that while incorporating energy storage consistently reduces life cycle carbon emissions, it is not cost effective to reduce curtailment except under very low emission targets (190 g of CO2-eq/kW h and less for the examined system). This suggests that “overbuilding” wind is a more viable option to reduce life cycle emissions for all but the most ambitious carbon mitigation targets. The findings show that adding VRFB as energy storage could be economically preferable only when wind curtailment exceeds 66% for the

  20. Application of electrochemical methods in corrosion and battery research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoli

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied in the development of corrosion protection methods for ammonia/water absorption heat pumps and the evaluation of the stability of metallic materials in Li-ion battery electrolyte. Rare earth metal salts (REMSs) and organic inhibitors have been evaluated for corrosion protection of mild steel in the baseline solution of 5 wt% NH 3 + 0.2 wt% NaOH to replace the conventionally used toxic chromate salt inhibitors. Cerium nitrate provided at least comparable corrosion inhibition efficiency as dichromate in the baseline solution at 100°C. The cerium (IV) oxide formed on mild steel through the cerating process exhibited increasing corrosion protection for mild steel with prolonged exposure time in the hot baseline solution. The optimum cerating process was found to be first cerating in a solution of 2.3 g/L CeCl3 + 4.4 wt% H2O2 + appropriate additives for 20 minutes at pH 2.2 at room temperature with 30 minutes solution aging prior to use, then sealing in 10% sodium (meta) silicate or sodium molybdate at 50°C for 30 minutes. Yttrium salts provided less corrosion protection for mild steel in the baseline solution than cerium salts. Glycerophosphate was found to be a promising chromate-free organic inhibitor for mild steel; however, its thermostability in hot ammonia/water solutions has not been confirmed yet. The stability of six metallic materials used in Li-ion batteries has been evaluated in 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in a 1:1 volume mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate at 37°C in a dry-box. Aluminum is the most stable material, while Copper is active under anodic potentials and susceptible to localized corrosion and galvanic corrosion. The higher the concentration of the alloying elements Al and/or V in a titanium alloy, the higher was the stability of the titanium alloy in the battery electrolyte. 90Pt-10Ir can cause decomposition of the electrolyte resulting in a low stable

  1. Macromolecular Design Strategies for Preventing Active-Material Crossover in Non-Aqueous All-Organic Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doris, Sean E; Ward, Ashleigh L; Baskin, Artem; Frischmann, Peter D; Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna; Chénard, Etienne; Sevov, Christo S; Prendergast, David; Moore, Jeffrey S; Helms, Brett A

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent energy sources, including solar and wind, require scalable, low-cost, multi-hour energy storage solutions in order to be effectively incorporated into the grid. All-Organic non-aqueous redox-flow batteries offer a solution, but suffer from rapid capacity fade and low Coulombic efficiency due to the high permeability of redox-active species across the battery's membrane. Here we show that active-species crossover is arrested by scaling the membrane's pore size to molecular dimensions and in turn increasing the size of the active material above the membrane's pore-size exclusion limit. When oligomeric redox-active organics (RAOs) were paired with microporous polymer membranes, the rate of active-material crossover was reduced more than 9000-fold compared to traditional separators at minimal cost to ionic conductivity. This corresponds to an absolute rate of RAO crossover of less than 3 μmol cm -2  day -1 (for a 1.0 m concentration gradient), which exceeds performance targets recently set forth by the battery industry. This strategy was generalizable to both high and low-potential RAOs in a variety of non-aqueous electrolytes, highlighting the versatility of macromolecular design in implementing next-generation redox-flow batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Materials, system designs and modelling approaches in techno-economic assessment of all-vanadium redox flow batteries - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Turek, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VFB) is one of the most promising stationary electrochemical storage systems. The reduction of system costs is a major challenge in the realization of its widespread application. The high complexity of this technology requires a close linking of technologic and economic aspects in system cost assessment. The present review provides an extensive literature analysis with a focus on techno-economic assessment of VFB. Considered materials, system designs and modelling approaches are assessed and compared in order to present and evaluate the current status of system cost assessment in a transparent way. Systems in a range of 2 kW-50 MW providing energy for up to 150 h are covered in literature resulting in an immense range of specific total system costs of 564-12931 € kW-1 or 89-1738 € (kWh)-1. Based on the data from the reviewed studies, guide values of 650 € (kWh)-1 and 550 € (kWh)-1 for installed VFB systems in a power range of 10-1000 kW providing energy for 4 h and 8 h respectively are derived from literature. Moreover, the relevance of precision in the definition of scope and components for meaningful results of techno-economic assessments of VFB systems is pointed out.

  3. Stress-enhanced lithiation in MAX compounds for battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-07-31

    Li-ion batteries are well-established energy storage systems. Upon lithiation conventional group IVA compound anodes undergo large volume expansion and thus suffer from stress-induced performance degradation. Instead of the emerging MXene anodes fabricated by an expensive and difficult-to-control etching technique, we study the feasibility of utilizing the parent MAX compounds. We reveal that M2AC (M=Ti, V and A=Si, S) compounds repel lithiation at ambient conditions, while structural stress turns out to support lithiation, in contrast to group IVA compounds. For V2SC the Li diffusion barrier is found to be lower than reported for group IVA compound anodes, reflecting potential to achieve fast charge/discharge.

  4. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in EV and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    The principal outcome of the research is to deliver experimental and modelling framework targeted for both EV and next-generation smart grid application developer. The results of the research assist in providing a correct datasheet for a battery cell. It is a result of an experimental framework t...

  5. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  6. Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... variation regularization, and related formulations of the optical flow problem that may be used with a duality based algorithm. We present a highly optimized algorithmic setup to estimate optical flows, and give five novel applications. The first application is registration of medical images, where X...... the motion estimation from the surrounding frames directly to the unknown frame by parametrizing the optical flow objective function such that the interpolation assumption is directly modeled. This reparametrization is a powerful trick that results in a number of appealing properties, in particular...

  7. Tunable Oxygen Functional Groups as Electrocatalysts on Graphite Felt Surfaces for All-Vanadium Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Luis; Reed, David; Nie, Zimin; Schwarz, Ashleigh M; Nandasiri, Manjula I; Kizewski, James P; Wang, Wei; Thomsen, Edwin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent; Li, Bin

    2016-06-22

    A dual oxidative approach using O2 plasma followed by treatment with H2 O2 to impart oxygen functional groups onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode. When used as electrodes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) system, the energy efficiency of the cell is enhanced by 8.2 % at a current density of 150 mA cm(-2) compared with one oxidized by thermal treatment in air. More importantly, by varying the oxidative techniques, the amount and type of oxygen groups was tailored and their effects were elucidated. It was found that O-C=O groups improve the cells performance whereas the C-O and C=O groups degrade it. The reason for the increased performance was found to be a reduction in the cell overpotential after functionalization of the graphite felt electrode. This work reveals a route for functionalizing carbon electrodes to improve the performance of VRB cells. This approach can lower the cost of VRB cells and pave the way for more commercially viable stationary energy storage systems that can be used for intermittent renewable energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Performance Study of Graphite Anode Slurry in Lithium-ion Flow Battery by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Cai-mei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite anode slurry of lithium-ion flow battery was prepared by the method of ball milling. The morphology, conductivity, specific capacity and cycle performance of graphite anode slurry were studied. Results show that the addition of conductive carbon material can improve the suspension stability of the electrode slurry; the ball milling process can not only improve the suspension stability but also reduce the resistivity of the mixed powders of graphite and conductive carbon materials, the ball milling effect is satisfactory when the mass ratio of the balls and the solid particles is 5:1, but too high ratio of the milling ball and the solid materials can destroy the layer structure of the graphite and affect the stability of the slurry. Increasing the fraction of the graphite and conductive carbon materials can form stable electrical network structure in the slurry and improve the reversible capacity; at the premise of keeping the flowability of the electrode slurry, the reversible specific capacity can be more than 40mAh/g. The capacity loss of graphite anode slurry mainly occurs in the first charging-discharging process, as the increase of the cycles, the capacity loss rate decreases, the capacity goes stable after 5 cycles.

  9. Investigation of crossover processes in a unitized bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    grosse Austing, Jan; Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the losses in coulombic efficiency are investigated for a vanadium/air redox flow battery (VARFB) comprising a two-layered positive electrode. Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy is used to monitor the concentrations cV2+ and cV3+ during operation. The most likely cause for the largest part of the coulombic losses is the permeation of oxygen from the positive to the negative electrode followed by an oxidation of V2+ to V3+. The total vanadium crossover is followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the positive electrolyte after one VARFB cycle. During one cycle 6% of the vanadium species initially present in the negative electrolyte are transferred to the positive electrolyte, which can account at most for 20% of the coulombic losses. The diffusion coefficients of V2+ and V3+ through Nafion® 117 are determined as DV2+ ,N 117 = 9.05 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and DV3+ ,N 117 = 4.35 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and are used to calculate vanadium crossover due to diffusion which allows differentiation between vanadium crossover due to diffusion and migration/electroosmotic convection. In order to optimize coulombic efficiency of VARFB, membranes need to be designed with reduced oxygen permeation and vanadium crossover.

  10. X-ray Raman spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions in a flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Spiekermann, Georg; Harder, Manuel; Oz, Erdinc; Koz, Cevriye; Yagci, Mehmet C; Yilmaz, Eda; Yin, Zhong; Sahle, Christoph J; Detlefs, Blanka; Yavaş, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The effects of varying LiPF 6 salt concentration and the presence of lithium bis(oxalate)borate additive on the electronic structure of commonly used lithium-ion battery electrolyte solvents (ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate and propylene carbonate) have been investigated. X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy (a non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering method) was utilized together with a closed-circle flow cell. Carbon and oxygen K-edges provide characteristic information on the electronic structure of the electrolyte solutions, which are sensitive to local chemistry. Higher Li + ion concentration in the solvent manifests itself as a blue-shift of both the π* feature in the carbon edge and the carbonyl π* feature in the oxygen edge. While these oxygen K-edge results agree with previous soft X-ray absorption studies on LiBF 4 salt concentration in propylene carbonate, carbon K-edge spectra reveal a shift in energy, which can be explained with differing ionic conductivities of the electrolyte solutions.

  11. Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Using meta-Polybenzimidazole-Based Membranes of Different Thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Chanho; Jung, Mina; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Nam, Suk Woo; Kwon, Yongchai

    2017-10-25

    15, 25, and 35 μm thick meta-polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes are doped with H 2 SO 4 and tested in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). Their performances are compared with those of Nafion membranes. Immersed in 2 M H 2 SO 4 , PBI absorbs about 2 mol of H 2 SO 4 per mole of repeat unit. This results in low conductivity and low voltage efficiency (VE). In ex-situ tests, meta-PBI shows a negligible crossover of V 3+ and V 4+ ions, much lower than that of Nafion. This is due to electrostatic repulsive forces between vanadium cations and positively charged protonated PBI backbones, and the molecular sieving effect of PBI's nanosized pores. It turns out that charge efficiency (CE) of VRFBs using meta-PBI-based membranes is unaffected by or slightly increases with decreasing membrane thickness. Thick meta-PBI membranes require about 100 mV larger potentials to achieve the same charging current as thin meta-PBI membranes. This additional potential may increase side reactions or enable more vanadium ions to overcome the electrostatic energy barrier and to enter the membrane. On this basis, H 2 SO 4 -doped meta-PBI membranes should be thin to achieve high VE and CE. The energy efficiency of 15 μm thick PBI reaches 92%, exceeding that of Nafion 212 and 117 (N212 and N117) at 40 mA cm -2 .

  12. The effects of surface modification on carbon felt electrodes for use in vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observed the physical and chemical changes on the surface of carbon felts after various surface modifications. ► The surface area and chemistry of functional groups formed on the surface of carbon felt are critical to determine the kinetics of the redox reactions of vanadium ions. ► By incorporation of the surface modifications into the electrode preparation, the electrochemical activity of carbon felts could be notably enhanced. - Abstract: The surface of carbon felt electrodes has been modified for improving energy efficiency of vanadium redox flow batteries. For comparative purposes, the effects of various surface modifications such as mild oxidation, plasma treatment, and gamma-ray irradiation on the electrochemical properties of carbon felt electrodes were investigated at optimized conditions. The cell energy efficiency was improved from 68 to 75% after the mild oxidation of the carbon felt at 500 °C for 5 h. This efficiency improvement could be attributed to the increased surface area of the carbon felt electrode and the formation of functional groups on its surface as a result of the modification. On the basis of various structural and electrochemical characterizations, a relationship between the surface nature and electrochemical activity of the carbon felt electrodes is discussed.

  13. A comparative study of species migration and diffusion mechanisms in all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyeongmin; Won, Seongyeon; Ju, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Migration effects on crossover phenomena is examined. • Crossover and migration model is newly implemented. • Totally opposite crossover trend is observed with migration during charging. • During discharging, the crossover is enhanced due to migration. - ABSTRACT: According to the Nernst–Planck equation, the transport of charged species in porous electrodes is mainly driven by diffusion and migration. Although a number of all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) models have been developed by several VRFB modeling groups, a comparative study of these two ion transport mechanisms has not been clearly reported in the literature. In this study, we develop a three-dimensional (3-D), transient VRFB model that rigorously accounts for both diffusion and migration mechanisms of charged species, including V 2+ , V 3+ , VO 2+ ,VO 2 + and H + . The VRFB model relies upon five principles of conservation: mass, momentum, species, electric charge, and thermal energy. Due to the general form of the conservation equations, both species migration effects on species transport and species diffusion effects on charge transport are considered in the source terms of the model equations. The model calculates species migration and diffusion fluxes through the membrane and compares their relative magnitudes under various charging and discharging stages. This paper clearly elucidates the role of species migration on vanadium crossover and the subsequent capacity losses, demonstrating that the present VRFB model is a valuable tool for optimizing the component design and operation of VRFBs.

  14. Porphyrin-Based Symmetric Redox-Flow Batteries towards Cold-Climate Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Pan, Zeng; Miao, Licheng; Chen, Chengcheng; Han, Mo; Shang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Jun

    2018-03-12

    Electrochemical energy storage with redox-flow batteries (RFBs) under subzero temperature is of great significance for the use of renewable energy in cold regions. However, RFBs are generally used above 10 °C. Herein we present non-aqueous organic RFBs based on 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (H 2 TPP) as a bipolar redox-active material (anode: [H 2 TPP] 2- /H 2 TPP, cathode: H 2 TPP/[H 2 TPP] 2+ ) and a Y-zeolite-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (Y-PVDF) ion-selective membrane with high ionic conductivity as a separator. The constructed RFBs exhibit a high volumetric capacity of 8.72 Ah L -1 with a high voltage of 2.83 V and excellent cycling stability (capacity retention exceeding 99.98 % per cycle) in the temperature range between 20 and -40 °C. Our study highlights principles for the design of RFBs that operate at low temperatures, thus offering a promising approach to electrochemical energy storage under cold-climate conditions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Return method: Some applications to flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coron, J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    Due to recent progress in advanced technologies in many fields of engineering sciences, applications of flow control are developing very quickly. In this paper we survey only a tiny and theoretical part of the recent results obtained in flow control, namely some results on the controllability and on the stabilizability of the equations of incompressible fluids which have been obtained by means of the return method. (author)

  16. Safety and environmental aspects of zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries for electric-vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodali, S.; Henriksen, G.L.; Whittlesey, C.C.; Warde, C.J.; Carr, P.; Symons, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    Public acceptance of high-performance cost-effective zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries for the random-use electric-vehicle application will require meeting stringent safety and environmental requirements. These requirements revolve mainly around the question of accidental release and spread of toxic amounts of chlorine gas, the only potential hazard in this battery system. Available information in the areas of physiological effects, environmental impact, and governmental regulation of chlorine were reviewed. The design, operation, and safety features of a first commercial electric-vehicle battery were conceived and analyzed from the chlorine release aspect. Two types of accident scenarios were analyzed in terms of chlorine release rates, atmospheric dispersion, health hazard, and possible clean-up operations. The worst-case scenario, a quite improbable accident, involves the spillage of chlorine hydrate onto the ground, while the other scenario, a more probable accident, involves the release of chlorine gas from a ruptured battery case. Heat-transfer and chlorine-dispersion models, developed to analyze these scenarios, establish a firm basis for a comprehenive and factual position statement on this topic. The results of this preliminary study suggest that electric vehicles powered by appropriately designed zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries will pose negligible health or environmental hazards on the nation's streets and highways. 8 figures, 14 tables.

  17. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcos-Acevedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product ( of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for  measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  18. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  19. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη) of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for ρη measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  20. A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis in a vanadium flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qiong; Zhang, Huamin; Xing, Feng; Ma, Xiangkun; Li, Xianfeng; Ning, Guiling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis in a VFB has been developed. • A quasi-static thermal behavior and temperature spatial distribution were showed. • Ohmic heat gets vital in heat generation if applied current density is large enough. • A lower porosity or a faster flow shows a more uniform temperature distribution. • The model shows good prospect in heat and temperature management for a VFB. - Abstract: A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis has been developed to gain a better understanding of thermal behavior in a vanadium flow battery (VFB). The model is based on a comprehensive description of mass, momentum, charge and energy transport and conservation, combining with a global kinetic model for reactions involving all vanadium species. The emphasis in this paper is placed on the heat losses inside a cell. A quasi-static behavior of temperature and the temperature spatial distribution were characterized via the thermal model. The simulations also indicate that the heat generation exhibits a strong dependence on the applied current density. The reaction rate and the over potential rise with an increased applied current density, resulting in the electrochemical reaction heat rises proportionally and the activation heat rises at a parabolic rate. Based on the Ohm’s law, the ohmic heat rises at a parabolic rate when the applied current density increases. As a result, the determining heat source varies when the applied current density changes. While the relative contribution of the three types of heat is dependent on the cell materials and cell geometry, the regularities of heat losses can also be attained via the model. In addition, the electrochemical reaction heat and activation heat have a lack of sensitivity to the porosity and flow rate, whereas an obvious increase of ohmic heat has been observed with the rise of the porosity. A lower porosity or a faster flow shows a better uniformity of temperature distribution in

  1. Methods of Fabricating Scintillators with Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Squillante, Michael R.; Tieman, Timothy C.; Higgins, William; Shiriwadkar, Urmila

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been developed for a class of self-contained, long-duration power sources called beta batteries, which harvest the energy contained in the radioactive emissions from beta decay isotopes. The new battery is a significant improvement over the conventional phosphor/solar cell concept for converting this energy in three ways. First, the thin phosphor is replaced with a thick scintillator that is transparent to its own emissions. By using a scintillator sufficiently thick to completely stop all the beta particles, efficiency is greatly improved. Second, since the energy of the beta particles is absorbed in the scintillator, the semiconductor photodetector is shielded from radiation damage that presently limits the performance and lifetime of traditional phosphor converters. Finally, instead of a thin film of beta-emitting material, the isotopes are incorporated into the entire volume of the thick scintillator crystal allowing more activity to be included in the converter without self-absorption. There is no chemical difference between radioactive and stable strontium beta emitters such as Sr-90, so the beta emitter can be uniformly distributed throughout a strontium based scintillator crystal. When beta emitter material is applied as a foil or thin film to the surface of a solar cell or even to the surface of a scintillator, much of the radiation escapes due to the geometry, and some is absorbed within the layer itself, leading to inefficient harvesting of the energy. In contrast, if the emitting atoms are incorporated within the scintillator, the geometry allows for the capture and efficient conversion of the energy of particles emitted in any direction. Any gamma rays associated with secondary decays or Bremsstrahlung photons may also be absorbed within the scintillator, and converted to lower energy photons, which will in turn be captured by the photocell or photodiode. Some energy will be lost in this two-stage conversion process (high-energy particle

  2. Low-maintenance, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries in utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. M.; Spindler, W. C.

    Electric power utility companies have various needs for lead/acid batteries, and also are beginning to promote customer-side-of-the meter applications for mutual benefits. Increasing use of lead/acid batteries in the future will depend heavily on improving performance and reliability of sealed, recombination designs, and on their versatility for many applications. Classifying various utility uses could be by cycling requirements, depth-of-discharge, power or energy (ratio of watts to hours), or by site (utility or customer). Deep-cycling examples are energy storage, peak-shaving and electric vehicles. Shallow-cycling examples are frequency regulation and reactive power control. Infrequent discharge examples are stationary service and spinning reserve. (Float service for telecommunications and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) applications are not addressed.) Some present and planned installations of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries are surveyed. Performance characteristics will be discussed, including recent results of testing both gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) types of deep-cycling batteries. Recommendations for future research and development of valve-regulated cell technology are outlined, based on a recent conference organized by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  3. Optimization of a PEMFC/battery pack power system for a bus application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, Linda; Bidini, Gianni; Ottaviano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A dynamic model of a PEMFC/battery system for bus traction has been developed. ► The model incorporates the dynamics of the fuel cell and the state of charge (SOC) of the battery pack. ► The system output power have been determined according to the real driving load demand of a bus during 12 h. ► The model has allowed the sizing of the fuel cell and the hydrogen tank with the SOC control strategy optimization. ► The PEMFC power that allows to optimize the operation in terms of both SOC control strategy and consumption is 33 kW e . -- Abstract: In a global environment context in which the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions is of central relevance, it is becoming increasingly important the research for solutions, concerning the vehicular transport sector with low environmental impact. Fuel cell technology is expected to become a viable solution for these applications due to its environmental friendly characteristics. The present study concerns the traction system of a bus considering the case of hybrid solutions consisting of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in parallel with a battery pack. In particular, a dynamic model of a PEMFC/battery system is presented for the application under study. The model incorporates the dynamics of the fuel cell and the state of charge (SOC) of the battery pack. The fuel cell and the battery output power have been determined according to the real driving load demand of a bus taking into consideration a daily operation of 12 h. Such a model has allowed the correct dimensioning of the hybrid power system (giving a particular attention to the fuel cell and the hydrogen tank) together with the optimization of the SOC control strategy.

  4. Joint optimisation of arbitrage profits and battery life degradation for grid storage application of battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To meet European decarbonisation targets by 2050, the electrification of the transport sector is mandatory. Most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, because they have a higher energy/power density and longer life span compared to other practical batteries such as zinc-carbon batteries. Electric vehicles can thus provide energy storage to support the system integration of generation from highly variable renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). However, charging/discharging causes batteries to degradate progressively with reduced capacity. In this study, we investigate the impact of the joint optimisation of arbitrage revenue and battery degradation of electric vehicle batteries in a simplified setting, where historical prices allow for market participation of battery electric vehicle owners. It is shown that the joint optimisation of both leads to stronger gains then the sum of both optimisation strategies and that including battery degradation into the model avoids state of charges close to the maximum at times. It can be concluded that degradation is an important aspect to consider in power system models, which incorporate any kind of lithium-ion battery storage.

  5. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of redox flow battery for photovoltaic power generation; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoko hatsuden`yo redox denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of redox flow battery for photovoltaic power generation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the production method of electrolyte, silica reduction treatment was attempted to use ammonium metavanadate recovered from boiler as electrolyte of redox flow battery. Silica removal rates more than 90% were achieved by crystallizing V as polyvanadate while keeping molten silica. It was ascertained in minicell experiment that trivalent and quadrivalent V electrolytes produced from recovered V are applicable to continuous charge/discharge operation for one week. (2) On development of battery systems, the relation between battery characteristics and physicochemical properties of carbon fiber electrodes was studied to improve carbon fiber electrodes. The efficiency of 80% was achieved at current density of 160mA/cm{sup 2} by use of layered electrodes, resulting in considerable cost reduction. Performance evaluation operation of the 2kW battery prepared in the last fiscal year was also carried out. 4 figs.

  6. Investigation on the electrode process of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple in redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Fangqin; Wang Yongliang; Wang Wenhong; Wang Xindong

    2008-01-01

    The Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple has been recognized as a potential anode for redox flow batteries to take the place of the V(IV)/V(V) in all-vanadium redox battery (VRB) and the Br 2 /Br - in sodium polysulfide/bromine (PSB) because it has higher standard electrode potential. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple on carbon felt and spectral pure graphite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, transient potential-step experiment, X-ray diffraction and charge-discharge experiments. Results show that the Mn(III) disproportionation reaction phenomena is obvious on the carbon felt electrode while it is weak on the graphite electrode owing to its fewer active sites. The reaction mechanism on carbon felt was discussed in detail. The reversibility of Mn(II)/Mn(III) is best when the sulfuric acid concentration is 5 M on the graphite electrode. Performance of a RFB employing Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple as anolyte active species and V(III)/V(II) as catholyte ones was evaluated with constant-current charge-discharge tests. The average columbic efficiency is 69.4% and the voltage efficiency is 90.4% at a current density of 20 mA cm -2 . The whole energy efficiency is 62.7% close to that of the all-vanadium battery and the average discharge voltage is about 14% higher than that of an all-vanadium battery. The preliminary exploration shows that the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple is electrochemically promising for redox flow battery

  7. Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-10-31

    Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this

  8. Multi-functional Converter with Integrated Motor Control, Battery Charging and Active Module Balancing for Electric Vehicular Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and the acoustical noise generated by refuse lorries, electrification of the waste compactor unit is a very promising solution. For the electrical energy storage Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology has been selected with potential for reducing the cost...... used successfully in HVDC/FACTS and large drive applications. In this paper the use of MMC for a battery driven waste compactor unit addressed with integrated functionality including: motor driver, battery charge and active balancing is presented. The challenges addressed here are related to the design...... of control strategy and current ripple reduction through the battery for life time extension....

  9. Long life, low cost, rechargeable AgZn battery for non-military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Curtis C.

    1996-03-01

    Of the rechargeable (secondary) battery systems with mature technology, the silver oxide-zinc system (AgZn) safely offers the highest power and energy (watts and watt hours) per unit of volume and mass. As a result they have long been used for aerospace and defense applications where they have also proven their high reliability. In the past, the expense associated with the cost of silver and the resulting low production volume have limited their commercial application. However, the relative low cost of silver now make this system feasible in many applications where high energy and reliability are required. One area of commercial potential is power for a new generation of sophisticated, portable medical equipment. AgZn batteries have recently proven ``enabling technology'' for power critical, advanced medical devices. By extending the cycle calendar life to the system (offers both improved performance and lower operating cost), a combination is achieved which may enable a wide range of future electrical devices. Other areas where AgZn batteries have been used in nonmilitary applications to provide power to aid in the development of commercial equipment have been: (a) Electrically powered vehicles; (b) Remote sensing in nuclear facilities; (c) Special effects equipment for movies; (d) Remote sensing in petroleum pipe lines; (e) Portable computers; (f) Fly by wire systems for commercial aircraft; and (g) Robotics. However none of these applications have progressed to the level where the volume required will significantly lower cost.

  10. Applications, benefits and challenges of flow chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2013-01-01

    , environmental and manufacturing perspective. A potential solution to resolve these issues is to use flow chemistry in such processes, preferably with applications of micro-and mini-sized equipment. In addition, Process Analytical Technology (PAT) may be implemented in a very efficient way in such equipment due...

  11. Cage-Like Porous Carbon with Superhigh Activity and Br2 -Complex-Entrapping Capability for Bromine-Based Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenhui; Lai, Qinzhi; Xu, Pengcheng; Zheng, Daoyuan; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-06-01

    Bromine-based flow batteries receive wide attention in large-scale energy storage because of their attractive features, such as high energy density and low cost. However, the Br 2 diffusion and relatively low activity of Br 2 /Br - hinder their further application. Herein, a cage-like porous carbon (CPC) with specific pore structure combining superhigh activity and Br 2 -complex-entrapping capability is designed and fabricated. According to the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, the pore size of the CPC (1.1 nm) is well designed between the size of Br - (4.83 Å), MEP + (9.25 Å), and Br 2 complex (MEPBr 3 12.40 Å), wherein Br - is oxidized to Br 2 , which forms a Br 2 complex with the complexing agent immediately and is then entrapped in the cage via pore size exclusion. In addition, the active sites produced during the carbon dioxide activation process dramatically accelerate the reaction rate of Br 2 /Br - . In this way, combining a high Br 2 -entrapping-capability and high specific surface areas, the CPC shows very impressive performance. The zinc bromine flow battery assembled with the prepared CPC shows a Coulombic efficiency of 98% and an energy efficiency of 81% at the current density of 80 mA cm -2 , which are among the highest values ever reported. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. DMFC as Battery-Extender in solar-boat application

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Johannes; Reissner, Regine; Zabold, Jochen; Krajinovic, Katica; Häring, Thomas; Nettesheim, Stefan; Kopf, Joachim; Steinhart, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    For special applications Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) are close to commercial application or already commercialized today. However for the step from laboratory to a broader market of fuel cells, a significant cost reduction, as well as a lifetime and power density improvement of the systems is needed. The Goals of the BZ-BattExt Project should be reached by applying new knowledge in alternative materials, improved operation strategies and enhanced sub systems. In the project a 100 W D...

  13. Operando studies of all-vanadium flow batteries: Easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Skoumal, Marcel; Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Flox, Cristina; Morante, Joan Ramon

    2014-12-01

    In-depth evaluation of the electrochemical performance of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) under operando conditions requires the insertion of a reliable reference electrode in the battery cell. In this work, an easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate is proposed and described for VRFBs. The relevance and feasibility of the information obtained by inserting the reference electrode is illustrated with the study of ammoxidized graphite felts. In this case, we show that the kinetic of the electrochemical reaction VO2+/VO2+ is slower than that of V2+/V3+ at the electrode. While the slow kinetics at the positive electrode limits the voltage efficiency, the operating potential of the negative electrode, which is outside the stability widow of water, reduces the coulombic efficiency due to the hydrogen evolution.

  14. Applications of flow cytometry in food microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Valerin, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of data about cytometry and its applications is performed to analyze the impact on food microbiology. The technique of flow cytometry is described and the use in various fields of microbiology is analyzed. Flow cytometry future could be implemented in many clinical laboratories and food, considering the cost / benefit test to be done, because at the moment it has a high cost. The existence of new fluorochromes and monoclonal antibodies enable that many intracellular and extracellular cell parameters are detected in the future. The technique can be developed in the country in few years considering that the technique has improved the sensitivity and specificity of many tests [es

  15. Lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs involving high-performance lithium aluminum/iron sulfide batteries at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories during the period October 1980 through September 1981. These batteries, which are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy-storage applications, consist of vertically oriented prismatic cells with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2 facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte. Most of the cell and battery design, development, and fabrication for the program to develop a full-scale electric-vehicle battery was subcontracted to two industrial films Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould Inc. The present program stresses the development and testing of high-reliability cells and the fabrication and testing of small (up to 10 cells) modules. A major technical change in the present contractor-developed cells is the use by Gould of MgO powder separators.

  16. A dynamic capacity degradation model and its applications considering varying load for a large format Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Zhe; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic capacity degradation model for large format Li-ion battery is proposed. • The change of the model parameters directly link with the degradation mechanisms. • The model can simulate the fading behavior of Li-ion battery under varying loads. • The model can help evaluate the longevity of a battery system under specific load. • The model can help predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack. - Abstract: The capacity degradation of the lithium ion battery should be well predicted during battery system design. Therefore, high-fidelity capacity degradation models that are suitable for the task of capacity prediction are required. This paper proposes a novel capacity degradation model that can simulate the degradation dynamics under varying working conditions for large-format lithium ion batteries. The degradation model is built based on a mechanistic and prognostic model (MPM) whose parameters are closely linked with the degradation mechanisms of lithium ion batteries. Chemical kinetics was set to drive the parameters of the MPM to change as capacity degradation continues. With the dynamic parameters of the MPM, the capacity predicted by the degradation model decreases as the cycle continues. Accelerated aging tests were conducted on three types of commercial lithium ion batteries to calibrate the capacity degradation model. The good fit with the experimental data indicates that the model can capture the degradation mechanisms well for different types of commercial lithium ion batteries. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be used to (1) evaluate the longevity of a battery system under a specific working load and (2) predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack when different cell works at different conditions. Correlated applications are discussed using the calibrated degradation model.

  17. Thermal modeling. Application to lithium batteries; Modelisation thermique. Application aux accumulateurs lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Flament, P. [SAFT, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Marolleau, T. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Guiot, T.; Lefriec, C. [TSR Futuropolis, 86 - Chasseneuil du Poitou (France)

    1996-12-31

    The thermal modeling of electrochemical batteries is today an integral part of the design and validation operations of new products. The Li-ion pair allows to increase the power density of batteries but leads to higher heat fluxes during charging-output cycles. Thus, the thermal control has become more crucial and requires the use of modeling. SAFT and TSR companies are involved in this approach and use the ESACAP software. This paper presents this software which uses a nodal method for the modeling of the coupled thermal and electrical processes that take place inside elementary cells and batteries. (J.S.)

  18. Sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane with embedded silica rich layer and enhanced proton selectivity for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Han, Dongmei; Meng, Yuezhong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologie, The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A series of novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes with special microstructure, based on sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) ionomer (SFPEK, IEC = 1.92 mequiv. g{sup -1}) and SiO{sub 2} or sulfonic acid group containing SiO{sub 2} (SiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H), has been successfully designed and prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The SiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H is synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and {gamma}-propyl mercaptotrimethoxysilane via sol-gel process to control the same IEC with neat SPFEK. The hybrid membranes are prepared by simply adding the inorganic particles into the SPFEK solution in N,N'-dimethylacetamide, followed by ultrasonic dispersion, casting and profiled temperature drying process. The morphology is examined by SEM-EDX which is applied to the top surface, bottom surface and cross-section of the hybrid membranes. The water uptake, oxidative stability, thermal property, mechanical property, proton conductivity, VO{sup 2+} permeability and single cell performance are investigated in detail in order to understand the relationship between morphology and property of the membranes. All the hybrid membranes show dramatically improved proton selectivity at 20 C and 40 C when compared with Nafion117. The VRB assembled with the SPFEK/3%SiO{sub 2} and SPFEK/9%SiO{sub 2} membranes exhibit higher coulombic efficiency and average discharge voltage than the VRB assembled with the SPFEK membrane at all the tested current densities. (author)

  19. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  20. In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A Scherson

    2013-03-14

    Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

  1. Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmonte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA results show the lower burdens of both technologies.

  2. Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Synthesis of embossing Si nanomesh and its application as an anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sanghyun; Jang, Ho Young; Jung, Insub; Liu, Lichun; Park, Sungho

    2017-09-01

    Voids in nanostructured silicon (Si) anodes are believed to effectively mitigate the gradual performance degradation during repeated charge/discharge in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, we first demonstrate an embossing Si nanomesh structure bearing substantial voids in three dimensions for LIB applications. A solid alumina framework and a sacrificial layer of Ag serve as a template for embossing Si nanomesh structures. After complete dissolution of the alumina framework and the Ag layer, an embossing Si nanomesh exhibits highly ordered and high density nanoholes in an interconnected framework. The model Si nanomesh fabricated by our method has holes ∼70 nm in diameter, has ∼96 holes/μm2, and is ∼40 nm in thickness. We use this void-rich embossing Si nanomesh as a LIB anode, achieving significant enhancement in battery performance in terms of discharge capacity, cycling stability, and structural maintenance compared to a counterpart Si nanofilm without voids.

  4. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  5. Conceptual design of a device for charging PIG's batteries, using the hydraulic energy from the flow in pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ricardo E.; Dutra, Max S. [Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Graduate and Research Studies (COPPE-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Program], e-mail: rramirez@ufrj.br, e-mail: max@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Some actual projects deal with development of PIGs with speed control for liquid pipelines, with the possibility of controlled displacement including counter flow locomotion, in order to inspect and service in 'unpiggable lines' and flexible lines. In this case, it is normal to carry energy consumption greater than the energy disposable in the batteries. This work proposes a device composed by a turbine and an electric generator; presents a preliminary mechanical design of the turbine for the specific requirements of the application like internal pressure inside the line, a range of relative velocities between the PIG and the pipeline and adequate material for the environmental conditions. One of the priority requirements is that the geometric form of the turbine and generator mate with a proposed form of the PIG minimizing the pressure drop in the line for the different work conditions. The electric design defines the magnets characteristics, geometric forms, dimensions and number of turns to obtain the required voltage and power for charging a nominal pack of batteries. (author)

  6. High power and high energy lithium-ion batteries for under-water applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitzendanner, R.; Puglia, F.; Martin, C.; Carmen, D.; Jones, E.; Eaves, S.

    Lithium-ion batteries have demonstrated excellent energy density, reliability, and life in commercial applications. Several new Navy and undersea applications are emerging that need the high energy density and high power capabilities that the lithium-ion technology offers. Such applications have historically utilized silver-zinc technology for their power source. However, life cycle costs, maintenance and logistics issues, and wet-life limitations are true detriments in these applications. Lithium-ion technology has demonstrated the energy and power density of silver-zinc, but with much improved cycle life, shelf life, and low maintenance properties. For these reasons, and others, many under water applications are looking to lithium-ion to provide the performance of the silver-zinc system, but at a greatly reduced life-cycle cost.

  7. Analyzing the Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Second-Life Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rutvik Milind

    The automotive industry is committed to moving towards sustainable modes of transportation through electrified vehicles to improve the fuel economy with a reduced carbon footprint. In this context, battery-operated hybrid, plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming commercially viable throughout the world. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with various active materials, electrolytes, and separators are currently being used for electric vehicle applications. Specifically, lithium-ion batteries with Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4 - LFP) and Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (Li(NiMnCo)O 2 - NMC) cathodes are being studied mainly due to higher cycle life and higher energy density values, respectively. In the present work, 26650 Li-ion batteries with LFP and NMC cathodes were evaluated for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) applications, using the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) to discharge the batteries with 20 A current in simulated Arizona, USA weather conditions (50 °C & vehicles, second-use of these retired batteries is gaining importance, and the possibility of second-life use of these tested batteries was also examined under constant current charge/discharge cycling at 50 °C. The capacity degradation rate under the PHEV test protocol for batteries with NMC-based cathode (16% over 800 cycles) was twice the degradation compared to batteries with LFP-based cathode (8% over 800 cycles), reiterating the fact that batteries with LFP cathodes have a higher cycle life compared to other lithium battery chemistries. Also, the high frequency resistance measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was found to increase significantly with cycling, leading to power fading for both the NMC- as well as LFP-based batteries. The active materials analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no significant phase change in the materials after 800 PHEV cycles. For second-life tests, these batteries were subjected to a constant charge

  8. Preparation and characterization of hybrid Nafion/silica and Nafion/silica/PTA membranes for redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glibin, V.; Pupkevich, V.; Svirko, L.; Karamanev, D. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Redox flow batteries are both efficient and cost-effective. However, the long-term stability of most ion-exchange membranes is limited as a result of the high oxidation rates of ions with high redox potentials. A method of synthesizing multi-component Nafion-silica and Nafion-silica-PTA membranes was presented in this study, which also investigated the electrochemical and ion transport properties of the membranes. Membranes were cast from dimethylformamide (DMFA) solution. The iron ion diffusion kinetics of the Nafion-silica and Nafion-silica PTA membranes were studied by dialysis. Results of the investigation demonstrated that the introduction of silica and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) into the Nafion membrane composition resulted in a significant decrease of ion transfer through the membrane. The addition of PTA also increased membrane permeability to ferric ions. The low iron diffusion coefficient and high ionic conductivity of the Nafion-silica membrane makes it a promising material for use in redox flow batteries. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  9. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  10. Highly Stable Anion Exchange Membranes for High-Voltage Redox-Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yushan

    2018-02-26

    membrane in the sulfuric acid system was also achieved due to the high acid doping ability of the polymer structure. The cationic 9MeOTTP+-F6PBI PTFE reinforced membrane shows a cerium (IV) permeability that is 27-fold lower than that of Nafion 212. Excellent voltage and energy efficiencies with a 9MeOTTP+-F6PBI PTFE reinforced membrane were demonstrated in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB).

  11. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclic steady states in diffusion-induced plasticity with applications to lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigney, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    Electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries offer an example of medium in which stress and plastic flow are generated by the diffusion of guest atoms. In such a medium, deformation and diffusion are strongly coupled processes. For designing electrodes with improved lifetime and electro-mechanical efficiency, it is crucial to understand how plasticity and diffusion evolve over consecutive charging-recharging cycles. With such questions in mind, this paper provides general results for the large-time behavior of media coupling plasticity with diffusion when submitted to cyclic chemo-mechanical loadings. Under suitable assumptions, we show that the stress, the plastic strain rate, the chemical potential and the flux of guest atoms converge to a cyclic steady state which is largely independent of the initial state. A special emphasis is laid on the special case of elastic shakedown, which corresponds to the situation where the plastic strain stops evolving after a sufficiently large number of cycles. Elastic shakedown is expected to be beneficial for the fatigue behavior and - in the case of lithium-ion batteries - for the electro-chemical efficiency. We provide a characterization of the chemo-mechanical loadings for which elastic shakedown occurs. Building on that characterization, we suggest a general method for designing structures in such fashion that they operate in the elastic shakedown regime, whatever the initial state is. An attractive feature of the proposed method is that incremental analysis of the fully coupled plasticity-diffusion problem is avoided. The results obtained are applied to the model problem of a battery electrode cylinder particle under cyclic charging. Closed-form expressions are obtained for the set of charging rates and charging amplitudes for which elastic shakedown occurs, as well as for the corresponding cyclic steady states of stress, lithium concentration and chemical potential. Some results for a spherical particle are also presented.

  13. Application of Analytic Function in two Dimensional Horizontal Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of flow equation to analytic function enables one to see physical applicability of complex analysis. This work provides solution to physical problem in fluid flow that formalizes the idea of motion of fluid element. Harmonic functions are used to study fluid flow under the assumption that an incompressible and ...

  14. Functional mesoporous materials for energy applications: solar cells, fuel cells, and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Youngjin; Jo, Changshin; Jeong, Inyoung; Lee, Jinwoo

    2013-06-07

    This feature article presents recent progress made in the synthesis of functional ordered mesoporous materials and their application as high performance electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), fuel cells, and Li-ion batteries. Ordered mesoporous materials have been mainly synthesized using two representative synthetic methods: the soft template and hard template methods. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a new method called CASH was suggested. The CASH method combines the advantages of the soft and hard template methods by employing a diblock copolymer, PI-b-PEO, which contains a hydrophilic block and an sp(2)-hybridized-carbon-containing hydrophobic block as a structure-directing agent. After discussing general techniques used in the synthesis of mesoporous materials, this article presents recent applications of mesoporous materials as electrodes in DSCs and QDSCs, fuel cells, and Li-ion batteries. The role of material properties and mesostructures in device performance is discussed in each case. The developed soft and hard template methods, along with the CASH method, allow control of the pore size, wall composition, and pore structure, providing insight into material design and optimization for better electrode performances in these types of energy conversion devices. This paper concludes with an outlook on future research directions to enable breakthroughs and overcome current limitations in this field.

  15. Biomineralized multifunctional magnetite/carbon microspheres for applications in Li-ion batteries and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Sangbaek; Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Jae-Chan; Jang, Eunjin; Hong, Kug Sun; Kim, T Doohun; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2015-03-16

    Advanced functional materials incorporating well-defined multiscale architectures are a key focus for multiple nanotechnological applications. However, strategies for developing such materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, and so on, are still being developed. Here, we report a facile, scalable biomineralization process in which Micrococcus lylae bacteria are used as soft templates to synthesize 3D hierarchically structured magnetite (Fe3O4) microspheres for use as Li-ion battery anode materials and in water treatment applications. Self-assembled Fe3O4 microspheres with flower-like morphologies are systematically fabricated from biomineralized 2D FeO(OH) nanoflakes at room temperature and are subsequently subjected to post-annealing at 400 °C. In particular, because of their mesoporous properties with a hollow interior and the improved electrical conductivity resulting from the carbonized bacterial templates, the Fe3 O4 microspheres obtained by calcining the FeO(OH) in Ar exhibit enhanced cycle stability and rate capability as Li-ion battery anodes, as well as superior adsorption of organic pollutants and toxic heavy metals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development of powder diffraction anomalous fine structure method and applications to electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Oishi, Masatsugu; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2015-01-01

    A powder diffraction anomalous fine structure (P-DAFS) method is developed both in analytical and experimental techniques and applied to cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The DAFS method, which is an absorption spectroscopic technique through a scattering measurement, enables us to analyze the chemical states and the local structures of a certain element at different sites, thanks to the nature of x-ray diffraction, where the contributions from each site are different at each diffraction. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries frequently exhibit the interchange between Li and a transition metal, which is known as the cation mixing phenomena. This cation mixing significantly affects the whole electrode properties; therefore, the site-distinguished understanding of the roles of the transition metal is essential for further material design by controlling and positively utilizing this cation mixing phenomenon. However, the developments of the P-DAFS method are required for the applications to the practical materials such as the electrode materials. In the present study, a direct analysis technique to extract the absorption spectrum from the scattering without using the conventional iterative calculations, fast and accurate measurement techniques of the P-DAFS method, and applications to a typical electrode material of Li 1-x Ni 1+x O 2 , which exhibits the significant cation mixing, are described. (author)

  17. The impact of pH on side reactions for aqueous redox flow batteries based on nitroxyl radical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, A.; Verde, M. G.; Sakai, M.; Meng, Y. S.

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical and UV-VIS measurements demonstrate that the pH value of a 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-pipperidinyloxyl (TEMPOL) electrolyte significantly impacts its redox reversibility. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic rate constant of TEMPOL in neutral aqueous solution are determined and shown to be comparable to those of vanadium ions used for industrially utilized redox flow batteries (RFBs). RFBs that incorporate a TEMPOL catholyte and Zn-based anolyte have an average voltage of 1.46 V and an energy efficiency of 80.4% during the initial cycle, when subject to a constant current of 10 mA cm-2. We demonstrate several factors that significantly influence the concentration and capacity retention of TEMPOL upon cycling; namely, pH and atmospheric gases dissolved in electrolyte. We expand upon the known reactions of TEMPOL in aqueous electrolyte and propose several concepts to improve its electrochemical performance in a RFB. Controlling these factors will be the key to enable the successful implementation of this relatively inexpensive and environmentally friendly battery.

  18. Applications of Imaging Flow Cytometry for Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Mark; Davis, Aubrey; Abbriano, Raffaela; Pugsley, Haley R; Traller, Jesse C; Smith, Sarah R; Shrestha, Roshan P; Cook, Orna; Sánchez-Alvarez, Eva L; Manandhar-Shrestha, Kalpana; Alderete, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to image large numbers of cells at high resolution enhances flow cytometric analysis of cells and cell populations. In particular, the ability to image intracellular features adds a unique aspect to analyses, and can enable correlation between molecular phenomena resulting in alterations in cellular phenotype. Unicellular microalgae are amenable to high-throughput analysis to capture the diversity of cell types in natural samples, or diverse cellular responses in clonal populations, especially using imaging cytometry. Using examples from our laboratory, we review applications of imaging cytometry, specifically using an Amnis(®) ImageStream(®)X instrument, to characterize photosynthetic microalgae. Some of these examples highlight advantages of imaging flow cytometry for certain research objectives, but we also include examples that would not necessarily require imaging and could be performed on a conventional cytometer to demonstrate other concepts in cytometric evaluation of microalgae. We demonstrate the value of these approaches for (1) analysis of populations, (2) documentation of cellular features, and (3) analysis of gene expression.

  19. The use of polybenzimidazole membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries leading to increased coulombic efficiency and cycling performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.L.; Zhao, T.S.; An, L.; Wei, L.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    An issue with conventional vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) with Nafion membranes is the crossover of vanadium ions, resulting in low coulombic efficiency and rapid decay in capacity. In this work, a VRFB with a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane is tested and compared with the Nafion system. Results show that the PBI-based VRFB exhibits a substantially higher coulombic efficiency of up to 99% at current densities ranging from 20 mA cm −2 to 80 mA cm −2 . More importantly, it is demonstrated that the PBI-based VRFB has a capacity decay rate of as low as 0.3% per cycle, which is four times lower than that of the Nafion system (1.3% per cycle). The improved coulombic efficiency and cycling performance are attributed to the low crossover of vanadium ions through the PBI membrane

  20. Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Membranes with Significantly Improved Vanadium Barrier Properties for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibel, Olga; Rojek, Tomasz; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-07-10

    All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) have attracted considerable interest as promising energy-storage devices that can allow the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. The membrane, which separates the porous electrodes in a redox flow cell, is one of the key components in VRBs. High rates of crossover of vanadium ions and water through the membrane impair the efficiency and capacity of a VRB. Thus, membranes with low permeation rate of vanadium species and water are required, also characterized by low resistance and stability in the VRB environment. Here, we present a new design concept for amphoteric ion-exchange membranes, based on radiation-induced grafting of vinylpyridine into an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene base film and a two-step functionalization to introduce cationic and anionic exchange sites, respectively. During long-term cycling, redox flow cells containing these membranes showed higher efficiency, less pronounced electrolyte imbalance, and significantly reduced capacity decay compared to the cells with the benchmark material Nafion 117. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. "Wine-Dark Sea" in an Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao; Huang, Jinhua; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Vijayakumar, M.; Walter, Eric; Pan, Baofei; Yang, Zheng; Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Li, Bin; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Moore, Jeffery S.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Zhang, Lu; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-04-19

    A highly soluble, readily accessible, redox-active organic material, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, is demonstrated as a novel anolyte material to enable exceptional cyclability in a full-cell organic redox flow battery. This material discovery represents a significant progress toward promising next-generation energy storage.

  2. An aqueous all-organic redox-flow battery employing a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl-containing polymer as catholyte and dimethyl viologen dichloride as anolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Tino; Winsberg, Jan; Grube, Mandy; Nischang, Ivo; Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2018-02-01

    Herein we present a new redox-flow battery (RFB) that employs a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) containing copolymer (P1) as catholyte and the viologen derivative N,N‧-dimethyl-4,4‧-bipyridinium dichloride (MV) as anolyte in an aqueous sodium chloride solution. This is the first time that a combination of an organic polymer and a low-molar-mass organic redox-active material is presented. The electrochemical behavior of the utilized charge-storage materials were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and feature reversible redox-reactions at E½ = 0.7 V (TEMPO/TEMPO+) and E½ = -0.6 V vs. AgCl/Ag (MV++/MV+•), which lead to a promising cell voltage of 1.3 V in the subsequent battery application. Studies were performed to determine the most suitable anion-exchange membrane (AEM), the ideal conducting salt concentration and the optimal flow rate. The resulting battery reveals a stable charge/discharge performance over 100 consecutive cycles with coulombic efficiencies of up to 95%, a high energy efficiency of 85% and an overall energy density of the electrolyte system of 3.8 W h L-1.

  3. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Modeling of electric vehicle battery for vehicle-to-grid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Ying; Brady, Cormac; Pellegrino, Giustino

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicle battery models are essential when performing analysis of EV systems. The battery package of electric vehicles is complicated and unpredictable because of its chemical based functioning. In this paper, a battery model is presented with a number of internal and external factors taken...

  5. Metallic MoN layer and its application as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Ma, Jiachen; Lei, Ming; Quhe, Ruge

    2018-04-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) metallic MoN was manufactured successfully in experiment. Its intrinsic properties remain to be explored theoretically, in depth. The intrinsic properties of a MoN monolayer are investigated by first-principles calculations. The distinct geometric properties of the outermost Mo and N surfaces are discovered. We predict an extremely high work function of 6.3 eV of the N surface, which indicates the great value of the 2D MoN for application in the semiconductor industry. We further explore the potential of 2D MoN as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It is found that the adsorption energy of a single Li atom on an MoN surface can be as low as -4.04 eV. The small diffusion barriers (0.41 eV) and high theoretical maximum capacity (406 mAh · g-1 with the inclusion of multilayer adsorption) all imply an outstanding lithium-ion battery performance by 2D MoN.

  6. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  7. P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-04-10

    MXenes are a family of two-dimensional materials, composed of early transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, with great potential in energy storage systems, in particular in electrodes for Li, Na, K-ion batteries. However, so far the capacities are not competitive. In this context, we investigate P and Si functionalized MXenes for metal-ion battery applications, using first-principles calculations, since P and Si provide reaction products with high ion content. Replacement of the F and OH ligands of Ti2C and V2C with P and Si is demonstrated to be feasible (energy barriers of less than 0.128 eV) and the ion diffusion barriers turn out to be less than 0.32 eV. Importantly, the Li, Na, and K capacities are predicted to be 1767 mAh g−1, 711 mAh g−1, and 711 mAh g−1, respectively, thus being much higher than in the case of F and OH functionalization.

  8. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  9. Metallic MoN Layer and its Application as Anode for Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Ma, Jiachen; Lei, Ming; Quhe, Ruge

    2018-02-06

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) metallic MoN was manufactured successfully in experiment, while its intrinsic properties remain to be explored theoretically in depth. The intrinsic properties of MoN monolayer are investigated by first-principles calculations. Distinct geometric properties of the outmost Mo and N surfaces are discovered. We predict an extremely high work function of 6.3 eV of the N surface, which indicates great value of the 2D MoN for application in the semiconductor industry. We further explore the potential of 2D MoN as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It is found that adsorption energy of the single Li atom on MoN surface can be as low as - 4.04 eV. The small diffusion barriers (0.41 eV) and high theoretical maximum capacity (406 mAh∙g-1 with the inclusion of multilayer adsorption) all imply the outstanding lithium-ion batteries performance by 2D MoN. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. High-loading Fe2O3/SWNT composite films for lithium-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Jiahui; Li, Li; Ge, Yali; Li, Baojun; Zhang, Yingjiu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Anyuan

    2017-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films are a potential candidate as porous conductive electrodes for energy conversion and storage; tailoring the loading and distribution of active materials grafted on SWNTs is critical for achieving maximum performance. Here, we show that as-synthesized SWNT samples containing residual Fe catalyst can be directly converted to Fe2O3/SWNT composite films by thermal annealing in air. The mass loading of Fe2O3 nanoparticles is tunable from 63 wt% up to 96 wt%, depending on the annealing temperature (from 450 °C to 600 °C), while maintaining the porous network structure. Interconnected SWNT networks containing high-loading active oxides lead to synergistic effect as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The performance is improved consistently with increasing Fe2O3 loading. As a result, our Fe2O3/SWNT composite films exhibit a high reversible capacity (1007.1 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1), excellent rate capability (384.9 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1) and stable cycling performance with the discharge capacity up to 567.1 mA h g-1 after 600 cycles at 2 A g-1. The high-loading Fe2O3/SWNT composite films have potential applications as nanostructured electrodes for various energy devices such as supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries.

  11. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application. PMID:24194677

  12. Application of neutron radiography to visualization of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Fujii, T.; Nishizaki, K.; Asano, H.; Ono, A.; Sonoda, K.; Akagawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    Visualizations by real-time neutron radiography are demonstrated of various flow patterns of nitrogen gas-water two-phase flow in a stainless-steel tube, water inverted annular flow in a stainless-steel tube, flashing flow in an aluminium nozzle and fluidized bed in aluminium tube and vessels. Photographs every 1/60 s are presented by an image processing method to show the dynamic behaviours of the various flow patterns. It is shown that this visualization method can be applied efficiently to multiphase flow researches and will be applicable to multiphase flows in industrial machines. (author)

  13. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  14. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  15. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  16. New innovative materials for advanced electrochemical applications in battery and fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, S.; Kollmann, H.; Kollmann, W.

    The advanced material POLYMET is an innovative high tech polymer with a three-dimensional polymeric structure metallized with an enclosing coating of different kinds of metals or alloys. The result is a range of tailor-made, microporous structures on a designable scale. By varying the metals and alloys, it is possible to draw upon extremely diverse areas of applications such as battery systems, fuel cells, filters or efficient catalysts as well as air regeneration systems, e.g. in aerospace. The three-dimensional structure of metallized high tech woven or non-woven materials or foams causes a lot of advantages such as high conductivity, high corrosion resistance, flexibility or mechanical strength. Therefore, POLYMET is suitable for, e.g. current collectors or gas diffusion layers in energy storage systems. They supply an economic and environmental alternative material to improve functional electrochemical systems.

  17. Preparation and application of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lin; Lv, Ruitao; Kang, Feiyu; Gan, Lin; Shen, Wanci

    CNTs with bamboo-like structure (B-CNTs) has been prepared via a CVD process with novel carbon precursor. The potential application of B-CNTs as electric conductive additive and anode materials for lithium ion batteries was explored. The EIS spectra prove that it is better electric conductive additive than multiwalled CNTs and traditional carbon black (CB). The electric resistance of the electrode is decreased around 20 Ω when B-CNTs is used instead of CB. The cycle stability is also enhanced. However, the test cell with B-CNTs as anode material shows low reversible capacity of 135 mAh g -1 and very low initial cycle efficiency of 17.3%, which indicates that so-prepared B-CNTs is not suitable for anode material.

  18. Design of Efficient Sound Systems for Low Voltage Battery Driven Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Oortgiesen, Rien; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of portable battery driven sound systems is crucial as it relates to both the playback time and cost of the system. This paper presents design considerations when designing such systems. This include loudspeaker and amplifier design. Using a low resistance voice coil realized...... with rectangular wire one can boost the efficiency of the loudspeaker driver and eliminate the need of an additional power supply. A newly developed switching topology is described which is beneficial to near-idle efficiency (audio applications in the consumer electronics space....... A small sized sound system was implemented using the discussed design considerations. The amplifier efficiency performance was found to be very high with near-idle efficiency reaching a remarkably 88% at 2 W. The average output SPL was estimated to be up to 90 dB in half spheric anechoic conditions...

  19. Precise, dynamic information flow for database-backed applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jean; Hance, Travis; Austin, Thomas H.; Flanagan, Cormac; Chong, Stephen; Solar Lezama, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for dynamic information flow control across the application and database. Our approach reduces the amount of policy code required, yields formal guarantees across the application and database, works with existing relational database implementations, and scales for realistic applications. In this paper, we present a programming model that factors out information flow policies from application code and database queries, a dynamic semantics for the underlying $^JDB$ core l...

  20. An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe, and low-cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Martin, Udo; Friebe, Christian; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hiller, Hannes; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2015-11-01

    For renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric to be effectively used in the grid of the future, flexible and scalable energy-storage solutions are necessary to mitigate output fluctuations. Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) were first built in the 1940s and are considered a promising large-scale energy-storage technology. A limited number of redox-active materials--mainly metal salts, corrosive halogens, and low-molar-mass organic compounds--have been investigated as active materials, and only a few membrane materials, such as Nafion, have been considered for RFBs. However, for systems that are intended for both domestic and large-scale use, safety and cost must be taken into account as well as energy density and capacity, particularly regarding long-term access to metal resources, which places limits on the lithium-ion-based and vanadium-based RFB development. Here we describe an affordable, safe, and scalable battery system, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes, which separate the anode and the cathode by the retention of the non-metallic, active (macro-molecular) species, and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte. This water- and polymer-based RFB has an energy density of 10 watt hours per litre, current densities of up to 100 milliamperes per square centimetre, and stable long-term cycling capability. The polymer-based RFB we present uses an environmentally benign sodium chloride solution and cheap, commercially available filter membranes instead of highly corrosive acid electrolytes and expensive membrane materials.

  1. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Experimental Aerodynamics Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Delhi (India)

    2011-03-15

    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models. (orig.)

  2. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L.

    2011-03-01

    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models.

  3. Application of C60, C72 and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Meysam

    2017-01-01

    The application of C 60 , C 72 , CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V cell ) and adsorption energy (E ad ) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C 60 and C 72 ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH 2 functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH 2 functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH 2 functionalized C 72 and CNT (10, 0) have larger V cell and E ad values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C 60 and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V cell and E ad of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C 60 and C 72 ca. • NH 2 functionalization of C 60 improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  4. New battery model considering thermal transport and partial charge stationary effects in photovoltaic off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Gorrachategui, Iván; Bernal, Carlos; Oyarbide, Estanis; Garayalde, Erik; Aizpuru, Iosu; Canales, Jose María; Bono-Nuez, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The optimization of the battery pack in an off-grid Photovoltaic application must consider the minimum sizing that assures the availability of the system under the worst environmental conditions. Thus, it is necessary to predict the evolution of the state of charge of the battery under incomplete daily charging and discharging processes and fluctuating temperatures over day-night cycles. Much of previous development work has been carried out in order to model the short term evolution of battery variables. Many works focus on the on-line parameter estimation of available charge, using standard or advanced estimators, but they are not focused on the development of a model with predictive capabilities. Moreover, normally stable environmental conditions and standard charge-discharge patterns are considered. As the actual cycle-patterns differ from the manufacturer's tests, batteries fail to perform as expected. This paper proposes a novel methodology to model these issues, with predictive capabilities to estimate the remaining charge in a battery after several solar cycles. A new non-linear state space model is proposed as a basis, and the methodology to feed and train the model is introduced. The new methodology is validated using experimental data, providing only 5% of error at higher temperatures than the nominal one.

  5. The ability of battery second use strategies to impact plug-in electric vehicle prices and serve utility energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad

    The high cost of lithium ion batteries is a major impediment to the increased market share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs). The reuse of PHEV/EV propulsion batteries in second use applications following the end of their automotive service life may have the potential to offset the high initial cost of these batteries today. Accurately assessing the value of such a strategy is exceedingly complex and entails many uncertainties. This paper takes a first step toward such an assessment by estimating the impact of battery second use on the initial cost of PHEV/EV batteries to automotive consumers and exploring the potential for grid-based energy storage applications to serve as a market for used PHEV/EV batteries. It is found that although battery second use is not expected to significantly affect today's PHEV/EV prices, it has the potential to become a common component of future automotive battery life cycles and potentially to transform markets in need of cost-effective energy storage. Based on these findings, the authors advise further investigation focused on forecasting long-term battery degradation and analyzing second-use applications in more detail.

  6. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    vehicles is foreseen. The future battery manufacturers strive to meet the ever growing requirement of consumer’s demand using the battery as a primary power source of these cars. So naturally, the growing popularity of battery electric and hybrid vehicles have catapulted the car industry in the recent...... years. The products include for instance: hybrids, plug-in hybrids, battery and fuel-cell-battery electric vehicles (EV) and so forth. Undeniably, the battery is one of the most significant parts in all of those. Furthermore, stationary storage is another aspect of an emerging field. It represents next......Last few years’ governments are tightening the carbon emission regulations. Moreover, the availability of different financial assistances is available to cut the market share of the fossil fuel vehicles. Conversely, to fill up the gap of the required demand, higher penetration of electrical...

  7. Methodology for Assessing the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Degradation for Practical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery is an emerging battery technology receiving growing amount of attention due to its potential high contributions of gravimetric energy density, safety and low production cost. However, there are still some obstacles preventing their swift commercialization. Li......-S batteries are driven by different electrochemical processes than commonly used Lithium-ion batteries, which often results in their very different behavior. Therefore, the modelling and testing have to be adjusted to reflect this unique behavior to prevent possible biases. A methodology for a reference...... performance test for the Li-S batteries is proposed in this study to point out the Li-S battery features and provide guidance to users how to deal with them and possible results into standardization....

  8. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  9. Assessment of the use of vanadium redox flow batteries for energy storage and fast charging of electric vehicles in gas stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Álvaro; Brito, F.P.; Martins, Jorge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Monteiro, Vitor; Afonso, João L.; Ferreira, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A network of conveniently located fast charging stations is one of the possibilities to facilitate the adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs). This paper assesses the use of fast charging stations for EVs in conjunction with VRFBs (Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries). These batteries are charged during low electricity demand periods and then supply electricity for the fast charging of EVs during day, thus implementing a power peak shaving process. Flow batteries have unique characteristics which make them especially attractive when compared with conventional batteries, such as their ability to decouple rated power from rated capacity, as well as their greater design flexibility and nearly unlimited life. Moreover, their liquid nature allows their installation inside deactivated underground gas tanks located at gas stations, enabling a smooth transition of gas stations' business model towards the emerging electric mobility paradigm. A project of a VRFB system to fast charge EVs taking advantage of existing gas stations infrastructures is presented. An energy and cost analysis of this concept is performed, which shows that, for the conditions tested, the project is technologically and economically viable, although being highly sensitive to the investment costs and to the electricity market conditions. - Highlights: • Assessment of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery use for EV fast charge in gas stations. • This novel system proposal allows power peak shaving and use of deactivated gas tanks. • Philosophy allows seamless business transition towards the Electric Mobility paradigm. • Project is technologically and economically viable, although with long payback times. • Future Cost cuts due to technology maturation will consolidate project attractiveness.

  10. Energy Management Strategy for a Fuel Cell/ Ultracapasitor/ Battery Hybrid System for Portable Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FCs) with ultracapacitor (UC) and battery (BT) hybrid system has fast transient response compare to stand alone FCs. This hybrid system is promising candidates for environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. An energy management system design and control strategy was introduced in this study. The energy management strategy FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system model has been developed and the control strategy was programmed in the LabVIEWTM environment and implemented using National Instrument (NI) devices. The energy management strategy is able to manage the energy flow between the main power source (FCs) and auxiliary sources (UC and BT). To control the hybrid system and achieved proper performance, a controller circuit was developed with the three energy sources aligned in parallel to deliver the requested power. The developed model demonstrates the proportion power from the FC, UC and BT under various load demand. Experimental results demonstrate that FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system operated automatically with the varying load condition. The experimental results are presented; showing that the proposed strategy utilized the characteristic of both energy storage devices thus satisfies the load requirement. (author)

  11. Exploring the Effect of Increased Energy Density on the Environmental Impacts of Traction Batteries: A Comparison of Energy Optimized Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries for Mobility Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cerdas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest towards increasing the energy density of traction battery technologies has led to the emergence and diversification of battery materials. The lithium sulfur battery (LSB is in this regard a promising material for batteries due to its specific energy. However, due to its low volumetric energy density, the LSB faces challenges in mobility applications such as electric vehicles but also other transportation modes. To understand the potential environmental implication of LSB batteries, a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed. For this study, electrodes for both an NMC111 with an anode graphite and a LSB battery cell with a lithium metal foil as anode were manufactured. Data from disassembly experiments performed on a real battery system for a mid-size passenger vehicle were used to build the required life cycle inventory. The energy consumption during the use phase was calculated using a simulative approach. A set of thirteen impact categories was evaluated and characterized with the ReCiPe methodology. The results of the LCA in this study allow identification of the main sources of environmental problems as well as possible strategies to improve the environmental impact of LSB batteries. In this regard, the high requirements of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP for the processing of the sulfur cathode and the thickness of the lithium foil were identified as the most important drivers. We make recommendations for necessary further research in order to broaden the understanding concerning the potential environmental implication of the implementation of LSB batteries for mobility applications.

  12. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform "smart" charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR.

  13. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform ''smart'' charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR

  14. Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

  15. Insights on Li-TFSI diffusion in polyethylene oxide for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Nicola; Mailoa, Jonathan; Kozinsky, Boris; Robert Bosch LLC Collaboration

    Improving the energy density, safety and efficiency of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is crucial for the future of energy storage and applications such as electric cars. A key step in the research of next-generation solid polymeric electrolyte materials is understanding the diffusion mechanism of Li-ion in polyethylene oxide (PEO) in order to guide the design of electrolytes materials with high Li-ion diffusion while, ideally, suppress counter-anion movement. In this work we use computer simulations to investigate this long-standing problem at a fundamental level. The system under study has Li-TFSI concentration and PEO chain length that are representative of practical application specifications; the interactions of the molecular model are described via the PCFF+ all-atom force-field. Validation of the model is performed by comparing trends against experiments for diffusivity and conductivity as a function of salt concentration. The analysis of Li-TFSI molecular dynamics trajectories reveals that 1. for high Li-TFSI concentration a significant fraction of Li-ion is coordinated by only TFSI and consistently move less than PEO-coordinated Li-ion, 2. PEO chain motion is key in enabling Li-ion movement. Robert Bosch LLC.

  16. Mesoporous tungsten oxynitride as electrocatalyst for promoting redox reactions of vanadium redox couple and performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmi; Jo, Changshin; Youk, Sol; Shin, Hun Yong; Lee, Jinwoo; Chung, Yongjin; Kwon, Yongchai

    2018-01-01

    For enhancing the performance of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), a sluggish reaction rate issue of V2+/V3+ redox couple evaluated as the rate determining reaction should be addressed. For doing that, mesoporous tungsten oxide (m-WO3) and oxyniride (m-WON) structures are proposed as the novel catalysts, while m-WON is gained by NH3 heat treatment of m-WO3. Their specific surface area, crystal structure, surface morphology and component analysis are measured using BET, XRD, TEM and XPS, while their catalytic activity for V2+/V3+ redox reaction is electrochemically examined. As a result, the m-WON shows higher peak current, smaller peak potential difference, higher electron transfer rate constant and lower charge transfer resistance than other catalysts, like the m-WO3, WO3 nanoparticle and mesoporous carbon, proving that it is superior catalyst. Regarding the charge-discharge curve tests, the VRFB single cell employing the m-WON demonstrates high voltage and energy efficiencies, high specific capacity and low capacity loss rate. The excellent results of m-WON are due to the reasons like (i) reduced energy band gap, (ii) reaction familiar surface functional groups and (ii) greater electronegativity.

  17. Improvement of the Performance of Graphite Felt Electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Hammer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the present contribution oxidizing plasma pretreatment is used for the improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of graphite felt electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries (VRB. The influence of the working gas media on the catalytic activity and the surface morphology is demonstrated. The electrocatalytical properties of the graphite felt electrodes were examined by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that a significant improvement of the redox reaction kinetics can be achieved for all plasma modified samples using different working gasses (Ar, N2 and compressed air in an oxidizing environment. Nitrogen plasma treatment leads to the highest catalytical activities at the same operational conditions. Through a variation of the nitrogen plasma treatment duration a maximum performance at about 14 min cm-2 was observed, which is also represented by a minimum of 90 Ω in the charge transfer resistance obtained by EIS measurements. The morphology changes of the graphitized surface were followed using SEM.

  18. Influence of organic additives on electrochemical properties of the positive electrolyte for all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaojuan; Liu Suqin; Wang Nanfang; Peng Sui; He Zhangxin

    2012-01-01

    Inositol and phytic acid have been employed as organic additives of the positive electrolyte for all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) to improve its stability and electrochemical reversibility. Thermal stability of the V(V) electrolyte could be improved by both inositol and phytic acid additives. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV), steady polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte with additives is improved compared to the blank one. The diffusion coefficient of V(IV) species with inositol has been increased from 0.71–1.16 × 10 −6 to 3.11–5.15 × 10 −6 cm 2 s −1 and the exchange current density was raised from 2.8 × 10 −3 to 11.7 × 10 −3 A cm −2 . Moreover, electrochemical results suggest that the positive electrolytes with organic additives have better cycling stability. The VRFB employing positive electrolyte with inositol as additive exhibits excellent charge–discharge behavior with an average energy efficiency of 81.5% at a current density of 30 mA cm −2 . The UV–visible spectroscopy confirms that new substances in V(V) electrolyte are not formed with both inositol and phytic acid additives.

  19. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    in the formulation of the total operating cost but an additional item that takes into account inevitable battery degradation. The speed of degradation depends on battery technology and its mission profile and this effect demands for eventual replacement of the stack. Therefore it can be mapped in additional...

  20. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  1. Application of diffraction techniques in studies of lead/acid battery performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a resume of the most significant contributions to lead/acid battery research made by X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction techniques. In addition, those areas of research are defined which show the most promise in achieving improvements in the performance of the lead/acid battery. (Auth.)

  2. Standardization Work for BEV and HEV Applications: Critical Appraisal of Recent Traction Battery Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased activity in the field of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs have led to an increase in standardization work, performed by both world-wide organizations like the IEC or the ISO, as by regional and national bodies such as CEN, CENELEC, SAE or JEVA. The issues of these standards cover several topics: safety, performance and operational/dimension issues. This paper reports a brief overview of current standardization activities of lithium batteries based on IEC 62660-1/2 and ISO 12405-1/2. Furthermore, in this paper, a series of innovative test procedures for lithium-ion batteries are presented. Thanks to these tests, the general characteristics of a battery such as charge and discharge capabilities, power performances and life cycle can be determined. Then, a new approach for extracting the life cycle of a battery in function of depth of discharge has been developed.

  3. Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schimpe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility-scale battery storage systems typically consist of multiple smaller units contributing to the overall power dispatch of the system. Herein, the power distribution among these units is analyzed and optimized to operate the system with increased energy efficiency. To improve the real-life storage operation, a holistic system model for battery storage systems has been developed that enables a calculation of the energy efficiency. A utility-scale Second-Life battery storage system with a capacity of 3.3 MWh/3 MW is operated and evaluated in this work. The system is in operation for the provision of primary control reserve in combination with intraday trading for controlling the battery state of charge. The simulation model is parameterized with the system data. Results show that losses in power electronics dominate. An operational strategy improving the energy efficiency through an optimized power flow distribution within the storage system is developed. The power flow distribution strategy is based on the reduction of the power electronics losses at no-load/partial-load by minimizing their in-operation time. The simulation derived power flow distribution strategy is implemented in the real-life storage system. Field-test measurements and analysis prove the functionality of the power flow distribution strategy and reveal the reduction of the energy throughput of the units by 7%, as well as a significant reduction of energy losses in the units by 24%. The cost savings for electricity over the system’s lifetime are approximated to 4.4% of its investment cost.

  4. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  5. Contribution to the improvement of VRLA batteries for cycling applications; Contribution a l'amelioration des batteries au plomb fermees pour l'application au vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, M.

    2001-07-01

    Life time and performance of lead batteries for electric-powered vehicles have been optimized by the application of a mechanical pressure on electrodes blocks with a new separator AJS. On the positive grid, the corrosion decreases as the associated effects because AJS stabilizes mechanically the block. The use of phosphoric acid increases the high discharge currant cells performance if they are loaded by an adequate regime. This effect disappears during the cycle. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  7. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  8. Document flow segmentation for business applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Hani; Belaïd, Abdel

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a document flow supervised segmentation approach applied to real world heterogeneous documents. Our algorithm treats the flow of documents as couples of consecutive pages and studies the relationship that exists between them. At first, sets of features are extracted from the pages where we propose an approach to model the couple of pages into a single feature vector representation. This representation will be provided to a binary classifier which classifies the relationship as either segmentation or continuity. In case of segmentation, we consider that we have a complete document and the analysis of the flow continues by starting a new document. In case of continuity, the couple of pages are assimilated to the same document and the analysis continues on the flow. If there is an uncertainty on whether the relationship between the couple of pages should be classified as a continuity or segmentation, a rejection is decided and the pages analyzed until this point are considered as a "fragment". The first classification already provides good results approaching 90% on certain documents, which is high at this level of the system.

  9. Enhanced representations of lithium-ion batteries in power systems models and their effect on the valuation of energy arbitrage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Apurba; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Sepulveda, Nestor; Uckun, Canan; Vergara, Claudio; de Sisternes, Fernando J.; Dees, Dennis W.; Botterud, Audun

    2017-02-01

    We develop three novel enhanced mixed integer-linear representations of the power limit of the battery and its efficiency as a function of the charge and discharge power and the state of charge of the battery, which can be directly implemented in large-scale power systems models and solved with commercial optimization solvers. Using these battery representations, we conduct a techno-economic analysis of the performance of a 10 MWh lithium-ion battery system testing the effect of a 5-min vs. a 60-min price signal on profits using real time prices from a selected node in the MISO electricity market. Results show that models of lithium-ion batteries where the power limits and efficiency are held constant overestimate profits by 10% compared to those obtained from an enhanced representation that more closely matches the real behavior of the battery. When the battery system is exposed to a 5-min price signal, the energy arbitrage profitability improves by 60% compared to that from hourly price exposure. These results indicate that a more accurate representation of li-ion batteries as well as the market rules that govern the frequency of electricity prices can play a major role on the estimation of the value of battery technologies for power grid applications.

  10. Electrical conductivity studies on Ammonium bromide incorporated with Zwitterionic polymer blend electrolyte for battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, V.; Nallamuthu, N.; Devendran, P.; Nagarajan, E. R.; Manikandan, A.

    2017-06-01

    Solid polymer blend electrolytes are widely studied due to their extensive applications particularly in electrochemical devices. Blending polymer makes the thermal stability, higher mechanical strength and inorganic salt provide ionic charge carrier to enhance the conductivity. In these studies, 50% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 50% poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and 2.5% L-Asparagine mixed with different ratio of the Ammonium bromide (NH4Br), have been synthesized using solution casting technique. The prepared PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films have been characterized by various analytical methods such as FT-IR, XRD, impedance spectroscopy, TG-DSC and scanning electron microscopy. FT-IR, XRD and TG/DSC analysis revealed the structural and thermal behavior of the complex formation between PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br. The ionic conductivity and the dielectric properties of PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films were examined using impedance analysis. The highest ionic conductivity was found to be 2.34×10-4 S cm-1 for the m.wt. composition of 50%PVA:50%PVP:2.5%L-Asparagine:doped 0.15 g NH4Br at ambient temperature. Solid state proton battery is fabricated and the observed open circuit voltage is 1.1 V and its performance has been studied.

  11. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Carpinelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs. When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be significant. This paper deals with the optimal sizing of a BESS installed in an industrial facility to reduce electricity costs. A four-step procedure, based on Decision Theory, was used to obtain a good solution for the sizing problem, even when facing uncertainties; in fact, we think that the sizing procedure must properly take into account the unavoidable uncertainties introduced by the cost of electricity and the load demands of industrial facilities. Three approaches provided by Decision Theory were applied, and they were based on: (1 the minimization of expected cost; (2 the regret felt by the sizing engineer; and (3 a mix of (1 and (2. The numerical applications performed on an actual industrial facility provided evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

  12. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for high rate extended mission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Mark; Brown, Robert A.

    An effort has been made to develop technology for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries whose emission times will extend beyond 20 min and whose power levels will be in excess of 1800 W, using the requirements for an existing silver-zinc battery's electrical requirements as a baseline. The target design encompasses separate 31- and 76-V sections; the design goal was the reduction of battery weight to 50 percent that of the present silver/zinc cell. A cell has been achieved whose mission can be conducted without container heat losses.

  13. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery design concepts for maximized power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.

    The need for primary batteries configured to deliver maximized power has been asserted by many different procuring activities. Battery Engineering Inc. has developed some specific design concepts and mastered some specialized techniques utilized in the production of this type of power source. The batteries have been successfully bench tested during the course of virtually all of these programs, with ultimate success coming in the form of two successful test launches under the USAF Plasma Effects Decoy Program. This paper briefly discusses some of these design concepts and the rationale behind them.

  14. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The

  15. Evaluation and optimization of the performance of frame geometries for lithium-ion battery application by computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, D.; Miranda, F.; Costa, C. M.; Almeida, A. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-06-01

    Tailoring battery geometries is essential for many applications, as geometry influences the delivered capacity value. Two geometries, frame and conventional, have been studied and, for a given scan rate of 330C, the square frame shows a capacity value of 305,52 Ahm-2, which is 527 times higher than the one for the conventional geometry for a constant the area of all components.

  16. A hydrogen-ferric ion rebalance cell operating at low hydrogen concentrations for capacity restoration of iron-chromium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Zou, J.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-06-01

    To eliminate the adverse impacts of hydrogen evolution on the capacity of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) during the long-term operation and ensure the safe operation of the battery, a rebalance cell that reduces the excessive Fe(III) ions at the positive electrolyte by using the hydrogen evolved from the negative electrolyte is designed, fabricated and tested. The effects of the flow field, hydrogen concentration and H2/N2 mixture gas flow rate on the performance of the hydrogen-ferric ion rebalance cell have been investigated. Results show that: i) an interdigitated flow field based rebalance cell delivers higher limiting current densities than serpentine flow field based one does; ii) the hydrogen utilization can approach 100% at low hydrogen concentrations (≤5%); iii) the apparent exchange current density of hydrogen oxidation reaction in the rebalance cell is proportional to the square root of the hydrogen concentration at the hydrogen concentration from 1.3% to 50%; iv) a continuous rebalance process is demonstrated at the current density of 60 mA cm-2 and hydrogen concentration of 2.5%. Moreover, the cost analysis shows that the rebalance cell is just approximately 1% of an ICRFB system cost.

  17. Calendar aging of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery deployed for the grid storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Pierre; Cen, Zhaohui; López, Carmen M.; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-12-01

    The introduction of Li-ion batteries for grid applications has become evidence as the cost per kWh is continuously decreasing. Although the Li-ion battery is a mature technology for automotive applications and portable electronics, its use for stationary applications needs more validation. The Li-ion technology is considered safe enough for grid storage application, but its lifetime is generally evaluated to be around 10 years. Higher market penetration will be achieved if a longer lifespan could be demonstrated. Therefore, aging evaluation of the batteries becomes crucial. In this paper we investigated the effects of aging after a three years' standby field deployment of a 250 kW/500 kWh Li-ion battery integrated with the grid and solar farm under the harsh climate conditions of Qatar. The development of tools for acquisition and analysis of data from the battery management system (BMS) allows the assessment of the battery performance at the battery stack, string and cell levels. The analysis of the residual capacity after aging showed that the stack suffered from a low decrease of capacity, whereas some inconsistencies have been found between the strings. These inconsistencies are caused by misalignment of a small number of cells that underwent self-discharge during standby at high state of charge.

  18. An approach for estimation of optimal energy flows in battery storage devices for electric vehicles in the smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacheva Gergana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the number of the vehicle actuated with liquid fuels are settled, the count of electric vehicles is increasing. For the present moment most of them are scheduled for daily urban usage. This paper presents an analytical approach for estimation of the impact of electrical vehicle (EV battery charging on the distribution grid. Based on the EV charge profile, load curve and local distributed generation the grid nodes, the time variation of grid parameters is obtained. A set of typical load profiles of EV charging modes is studied and presented. A software implementation and a 24h case study of low voltage distribution network with EV charging devices is presented in order to illustrate the approach and the impacts of EV charging on the grid. In the current paper an approach using variable nonlinear algebraic equations for dynamic time domain analysis of the charge of the electric vehicles is presented. Based on the results, the challenges due to EV charging in distribution networks including renewable energy sources are discussed. This approach is widely applicable for various EV charging and distributed energy resources studies considering control algorithms, grid stability analysis, smart grid power management and other power system analysis problems.

  19. Modelling of a cross flow evaporator for CSP application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Franco, Alessandro; Pelagotti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ) applications. Heat transfer and pressure drop prediction methods are an important tool for design and modelling of diabatic, two-phase, shell-side flow over a horizontal plain tubes bundle for a vertical up-flow evaporator. With the objective of developing a model for a specific type of cross flow evaporator...... the available correlations for the definition of two-phase flow heat transfer, void fraction and pressure drop in connection with the operation of steam generators, focuses attention on a comparison of the results obtained using several different models resulting by different combination of correlations...

  20. A Review on Battery Charging and Discharging Control Strategies: Application to Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Banguero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage has become a fundamental component in renewable energy systems, especially those including batteries. However, in charging and discharging processes, some of the parameters are not controlled by the battery’s user. That uncontrolled working leads to aging of the batteries and a reduction of their life cycle. Therefore, it causes an early replacement. Development of control methods seeks battery protection and a longer life expectancy, thus the constant-current–constant-voltage method is mostly used. However, several studies show that charging time can be reduced by using fuzzy logic control or model predictive control. Another benefit is temperature control. This paper reviews the existing control methods used to control charging and discharging processes, focusing on their impacts on battery life. Classical and modern methods are studied together in order to find the best approach to real systems.

  1. High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy density, power density and safety requirements specified by NASA for future exploration missions....

  2. Remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As lithium-ion batteries are an efficient energy storage mechanism, their use in vehicles is increasing to support electrification : to meet increasing average mileage and decreasing greenhouse gas emission standards. Principles of environmentalism :...

  3. High performance lithium sulfur battery with novel separator membrane for space applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's human and robotic mission, the battery with extremely high specific energy (>500 Wh/kg) and long cycle life are urgently sought after in order to...

  4. An electrochemical study on the positive electrode side of the zinc–cerium hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforidis, Georgios; Berlouis, Léonard; Hall, David; Hodgson, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Elevated temperatures favoured the Ce 3+/4+ reaction on the Pt, Pt–Ir and carbon substrates. •j o increased with temperature over the range 25 °C to 60 °C for all substrates. •Non-porous carbon substrates showed higher reversibility on the Ce 3+/4+ reaction. •Surface degradation of the carbon electrodes occurred due to the high positive potentials. •The Pt–Ir coatings gave the largest j o at 60 °C and appear best suited for use as the positive electrode in the Zn–Ce RFB. -- Abstract: In this study, the electrochemical behaviour of the Ce 3+/4+ redox couple in methanesulfonic acid medium on various electrode substrates was investigated as a function of temperature. Carbon composite electrodes as well as platinum and platinum iridium coated electrodes were studied for their suitability in carrying out the Ce 3+/4+ redox reaction. Cyclic voltammetry in 0.8 mol dm −3 cerium and 4.5 mol dm −3 methanesulfonic acid solution showed that elevated temperatures favoured the Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ reaction on the various platinum and platinum–iridium coated substrates as well as on carbon composite surfaces. The latter electrodes showed better kinetics than the metal coatings but deteriorated badly under the high positive potentials required for the cerium reaction. The exchange current density (j o ), obtained through Tafel extrapolation, polarisation resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, increased with temperature over the range 25 °C to 60 °C. The Pt–Ir coatings gave the largest j o at 60 °C and appear best suited for use as the positive electrode in the Zn–Ce redox flow battery

  5. Numerical study of the effects of carbon felt electrode compression in all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyeongmin; Won, Seongyeon; Ju, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of electrode compression on VRFB are examined. • The electronic conductivity is improved when the compression is increased. • The kinetic losses are similar regardless of the electrode compression level. • The vanadium distribution is more uniform within highly compressed electrode. - Abstract: The porous carbon felt electrode is one of the major components of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). These electrodes are necessarily compressed during stack assembly to prevent liquid electrolyte leakage and diminish the interfacial contact resistance among VRFB stack components. The porous structure and properties of carbon felt electrodes have a considerable influence on the electrochemical reactions, transport features, and cell performance. Thus, a numerical study was performed herein to investigate the effects of electrode compression on the charge and discharge behavior of VRFBs. A three-dimensional, transient VRFB model developed in a previous study was employed to simulate VRFBs under two degrees of electrode compression (10% vs. 20%). The effects of electrode compression were precisely evaluated by analysis of the solid/electrolyte potential profiles, transfer current density, and vanadium concentration distributions, as well as the overall charge and discharge performance. The model predictions highlight the beneficial impact of electrode compression; the electronic conductivity of the carbon felt electrode is the main parameter improved by electrode compression, leading to reduction in ohmic loss through the electrodes. In contrast, the kinetics of the redox reactions and transport of vanadium species are not significantly altered by the degree of electrode compression (10% to 20%). This study enhances the understanding of electrode compression effects and demonstrates that the present VRFB model is a valuable tool for determining the optimal design and compression of carbon felt electrodes in VRFBs.

  6. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Application

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    2016-01-01

    Last few years’ governments are tightening the carbon emission regulations. Moreover, the availability of different financial assistances is available to cut the market share of the fossil fuel vehicles. Conversely, to fill up the gap of the required demand, higher penetration of electrical vehicles is foreseen. The future battery manufacturers strive to meet the ever growing requirement of consumer’s demand using the battery as a primary power source of these cars. So naturally, the growing ...

  7. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to simulate a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.

  9. Spent lead-acid battery recycling in China - A review and sustainable analyses on mass flow of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Xihua; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Wenwen; Cao, Guoqing; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Lead is classified to be one of the top heavy metal pollutants in China. The corresponding environmental issues especially during the management of spent lead-acid battery have already caused significant public awareness and concern. This research gives a brief overview on the recycling situation based on an investigation of the lead industry in China and also the development of technologies for spent lead-acid batteries. The main principles and research focuses of different technologies including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and greener technologies are summarized and compared. Subsequently, the circulability of lead based on the entire life cycle analyses of lead-acid battery is calculated. By considering different recycling schemes, the recycling situation of spent lead-acid battery in China can be understood semi-quantitatively. According to this research, 30% of the primary lead production can be shut down that the lead production can still ensure consecutive life cycle operation of lead-acid battery, if proper management of the spent lead-acid battery is implemented according to current lead industry situation in China. This research provides a methodology on the view of lead circulability in the whole life cycle of a specific product and is aiming to contribute more quantitative guidelines for efficient organization of lead industry in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel acid-base hybrid membrane based on amine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide and sulfonated polyimide for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Li; Sun, Qingqing; Gao, Yahui; Liu, Luntao; Shi, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel acid-base hybrid membranes (SPI/PEI-rGO) based on sulfonated polyimide (SPI) with polyethyleneimine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PEI-rGO) are prepared by a solution-casting method for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). FT-IR and XPS results prove the successful fabrication of PEI-rGO and SPI/PEI-rGO hybrid membranes, which show a dense and homogeneous structure observed by SEM. The physicochemical properties such as water uptake, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability are well controlled by the incorporated PEI-rGO fillers. The interfacial-formed acid-base pairs between PEI-rGO and SPI matrix effectively reduce the swelling ratio and vanadium ion permeability, increasing the stability performance of the hybrid membranes. SPI/PEI-rGO-2 hybrid membrane exhibits a higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 95%) and energy efficiency (EE, 75.6%) at 40 mA cm −2 , as compared with Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 91% and EE, 66.8%). The self-discharge time of the VRB with SPI/PEI-rGO-2 hybrid membrane (80 h) is longer than that of Nafion 117 membrane (26 h), demonstrating the excellent blocking ability for vanadium ion. After 100 charge-discharge cycles, SPI/PEI-rGO-2 membrane exhibits the good stability under strong oxidizing and acid condition, proving that SPI/PEI-rGO acid-base hybrid membranes could be used as the promising candidates for VRB applications

  11. Evaluating the trade-off between mechanical and electrochemical performance of separators for lithium-ion batteries: Methodology and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaimer, Martin; Breitfuß, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang; Heindl, Simon F.; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Steffan, Hermann; Wilkening, Martin; Hennige, Volker; Tatschl, Reinhard; Geier, Alexander; Schramm, Christian; Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are in widespread use in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Besides features like energy density, cost, lifetime, and recyclability the safety of a battery system is of prime importance. The separator material impacts all these properties and requires therefore an informed selection. The interplay between the mechanical and electrochemical properties as key selection criteria is investigated. Mechanical properties were investigated using tensile and puncture penetration tests at abuse relevant conditions. To investigate the electrochemical performance in terms of effective conductivity a method based on impedance spectroscopy was introduced. This methodology is applied to evaluate ten commercial separators which allows for a trade-off analysis of mechanical versus electrochemical performance. Based on the results, and in combination with other factors, this offers an effective approach to select suitable separators for automotive applications.

  12. Novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends for battery separators in lithium-ion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.M.; Nunes-Pereira, J.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Silva, M.M.; Ribelles, J.L. Gomez; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► New P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO polymer blends were prepared for battery separator. ► The porosity and hydrophilicity degree are tailored within this blend. ► Ionic conductivity depends on PEO presence and is stable with temperature. ► High ionic conductivity of 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 blend. -- Abstract: Polymer blends based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide), P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO for Li-ion battery separator applications have been prepared through solvent casting technique. The microstructure, hydrophilicity and electrolyte uptake strongly depend on PEO content within the blend. The best value of ionic conductivity at room temperature was 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 membrane. The membranes are electrochemically stable

  13. Digital Simulation of Closed Loop Zvs-Zcs Bidirectional Dc-Dc Converter for Fuel Cell and Battery Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Subrahmanya Kumar Bhajana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A closed loop ZVS-ZCS bidirectional dc-dc converter is modeled and appropriate digital simulations are provided. With the ZVS-ZCS concept, the MATLAB simulation results of application to a fuel cell and battery application have been obtained whenever the input voltage exceeds the given 24V, at that time the load voltage will change from 180V to 230V. But due to this usage the load is disturbed and there is instability in the model. Using closed loop the output voltage is stabilized.

  14. Electrochemical Properties of Boron-Doped Fullerene Derivatives for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parveen; Kim, Ki Chul; Jang, Seung Soon

    2017-12-07

    The high electron affinity of fullerene C 60 coupled with the rich chemistry of carbon makes it a promising material for cathode applications in lithium-ion batteries. Since boron has one electron less than carbon, the presence of boron on C 60 cages is expected to generate electron deficiency in C 60 , and thereby to enhance its electron affinity. By using density functional theory (DFT), we studied the redox potentials and electronic properties of C 60 and C 59 B. We have found that doping C 60 with one boron atom results in a substantial increase in redox potential from 2.462 V to 3.709 V, which was attributed to the formation of an open shell system. We also investigated the redox and electronic properties of C 59 B functionalized with various redox-active oxygen containing functional groups (OCFGs). For the combination of functionalization with OCFGs and boron doping, it is found that the enhancement of redox potential is reduced, which is mainly attributed to the open shell structure being changed to a closed-shell one. Nevertheless, the redox potentials are still higher than that of pristine C 60 . From the observation that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of closed-shell OCFG- functionalized C 59 B is correlated well with the redox potential, it was confirmed that the spin state is crucial to be considered to understand the relationship between electronic structure and redox properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synergistic bifunctional catalyst design based on perovskite oxide nanoparticles and intertwined carbon nanotubes for rechargeable zinc-air battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Hey Woong; Park, Moon Gyu; Ismayilov, Vugar; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-01-14

    Advanced morphology of intertwined core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (IT-CCBC) is introduced where perovskite lanthanum nickel oxide nanoparticles (LaNiO3 NP) are encapsulated by high surface area network of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) to produce highly active and durable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications. The unique composite morphology of IT-CCBC not only enhances the charge transport property by providing rapid electron-conduction pathway but also facilitates in diffusion of hydroxyl and oxygen reactants through the highly porous framework. Confirmed by electrochemical half-cell testing, IT-CCBC in fact exhibits very strong synergy between LaNiO3 NP and NCNT demonstrating bifunctionality with significantly improved catalytic activities of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Furthermore, when compared to the state-of-art catalysts, IT-CCBC outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C in terms of ORR and OER, respectively, and shows improved electrochemical stability compared to them after cycle degradation testing. The practicality of the catalyst is corroborated by testing in a realistic rechargeable zinc-air battery utilizing atmospheric air in ambient conditions, where IT-CCBC demonstrates superior charge and discharge voltages and long-term cycle stability with virtually no battery voltage fading. These improved electrochemical properties of the catalyst are attributed to the nanosized dimensions of LaNiO3 NP controlled by simple hydrothermal technique, which enables prolific growth of and encapsulation by highly porous NCNT network. The excellent electrochemical results presented in this study highlight IT-CCBC as highly efficient and commercially viable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

  16. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Erik B., E-mail: ejohnson@rmdinc.com [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Whitney, Chad [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Christian, James F. [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As {sup 6}Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for {sup 6}Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery

  17. Ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries. Performances and applications; Microaccumulateurs ultra minces au lithium. Performances et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.; Terrat, J.P. [Hydromecanique et frottement (HEF), 42 - Andrezieux Boutheon (France); Levasseur, A.; Vinatier, P.; Meunier, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee et Physique de Bordeaux

    1996-12-31

    This short paper (abstract) describes the characteristics and performances of prototypes of ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries (thickness < 0.2 mm) which can be incorporated into microelectronic circuits. (J.S.)

  18. Cobalt-free nickel–metal hydride battery for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasaki, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Kazuya; Saito, Makoto; Fukunaga, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Tsutomu; Sakai, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The development of RE 0.9 Mg 0.1 Ni 3.9 Al 0.2 alloy (alloy no. 1) electrode. ► Good high-rate discharge using alloy no. 1 as negative electrode. ► Effective self-discharge suppression using alloy no. 1 as negative electrode. ► Adequate cycling durability using carbon-coated Ni(OH) 2 as positive electrode. ► Good high-rate characteristics in a large-sized Co-free Ni–MH battery. -- Abstract: A cobalt-free (Co-free) RE 0.9 Mg 0.1 Ni 3.9 Al 0.2 alloy (RE: rare earth) was prepared for use in a nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery. The use of the alloy as the negative electrode of the Ni–MH battery effectively improved the high-rate discharge and suppressed the self-discharge compared to the conventional AB 5 -type alloy. Moreover, carbon-coated Ni(OH) 2 has been developed to produce a Co-free Ni–MH battery. This material exhibits a capacity retention comparable to that of the conventional CoOOH-coated Ni(OH) 2 . A 205 A h Co-free Ni–MH battery cell was constructed using the Co-free materials, and this cell exhibited a good high-rate discharge performance

  19. Applications the Lagrangian description in aperiodic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carolina; Mancho, Ana Maria

    2012-11-01

    We use several recently developed Lagrangian tools for describing transport in general aperiodic flows. In our approach the first step is based in a Lagrangian descriptor (the so called function M). It measures the length of particle trajectories on the ocean surface over a given interval of time. We describe its output over satellite altimetry data on the Kuroshio current. The technique is combined with the direct computation of manifolds of Distinguished Hyperbolic trajectories and a very detailed description of transport is achieved across an eddy and a jet on the Kuroshio current,. A second velocity data set is examined with the M function tool. These are obtained from the HYCOM project on the Gulf of Mexico during the time of the oil-spill. We have identified underlying Lagrangian structures and dynamics. We acknowledge to the hospitality of the university of Delaware and the assistance of Bruce Lipphardt and Helga Huntley in accessing the model data sets. We acknowledge to the grants: UPM-AL12-PAC-09, Becas de Movilidad de Caja Madrid 2011, MTM2011-26696 and ILINK-0145.

  20. Radioisotope tracer application in surface and groundwater flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monev, E.

    1983-01-01

    The ''peak to peak'' method for measurement of water flow with the use of radioactive tracer was investigated. The theoretical basis for this method has been established. The experiments in the open channel have shown the applicability of the method. Groundwater flow was studied by injection of radioactive tracer into the bore-hole followed by gamma-logging in three different time intervals. Interpretation of gamma lows in terms of filtration velocity in various depths proved to be possible

  1. Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Jing Tang

    2015-01-01

    This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...

  2. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  3. The STABALID project: Risk analysis of stationary Li-ion batteries for power system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, F.J.; Carvalho, L.; Costa, I.C.; Iria, J.P.; Bodet, J.-M.; Jacinto, G.; Lecocq, A.; Roessner, J.; Caillard, B.; Salvi, O.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a risk analysis performed to stationary Li-ion batteries within the framework of the STABALID project. The risk analysis had as main objective analysing the variety of hazards and dangerous situations that might be experienced by the battery during its life cycle and providing useful information on how to prevent or manage those undesired events. The first task of the risk analysis was the identification of all the hazards (or risks) that may arise during the battery life cycle. Afterwards, the hazards identified were mapped in the different stages of the battery life cycle and two analyses were performed for each stage: an internal problem analysis and an external peril analysis. For both, the dangerous phenomena and the undesirable events resulting from each hazard was evaluated in terms of probability of occurrence and severity. Then, a risk assessment was carried out according to a predefined risk matrix and a preliminary set of risk mitigation measures were proposed to reduce their probability of occurrence and/or their severity level. The results obtained show that it is possible to reduce the probability of occurrence/severity of all the risks associated to the battery life cycle to acceptable or tolerable levels. - Highlights: • Methodology for a detailed risk analysis of stationary Li-ion batteries. • Various hazards and dangerous situations are analysed with high detail. • Useful information on how to prevent or manage the undesired events is provided. • Measures to reduce probability of occurrence/severity of the risks are presented

  4. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  5. A High Efficiency Li-Ion Battery LDO-Based Charger for Portable Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ziadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high efficiency Li-ion battery LDO-based charger IC which adopted a three-mode control: trickle constant current, fast constant current, and constant voltage modes. The criteria of the proposed Li-ion battery charger, including high accuracy, high efficiency, and low size area, are of high importance. The simulation results provide the trickle current of 116 mA, maximum charging current of 448 mA, and charging voltage of 4.21 V at the power supply of 4.8–5 V, using 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  6. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  7. Development and Application of a Fuzzy Control System for a Lead-Acid Battery Bank Connected to a DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and application of a fuzzy control system (FCS for the control of the charge and discharge process for a bank of batteries connected to a DC microgrid (DC-MG. The DC-MG runs on a maximum power of 1 kW with a 190 V DC bus using two photovoltaic systems of 0.6 kW each, a 1 kW bidirectional DC-AC converter to interconnect the DC-MG with the grid, a bank of 115 Ah to 120 V lead-acid batteries, and a general management system used to define the operating status of the FCS. This FCS uses a multiplexed fuzzy controller, normalizing the controller’s inputs and outputs in each operating status. The design of the fuzzy controller is based on a Mamdani inference system with AND-type fuzzy rules. The input and output variables have two trapezoidal membership functions and three triangular membership functions. LabVIEW and the NI myRIO-1900 embedded design device were used to implement the FCS. Results show the stability of the DC bus of the microgrid when the bank of batteries is in the charging and discharging process, with the bus stabilized in a range of 190 V ± 5%, thus demonstrating short response times to perturbations considering the microgrid’s response dynamics.

  8. Charge Equalization Controller Algorithm for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC–DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC–DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.

  9. Complex analysis with applications to flows and fields

    CERN Document Server

    Braga da Costa Campos, Luis Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Complex Analysis with Applications to Flows and Fields presents the theory of functions of a complex variable, from the complex plane to the calculus of residues to power series to conformal mapping. The book explores numerous physical and engineering applications concerning potential flows, the gravity field, electro- and magnetostatics, steady heat conduction, and other problems. It provides the mathematical results to sufficiently justify the solution of these problems, eliminating the need to consult external references.The book is conveniently divided into four parts. In each part, the ma

  10. Vanadium Flow Battery Electrolyte Synthesis via Chemical Reduction of V2O5 in Aqueous HCl and H2SO4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Leo J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pratt, Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Staiger, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Rachel Irene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Travis Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chalamala, Babu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soundappan, Thiagarajan [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tiwari, Monika [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Subarmanian, Venkat R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We report a simple method to synthesize V 4+ (VO 2+ ) electrolytes as feedstock for all- vanadium redox flow batteries (RFB). By dissolving V 2 O 5 in aqueous HCl and H 2 SO 4 , subsequently adding glycerol as a reducing agent, we have demonstrated an inexpensive route for electrolyte synthesis to concentrations >2.5 M V 4+ (VO 2+ ). Electrochemical analysis and testing of laboratory scale RFB demonstrate improved thermal stability across a wider temperature range (-10-65 degC) for V 4+ (VO 2+ ) electrolytes in HCl compared to in H 2 SO 4 electrolytes.

  11. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  12. Sodium-ion hybrid electrolyte battery for sustainable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S. T.; Abirami, Mari; Kim, Junsoo; Go, Wooseok; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Youngsik

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable, safe, and low-cost energy storage systems are essential for large-scale electrical energy storage. Herein, we report a sodium (Na)-ion hybrid electrolyte battery with a replaceable cathode system, which is separated from the Na metal anode by a Na superionic conducting ceramic. By using a fast Na-ion-intercalating nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode along with an eco-friendly seawater catholyte, we demonstrate good cycling performance with an average discharge voltage of 3.4 V and capacity retention >80% over 100 cycles and >60% over 200 cycle. Remarkably, such high capacity retention is observed for both the initial as well as replaced cathodes. Moreover, a Na-metal-free hybrid electrolyte battery containing hard carbon as the anode exhibits an energy density of ∼146 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 10 mA g-1, which is comparable to that of lead-acid batteries and much higher than that of conventional aqueous Na-ion batteries. These results pave the way for further advances in sustainable energy storage technology.

  13. An Acausal Li-Ion Battery Pack Model for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotub Uddin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel acausal and reconfigurable battery pack model is presented. The model structure adopted for the battery cell is based on an equivalent circuit representation. The circuit elements are modified to take account of both hysteresis and diffusion limitation. The latter is known to be a nonlinear function of large operating currents or long operating times. It is shown that the integration of a current dependent time constant within the cell model better emulates the solid diffusional dynamics of lithium intercalation into the active material under large electrical loads. The advantages of an acausal modeling approach, when scaling-up individual cell models into a complete battery system are also presented. Particular consideration is given to emulating the impact of cell to cell variations on pack performance. Using statistical analysis of battery tests, cell model parameter variations are characterized and quantified. The cell and scaled-up pack model are parameterized for a number of commercially available cell formats, energy capacities and chemistries. The new models are validated using transient, real-world, electrical data measured from an electric vehicle (EV operating within an urban environment.

  14. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  15. Synthesis and characterization of CMC from water hyacinth for lithium-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Sahrul; Susanty, Riveli, Nowo; Suroto, Bambang Joko; Rahayu, Iman

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the most dominating power supply on the mobile electronics market are rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries. This is because of a higher energy density and longer lifetime compared to similar rechargeable battery systems. One of the components that determine the performance of a lithium ion battery is the binder material, whether at the anode or the cathode. In commercial batteries, the material used as the binder is Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF), with n-methyl-2-phyrrolidone (NMP) as the solvent. Both are synthetic materials that are expensive, toxic and harmful to the environment. An alternative binder material for lithium-ion battery electrodes is CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) in a water solvent. CMC is cheaper than PVDF, non-toxic and more environmental friendly. CMC can be synthesized from several types of plants, such as water hyacinth, which is a weed plant with high cellulose content. The synthesis of CMC consists of three main steps, namely 1) the isolation process from water hyacinth, 2) the alkalization and carboxymethylation process and 3) the purification process to obtain CMC in high purity. FTIR characterization of the CMC shows five region of absorption bands. The bands in the region 1330-1400 cm-1 are due to symmetrical deformations of CH2 and OH groups. The ether bonds in CMC occur in the fingerprint region of 1250-1060 cm-1. The presence of new and strong absorption band around 1600 cm-1 is confirmed to the stretching vibration of the carboxyl group (COO-), while the one around 1415 cm-1 is assigned to carboxyl groups as it salts. The broad absorption band above 3400 cm-1 is due to the stretching frequency of the hydroxyl group (-OH). Purity test on three samples (CMC mesh-100, CMC mesh-60 and CMC, mesh-40) gives purity values of 99.89%, 99.99% and 99.89%, respectively. This proves that CMC have actually been formed with high purity.

  16. Insights into the Effect of Structural Heterogeneity in Carbonized Electrospun Fibrous Mats for Flow Battery Electrodes by X-Ray Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Matt D R; Jervis, Rhodri; Brett, Dan; Shearing, Paul R; Gostick, Jeff T

    2018-03-01

    Electrospun custom made flow battery electrodes are imaged in 3D using X-ray computed tomography. A variety of computational methods and simulations are applied to the images to determine properties including the porosity, fiber size, and pore size distributions as well as the material permeability and flow distributions. The simulations are performed on materials before and after carbonization to determine the effect it has in the internal microstructure and material properties. It is found that the deposited fiber size is constantly changing throughout the electrospinning process. The results also show that the surfaces of the fibrous material are the most severely altered during carbonization and that the rest of the material remained intact. Pressure driven flow is modeled using the lattice Boltzmann method and excellent agreement with experimental results is found. The simulations coupled with the material analysis also demonstrate the highly heterogeneous nature of the flow. Most of the flow is concentrated to regions with high porosity while regions with low porosity shield other pores and starve them of flow. The importance of imaging these materials in 3D is highlighted throughout. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes and their catalysis for fuel cell and rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seung Hyo; Kwon, Choah; Hwang, Jeemin; Ohsaka, Takeo; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Tae-Young; Yoon, Young-Gi; Chen, Zhongwei; Seo, Min Ho; Han, Byungchan

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes (N-fullerene) as non-precious catalysts, which are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and thus applicable for energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air battery systems. We screen the best N-fullerene catalyst at the nitrogen doping level of 10 at%, not at the previously known doping level of 5 or 20 at% for graphene. We identify that the compressive surface strain induced by doped nitrogen plays a key role in the fine-tuning of catalytic activity.

  18. The fractional Boussinesq equation of groundwater flow and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ninghu

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a set of fractional Boussinesq equations (fBEs) for groundwater flow in confined and unconfined aquifers and demonstrates the application of one of the fBEs for groundwater discharges known as recession curves. The fBEs are formulated with two-term distributed fractional orders in time and symmetrical fractional derivatives (SFD) in space applicable to both confined and unconfined aquifers. The SFD in theory consists of the forward fractional derivative (FFD) and the backward fractional derivative (BFD). The FFD represents the forward movement of water along the direction of mainstream flow while the BFD accounts for the backward motion of water in the direction opposite to the mainstream flow. The backward flow at the pore level can be referred to as the micro-scale backwater effect. The analogue of the backwater effect on a micro-scale using the BFD coincides with the wandering processes based on the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) theory which results in the fractional governing equation. With the analytical solutions of the fBE for given initial and boundary conditions of the first type for a finite depth, a set of formulae for groundwater recession has been derived using approximate solutions of the fBE. The examples of the applications of the recession curves are graphically illustrated and the effects of the orders of fractional derivatives on the geometry of the flow curves examined.

  19. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-ion Battery Packs using Phase Change Materials (PCM) and Fluid Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the maximum temperature in LiFePO4 battery cells. The model is constructed by coupling a one-dimensional electro-chemical model with a two-dimensional thermal model and fluid...

  20. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  1. Flow analysis with chemiluminescence detection: Recent advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Irina I; Vakh, Christina S; Bulatov, Andrey V; Worsfold, Paul J

    2018-03-01

    This article highlights the most important developments in flow analysis with chemiluminescence (CL) detection, describing different flow systems that are compatible with CL detection, detector designs, commonly applied CL reactions and approaches to sample treatment. Recent applications of flow analysis with CL detection (focusing on outputs published since 2010) are also presented. Applications are classified by sample matrix, covering foods and beverages, environmental matrices, pharmaceuticals and biological fluids. Comprehensive tables are provided for each area, listing the specific sample matrix, CL reaction used, linear range, limit of detection and sample treatment for each analyte. Finally, recent and emerging trends in the field are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mathematical annuity models application in cash flow analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical annuity models application in cash flow analysis. ... We also compare the cost efficiency between Amortisation and Sinking fund loan repayment as prevalent in financial institutions. Keywords: Annuity, Amortisation, Sinking Fund, Present and Future Value Annuity, Maturity date and Redemption value.

  3. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S.

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  4. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  5. Performance evaluation of thermally treated graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery and their four-point single cell characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazúr, P.; Mrlík, J.; Beneš, J.; Pocedič, J.; Vrána, J.; Dundálek, J.; Kosek, J.

    2018-03-01

    In our contribution we study the electrocatalytic effect of oxygen functionalization of thermally treated graphite felt on kinetics of electrode reactions of vanadium redox flow battery. Chemical and morphological changes of the felts are analysed by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques. A complex method four-point method is developed and employed for characterization of the felts in a laboratory single-cell. The method is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and load curves measurements of positive and negative half-cells using platinum wire pseudo-reference electrodes. The distribution of ohmic and faradaic losses within a single-cell is evaluated for both symmetric and asymmetric electrode set-up with respect to the treatment conditions. Positive effect of oxygen functionalization is observed only for negative electrode, whereas kinetics of positive electrode reaction is almost unaffected by the treatment. This is in a contradiction to the results of typically employed cyclovoltammetric characterization which indicate that both electrodes are enhanced by the treatment to a similar extent. The developed four-point characterization method can be further used e.g., for the component screening and in-situ durability studies on single-cell scale redox flow batteries of various chemistries.

  6. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  7. Characterization of lithium batteries for application to photovoltaic systems; Caracterizacion de bater@as de litio para aplicaci@n a sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman Ortiz, S.

    2015-07-01

    This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)

  8. Practical Application Limits of Fuel Cells and Batteries for Zero Emission Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnehan, John J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Innovation Dept.; Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Innovation Dept.

    2017-11-01

    Batteries and hydrogen fuel cells provide zero emission power at the point of use. They are studied as an alternative powerplant for maritime vessels by considering 14 case studies of various ship sizes and routes varying from small passenger vessels to the largest cargo ships. The method used was to compare the mass and volume of the required zero emission solution to the available mass and volume on an existing vessel considering its current engine and fuel storage systems. The results show that it is practically feasible to consider these zero emission technologies for most vessels in the world's fleet. Hydrogen fuel cells proved to be the most capable while battery systems showed an advantage for high power, short duration missions. The results provide a guide to ship designers to determine the most suitable types of zero emission powerplants to fit a ship based on its size and energy requirements.

  9. Musical cognition in Alzheimer's disease: application of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Rendace, Lidia; Parisi, Francesco; D'Antonio, Fabrizia; Imbriano, Letizia; de Lena, Carlo; Trebbastoni, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess certain musical abilities in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 30 healthy controls by using the complete version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This battery evaluates melodic (scale, contour, and interval) and temporal (rhythm and meter) perception of music and musical memory. We found that altered musical processing is a common feature in AD. Despite that, AD subjects show partially spared abilities for temporal organization of music, though not for melodic perception and musical memory. This peculiar dysfunctional pattern could depend on the neurodegenerative involvement of some specific areas for music perception and memory in the brains of AD patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of additional musical tests like the MBEA on larger samples to confirm our preliminary data. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Improvement of the electrochemical behaviour of lead-acid batteries for a photovoltaic application; Amelioration du comportement electrochimique des batteries plomb-acide a usage photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, G.

    2003-10-01

    In an isolated photovoltaic system, the accumulator constitutes the weak point of the device and remains the element to be made reliable. Indeed, for this type of application, the main difficulty lies in the maintenance of a good charge capacity of the battery whatever the conditions of sunshine and use may be. This requirement is closely related to the electric conduction properties of the lead-alloy/PAM interface, which changes with the charge level of the accumulator. The alloys chosen for the positive electrodes making are ternary Pb-Ca-Sn systems which play the role of both collector of current and support of the PAM. At ambient temperature, these alloys are prone to metallurgical transformations. The transition from the 'aged' structure to the 'averaged' one is followed by a drop of the mechanical properties and by a reduction of the corrosion resistance whatever the charge conditions are. The use of a heat treatment, resulting from TTT curves, makes possible to durably maintain alloy in an aged state in which the best behaviors are observed. The optimization of the tin content in alloy is of great importance here, since it was established that the effect of this element, associated to the heat treatment, allows to improve the properties of material more, even during tests in temperature. Moreover, the observed corrosion behavior of alloys shows that tin plays an essential role in formation and growth of the lead oxides, but also in the adherence properties of the corrosion layer during the tests of cycling. The addition of further element into alloys, such as silver or rare earths, provided an efficient solution to the adherence problems underlined before. (author)

  11. A Survey of the Use of Ceramics in Battery and Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    weight materials such as aluminum . Another approach is to use an "inside-out" design in which the sulfur is contained within the electrolyte tube...a dispersed current collector, and the (A3) cathodic reactant is a metal chloride such as antimony trichloride . With this choice of materials...batteries, and in the cells built at Argonne National Laboratory the calcium was alloyed with aluminum or silicon, paralleling the technology developed

  12. Low temperature sulfur and sodium metal battery for grid-scale energy storage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Wang, Dongdong

    2018-03-27

    A re-chargeable battery comprising a non-dendrite forming sodium (Na)/potassium (K) liquid metal alloy anode, a sulfur and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) conductive polymer composite cathode, a polyethyleneoxide (PEO) solid electrolyte, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the PEO solid electrolyte; and a cell housing, wherein the anode, cathode, and electrolyte are assembled into the cell housing with the PEO solid electrolyte disposed between the cathode and anode.

  13. The Zebra Battery: a South African contender for electric vehicle application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coertzer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The Zebra battery is one of the most promising power sources for electric vehicles which might be on sale before the year 2000. It is a South African development which started at the CSIR and is at present jointly managed by the Anglo American Corpora­tion of S.A. and the German company A.E.G. The chemical reaction converts common salt and nickel to nickel chloride and sodium during the charging phase.

  14. Multisource and Battery-free Energy Harvesting Architecture for Aeronautics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhecke, Claude; Assouère, Laurent; Wang, Anqing; Durand-Estèbe, Paul; Caignet, Fabrice; Dilhac, Jean-Marie; Bafleur, Marise

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We suggest an innovative architecture for an efficient energy generator devoted to the powering of a wireless sensor network deployed for Aircraft Health Monitoring. This battery-free generator captures energy from its environment (transient thermal gradients as a main source, and vibrations as a secondary source allowing early biasing of the generator) and stores this energy in ultracapacitors. In this way, this multi-source architecture benefits from the synergy betw...

  15. Optimal Sizing of Battery Storage Systems for Industrial Applications when Uncertainties Exist

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Carpinelli; Anna Rita di Fazio; Shahab Khormali; Fabio Mottola

    2014-01-01

    Demand response (DR) can be very useful for an industrial facility, since it allows noticeable reductions in the electricity bill due to the significant value of energy demand. Although most industrial processes have stringent constraints in terms of hourly active power, DR only becomes attractive when performed with the contemporaneous use of battery energy storage systems (BESSs). When this option is used, an optimal sizing of BESSs is desirable, because the investment costs can be signific...

  16. Simulation of Ni-MH Batteries via an Equivalent Circuit Model for Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance measurement was conducted at the entire cell level for studying of the Ni-MH rechargeable batteries. An improved equivalent circuit model considering diffusion process is proposed for simulation of battery impedance data at different charge input levels. The cell capacity decay was diagnosed by analyzing the ohmic resistance, activation resistance, and mass transfer resistance of the Ni-MH cells with degraded capacity. The capacity deterioration of this type, Ni-MH cell, is considered in relation to the change of activation resistance of the nickel positive electrodes. Based on the report and surface analysis obtained from the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the composition formula of metal-hydride electrodes can be closely documented as the AB5 type alloy and the “A” elements are recognized as lanthanum (La and cerium (Ce. The capacity decay of the Ni-MH cell is potentially initiated due to starved electrolyte for the electrochemical reaction of active materials inside the Ni-MH battery, and the discharge product of Ni(OH2 at low state-of-charge level is anticipated to have more impeding effects on electrode kinetic process for higher power output and efficient energy delivery.

  17. Environmental Emissions from Chemical Etching Synthesis of Silicon Nanotube for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanotubes (SiNTs have been researched as a promising anode material to replace graphite in next-generation lithium ion batteries. Chemical etching synthesis of SiNTs is a simple, controllable and scalable process for SiNT fabrication, but the environmental emissions are of grave concern. In this paper, the process emissions from chemical etching synthesis of SiNTs as anode for lithium ion batteries is studied through experimental techniques, considering the categories of aqueous wastes, gaseous emissions, aqueous nano-particle emissions, and gaseous aerosol emissions. The synthesized SiNTs are measured at 10 μm length and 1–2.2 μm diameter, and can maintain a specific capacity of over 800 mAh/g after 100 cycles in battery testing. In aqueous waste, the chemical compositions of all elements participating in the chemical etching are experimentally determined, with AgNO3 and Co(NO32 identified as the major pollutants. The only gaseous emission generated from the chemical etching synthesis process is H2, with 0.0088 ± 0.0002 mol H2 generated to produce 1.0 mg SiNTs. The aqueous nanoparticle sizes are found to be between 250 nm and 1540 nm. A large number of aerosol nanoparticle emissions of up to 2.96 × 107 particles/cm3 are detected through in situ experimental measurement.

  18. Optimization of Microporous Carbon Structures for Lithium-Sulfur Battery Applications in Carbonate-Based Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Lu, Yue; Li, Xiaona; Liang, Jianwen; Huang, Tao; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2017-03-01

    Developing appropriate sulfur cathode materials in carbonate-based electrolyte is an important research subject for lithium-sulfur batteries. Although several microporous carbon materials as host for sulfur reveal the effect, methods for producing microporous carbon are neither easy nor well controllable. Moreover, due to the complexity and limitation of microporous carbon in their fabrication process, there has been rare investigation of influence on electrochemical behavior in the carbonate-based electrolyte for lithium-sulfur batteries by tuning different micropore size(0-2 nm) of carbon host. Here, we demonstrate an immediate carbonization process, self-activation strategy, which can produce microporous carbon for a sulfur host from alkali-complexes. Besides, by changing different alkali-ion in the previous complex, the obtained microporous carbon exhibits a major portion of ultramicropore (structure of the host material plays a vital role in confining sulfur molecule. When evaluated as cathode materials in a carbonate-based electrolyte for Li-S batteries, such microporous carbon/sulfur composite can provide high reversible capacity, cycling stability and good rate capability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Adaptive Passivity-Based Control of PEM Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power Source for Stand-Alone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALANTAR, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a DC hybrid power source composed of PEM fuel cell as main source, Li-ion battery storage as transient power source and their power electronic interfacing is modelled based on Euler-Lagrange framework. Subsequently, adaptive passivity-based controllers are synthesized using the energy shaping and damping injection technique. Local asymptotic stability is insured as well. In addition, the power management system is designed in order to manage power flow between components. Evaluation of the proposed system and simulation of the hybrid system are accomplished using MATLAB/Simulink. Afterwards, linear PI controllers are provided for the purpose of comparison with proposed controllers responses. The results show that the outputs of hybrid system based on adaptive passivity-based controllers have a good tracking response, low overshoot, short settling time and zero steady-state error. The comparison of results demonstrates the robustness of the proposed controllers for reference DC voltage and resistive load changes.

  20. Dynamic NMR studies of polymer electrolyte materials for application to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfan, Amish N.

    This dissertation investigates the structural and dynamical properties of polymer electrolyte materials for applications to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used to characterize these materials. NMR aids in understanding the local environments of nuclei and the mobility of a molecular/ionic species. Five research projects were carried out, and they have been outlined in this work. NASA has developed rod-coil block copolymers for use as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The copolymers exhibit a microphase separation within their structure leading to the formation of ionically conducting channels. We studied ion transport properties of the copolymers, and determined the predominant mechanism for transport to occur in the amorphous phase. Seven gel polymer electrolytes, each containing a mixture of LiBETI salt and organic solvents, were studied. Two of them incorporated BMI (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts. BMI had been thought to enhance ion mobility. However, the BMI component was observed to restrict ion mobility. Gel polymer electrolytes containing LiTFSI salt and P13TFSI ionic liquid with or without the inclusion of ethylene carbonate (EC) were studied for application to lithium metal/air batteries, which have high theoretical energy densities. The addition of EC was found to improve lithium ion transport. The gels with EC therefore prove to be favorable for use as electrolytes in lithium metal/air batteries. Highly sulfonated poly(arylenethioethersulfone) (SPTES) membranes were examined for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) as an alternative to the Nafion membrane. DMFCs use methanol as a fuel instead of reformed hydrogen as in conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Compared to Nafion, the SPTES membranes were shown to retain water better at high temperatures and yield lower methanol diffusion. SPTES membranes with the

  1. Assembling metal oxide nanocrystals into dense, hollow, porous nanoparticles for lithium-ion and lithium-oxygen battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jun; Wu, Yingqiang; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Joong Kee; Zhao, Fengyu; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-10-01

    New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP nanoparticles preserve the intriguing properties of nanocrystals and possess desirable surface area and pore volume that enhance the active surface, which ultimately benefits applications such as lithium-ion batteries. The DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles demonstrated an enhanced capacity of 1168 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1vs. 590 mA h g-1 of powders and stable cycling performance greater than 250 cycles when used as an anode material. Most importantly, the electrochemical performance of DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles in a lithium-O2 battery was also investigated for the first time. A low charge potential of ~4.0 V, a high discharge voltage near 2.74 V and a long cycle ability greater than 100 cycles at a delivered capacity of 2000 mA h g-1 (current density, 200 mA g-1) were observed. The performances were considerably improved compared to recent results of mesoporous Co3O4, Co3O4 nanoparticles and a composite of Co3O4/RGO and Co3O4/Pd. Therefore, it would be promising to investigate such properties of DHP nanoparticles or other hollow metal (oxide) particles for the popular lithium-air battery.New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP

  2. Application of non-aqueous solvents to batteries. I Physicochemical properties of propionitrile/water two-phase solvent relevant to zinc-bromine batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; White, K.; Parker, A. J.

    1983-11-01

    The properties of bromine/propionitrile solution are investigated with a view to its use as an electrolyte in zinc-bromine batteries which use circulating electrolyte. The solution, which forms a two-phase system with water, has higher conductivity than the oils formed by complexation of bromine with organic salts such as N,N-methoxymethyl methylpiperidinium bromide and N,N-ethyl methylmorpholinium bromide. The activity of bromine in the aqueous phase of the bromine-propionitrile/water, two-phase system is very low; thus, coulombic efficiencies greater than 85 percent are achieved. Zinc-bromine batteries containing this solvent system show good charge/discharge characteristics.

  3. RADIOGRAPHY IN THE FIELD: ASSESSING A LIGHTWEIGHT, HANDHELD, BATTERY-POWERED DENTISTRY UNIT FOR FIELD DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Vielgrader, Hanna; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Walzer, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Radiography units are not used commonly in wildlife medicine field settings, primarily because of their weight and requirement for a power supply. In this study, a portable, battery-powered, and lightweight radiography unit, originally developed for dentistry, was assessed for its potential field applications. Radiographs of various animal species (ranging in weight from 14 g to 1,000 kg) were imaged using varying source image distance (SID) and exposure time. The quality of these images was evaluated for their resolution, image noise, and motion blur. When required, image resolutions were further enhanced using computed radiography postprocessing. Other parameters evaluated were the freehand use of the device, its battery durability, the maximum obtainable image size, and multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Using an SID of 60 cm, radiographs delivered adequate image quality. The quality, however, was found deteriorated in images of larger animals (>50 kg) or thicker tissues (>15 cm). The use of a tripod proved unnecessary in most cases, and its exclusion greatly facilitated equipment handling. Under field conditions, the battery was depleted after a total running time of 1.6 hr or 36 radiographs. The maximum size of a radiographic image reached a diameter of 40 cm, and radiation shielding allowed the multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Taken together, the radiography unit evaluated in this study presented a balanced compromise between portability and radiograph quality for field use. However, the unit image resolution cannot replace those of the fixed standard radiography units commonly used in veterinary medicine.

  4. Aptamers: Universal capture units for lateral flow applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christin; Wessels, Hauke; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Fischer, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The present work demonstrates the implementation of aptamers as capture molecules for a wide range of target classes in lateral flow assay applications. The targets were chosen in order to cover a wide range of target classes (small sized - metabolite, medium sized - protein, and large sized - whole cell/spore). For each target class one target molecule was selected as representative and appropriate aptamers were used for lateral flow assay development. The work points out that the implementation of aptamers as capture molecules in a universal lateral flow test platform was successful independent form target size. Furthermore, the limit of detection for p-aminohippuric acid in urine (200 ppm), lysozyme in white wine (20 ppm), and Alicyclobacillus spores in buffered orange juice (>8 CFU/mL) were determined using aptamers as capture molecules. The whole approach is considered as a proof of concept, regarding the ability of aptamers as an alternative to antibodies (in conjunction with directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes) in lateral flow applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Micro-segmented flow applications in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the method and application potential of micro segmented flow. The recent state of development of this powerful technique is presented in 12 chapters by leading researchers from different countries. In the first section, the principles of generation and manipulation of micro-fluidic segments are explained. In the second section, the micro continuous-flow synthesis of different types of nanomaterials is shown as a typical example for the use of advantages of the technique in chemistry. In the third part, the particular importance of the technique in biotechnical applications is presented demonstrating the progress for miniaturized cell-free processes, for molecular biology and DNA-based diagnostis and sequencing as well as for the development of antibiotics and the evaluation of toxic effects in medicine and environment.

  6. Flow, transport and diffusion in random geometries II: applications

    KAUST Repository

    Asinari, Pietro

    2015-01-07

    Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) is an efficient and flexible solution for the propagation of uncertainties in complex models, where an explicit parametrization of the input randomness is not available or too expensive. We present several applications of our MLMC algorithm for flow, transport and diffusion in random heterogeneous materials. The absolute permeability and effective diffusivity (or formation factor) of micro-scale porous media samples are computed and the uncertainty related to the sampling procedures is studied. The algorithm is then extended to the transport problems and multiphase flows for the estimation of dispersion and relative permeability curves. The impact of water drops on random stuctured surfaces, with microfluidics applications to self-cleaning materials, is also studied and simulated. Finally the estimation of new drag correlation laws for poly-dispersed dilute and dense suspensions is presented.

  7. Nitrogen--sulfur--carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium--sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun; Wang, Xiqing; Mayes, Richard T.; Ben, Teng; Qiu, Shilun

    2016-09-27

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to electron-conducting porous compositions comprising an organic polymer matrix doped with nitrogen atoms and having elemental sulfur dispersed therein, particularly such compositions having an ordered framework structure. The invention is also directed to composites of such S/N-doped electron-conducting porous aromatic framework (PAF) compositions, or composites of an S/N-doped mesoporous carbon composition, which includes the S/N-doped composition in admixture with a binder, and optionally, conductive carbon. The invention is further directed to cathodes for a lithium-sulfur battery in which such composites are incorporated.

  8. SnO2-Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 is an important n-type wide-bandgap semiconductor, and SnO2-based nanostructures are presenting themselves as one of the most important classes due to their various tunable physicochemical properties. In this paper, we firstly outline the syntheses of phase-pure SnO2 hierarchical structures with different morphologies such as nanorods, nanosheets, and nanospheres, as well as their modifications by doping and compositing with other materials. Then, we reviewed the design of SnO2-based nanostructures with improved performance in the areas of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs and supercapacitors.

  9. Lifetime Models for Lithium-ion Batteries used in Virtual Power Plant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    The penetration of wind power into the power system has been increasing in recent years. However, despite its environmental friendliness, the wind power grid integration at a large scale faces several limitations, mainly caused by the characteristics of the wind (i.e. intermittent, variable......; however, because of their advantages, which include fast response, high efficiency, long lifetime and environmental friendliness, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries represent suitable candidates for integration within VPPs, especially when they are required to provide short- and medium-time services...

  10. Ion Transport and Structure in Polymer Electrolytes with Applications in Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati

    When mixed with lithium salts, polymers that contain more than one chemical group, such as block copolymers and endgroup-functionalized polymers, are promising electrolyte materials for next-generation lithium batteries. One chemical group can provide good ion solvation and transport properties, while the other chemical group can provide secondary properties that improve the performance characteristics of the battery. Secondary properties of interest include non-flammability for safer lithium ion batteries and high mechanical modulus for dendrite resistance in high energy density lithium metal batteries. Block copolymers and other materials with multiple chemical groups tend to exhibit nanoscale heterogeneity and can undergo microphase separation, which impacts the ion transport properties. In block copolymers that microphase separate, ordered self-assembled structures occur on longer length scales. Understanding the interplay between structure at different length scales, salt concentration, and ion transport is important for improving the performance of multifunctional polymer electrolytes. In this dissertation, two electrolyte materials are characterized: mixtures of endgroup-functionalized, short chain perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt, and mixtures of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS- b-PEO; SEO) and LiTFSI. The PFPE/LiTFSI electrolytes are liquids in which the PFPE backbone provides non-flammability, and the endgroups resemble small molecules that solvate ions. In these electrolytes, the ion transport properties and nanoscale heterogeneity (length scale 1 nm) are characterized as a function of endgroup using electrochemical techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and wide angle X-ray scattering. Endgroups, especially those containing PEO segments, have a large impact on ionic conductivity, in part because the salt distribution is not homogenous; we find that salt partitions

  11. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.; Howe, Jane Y.

    2017-08-01

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  12. Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.

  13. Self-flowing mortar for ferrocement in strengthening applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir Sakir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferrocement technology is becoming more and more important nowadays for strengthening and retrofitting of concrete structures mainly due to its inherent strength properties. However, its labour intensive nature makes it undesirable for rapid strengthening works. In narrow spaces, strengthening with conventional ferrocement is very critical and also time consuming. Self-flowing mortar (SFM could be used with this technology to overcome these limitations. This article discusses the applicability of SFM in ferrocement technology. The aim of this study is to summarize available knowledge on SFM to make it feasible for optimization in different industrial applications.

  14. The application of data mining to flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andy N D

    2002-05-01

    Data mining is the process of automating information discovery to detect useful patterns, correlations, and trends. Existing data must be fitted into a representative model from which useful information can be derived through a variety of algorithms. The routine generation of vast amounts of data make flow cytometry a logical target for the application of data mining. This informative unit discusses the steps of the data-mining process using the immunophenotyping of hematologic neoplasms to demonstrate the application. The author describes several types of algorithms and provides a useful resource list of commercially available tools.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  16. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  17. New and classical applications of heat flow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, C.

    2005-12-01

    This special issue of Journal of Geophysics and Engineering is dedicated to a collection of papers which resulted from an international workshop held in Aachen, Germany, on 4-7 October 2004, called 'New and Classical Applications of Heat Flow Studies'. This was the third in a series of topical geothermal workshops arranged by the Geothermal Working Group of the German Geophysical Society (DGG) and was organized by the Institute of Applied Geophysics at RWTH Aachen University under the auspices of the International Heat Flow Commission of the International Association of Seismology and Physics (IASPEI). The meeting was attended by some 60 scientists from 14 countries and three continents. Financial assistance, granted by DGG and IASPEI, allowed us to provide partial support for a total of eight students, young scientists and eminent researchers from eastern Europe and overseas. The convenors of the meeting were Christoph Clauser (Aachen), Thomas Kohl (Zürich) and Makoto Taniguchi (Kyoto). The main local organizers were Volker Rath (scientific programme) and Ute Kreutz (accommodation and financial affairs). The topics addressed in more than 50 oral and poster presentations indicated that today intriguing new applications of heat flow studies have emerged, complementing the classical topics of heat flow mapping and the tectonic implications of heat flow. In classical applications, for instance, thermal signatures of water flow or downward diffusion of variations in the Earth's mean temperature are considered as noise which needs to be corrected prior to further use of the data. In contrast, in several new applications it is exactly the information contained in these signatures which has been extracted and interpreted. For instance, over the past two decades, work on the most prominent of these new applications has been devoted to inverting the variation of the Earth's past mean ground surface temperature (GST). As of today, GST provided by the geothermal method has

  18. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  19. A new approach to the internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwood, Daniel; Kellner, Quirin; Wojtala, Malgorzata; Widanage, W. D.; McGlen, Ryan; Greenwood, David; Marco, James

    2017-04-01

    Conventional cooling approaches that target either a singular tab or outer surface of common format cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells suffer from a high cell thermal resistance. Under an aggressive duty cycle, this resistance can result in the formation of large in-cell temperature gradients and high hot spot temperatures, which are known to accelerate ageing and further reduce performance. In this paper, a novel approach to internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells to lower the thermal resistance for heat transport through the inside of the cell is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analysed for two common cylindrical formats when subject to highly aggressive electrical loading conditions representative of a high performance electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A mathematical model that captures the dominant thermal properties of the cylindrical cell is created and validated using experimental data. Results from the extensive simulation study indicate that the internal cooling strategy can reduce the cell thermal resistance by up to 67.8 ± 1.4% relative to single tab cooling, and can emulate the performance of a more complex pack-level double tab cooling approach whilst targeting cooling at a single tab.

  20. CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers for applications as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weili; Luo, Chenghao; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by heat treatment. Uniform morphologies and microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrated that well-dispersed nanoparticles of CoSn intermetallic compound and Sn with diameter of about 30–50 nm embedded in carbon nanofibers were prepared after carbonization at 850 °C. Compared with pure carbon nanofibers without the nanoparticles, CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers showed a high reversible capacity and excellent cycling performance, resulting from the formation of CoSn intermetallic nanoparticles and buffering by the carbon nanofiber matrix. The nanofiber mats with good flexibility were utilized as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, and the CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers exhibited a good fibrous morphology after the discharge/charge processes. Results indicated that electrospinning could be a feasible method to prepare Co–Sn–C composite nanofibers as anodes in lithium-ion batteries

  1. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  2. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  3. Topological Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Free Surfaces and Axisymmetric Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    1996-01-01

    Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow.......Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow....

  4. Experimental Implementation of a Low-Cost Single Phase Five-Level Inverter for Autonomous PV System Applications Without Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nouaiti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and the implementation of a low-cost single phase five-level inverter for photovoltaic applications. The proposed multilevel inverter is composed of a simple boost converter, a switched-capacitor converter, and an H-bridge converter. An efficient control method which associates a closed-loop regulation method with a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT method is applied in order to allow the proposed multilevel inverter to transfer power energy from solar panels to autonomous load with no storage batteries. An experimental prototype of this inverter is fabricated at the laboratory and tested with a digital control system. Obtained results confirm the simplicity and the performance of the proposed photovoltaic system.

  5. Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Massimo Gatta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO. BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a simplified electrical-thermal circuit model, taking into account also the BESS auxiliary consumptions, coupled with a cycle-life model, in order to assess the expected life of the BESS. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering the system response to real frequency measurements taken in Italy, spanning a whole year; a parametric study taking into account different values of governor droop and of BESS charge/discharge rates (C-rates was also performed. Simulations, fully validated by experimental results obtained thus far, evidenced a severe trade-off between expected lifetime and overall efficiency, which significantly restricts the choice of operating parameters for frequency control.

  6. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  7. Wireless, battery-operated data acquisition system for mobile spectrometry applications and (potentially) for the Internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ryan; Karanassios, Vassili

    2017-05-01

    There are many applications requiring chemical analysis in the field and analytical results in (near) real-time. For example, when accidental spills occur. In others, collecting samples in the field followed by analysis in a lab increases costs and introduces time-delays. In such cases, "bring part of the lab to the sample" would be ideal. Toward this ideal (and to further reduce size and weight), we developed a relatively inexpensive, battery-operated, wireless data acquisition hardware system around an Arduino nano micro-controller and a 16-bit ADC (Analog-to- Digital Converter) with a max sampling rate of 860 samples/s. The hardware communicates the acquired data using low-power Bluetooth. Software for data acquisition and data display was written in Python. Potential ways of making the hardware-software approach described here a part of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) are presented.

  8. Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqi, Shi; Jian, Gao; Yue, Liu; Yan, Zhao; Qu, Wu; Wangwei, Ju; Chuying, Ouyang; Ruijuan, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372228 and 11234013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), and Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).

  9. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV- assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide (PEO based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The resulting polymer-coated virus-based system was then peeled from the PTFE backing to produce a flexible electrode-electrolyte component. Electrochemical studies indicated the virus-structured metal-oxide PEO-based interface was stable and displayed robust charge transfer kinetics. Combined, these studies demonstrate the development of a novel solid-state electrode architecture with a unique peelable and flexible processing attribute.

  10. A battery-operated atmospheric-pressure plasma wand for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, X.; Liu, J.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X.

    2014-04-01

    A handheld, battery-operated atmospheric-pressure plasma rod (named the plasma wand) which does not rely on an external power source (e.g. mains power or a power generator) or gas supply is reported. The plasma wand can be used for killing bacteria, fungi or viruses that are hidden in narrow channels such as the nasal cavity and ear canal, which are difficult to access using most currently available devices. Besides, the electrical characterization, plasma wand temperature, emission spectra of the plasma, ozone and OH radical concentration generated by the device, are investigated by different diagnostic methods. The ozone concentration reaches 120 ppm 1 mm away from the device and the OH concentration reaches 3.5 × 1014 cm-3 in the plasma. The preliminary bacteria inactivation experiment results show that all the bacteria samples on the microfiltration membrane are killed by this device within 30 s.

  11. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The electrolytic stability windows of several aqueous electrolytes were investigated by a constant current method. The electrode potential range depended upon the value of the imposed current. The magnitude of this behavior varied with the salt solution, its concentration, and pH of the electrolyte. At a leakage current density of 50 μA/cm2, a 5 M solution of LiNO3 had an electrolytic window of 2.3 V, spanning from -0.55 to 1.75 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating lithium batteries at voltages appreciably above the theoretical decomposition voltage of water. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  12. Improvement of Aluminum-Air Battery Performances by the Application of Flax Straw Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, Ekaterina; Gelman, Danny; Belopukhov, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Groysman, Alec; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-08-23

    The effect of a flax straw extract on Al corrosion inhibition in a strong alkaline solution was studied by using electrochemical measurements, weight-loss analysis, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Flax straw extract added (3 vol %) to the 5 m KOH solution to act as a mixed-type Al corrosion inhibitor. The electrochemistry of Al in the presence of a flax straw extract in the alkaline solution, the effect of the extract on the Al morphology and surface films formed, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism are discussed. Finally, the Al-air battery discharge capacity recorded from a cell that used the flax straw extract in the alkaline electrolyte is substantially higher than that with only a pure alkaline electrolyte. This improved sustainability of the Al anode is attributed to Al corrosion inhibition and, consequently, to hydrogen evolution suppression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Experimental evaluation of battery cells for space-based radar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, Craig A.; Metcalfe, John R.

    1994-02-01

    A test program was conducted to characterize five space-quality nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery cells. A subset of those tests was also done on five commercial nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells, for correlation to the characteristics of an Energy Storage Unit Simulator. The test program implemented the recommendations of a 1991 study, as reported to IECEC-92. The findings of the tests are summarized, and expected impacts on the performance of the electrical power system (EPS) of a large space-based radar (SBR) surveillance satellite are derived. The main characteristics examined and compared were terminal voltage (average and transient) and capacity through discharge, equivalent series resistance, derived inductance and capacitance, charge return efficiency, and inter-pulse charge effectiveness.

  14. Tuning Porosity and Surface Area in Mesoporous Silicon for Application in Li-Ion Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John B; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lin, Terri C; Robbennolt, Shauna; Detsi, Eric; Dunn, Bruce S; Tolbert, Sarah H

    2017-06-07

    This work aims to improve the poor cycle lifetime of silicon-based anodes for Li-ion batteries by tuning microstructural parameters such as pore size, pore volume, and specific surface area in chemically synthesized mesoporous silicon. Here we have specifically produced two different mesoporous silicon samples from the magnesiothermic reduction of ordered mesoporous silica in either argon or forming gas. In situ X-ray diffraction studies indicate that samples made in Ar proceed through a Mg 2 Si intermediate, and this results in samples with larger pores (diameter ≈ 90 nm), modest total porosity (34%), and modest specific surface area (50 m 2 g -1 ). Reduction in forming gas, by contrast, results in direct conversion of silica to silicon, and this produces samples with smaller pores (diameter ≈ 40 nm), higher porosity (41%), and a larger specific surface area (70 m 2 g -1 ). The material with smaller pores outperforms the one with larger pores, delivering a capacity of 1121 mAh g -1 at 10 A g -1 and retains 1292 mAh g -1 at 5 A g -1 after 500 cycles. For comparison, the sample with larger pores delivers a capacity of 731 mAh g -1 at 10 A g -1 and retains 845 mAh g -1 at 5 A g -1 after 500 cycles. The dependence of capacity retention and charge storage kinetics on the nanoscale architecture clearly suggests that these microstructural parameters significantly impact the performance of mesoporous alloy type anodes. Our work is therefore expected to contribute to the design and synthesis of optimal mesoporous architectures for advanced Li-ion battery anodes.

  15. Electrical properties of fast ion conducting silver based borate glasses: Application in solid battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Emad M.; Khairy, M.; Mousa, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •AgI dopant created more opened borate network structure. •Dielectric constant and loss values increased with AgI concentration. •AgI dopant enhanced both ion migration and orientation. •0.6 AgI–0.27 Ag 2 O–0.13 B 2 O 3 showed the highest DC-conductivity at room temperature. •It showed also good life time as a solid electrolyte in solid battery at room temperature. -- Abstract: The electrical properties of the ternary ionic conducting glass system xAgI–(1 – x)[0.67Ag 2 O–0.33B 2 O 3 ], where x = 0.4 , 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8, were studied for emphasizing the influence of silver iodide concentration on the transport properties in the based borate glasses. The glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectra and differential thermal analysis (DTA). XRD confirmed a glassy nature for all investigated compositions. Electrical conductivity (σ), dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε ″ ) and impedance spectra (Z′–Z′′) were studied for all samples at a frequency range of 0–10 6 Hz and over a temperature range of 303–413 K. Changes of conductivity and dielectric properties with composition, temperature and frequency were analyzed and discussed. A silver iodine battery using glassy electrolyte sample with the highest ionic conductivity (x = 0.6) was studied

  16. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  17. Application of velocity filtering to optical-flow passive ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniv, Yair

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the velocity filtering method as applied to optical-flow passive ranging under real-world conditions is evaluated. The theory of the 3-D Fourier transform as applied to constant-speed moving points is reviewed, and the space-domain shift-and-add algorithm is derived from the general 3-D matched filtering formulation. The constant-speed algorithm is then modified to fit the actual speed encountered in the optical flow application, and the passband of that filter is found in terms of depth (sensor/object distance) so as to cover any given range of depths. Two algorithmic solutions for the problems associated with pixel interpolation and object expansion are developed, and experimental results are presented.

  18. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    guarantee a continuous 24 hours electricity supply in case of shortage of energy (during on cloudy day and at the nighttime). Two consecutive days of commissioning phase are necessary for the entire system to operate, which is a solid basis for including the syngas generator in the hybrid system......, in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can...... electricity generation....

  19. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  20. Bridging Inter-flow and Intra-flow Network Coding for Video Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    enhance reliability, common of the former, while maintaining an efficient spectrum usage, typical of the latter. This paper uses the intuition provided in [1] to propose a practical implementation of the protocol leveraging Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) for intra-flow coding, a credit based packet...... transmission approach to decide how much and when to send redundancy in the network, and a minimalistic feedback mechanism to guarantee delivery of generations of the different flows. Given the delay constraints of video applications, we proposed a simple yet effective coding mechanism, Block Coding On The Fly......Network Coding (NC) for Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) has received a lot of attention from the research community in recent years due to its ability to provide higher throughput, reliability, and efficiency in the use of the available wireless spectrum. NC has had two main research lines focused...

  1. Optimal Power Flow Management Control for Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/Diesel generator (GCPWD) Hybrid System with Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, Bala; S., Manoharan

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a Optimal Power Flow Management control for Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/ Diesel generator (GCPWD) Hybrid System with hybrid storage system. The energy system having a photo voltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine (WT) and diesel generator (DG) for continuous power flow management. A diesel generator is added to ensure uninterrupted power supply due to the discontinuous nature of solar and wind resources. The developed Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/ Diesel ...

  2. Deposition and characterization of thin films of materials with application in cathodes for lithium rechargeable micro batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis work is reported the deposition and characterization of thin films of materials of the type LiMO 2 , with M=Co and Ni, which have application in cathodes for micro-batteries of lithium ions. In the last years some investigators have reported that the electrochemical operation of the lithium ions batteries it can improve recovering the cathode, in bundle form, with some metal oxides as the Al 2 O 3 ; for that the study of the formation of thin films in bilayer form LiMO 2 /AI 2 O 3 is of interest in the development of lithium ions micro batteries. The thin films were deposited using the laser ablation technique studying the effect of some deposit parameters in the properties of the one formed material, as: laser fluence, substrate temperature and working atmosphere, with the purpose of optimizing it. In the case of the LiCoO 2 it was found that to use an inert atmosphere of argon allows to obtain the material with the correct composition. Additionally, with the use of a temperature in the substrate of 150 C is possible to obtain to the material with certain crystallinity grade that to the subjected being to a post-deposit thermal treatment at 300 C for three hours, it gives as result a totally crystalline material. In the case of the thin films of LiNiO 2 , it was necessary to synthesize the oxide starting from a reaction of solid state among nickel oxide (NiO) and lithium oxide (Li 2 O) obtaining stoichiometric LiNiO 2 . For the formation of the thin films of LiNiO 2 it was used an argon atmosphere and the laser fluence was varied, the deposits were carried out to two different substrates temperatures, atmosphere and 160 C. In both cases the material it was recovered with an alumina layer, found that this layer didn't modify the structural properties of the base oxide (LiCoO 2 and LiNiO 2 ). (Author)

  3. A simple synthesis of MnN{sub 0.43}@C nanocomposite: characterization and application as battery material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milke, Bettina [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Colloid Chemistry (Germany); Wall, Clemens [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology (Germany); Metzke, Sarah [Technische Universität Berlin, Physikalische Chemie/Molekulare Materialwissenschaften, Institut für Chemie (Germany); Clavel, Guylhaine [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Colloid Chemistry (Germany); Fichtner, Maximilian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology (Germany); Giordano, Cristina, E-mail: Cristina.Giordano@mpikg.mpg.de [Technische Universität Berlin, Physikalische Chemie/Molekulare Materialwissenschaften, Institut für Chemie (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In the search of new materials for advanced batteries, manganese nitride is an appealing choice. However, in order to fully explore its potentiality, a suitable synthesis is the first mandatory step. In this contribution, nanosized manganese nitride covered by a graphitic shell has been prepared by a simple sol–gel-based process. Since graphite has a high thermal and chemical stability, it acts as stabilizing agent for the MnN{sub 0.43} nanoparticles. As a consequence, the particles do not oxidize for instance during the handling of the material and can be stored in air without special precautions. Furthermore, the graphitic shell makes the material more interesting for electrochemical applications, because graphite provides on the one hand an electrical conductivity, which is necessary for the function of active materials, and on the other hand also contributes to the Li storage capacity. The as-prepared nanocomposite was tested as anode material versus lithium metal as counter electrode, showing excellent cyclic stability, 230 mAh/g of capacity, and coulombic efficiencies close to 100 %. Since MnN{sub 0.43} possesses a theoretical capacity higher than commercial graphite and exhibits less polarization than several previously reported metal nitrides, it represents an attractive candidate as alternative/novel anode material. The method presented herein offers a simple route to prepare MnN{sub 0.43} nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon. The formation mechanism has been investigated, and the detailed characterization of the material before and after battery test (via XRD, HR-TEM, SAED, EELS) is discussed in the text.Graphical Abstract.

  4. On air-chemistry reduction for hypersonic external flow applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf; Suman, Sawan; Girimaji, Sharath S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The existence of the slow manifold for the air-mixture system is shown. • The QSSA estimate of the slow manifold is fairly accurate. • For mid-temperature range the reduction mechanisms could be useful. - Abstract: In external hypersonic flows, viscous and compressibility effects generate very high temperatures leading to significant chemical reactions among air constituents. Therefore, hypersonic flow computations require coupled calculations of flow and chemistry. Accurate and efficient computations of air-chemistry kinetics are of much importance for many practical applications but calculations accounting for detailed chemical kinetics can be prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying chemical kinetics reduction schemes for hypersonic air-chemistry. We consider two chemical kinetics sets appropriate for three different temperature ranges: 2500 K to 4500 K; 4500 K to 9000 K; and above 9000 K. By demonstrating the existence of the so-called the slow manifold in each of the chemistry sets, we show that judicious chemical kinetics reduction leading to significant computational savings is possible without much loss in accuracy

  5. Applicability of RANS, DES and LES in propeller flow noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to study the applicability of different turbulence models in propeller flow noise prediction, taking the DTMB 4119 propeller as the research object, the numerical simulation method is used to calculate the frequency domain noise under the non-uniform flow field.[Methods] First, the hydrodynamic coefficient and surface pressure distribution coefficient are obtained via the RANS method and the accuracy of the flow field simulation is verified by comparing it with the experimental data. Next,the pulsating pressures obtained by RANS, DES and LES are considered as the sound source respectively, and combined with the acoustic boundary element method to predict the radiation noise.[Results] The results show that spectral noise is the main contributor to total noise; when noise on 1 BPF is predicted, the results obtained by the three methods are very similar, so we can use RANS to predict noise quickly; when noise on the high order of BPF needs to be predicted, the calculation results of LES are better.[Conclusions] In noise prediction, the appropriate turbulence simulation method can be selected according to the demand.

  6. Single-ion conducting polymer-silicate nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, Mary; Galvin, Mary E.; Trapa, Patrick E.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Mayes, Anne M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-state polymer-silicate nanocomposite electrolytes based on an amorphous polymer poly[(oxyethylene) 8 methacrylate], POEM, and lithium montmorillonite clay were fabricated and characterized to investigate the feasibility of their use as 'salt-free' electrolytes in lithium polymer batteries. X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies indicate the formation of an intercalated morphology in the nanocomposites due to favorable interactions between the polymer matrix and the clay. The morphology of the nanocomposite is intricately linked to the amount of silicate in the system. At low clay contents, dynamic rheological testing verifies that silicate incorporation enhances the mechanical properties of POEM, while impedance spectroscopy shows an improvement in electrical properties. With clay content ≥15 wt.%, mechanical properties are further improved but the formation of an apparent superlattice structure correlates with a loss in the electrical properties of the nanocomposite. The use of suitably modified clays in nanocomposites with high clay contents eliminates this superstructure formation, yielding materials with enhanced performance

  7. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Hong; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi; Wu, Dingcai; Fu, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g −1 for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g −1 ). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m 2  g −1 , which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite

  8. Mesoporous wormholelike carbon with controllable nanostructure for lithium ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Xinxi; Li, Zhenghui; Zhang, Guoqing; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wormholelike carbon (WMC) with controllable nanostructure is prepared by sol–gel method. • The reversible capacity of WMC is much higher than that of many other reported nanocarbons. • The effect of pore diameter on Li storage capacity is investigated. - Abstract: A class of mesoporous wormholelike carbon (WMC) with controllable nanostructure was prepared by sol–gel method and then used as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries. Based on the experimental results, it is found that the nanostructure of the as-prepared WMC plays an important role in the electrochemical performances. A suitable mesopore size is necessary for a high performance carbon-based anode material since it can not only guarantee effective mass transport channels but also provide large surface area. As a result, F30 with a mesopore size of 4.4 nm coupled with high surface area of 1077 m 2 g −1 shows a reversible capacity of 630 mAh g −1 , much higher than commercial graphite and many other reported nanocarbons

  9. Microstructure of carbon derived from mangrove charcoal and its application in Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Luo Ruiying; Qiao Wenming; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the microstructure of mangrove-charcoal-derived carbon (MC) was studied using XRD, STM and TEM. MC was found to consist of aligned quasi-spherical structural units with diameters of around 5-20 nm. It shows typical hard carbon characteristics, including a strongly disoriented single graphene layer and BSU, formed by two or three graphene layers stacked nearly parallel. Some curved and faceted graphene layers, especially closed carbon nanoparticles with fullerene-like, were observed in the as-prepared samples. MC was also evaluated as an anodic material for Li-ion batteries. MC carbonized at 1000 deg. C possessed the highest available discharge capacity (below 0.5 V) of 335 mAh g -1 , the high first-cycle coulombic efficiency of 73.7%, good rate and cyclic capability and PC-based electrolyte compatibility. 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of fully lithiated mangrove charcoal-derived carbons indicated the co-existence of three Li species.

  10. Assessment of Dementia in Individuals with Dual Sensory Loss: Application of a Tactile Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bruhn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Individuals with dual sensory loss (DSL are more likely to experience cognitive decline with age than individuals without sensory loss. Other studies have pointed to the challenges in assessing cognitive abilities in individuals with DSL, as most existing instruments rely on use of vision and hearing. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Tactile Test Battery (TTB for cognitive assessment in individuals with DSL. Method: Twenty elderly individuals with DSL, 20 with diagnosed dementia, and 20 without dementia or DSL (controls completed the following tactile tests developed for the present study: Spatial learning, Spatial recall, Tactile form board, Clock reading, and Naming. The participants with dementia and controls also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: Overall, participants with dementia performed significantly worse on the tactile tests than participants with DSL and control participants. No significant differences on the tactile tests were found between participants with DSL and controls. The TTB and MMSE scores correlated significantly. Conclusion: The findings from this study of applying tactile tests for cognitive examination in individuals with DSL are promising. They indicate that symptoms of dementia can be differentiated from symptoms related to DSL.

  11. Silicon-Based Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: From Fundamentals to Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kun; Li, Matthew; Liu, Wenwen; Kashkooli, Ali Ghorbani; Xiao, Xingcheng; Cai, Mei; Chen, Zhongwei

    2018-02-01

    Silicon has been intensively studied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) because of its exceptionally high specific capacity. However, silicon-based anode materials usually suffer from large volume change during the charge and discharge process, leading to subsequent pulverization of silicon, loss of electric contact, and continuous side reactions. These transformations cause poor cycle life and hinder the wide commercialization of silicon for LIBs. The lithiation and delithiation behaviors, and the interphase reaction mechanisms, are progressively studied and understood. Various nanostructured silicon anodes are reported to exhibit both superior specific capacity and cycle life compared to commercial carbon-based anodes. However, some practical issues with nanostructured silicon cannot be ignored, and must be addressed if it is to be widely used in commercial LIBs. This Review outlines major impactful work on silicon-based anodes, and the most recent research directions in this field, specifically, the engineering of silicon architectures, the construction of silicon-based composites, and other performance-enhancement studies including electrolytes and binders. The burgeoning research efforts in the development of practical silicon electrodes, and full-cell silicon-based LIBs are specially stressed, which are key to the successful commercialization of silicon anodes, and large-scale deployment of next-generation high energy density LIBs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, Ted [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Whitacre, Jay [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weber, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Eshoo, Michael [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Noland, James [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blackwood, David [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Campbell, Williams [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sheen, Eric [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spears, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Smith, Christopher [Aquion Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy's Smart Grid Demonstration Program Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion's low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles.

  13. Thomas Alva Edison—battery and device innovation in response to application's needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, Alvin J.; Israel, Paul

    Thomas Alva Edison, the most prolific inventor in North America, with over 1000 patents, was the descendant of early settlers from the Netherlands to the Hudson Valley region of New York/New Jersey. However, his genealogical trail encompasses many cities, provinces, states, and countries, including Holland, France, Scotland, New Amsterdam, New York, New Jersey, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ohio, and Michigan. He was motivated to develop and invent in response to perceived needs of commercial devices and was the creator of the concept of an industrial research laboratory. His activities covered a wide-range of chemical, electrical, medical, metallurgical, entertainment, and communication devices and led to the creation of major worldwide industries. However, his expressed underlying concern was the "service it might give others". This presentation reviews commercial developments in comparison with the technologies and motivations of the time and is illustrated by material from the Rutgers University 'Edison Papers Project', Edison's personal notes found in the Edison Battery Factory and preserved by Professor Salkind, and records of The Electrochemical Society.

  14. Improved Battery Parameter Estimation Method Considering Operating Scenarios for HEV/EV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jufeng Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved battery parameter estimation method based on typical operating scenarios in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. Compared with the conventional estimation methods, the proposed method takes both the constant-current charging and the dynamic driving scenarios into account, and two separate sets of model parameters are estimated through different parts of the pulse-rest test. The model parameters for the constant-charging scenario are estimated from the data in the pulse-charging periods, while the model parameters for the dynamic driving scenario are estimated from the data in the rest periods, and the length of the fitted dataset is determined by the spectrum analysis of the load current. In addition, the unsaturated phenomenon caused by the long-term resistor-capacitor (RC network is analyzed, and the initial voltage expressions of the RC networks in the fitting functions are improved to ensure a higher model fidelity. Simulation and experiment results validated the feasibility of the developed estimation method.

  15. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  16. Growth of oxygen bubbles during recharge process in zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Chen, Huicui; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang; Xing, Haoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery used for energy storage has a serious problem of charging capacity limited by oxygen bubble coalescence. Fast removal of oxygen bubbles adhered to the charging electrode surface is of great importance for improving the charging performance of the battery. Here we show that the law of oxygen bubble growth can be achieved by means of phase-field simulation, revealing two phenomena of bubble detachment and bubble coalescence located in the charging electrode on both sides. Hydrodynamic electrolyte and partial insulation structure of the charging electrode are investigated to solve the problem of oxygen bubble coalescence during charging. Two types of rechargeable zinc-air battery are developed on the basis of different tri-electrode configurations, demonstrating that the charging performance of the battery with electrolyte flow (Ⅰ) is better than that of the battery with the partially insulated electrode (Ⅱ), while the battery Ⅱ is superior to the battery Ⅰ in the discharging performance, cost and portability. The proposed solutions and results would be available for promoting commercial application of rechargeable zinc-air batteries or other metal-air batteries.

  17. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  18. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  19. Subchannel friction factors for rod bundles: laminar flow predictions and their application to turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.P.

    1979-02-01

    For the calculation of friction factors the use of correlations validated for smooth circular tubes along with the duct hydraulic diameter is known to be inappropriate for certain non-circular geometries. In order to test the validity and range of application of such correlations to the subchannels of rod bundles a computer programme has been written for the prediction of subchannel laminar velocity distributions and friction coefficients for fully developed flow. The theoretical basis and development of the programme is described along with comparisons between predictions and existing solutions for some simple geometries. Using the computer programme a wide range of calculations have been carried out for flow sections representing edge, corner and internal subchannels of rod bundles with particular emphasis on those of in-line pin bundle geometries. Where comparison can be made the predicted laminar coefficients are in excellent agreement with existing solutions. Although the approach adopted here could be used as the basis of a model for the subchannel axial friction factor, careful account should be taken of enhanced turbulent momentum transfer in situations where the flow is not unidirectional. (UK)

  20. Unsteady airfoil flows with application to aeroelastic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Jeppe

    1999-09-01

    The present report describes numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady airfoil flows with application to aeroelastic stability. The report is divided in two parts. Part A describes the purely aerodynamic part, while Part B includes the aeroelastic part. In Part A a transition prediction algorithm based on a simplified version of the e{sup n} method is proposed. Laminar Boundary Layer instability data are stored in a database from which stability characteristics can be extracted by interpolation. Input to the database are laminar integral boundary layer parameters. These are computed from an integral boundary layer formulation coupled to a Navier-Stokes flow solver. Five different airfoils are considered at fixed angle of attack, and the flow is computed assuming both fully turbulent and transitional flow and compared with experimental data. Results indicate that using a transition model the drag prediction is improved considerably. Also the lift is slightly improved. At high angles of attack transition will affect leading edge separation which again will affect the overall vortex shedding. If the transition point is not properly predicted this will affect the whole hysteresis curve. The transition model developed in the present work showed more stable predictions compared to the empirical transition model. In Part B a simple three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) structural dynamics model is developed and coupled to the aerodynamics models from Part A. A 2nd order accurate time integration scheme is used to solve the equations of motion. Two airfoils are investigated. The aeroelastic models predict stable conditions well at low angle of attack. But at high angles of attack, and where unstable behaviour is expected, only the Navier-Stokes solver predict correct aeroelastic response. The semi-empirical dynamic stall model does not predict vortex shedding and moment correctly leading to an erroneous aerodynamic damping. (au) 5 tabs.; 55 ills., 52 refs.

  1. Optimal power flow application issues in the Pool paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Bompard, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) to competitive markets. Since the OPF is a central decision-making tool its application to the more decentralized decision-making in the competitive electricity markets requires considerable care. There are some intrinsic challenges associated with the effective OPF application in the competitive environment due to the inherent characteristics of the OPF formulation. Two such characteristics are the flatness of the optimum surface and the consequent continuum associated with the optimum. In addition to these OPF structural characteristics, the level of authority vested in the central decision-making entity has major ramifications. These factors have wide ranging economic impacts, whose implications are very pronounced due to the fact that, unlike in the old vertically integrated utility environment, various market players are affected differently. The effects include price volatility, financial health of various players and the integrity of the market itself. We apply appropriate metrics to evaluate market efficiency and how the various players fare. We study the impacts of OPF applications in the Pool paradigm, with both supply and demand side explicitly modeled, and provide extensive numerical results on systems based on IEEE 30-bus and 118-bus networks. The results show the variability of nodal prices and the skew possible in different 'optimal' allocations among competing suppliers. Such variability in the results may lead to serious disputes among the players and the central decision-making authority. Directions for future research are discussed. (author)

  2. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2014-04-30

    Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier's law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180°C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent Progress in Synthesis and Application of Low-Dimensional Silicon Based Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is regarded as the next generation anode material for LIBs with its ultra-high theoretical capacity and abundance. Nevertheless, the severe capacity degradation resulting from the huge volume change and accumulative solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI formation hinders the silicon based anode material for further practical applications. Hence, a variety of methods have been applied to enhance electrochemical performances in terms of the electrochemical stability and rate performance of the silicon anodes such as designing nanostructured Si, combining with carbonaceous material, exploring multifunctional polymer binders, and developing artificial SEI layers. Silicon anodes with low-dimensional structures (0D, 1D, and 2D, compared with bulky silicon anodes, are strongly believed to have several advanced characteristics including larger surface area, fast electron transfer, and shortened lithium diffusion pathway as well as better accommodation with volume changes, which leads to improved electrochemical behaviors. In this review, recent progress of silicon anode synthesis methodologies generating low-dimensional structures for lithium ion batteries (LIBs applications is listed and discussed.

  4. Lead-acid batteries in stationary applications: competitors and new markets for large penetration of renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, M.; Saint-Drenan, Y. M.; Mattera, F.; Malbranche, P.

    With increasing deregulation of the European electricity market, the quality of supply is becoming an issue of growing importance. Grid-connected electricity storage systems (ESSs) can enhance the quality of supply by: (i) shortening black-out periods; (ii) shifting excess energy for use during periods of high demand; (iii) sustaining the grid for better power quality. These problems are being addressed by using technologies such as power electronics and ICT. But storage systems offer a cheap and efficient solution to such concerns. ESSs can also power high-value, ancillary services. This paper analyses the new potential markets for storage systems in the context of distributed energy resources with a high penetration of renewable energies in the electricity networks. While lead-acid batteries are the most used technology in all types of stationary applications, many different storage technologies are claimed to fulfil the technical requirements of the above applications, in particular the emerging ones. Therefore, a comparison is made of lead-acid technology and its competitors in terms of technical and economic considerations.

  5. Model checking and evaluating QoS of batteries in MPSoC dataflow applications via hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, W.; Jongerden, M.R.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    System lifetime is a major design constraint for battery-powered mobile embedded systems. The increasing gap between the energy demand of portable devices and their battery capacities is further limiting durability of mobile devices. Thus, the guarantees over Quality of Service (QoS) of

  6. Model checking and evaluating QoS of batteries in MPSoC dataflow applications via hybrid automata (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, W.; Jongerden, M.R.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    System lifetime is always a major design impediment for battery-powered mobile embedded systems such as, cell phones and satellites. The increasing gap between energy demand of portable devices and their battery capacities is further limiting durability of mobile devices. For example, energy-hungry

  7. Tangential Flow Filtration Technique: an Overview on Nanomedicine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Teresa; Leonardi, Antonio; Bonaccorso, Angela; Pignatello, Rosario; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2018-03-06

    Purification is a key step for different type of approaches, ranging from food, biotechnology to pharmaceutical fields. In biotechnology tangential flow filtration (TFF) allows to obtain the separation of different components of cells without instability phenomena. In food industry, TFF ensures the removal of contaminants or other substances that negatively affect visual appearance, organoleptic attributes, nutritional value and/or safety of aliments. Purification is an important and necessary step controlling the quality of final product also in the pharmaceutical area. In the field of research and development of nanomedicines, several techniques are used to purify and/or to concentrate the batches for in vitro and in vivo application. Despite many approaches exist; current data reveals continued unsatisfactory results. Between them, TFF showed promising results, even if, currently, its use is uncommon if compared with the other purification techniques usually reported in "materials and methods" sections. This review represents an overview of the different applications of TFF from protein purification to food application, with particular attention to the field of nanomedicine from polymeric to metallic nanoparticles, highlighting advantages and dis-advantages in the use of this technique. Theoretical aspect of the process has been examined. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. BZ-BattExt – DMFC as Battery-Extender in solar-boat application

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Johannes; Reissner, Regine; Zabold , Jochen; Krajinovic, Katica; Häring, Thomas; Nettesheim, Stefan; Kopf , Joachim; Steinhart, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    For special applications Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) are close to commercial application or already commercialized today. However for the step from laboratory to a broader market of fuel cells, a significant cost reduction, as well as a lifetime and power density improvement of the systems is needed. The Goals of the BZ-BattExt Project should be reached by applying new knowledge in alternative materials, improved operation strategies and enhanced sub systems. In the project a 100 W D...

  9. High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Manthiram, Arumugam [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Chao-Yang [EC Power LLC, State College, PA (United States); Liu, Gao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-15

    High-loading and high quality PSU Si anode has been optimized and fabricated. The electrochemical performance has been utilized. The PSU Si-graphite anode exhibits the mass loading of 5.8 mg/cm2, charge capacity of 850 mAh/ g and good cycling performance. This optimized electrode has been used for full-cell fabrication. The performance enhancement of Ni-rich materials can be achieved by a diversity of strategies. Higher Mn content and a small amount of Al doping can improve the electrochemical performance by suppressing interfacial side reactions with electrolytes, thus greatly benefiting the cyclability of the samples. Also, surface coatings of Li-rich materials and AlF3 are able to improve the performance stability of Ni-rich cathodes. One kilogram of optimized concentration-gradient LiNi0.76Co0.10Mn0.14O2 (CG) with careful control of composition, morphology and electrochemical performance was delivered to our collaborators. The sample achieved an initial specific capacity close to 190 mA h g-1 at C/10 rate and 180 mA h g-1 at C/3 rate as well as good cyclability in pouch full cells with a 4.4 V upper cut-off voltage at room temperature. Electrolyte additive with Si-N skeleton forms a less resistant SEI on the surface of silicon anode (from PSU) as evidenced by the evolution of the impedance at various lithiation/de-lithiation stages and the cycling data The prelithiation result demonstrates a solution processing method to achieve large area, uniform SLMP coating on well-made anode surface for the prelithiation of lithium-ion batteries. The prelithiation effect with this method is applied both in graphite half cells, graphite/NMC full cells, SiO half cells, SiO/NMC full cells, Si-Graphite half cells and Si-Graphite/NMC full cells with improvements in cycle performance and higher first cycle coulombic efficiency than their corresponding cells without SLMP prelithiation. As to the full

  10. Arrival-Time Detection and Ultrasonic Flow-Meter Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, Morten; Soendergaard, Peter; Latino, Carl; Voss, Frands; Andersen, Niels Lervad; Brokate, Martin; Bounaim, Aicha

    2006-01-01

    The Danfoss problem on ultrasonic flow measurement has been separated into three parts each handled by a subgroup of the authors listed above. The first subgroup deals with a presentation of modelling equations describing the physics of ultrasonic flow meters employing reciprocal ultrasonic transducer systems. The mathematical model presented allows the electrical output signal to be determined corresponding to any time-dependent electrical input signal. The transducers modelled consist of a piezoceramic material layer and a passive acoustic matching layer. The second subgroup analyzes the possibility of coding the input signal so as to simplify arrival-time detection by re.nding the coded input sequence in the received signal. The narrow-band nature of the transducers makes this problem non-trivial but suggestions for improvement are proposed. The analysis given is based on traditional autoand cross-correlation techniques. The third subgroup attempts to improve existing correlation methods in determining arrival-time detection of signals. A mathematical formulation of the problem is given and the application to a set of real signals provided by Danfoss A/S is performed with good results

  11. Considerations for the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckbreth, A. C.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1985-11-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has matured considerably over recent years and is experiencing widespread application in fundamental and practical combustion situations. Its utilization in turbulent reacting flows is far from routine, however, and several problem areas need to be addressed and refined. This paper reviews these problems and assesses the status of current and proposed solution approaches. Due to its highly nonlinear dependence on temperature and species concentration, CARS measurements in time-varying environments necessitate assembly of “instantaneous” single-pulse measurement histograms, even to extract time-averaged properties. A number of factors contribute to distortion of single pulse CARS spectra and, thus, measurement inaccuracy; various improvement strategies will be evaluated. The problem of absolute concentration measurements at low and high Mach numbers in refracting and attenuating media will be discussed. The paper concludes with a description of an approach to permit CARS measurements of several species simultaneously in a single laser pulse.

  12. Design and Realization of a Smart Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    C. Chen; K.L. Man; T.O. Ting; Chi-Un Lei; T. Krilavicius; T.T. Jeong; J.K. Seon; Sheng-Uei Guan; Prudence W.H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Battery management system (BMS) emerges a decisive system component in battery-powered applications, such as (hybrid) electric vehicles and portable devices. However, due to the inaccurate parameter estimation of aged battery cells and multi-cell batteries, current BMSs cannot control batteries optimally, and therefore affect the usability of products. In this paper, we proposed a smart management system for multi-cell batteries, and discussed the development of our research study in three di...

  13. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  14. Installation of a flow cytometry facility and some applications in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Kellington, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Flow cytometry has enormous potential in many areas of experimental pathology. Details of the installation and commissioning of a flow cytometer at the Harwell Laboratory are described. Following an explanation of the principles of flow cytometry, several applications to specific problems in radiobiology are discussed. Also included are results of some preliminary studies with the Harwell flow cytometer on samples such as blood, bone marrow, macrophages and cell cultures, and a discussion of future applications. (author)

  15. Self-standing paper based anodes prepared from siliconcarbonitride-MoS2 composite for Li-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lamuel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2013-03-01

    We study synthesis of free-standing polymer derived SiCN/ MoS2 composite paper anode for Li-ion battery application. This was achieved following a two-step approach: First, polysilazane was interfaced with exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets which upon pyrolysis resulted in SiCN/MoS2 composite. Second, dispersion of SiCN/MoS2 in isopropanol was vacuum filtered resulting in formation of a self-standing composite paper. Physical and chemical characterization of the composite was carried out by use of electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR data indicated complete conversion of polysilazane precursor to SiCN ceramic, while electron microscopy confirmed layered structure of the paper. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed enhanced thermodynamic stability of the composite paper up to 800 °C. Electrochemical analysis of SiCN/MoS2 composite paper anodes showed that Li-ion can reversible intercalate in the voltage range of 0-2.5 V with a first cycle discharge capacity of 770 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.

  16. Cornlike Ordered Mesoporous Silicon Particles Modified by Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Layer for the Application of Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Ma, Bingjie; Deng, Xinglan; Li, Wangwu; Wu, Zhenyu; Shu, Hongbo; Wang, Xianyou

    2017-09-27

    The cornlike ordered mesoporous silicon (OM-Si) particles modified by the nitrogen-doped carbon layer (OM-Si@NC) are successfully fabricated and used as the anode of lithium-ion battery (LIBs). The influences of the N-doped carbon layer on the structure and electrochemical properties of the OM-Si@NC composite are detailedly investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and charge/discharge tests. The results reveal that the amorphous N-doped carbon layer can offer the abundant conductive pathways for fast lithium ion transportation and electron transfer, which not only leads to a high specific capacity under high ampere density but also serves as a structural barrier maintaining the whole integrity and settling the mechanical breaking due to the huge volume changes of Si host. Therefore, the as-synthesized OM-Si@NC composite exhibits a high original discharge capacity of 2548 mA h g -1 under 0.2 A g -1 as well as a large reversible capacity of 1336 mA h g -1 under 1 A g -1 after 200 circles. The OM-Si@NC composite prepared by a relatively simple and feasible synthesis method shows excellent electrochemical performances and turns out to be promising for the application of high power LIBs.

  17. Radiation grafting of styrene and maleic anhydride onto PTFE membranes and sequent sulfonation for applications of vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Jingyi; Ni Jiangfeng; Zhai Maolin; Peng Jing; Zhou Henghui; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan

    2007-01-01

    Using γ-radiation technique, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane was grafted with styrene (St) (PTFE-graft-PS) or binary monomers of St and maleic anhydride (MAn) (PTFE-graft-PS-co-PMAn), respectively. Then grafted membranes were further sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid into ion-exchange membranes (denoted as PTFE-graft-PSSA and PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc, respectively) for application of vanadium redox battery (VRB). Micro-FTIR analysis indicated that PTFE was successfully grafted and sulfonated at the above two different conditions. However, a higher degree of grafting (DOG) was obtained in St/MAn binary system at the same dose due to a synergistic effect. Comparing with PTFE-graft-PSSA, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane showed higher water uptake and ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and lower area resistance (AR) at the same DOG. In addition, PTFE-graft-PSSA-co-PMAc with 6% DOG also showed a higher IEC and higher conductivity compared to Nafion membrane. Radiation grafting of PTFE in St/MAn binary system and sequent sulfonation is an appropriate method for preparing ion-exchange membrane of VRB

  18. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  19. Surface properties and graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based fiber electrodes affecting the negative half-cell reaction in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Dixon, D.; Nefedov, A.; Wöll, Ch.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.; Roth, C.; Melke, J.

    2016-07-01

    Carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries are obtained by the graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based felts at different temperatures. Subsequently, the surface of the felts is modified via thermal oxidation at various temperatures. A single-cell experiment shows that the voltage efficiency is increased by this treatment. Electrode potentials measured with reference electrode setup show that this voltage efficiency increase is caused mainly by a reduction of the overpotential of the negative half-cell reaction. Consequently, this reaction is investigated further by cyclic voltammetry and the electrode activity is correlated with structural and surface chemical properties of the carbon fibers. By Raman, X-ray photoelectron and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy the role of edge sites and oxygen containing functional groups (OCFs) for the electrochemical activity are elucidated. A significant activity increase is observed in correlation with these two characteristics. The amount of OCFs is correlated with structural defects (e.g. edge sites) of the carbon fibers and therefore decreases with an increasing graphitization degree. Thus, for the same thermal oxidation temperature carbon fibers graphitized at a lower temperature show higher activities than those graphitized at a higher temperature.

  20. The Environmental Burdens of Lead-Acid Batteries in China: Insights from an Integrated Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead-acid batteries (LABs, a widely used energy storage equipment in cars and electric vehicles, are becoming serious problems due to their high environmental impact. In this study, an integrated method, combining material flow analysis with life cycle assessment, was developed to analyze the environmental emissions and burdens of lead in LABs. The environmental burdens from other materials in LABs were not included. The results indicated that the amount of primary lead used in LABs accounted for 77% of the total lead production in 2014 in China. The amount of discharged lead into the environment was 8.54 × 105 tonnes, which was mainly from raw material extraction (57.2%. The largest environmental burden was from the raw materials extraction and processing, which accounted for 81.7% of the total environmental burdens. The environmental burdens of the environmental toxicity potential, human toxicity potential-cancer, human toxicity potential-non-cancer, water footprint and land use accounted for more than 90% at this stage. Moreover, the environmental burdens from primary lead was much more serious than regenerated lead. On the basis of the results, main practical measures and policies were proposed to reduce the lead emissions and environmental burdens of LABs in China, namely establishing an effective LABs recycling system, enlarging the market share of the legal regenerated lead, regulating the production of regenerated lead, and avoiding the long-distance transportation of the waste LABs.

  1. Ion-exchange composite membranes pore-filled with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and Engelhard titanosilicate-10 for improved performance of vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Yongkyu; Jeon, Jae-Deok; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2018-04-01

    A series of ion-exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) are prepared by filling the pores of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) substrate with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and microporous Engelhard titanosilicate-10 (ETS-10). The effects of ETS-10 incorporation and PTFE reinforcement on membrane properties and VRB single-cell performance are investigated using various characterization tools. The results show that these composite membranes exhibit improved mechanical properties and reduced vanadium-ion permeabilities owing to the interactions between ETS-10 and SPEEK, the suppressed swelling of PTFE, and the unique ETS-10 framework. The composite membrane with 3 wt% ETS-10 (referred to as "SE3/P") exhibits the best membrane properties and highest ion selectivity. The VRB system with the SE3/P membrane exhibits higher cell capacity, higher cell efficiency, and lower capacity decay than that with a Nafion membrane. These results indicate that this composite membrane has potential as an alternative to Nafion in VRB systems.

  2. Low vanadium ion permeabilities of sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone)s provide high efficiency and stability for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Shouhai; Chen, Yuning; Jian, Xigao

    2017-07-01

    A series of novel sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone)s containing pendant phenyl moieties (SPPEK-Ps) are synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The chemical structures of the polymers are confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR analysis. The physicochemical properties and single cell performance of SPPEK-P membranes are systematically evaluated, revealing that the membranes are thermally, chemically and mechanically stable. The area resistances of SPPEK-P-90 and SPPEK-P-100 are 0.75 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2, respectively. SPPEK-P membranes are impermeable to the bulky hydrated VO2+ ion and exhibited low V3+ ion permeability (SPPEK-P-90, 2.53 × 10-5 cm min-1) (Nafion 115 membrane: 9.0 × 10-4 cm min-1). Tests of SPPEK-P-90 in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) demonstrate a comparable columbic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) to that of Nafion 115, where the CE is 98% and the EE is 83% at 60 mA cm-2. Moreover, the SPPEK-P-90 membrane exhibits stable performance in cell over 100 charge-discharge cycles (∼450 h).

  3. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction. Batteries play an important role as energy storage devices for renewable energy sources, electric vehicle and many other applications. A battery bank is interfaced to load through a power converter, which controls ...

  4. Design Flexibility of Redox Flow Systems. [for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics inherent in Redox flow systems permit considerable latitude in designing systems for specific storage applications. The first of these characteristics is the absence of plating/deplating reactions with their attendant morphology changes at the electrodes. This permits a given Redox system to operate over a wide range of depths of discharge and charge/discharge rates. The second characteristic is the separation of power generating components (stacks) from the energy storage components (tanks). This results in cost effective system design, ease of system growth via modularization, and freedom from sizing restraints so that the whole spectrum of applications, from utilities down to single residence can be considered. The final characteristic is the commonality of the reactant fluids which assures that all cells at all times are receiving reactants at the same state of charge. Since no cell can be out of balance with respect to any other cell, it is possible for some cells to be charged while others are discharging, in effect creating a DC to DC transformer. It is also possible for various groups of cells to be connected to separate loads, thus supplying a range of output voltages. Also, trim cells can be used to maintain constant bus voltage as the load is changed or as the depth of discharge increases. The commonality of reactant fluids also permits any corrective measures such as rebalancing to occur at the system level instead of at the single cell level.

  5. Advanced battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  6. Modeling based on design of thermal management systems for vertical elevation applications powered by lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Martín, Leire; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Nieto, Nerea; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro; Gil, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A TMS is designed for a cylindrical Li-ion BP using CFD tools. • The model is experimentally validated with a maximum time-averaged error of 1.5 °C. • Cell temperature and module thermal dispersion are below 39 °C and 3 °C. • The prototype design fulfills all thermal requirements. • Design improvements are proposed to minimize the cost and the TMS consumption. - Abstract: Environmental sustainability, more efficient use of energy, and active safety concepts are becoming important requirements for the actual elevation sector. In this context IK4-IKERLAN and ORONA have designed an auxiliary energy storage system (ESS) for a residential elevation application based on lithium-ion cells. Safety and specially lifetime are two of the main concerns surrounding this new technology, which is closely related to the cells operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the complete ESS. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs (BPs) needs to be controlled in an efficient way. This paper describes the development of the thermal management system (TMS) designed for this application based on various Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mathematical models. The accuracy of Transient model is validated by using a single module to compare the simulation temperature results with experimental measurements, with a maximum time-averaged temperature prediction error of 1.5 °C. The proposed design is validated as it fulfills the requirements for a wide operating window, with a maximum cell temperature of 39 °C and a thermal dispersion at system level below 3 °C for the worst tested case. A more realistic current profile is checked numerically in the worst ambient and operative conditions for different virtual design variants to propose improvements.

  7. Conformal coating of thin polymer electrolyte layer on nanostructured electrode materials for three-dimensional battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Sanketh R; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Zhan, Xiaobo; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2011-01-12

    Various three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures have been proposed to address effective power delivery in micro/nanoscale devices and for increasing the stored energy per electrode footprint area. One step toward obtaining 3D configurations in batteries is the formation of core-shell nanowires that combines electrode and electrolyte materials. One of the major challenges however in creating such architectures has been the coating of conformal thin nanolayers of polymer electrolytes around nanostructured electrodes. Here we show conformal coatings of 25-30 nm poly(methyl methacralate) electrolyte layers around individual Ni-Sn nanowires used as anodes for Li ion battery. This configuration shows high discharge capacity and excellent capacity retention even at high rates over extended cycling, allowing for scalable increase in areal capacity with electrode thickness. Our results demonstrate conformal nanoscale anode-electrolyte architectures for an efficient Li ion battery system.

  8. Semiconduction properties of some polyene-iodine charge-transfer complexes and their application in solid-state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S.; Pal, P.; Misra, T.N. (Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Spectroscopy)

    1993-03-01

    The conjugated polyenes [beta]-carotene, lutein, retinoic acid and [beta]-apo-8'-carotenal are shown to form charge-transfer (CT) complexes with the electron acceptor iodine. The conductivity increases by several orders of magnitude and the activation energy decreases on CT complex formation. Using these complexes as cathodic material, batteries with the configuration Mg/(polyene-iodine CT complex)/graphite are developed. Different battery parameters are evaluated. The effects of ambient temperature and humidity on battery performance are also studied. Results show that a [beta]-apo-8'-carotenal-1[sub 2] based battery has the maximum power density and longest self-life and is suitable for use as a micro-electronic gadget energizer. (author)

  9. Performance-degradation model for Li4Ti5O12-based battery cells used in wind power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of wind power grid integration on the power system stability, which is caused by the characteristics of the wind. This paper presents a performance model for a Li4Ti5O12/LiMO2 battery cell....... For developing the performance model an EIS-based electrical modelling approach was followed. The obtained model is able to predict with high accuracy charge and discharge voltage profiles for different ages of the battery cell and for different charging/discharging current rates. Moreover, the ageing behaviour...... of the battery cell was analysed for the case of accelerated cycling ageing with a certain mission profile....

  10. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery. Alternative Names Swallowing batteries References Hess JM, Lowell MJ. Esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In: Marx JA, ... Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  11. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  12. Application of C{sub 60}, C{sub 72} and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Meysam, E-mail: meysamnajafi2016@gmail.com

    2017-07-01

    The application of C{sub 60}, C{sub 72}, CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V{sub cell}) and adsorption energy (E{sub ad}) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C{sub 60} and C{sub 72} ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH{sub 2} functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH{sub 2} functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH{sub 2} functionalized C{sub 72} and CNT (10, 0) have larger V{sub cell} and E{sub ad} values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C{sub 60} and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V{sub cell} and E{sub ad} of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C{sub 60} and C{sub 72} ca. • NH{sub 2} functionalization of C{sub 60} improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  13. The Design and Construction of a Battery Electric Vehicle Propulsion System - High Performance Electric Kart Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Mark; Alahakoon, Sanath

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an electric propulsion system designed specifically to meet the performance specification for a competition racing kart application. The paper presents the procedure for the engineering design, construction and testing of the electric powertrain of the vehicle. High performance electric Go-Kart is not an established technology within Australia. It is expected that this work will provide design guidelines for a high performance electric propulsion system with the capability of forming the basis of a competitive electric kart racing formula for Australian conditions.

  14. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi5 for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB5 alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi5 substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 μm) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB5 alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB5 alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB5 alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB5 alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB5 production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle

  15. Synthesis of MoS2 and MoO2 for their applications in H2 generation and lithium ion batteries: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Zhao, Yuxia Zhang, Zhiyu Yang, Yiming Yan and Kening Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists increasingly witness the applications of MoS2 and MoO2 in the field of energy conversion and energy storage. On the one hand, MoS2 and MoO2 have been widely utilized as promising catalysts for electrocatalytic or photocatalytic hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution. On the other hand, MoS2 and MoO2 have also been verified as efficient electrode material for lithium ion batteries. In this review, the synthesis, structure and properties of MoS2 and MoO2 are briefly summarized according to their applications for H2 generation and lithium ion batteries. Firstly, we overview the recent advancements in the morphology control of MoS2 and MoO2 and their applications as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions. Secondly, we focus on the photo-induced water splitting for H2 generation, in which MoS2 acts as an important co-catalyst when combined with other semiconductor catalysts. The newly reported research results of the significant functions of MoS2 nanocomposites in photo-induced water splitting are presented. Thirdly, we introduce the advantages of MoS2 and MoO2 for their enhanced cyclic performance and high capacity as electrode materials of lithium ion batteries. Recent key achievements in MoS2- and MoO2-based lithium ion batteries are highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future scope and the important challenges emerging from these fascinating materials.

  16. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  17. Flow Separation and Turbulence in Jet Pumps for Thermoacoustic Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Joris; Verbeek, Antonie Alex; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    The effect of flow separation and turbulence on the performance of a jet pump in oscillatory flows is investigated. A jet pump is a static device whose shape induces asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects when placed in an oscillatory flow. This will result in a time-averaged pressure drop which can be

  18. Comparison between different flow application techniques: SDR vs flowable composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, Markus; Wegehaupt, Florian J; Attin, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of layer thickness of flowable composites on the marginal adaptation of Class II fillings after thermomechanical loading (TML). Sixty standardized Class II box cavities were prepared under simulation of intrapulpal pressure with gingival margins located 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in dentin. The samples were evenly distributed into six groups (A to F). After adhesive (XPBond) application, box preparations were filled with a first increment of either a nanohybrid composite (A, D) Ceram.X mono, or with one of two flowable materials SDR (B, E) or x-Flow (C, F). The first increments were 1 (A,B,C) or 4 mm (D,E,F) thick. All cavities were finally filled incrementally with Ceram.X mono. Replicas were prepared before and after TML (1.2 x 106 cycles; 5/50°C; maximum load 49 N). Replicas were evaluated for marginal adaptation (tooth/composite) using scanning electron microscopy (200X). The percentage of continuous margins was compared between and within groups before and after TML using ANOVA and Scheffé's post-hoc tests. For group F before TML, adaptation of cervical margins located in dentin was compromised compared to the other groups (p SDR showed no differences vs groups in which the first increment was 1 mm thick.

  19. A Four-Phase High Voltage Conversion Ratio Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kun Xue

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a four-phase interleaved high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converter circuit based on coupled inductors and switched capacitors, which can eliminate the defects of conventional high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converters in terms of high-voltage/current stress, less efficiency and low-power limitation. Parallel channels are used to reduce current stress at the low-voltage side and series connected switched capacitors are used to enlarge voltage conversion ratio, reduce voltage stress and achieve auto current sharing. This paper proposes the operation principle, feature analysis and optimization design considerations. On this basis the objectives of high voltage conversion ratio, low voltage/current stress, high power density, high efficiency and high-power applications can be achieved. Some experimental results based on a 500 W prototype converter (24 V to 48 V at low-voltage side, 400 V at high-voltage side are given to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  20. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and