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Sample records for flow analytical expression

  1. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  2. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

  3. Analytical Models Development of Compact Monopole Vortex Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo V. Lukianov

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. The article contains series of the latest analytical models that describe both laminar and turbulent dynamics of monopole vortex flows which have not been reflected in traditional publications up to the present. The further research must be directed to search of analytical models for the coherent vortical structures in flows of viscous fluids, particularly near curved surfaces, where known in hydromechanics “wall law” is disturbed and heat and mass transfer anomalies take place.

  4. Application of system reliability analytical method, GO-FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    1999-01-01

    The Ship Research Institute proceed a developmental study on GO-FLOW method with various advancing functionalities for the system reliability analysis method occupying main parts of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). Here was attempted to intend to upgrade functionality of the GO-FLOW method, to develop an analytical function integrated with dynamic behavior analytical function, physical behavior and probable subject transfer, and to prepare a main accident sequence picking-out function. In 1997 fiscal year, in dynamic event-tree analytical system, an analytical function was developed by adding dependency between headings. In simulation analytical function of the accident sequence, main accident sequence of MRX for improved ship propulsion reactor became possible to be covered perfectly. And, input data for analysis was prepared with a function capable easily to set by an analysis operator. (G.K.)

  5. Semi-analytical treatment of fracture/matrix flow in a dual-porosity simulator for unsaturated fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1992-04-01

    A semi-analytical dual-porosity simulator for unsaturated flow in fractured rock masses has been developed. Fluid flow between the fracture network and the matrix blocks is described by analytical expressions that have been derived from approximate solutions to the imbibition equation. These expressions have been programmed into the unsaturated flow simulator, TOUGH, as a source/sink term. Flow processes are then simulated using only fracture elements in the computational grid. The modified code is used to simulate flow along single fractures, and infiltration into pervasively fractured formations

  6. Analytical, numerical, and experimental simulation of tornado flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautin, S.P.; Krutova, I.Yu.; Obukhov, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proven that this problem with analytic input data near the point under consideration has a unique analytic solution representable in the form of a convergent series. The analysis of the first coefficients of this series has shown that the circular motion of the gas swirling in the positive direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in the negative direction in the Southern Hemisphere arises immediately at the beginning of the radial flow into the cylinder [ru

  7. Analytical methods for heat transfer and fluid flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This book describes useful analytical methods by applying them to real-world problems rather than solving the usual over-simplified classroom problems. The book demonstrates the applicability of analytical methods even for complex problems and guides the reader to a more intuitive understanding of approaches and solutions. Although the solution of Partial Differential Equations by numerical methods is the standard practice in industries, analytical methods are still important for the critical assessment of results derived from advanced computer simulations and the improvement of the underlying numerical techniques. Literature devoted to analytical methods, however, often focuses on theoretical and mathematical aspects and is therefore useless to most engineers. Analytical Methods for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Problems addresses engineers and engineering students. The second edition has been updated, the chapters on non-linear problems and on axial heat conduction problems were extended. And worked out exam...

  8. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical...

  9. Mayday - integrative analytics for expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieselt Kay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA Microarrays have become the standard method for large scale analyses of gene expression and epigenomics. The increasing complexity and inherent noisiness of the generated data makes visual data exploration ever more important. Fast deployment of new methods as well as a combination of predefined, easy to apply methods with programmer's access to the data are important requirements for any analysis framework. Mayday is an open source platform with emphasis on visual data exploration and analysis. Many built-in methods for clustering, machine learning and classification are provided for dissecting complex datasets. Plugins can easily be written to extend Mayday's functionality in a large number of ways. As Java program, Mayday is platform-independent and can be used as Java WebStart application without any installation. Mayday can import data from several file formats, database connectivity is included for efficient data organization. Numerous interactive visualization tools, including box plots, profile plots, principal component plots and a heatmap are available, can be enhanced with metadata and exported as publication quality vector files. Results We have rewritten large parts of Mayday's core to make it more efficient and ready for future developments. Among the large number of new plugins are an automated processing framework, dynamic filtering, new and efficient clustering methods, a machine learning module and database connectivity. Extensive manual data analysis can be done using an inbuilt R terminal and an integrated SQL querying interface. Our visualization framework has become more powerful, new plot types have been added and existing plots improved. Conclusions We present a major extension of Mayday, a very versatile open-source framework for efficient micro array data analysis designed for biologists and bioinformaticians. Most everyday tasks are already covered. The large number of available plugins as well

  10. An analytical phantom for the evaluation of medical flow imaging algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashaei, A; Fatouraee, N

    2009-01-01

    Blood flow characteristics (e.g. velocity, pressure, shear stress, streamline and volumetric flow rate) are effective tools in diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerotic plaque, aneurism and cardiac muscle failure. Noninvasive estimation of cardiovascular blood flow characteristics is mostly limited to the measurement of velocity components by medical imaging modalities. Once the velocity field is obtained from the images, other flow characteristics within the cardiovascular system can be determined using algorithms relating them to the velocity components. In this work, we propose an analytical flow phantom to evaluate these algorithms accurately. The Navier-Stokes equations are used to derive this flow phantom. The exact solution of these equations obtains analytical expression for the flow characteristics inside the domain. Features such as pulsatility, incompressibility and viscosity of flow are included in a three-dimensional domain. The velocity domain of the resulted system is presented as reference images. These images could be employed to evaluate the performance of different flow characteristic algorithms. In this study, we also present some applications of the obtained phantom. The calculation of pressure domain from velocity data, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress and particle trace are the characteristics whose algorithms are evaluated here. We also present the application of this phantom in the analysis of noisy and low-resolution images. The presented phantom can be considered as a benchmark test to compare the accuracy of different flow characteristic algorithms.

  11. Ball Bearing Stiffnesses- A New Approach Offering Analytical Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Pascal; Frikha, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Space mechanisms use preloaded ball bearings in order to withstand the severe vibrations during launch.The launch strength requires the calculation of the bearing stiffness, but this calculation is complex. Nowadays, there is no analytical expression that gives the stiffness of a bearing. Stiffness is computed using an iterative algorithm such as Newton-Raphson, to solve the nonlinear system of equations.This paper aims at offering a simplified analytical approach, based on the assumption that the contact angle is constant. This approach gives analytical formulas of the stiffness of preloaded ball bearing.

  12. Analytical study of electron flows with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinov, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of the electron flow behavior by its injection into a half-space is considered. Two problems are considered, namely the long-term injection of a monoenergetic electron flow and instantaneous flow injection with an assigned electron energy spectrum. The all flow electrons in both cases return to the injection plane. The simple analytical self-consistent model of the initial stage of the virtual cathode formation in a plane-parallel equipotential gap is plotted in the course of analysis whereof the duration of the virtual cathode formation process is determined. The performance of this model is not limited by the multivalence of the electron velocity in the flow. This makes it possible to extend the frames of the model performance relative to the moment of the virtual cathode formation and to consider its dynamics. The frequency of electron oscillations in the potential cathode-virtual cathode well is determined on the basis of the above model [ru

  13. Analytical effective tensor for flow-through composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviercoski, Rosangela De Fatima [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-06-19

    A machine, method and computer-usable medium for modeling an average flow of a substance through a composite material. Such a modeling includes an analytical calculation of an effective tensor K.sup.a suitable for use with a variety of media. The analytical calculation corresponds to an approximation to the tensor K, and follows by first computing the diagonal values, and then identifying symmetries of the heterogeneity distribution. Additional calculations include determining the center of mass of the heterogeneous cell and its angle according to a defined Cartesian system, and utilizing this angle into a rotation formula to compute the off-diagonal values and determining its sign.

  14. Analytical Model of Water Flow in Coal with Active Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemek, Jakub; Stopa, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new analytical model of gas-water flow in coal seams in one dimension with emphasis on interactions between water flowing in cleats and coal matrix. Coal as a flowing system, can be viewed as a solid organic material consisting of two flow subsystems: a microporous matrix and a system of interconnected macropores and fractures. Most of gas is accumulated in the microporous matrix, where the primary flow mechanism is diffusion. Fractures and cleats existing in coal play an important role as a transportation system for macro scale flow of water and gas governed by Darcy's law. The coal matrix can imbibe water under capillary forces leading to exchange of mass between fractures and coal matrix. In this paper new partial differential equation for water saturation in fractures has been formulated, respecting mass exchange between coal matrix and fractures. Exact analytical solution has been obtained using the method of characteristics. The final solution has very simple form that may be useful for practical engineering calculations. It was observed that the rate of exchange of mass between the fractures and the coal matrix is governed by an expression which is analogous to the Newton cooling law known from theory of heat exchange, but in present case the mass transfer coefficient depends not only on coal and fluid properties but also on time and position. The constant term of mass transfer coefficient depends on relation between micro porosity and macro porosity of coal, capillary forces, and microporous structure of coal matrix. This term can be expressed theoretically or obtained experimentally. W artykule zaprezentowano nowy model matematyczny przepływu wody i gazu w jednowymiarowej warstwie węglowej z uwzględnieniem wymiany masy między systemem szczelin i matrycą węglową. Węgiel jako system przepływowy traktowany jest jako układ o podwójnej porowatości i przepuszczalności, składający się z mikroporowatej matrycy węglowej oraz z

  15. An analytic model for flow reversal in divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, P.I.H.; Prinja, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    An analytic model is developed and used to study the phenomenon of flow reversal which is observed in two-dimensional simulations of divertor plasmas. The effect is shown to be caused by the radial spread of neutral particles emitted from the divertor target which can lead to a strong peaking of the ionization source at certain radial locations. The results indicate that flow reversal over a portion of the width of the scrape-off layer is inevitable in high recycling conditions. Implications for impurity transport and particle removal in reactors are discussed

  16. Application of analytical procedure on system reliability, GO-FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    2000-01-01

    In the Ship Research Institute, research and development of GO-FLOW procedure with various advanced functions as a system reliability analysis method occupying main part of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were promoted. In this study, as an important evaluation technique on executing PSA with lower than level 3, by intending fundamental upgrading of the GO-FLOW procedure, a safety assessment system using the GO-FLOW as well as an analytical function coupling of dynamic behavior analytical function and physical behavior of the system with stochastic phenomenon change were developed. In 1998 fiscal year, preparation and verification of various functions such as dependence addition between the headings, rearrangement in order of time, positioning of same heading to plural positions, calculation of forming frequency with elapsing time were carried out. And, on a simulation analysis function of accident sequence, confirmation on analysis covering all of main accident sequence in the reactor for improved marine reactor, MRX was carried out. In addition, a function near automatically producible on input data for analysis was also prepared. As a result, the conventional analysis not always easy understanding on analytical results except an expert of PSA was solved, and understanding of the accident phenomenon, verification of validity on analysis, feedback to analysis, and feedback to design could be easily carried out. (G.K.)

  17. Formulating analytic expressions for atomic collision cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Tatsuo; Kubo, Hirotaka; Sataka, Masao

    2003-08-01

    Methods to formulate analytic expression for atomic collision cross sections as a function of projectile energy are described on the basis of the experiences of the data compilation work for more than 20 years. Topics considered are the choice of appropriate functional forms for the expressions and optimization of adjustable parameters. To make extrapolation possible, functions to be used should have the form with reasonable asymptotic behavior. In this respect, modified Green-McNeal formulas have been found useful for various atomic collision cross sections. For ionization processes, a modified Lotz formula has often given a good fit. The ALESQ code for least-squares fits has been convenient to optimize adjustable parameters in analytic expressions. (author)

  18. Non-diverging analytic expression for the on-axis sensitivity of converging collimators: analytic derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accorsi, R; Metzler, S D

    2006-01-01

    The expressions for the sensitivity of converging collimators found in the literature diverge at points near the focal locus of the collimator. In this paper, an analytical formula that does not diverge is derived and compared to that available in the literature. An analysis is provided to predict the cases in which use of the new formula is advisable. Since the first expression derived is rather complex, approximations were made to reach simpler formulae. The formulae derived can be used to define and extend the realm of applicability of the literature expression in the cases identified in their derivation

  19. Analytical Expressions for Thermo-Osmotic Permeability of Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalvès, J.; Ji Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M.; Tremosa, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new formulation for the thermo-osmotic permeability of natural pore solutions containing monovalent and divalent cations is proposed. The mathematical formulation proposed here is based on the theoretical framework supporting thermo-osmosis which relies on water structure alteration in the pore space of surface-charged materials caused by solid-fluid electrochemical interactions. The ionic content balancing the surface charge of clay minerals causes a disruption in the hydrogen bond network when more structured water is present at the clay surface. Analytical expressions based on our heuristic model are proposed and compared to the available data for NaCl solutions. It is shown that the introduction of divalent cations reduces the thermo-osmotic permeability by one third compared to the monovalent case. The analytical expressions provided here can be used to advantage for safety calculations in deep underground nuclear waste repositories.

  20. Analytical flow duration curves for summer streamflow in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea; Schaefli, Bettina

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a systematic assessment of the performance of an analytical modeling framework for streamflow probability distributions for a set of 25 Swiss catchments. These catchments show a wide range of hydroclimatic regimes, including namely snow-influenced streamflows. The model parameters are calculated from a spatially averaged gridded daily precipitation data set and from observed daily discharge time series, both in a forward estimation mode (direct parameter calculation from observed data) and in an inverse estimation mode (maximum likelihood estimation). The performance of the linear and the nonlinear model versions is assessed in terms of reproducing observed flow duration curves and their natural variability. Overall, the nonlinear model version outperforms the linear model for all regimes, but the linear model shows a notable performance increase with catchment elevation. More importantly, the obtained results demonstrate that the analytical model performs well for summer discharge for all analyzed streamflow regimes, ranging from rainfall-driven regimes with summer low flow to snow and glacier regimes with summer high flow. These results suggest that the model's encoding of discharge-generating events based on stochastic soil moisture dynamics is more flexible than previously thought. As shown in this paper, the presence of snowmelt or ice melt is accommodated by a relative increase in the discharge-generating frequency, a key parameter of the model. Explicit quantification of this frequency increase as a function of mean catchment meteorological conditions is left for future research.

  1. Analytical Tools to Improve Optimization Procedures for Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen V. Hsieh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic or lateral flow assays (LFAs are inexpensive, easy to use, point-of-care medical diagnostic tests that are found in arenas ranging from a doctor’s office in Manhattan to a rural medical clinic in low resource settings. The simplicity in the LFA itself belies the complex task of optimization required to make the test sensitive, rapid and easy to use. Currently, the manufacturers develop LFAs by empirical optimization of material components (e.g., analytical membranes, conjugate pads and sample pads, biological reagents (e.g., antibodies, blocking reagents and buffers and the design of delivery geometry. In this paper, we will review conventional optimization and then focus on the latter and outline analytical tools, such as dynamic light scattering and optical biosensors, as well as methods, such as microfluidic flow design and mechanistic models. We are applying these tools to find non-obvious optima of lateral flow assays for improved sensitivity, specificity and manufacturing robustness.

  2. Cryogenic parallel, single phase flows: an analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, R.

    2017-02-01

    Managing the cryogenic flows inside a state-of-the-art accelerator cryomodule has become a demanding endeavour: In order to build highly efficient modules, all heat transfers are usually intercepted at various temperatures. For a multi-cavity module, operated at 1.8 K, this requires intercepts at 4 K and at 80 K at different locations with sometimes strongly varying heat loads which for simplicity reasons are operated in parallel. This contribution will describe an analytical approach, based on optimization theories.

  3. Analytical study of solids-gas two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Minoru

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental studies were made on the hydrodynamics of solids-gas two-phase suspension flow, in which very small solid particles are mixed in a gas flow to enhance the heat transfer characteristics of gas cooled high temperature reactors. Especially, the pressure drop due to friction and the density distribution of solid particles are theoretically analyzed. The friction pressure drop of two-phase flow was analyzed based on the analytical result of the single-phase friction pressure drop. The calculated values of solid/gas friction factor as a function of solid/gas mass loading are compared with experimental results. Comparisons are made for Various combinations of Reynolds number and particle size. As for the particle density distribution, some factors affecting the non-uniformity of distribution were considered. The minimum of energy dispersion was obtained with the variational principle. The suspension density of particles was obtained as a function of relative distance from wall and was compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the distribution is much affected by the particle size and that the smaller particles are apt to gather near the wall. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Big data analytics : predicting traffic flow regimes from simulated connected vehicle messages using data analytics and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-25

    The key objectives of this study were to: 1. Develop advanced analytical techniques that make use of a dynamically configurable connected vehicle message protocol to predict traffic flow regimes in near-real time in a virtual environment and examine ...

  5. Analytical expression for sheath edge around corner cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T E

    2009-01-01

    A simple analytical expression for the position of the sheath edge around a two-dimensional corner cathode with included angle θ c has been discovered. This expression is valid for weakly collisional sheaths in the Child-Langmuir regime φ c >> kT e /e, where -φ c e is the electron temperature. In polar coordinates (r, θ), the sheath edge is given by (r/s 0 )sin[πθ/(2π - θ c )] = [π/(2π - θ c )] where s 0 is the planar sheath width far from the vertex of the corner. This result is verified by comparison with previous numerical solutions (Watterson P A 1989 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22 1300) for the knife edge (θ c = 0) and convex square corner (θ c = π/2). The observed agreement suggests that this expression gives the sheath edge for all corner angles, both concave and convex. The utility of this result is demonstrated by computing the full sheath solution for a knife-edge cathode with φ c = 100kT e /e.

  6. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Analytic modeling of flow in a permeable fissured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, O.D.L.

    1982-02-01

    An analytic model has been developed for two dimensional steady flow through infinite fissured porous media, and is implemented in a computer program. The model is the first, and major, step toward the development of a model with finite boundaries, intended for use as a tool for numerical experiments. These experiments may serve to verify some of the simplifying assumptions made in continuum models and to gain insight in the mechanics of the flow. The model is formulated in terms of complex variables and the analytic functions presented are closed-form expressions obtained from singular Cauchy integrals. An exact solution is given for the case of a single crack in an infinite porous medium. The exact solution is compared with the result obtained by the use of an independent method, which assumes Darcian flow in the crack and models the crack as an inhomogeneity in the permeability, in order to verify the simplifying assumptions. The approximate model is compared with solutions obtained from the above independent method for some cases of intersecting cracks. The agreement is good, provided that a sufficient number of elements are used to model the cracks

  7. Exact analytical thermodynamic expressions for a Brownian heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Mesfin Asfaw

    2015-09-01

    The nonequilibrium thermodynamics feature of a Brownian motor operating between two different heat baths is explored as a function of time t . Using the Gibbs entropy and Schnakenberg microscopic stochastic approach, we find exact closed form expressions for the free energy, the rate of entropy production, and the rate of entropy flow from the system to the outside. We show that when the system is out of equilibrium, it constantly produces entropy and at the same time extracts entropy out of the system. Its entropy production and extraction rates decrease in time and saturate to a constant value. In the long time limit, the rate of entropy production balances the rate of entropy extraction, and at equilibrium both entropy production and extraction rates become zero. Furthermore, via the present model, many thermodynamic theories can be checked.

  8. An analytical model for annular flow boiling heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, A.; Hassan, I.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to predict flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in microchannel heat sinks. The new analytical model is proposed to predict the two-phase heat transfer coefficient during annular flow regime based on the separated model. Opposing to the majority of annular flow heat transfer models, the model is based on fundamental conservation principles. The model considers the characteristics of microchannel heat sink during annular flow and eliminates using any empirical closure relations. Comparison with limited experimental data was found to validate the usefulness of this analytical model. The model predicts the experimental data with a mean absolute error 8%. (author)

  9. Analytical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Nanofluid (Stratified Flow Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids have evoked immense interest from researchers all around the globe due to their numerous potential benefits and applications in important fields such as cooling electronic parts, cooling car engines and nuclear reactors. An analytical study of fluid flow of in-tube stratified regime of two-phase nanofluid has been carried out for CuO, Al2O2, TiO3, and Au as applied nanoparticles in water as the base liquid. Liquid film thickness, convective heat transfer coefficient, and dryout length have been calculated. Among the considered nano particles, Al2O3 and TiO2 because of providing more amounts of heat transfer along with longer lengths of dryout found as the most appropriate nanoparticles to achieve cooling objectives.

  10. Mapping debris flow susceptibility using analytical network process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... methods known as the analytical network process (ANP) is used to map the ..... ciated in any prospective way, through feedbacks ..... slide susceptibility by means of multivariate statistical .... and bivariate statistics: A case study in southern Italy;. Nat. ... combination applied to Tevankarai Stream Watershed,.

  11. Information-analytical support of management company cash flow

    OpenAIRE

    Golovko, V.; Mysaka, G.

    2010-01-01

    Article is dedicated to study of the actual questions of the improvement of the dataware and methodic of the economic analysis of the cash and flow in process of the optimization of management company financial resource.

  12. An analytical solution for the Marangoni mixed convection boundary layer flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, M. A.; Kimiaeifar, Amin; Rahimpour, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an analytical solution for a Marangoni mixed convection boundary layer flow is presented. A similarity transform reduces the Navier-Stokes equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved analytically by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM...... the convergence of the solution. The numerical solution of the similarity equations is developed and the results are in good agreement with the analytical results based on the HAM....

  13. Analytical simulations in the field of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1978-01-01

    Power reactors are designed with engineered safeguards to cope with the consequences of possible failures or malfunctions. Experiments are carried out to verify the analytical simulations used in the design of these engineered safeguards. The paper discusses the basis for the verification of the analytical simulations, the requirements of corresponding experiments used to validitate the analysis and the necessary boundary conditions of the experiment as well as of the reactor systems. A detailed description of a typical boundary condition for real reactor systems is shown to be important, if experimental observations are to be interpreted correctly. Finally, the question will be addressed whether experiments on a larger scale than 1/1000 or 1/100 are necessary to extrapolate experimental observatons to a full scale reactor situation. (author)

  14. A Unified Channel Charges Expression for Analytic MOSFET Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Murray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 1D Poissons equation resolution, we present an analytic model of inversion charges allowing calculation of the drain current and transconductance in the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. The drain current and transconductance are described by analytical functions including mobility corrections and short channel effects (CLM, DIBL. The comparison with the Pao-Sah integral shows excellent accuracy of the model in all inversion modes from strong to weak inversion in submicronics MOSFET. All calculations are encoded with a simple C program and give instantaneous results that provide an efficient tool for microelectronics users.

  15. MAR flow mapping of Analytical Chemistry Operations (Preliminary Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The recently released Supplemental Directive, NA-1 SD 1027, updates the radionuclide threshold values in DOE-STD-1027-92 CN1 to reflect the use of modern parameters for dose conversion factors and breathing rates. The directive also corrects several arithmetic errors within the original standard. The result is a roughly four-fold increase in the amount of weapons-grade nuclear material allowed within a designated radiological facility. Radiological laboratory space within the recently constructed Radiological Laboratory Office and Utility Building (RLUOB) is slated to house selected analytical chemistry support activities in addition to small-scale actinide R and D activities. RLUOB is within the same facility operations envelope as TA-55. Consolidation of analytical chemistry activities to RLUOB and PF-4 offers operational efficiency improvements relative to the current pre-CMRR plans of dividing these activities between RLUOB, PF-4, and CMR. RLUOB is considered a Radiological Facility under STD-1027 - 'Facilities that do not meet or exceed Category 3 threshold criteria but still possess some amount of radioactive material may be considered Radiological Facilities.' The supplemental directive essentially increases the allowable material-at-risk (MAR) within radiological facilities from 8.4 g to 38.6 g for 239 Pu. This increase in allowable MAR provides a unique opportunity to establish additional analytical chemistry support functions in RLUOB without negatively impacting either R and D activities or facility operations. Individual radiological facilities are tasked to determine MAR limits (up to the Category 3 thresholds) appropriate to their operational conditions. This study presents parameters that impact establishing MAR limits for RLUOB and an assessment of how various analytical chemistry support functions could operate within the established MAR limits.

  16. An analytical study on groundwater flow in drainage basins with horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Zhi; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong

    2014-06-01

    Analytical studies on release/capture zones are often limited to a uniform background groundwater flow. In fact, for basin-scale problems, the undulating water table would lead to the development of hierarchically nested flow systems, which are more complex than a uniform flow. Under the premise that the water table is a replica of undulating topography and hardly influenced by wells, an analytical solution of hydraulic head is derived for a two-dimensional cross section of a drainage basin with horizontal injection/pumping wells. Based on the analytical solution, distributions of hydraulic head, stagnation points and flow systems (including release/capture zones) are explored. The superposition of injection/pumping wells onto the background flow field leads to the development of new internal stagnation points and new flow systems (including release/capture zones). Generally speaking, the existence of n injection/pumping wells would result in up to n new internal stagnation points and up to 2n new flow systems (including release/capture zones). The analytical study presented, which integrates traditional well hydraulics with the theory of regional groundwater flow, is useful in understanding basin-scale groundwater flow influenced by human activities.

  17. On the Analytical Solution of Non-Orthogonal Stagnation Point Flow towards a Stretching Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Bagheri, G. H.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    An analytical solution for non-orthogonal stagnation point for the steady flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid is presented. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations for the flow field are reduced to ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations existed...... in the literature and are solved analytically by means of the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The comparison of results from this paper and those published in the literature confirms the precise accuracy of the HAM. The resulting analytical equation from HAM is valid for entire physical domain and effective...

  18. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Kaoui, B.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Toschi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles.

  19. Developing Semi-Analytical solutions for Saint-Venant Equations in the Uniform Flow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Heidari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsteady flow in irrigation systems is the result of operations in response to changes in water demand that affect the hydraulic performance networks. The increased hydraulic performance needed to recognize unsteady flow and quantify the factors affecting it. Unsteady flow in open channels is governed by the fully dynamic Saint Venant equation, which express the principles of conservation of mass and momentum. Unsteady flow in open channels can be classified into two types: routing and operation-type problems. In the routing problems, The Saint Venant equations are solved to get the discharge and water level in the time series. Also, they are used in the operation problem to compute the inflow at the upstream section of the channel according to the prescribed downstream flow hydrographs. The Saint Venant equation has no analytical solution and in the majority cases of such methods use numerical integration of continuity and momentum equations, and are characterized by complicated numerical procedures that are not always convenient for carrying out practical engineering calculations. Therefore, approximate methods deserve attention since they would allow the solution of dynamic problems in analytical form with enough exactness. There are effective methods for automatic controller synthesis in control theory that provide the required performance optimization. It is therefore important to get simplified models of irrigation canals for control design. It would be even more interesting to have linear models that explicitly depend on physical parameters. Such models would allow one to, handle the dynamics of the system with fewer parameters, understand the impact of physical parameters on the dynamics, and facilitate the development a systematic design method. Many analytical models have been proposed in the literature, Most of them have been obtained in the frequency domain by applying Laplace transform to linearized Saint

  20. Transient flow between aquifers and surface water: analytically derived field-scale hydraulic heads and fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. de Rooij

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of catchment-scale and basin-scale models of the hydrological cycle makes it desirable to have a simple, yet physically realistic model for lateral subsurface water flow. As a first building block towards such a model, analytical solutions are presented for horizontal groundwater flow to surface waters held at prescribed water levels for aquifers with parallel and radial flow. The solutions are valid for a wide array of initial and boundary conditions and additions or withdrawals of water, and can handle discharge into as well as lateral infiltration from the surface water. Expressions for the average hydraulic head, the flux to or from the surface water, and the aquifer-scale hydraulic conductivity are developed to provide output at the scale of the modelled system rather than just point-scale values. The upscaled conductivity is time-variant. It does not depend on the magnitude of the flux but is determined by medium properties as well as the external forcings that drive the flow. For the systems studied, with lateral travel distances not exceeding 10 m, the circular aquifers respond very differently from the infinite-strip aquifers. The modelled fluxes are sensitive to the magnitude of the storage coefficient. For phreatic aquifers a value of 0.2 is argued to be representative, but considerable variations are likely. The effect of varying distributions over the day of recharge damps out rapidly; a soil water model that can provide accurate daily totals is preferable over a less accurate model hat correctly estimates the timing of recharge peaks.

  1. An analytical model on thermal performance evaluation of counter flow wet cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analytical model for simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in a counter flow wet cooling tower, with the assumption that the enthalpy of the saturated air is a linear function of the water surface temperature. The performance of the proposed analytical model is validated in some typical cases. The validation reveals that, when cooling range is in a certain interval, the proposed model is not only comparable with the accurate model, but also can reduce computational complexity. In addition, with the proposed analytical model, the thermal performance of the counter flow wet cooling towers in power plants is calculated. The results show that the proposed analytical model can be applied to evaluate and predict the thermal performance of counter flow wet cooling towers.

  2. Semi-analytical Study of a One-dimensional Contaminant Flow in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The Bubnov-Galerkin weighted residual method was used to solve a one- dimensional contaminant flow problem in this paper. The governing equation of the contaminant flow, which is characterized by advection, dispersion and adsorption was discretized and solved to obtain the semi-analytical solution.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  4. An analytical solution for Dean flow in curved ducts with rectangular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, M.; Biglari, N.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a full analytical solution for incompressible flow inside the curved ducts with rectangular cross-section is presented for the first time. The perturbation method is applied to solve the governing equations and curvature ratio is considered as the perturbation parameter. The previous perturbation solutions are usually restricted to the flow in curved circular or annular pipes related to the overly complex form of solutions or singularity situation for flow in curved ducts with non-circular shapes of cross section. This issue specifies the importance of analytical studies in the field of Dean flow inside the non-circular ducts. In this study, the main flow velocity, stream function of lateral velocities (secondary flows), and flow resistance ratio in rectangular curved ducts are obtained analytically. The effect of duct curvature and aspect ratio on flow field is investigated as well. Moreover, it is important to mention that the current analytical solution is able to simulate the Taylor-Görtler and Dean vortices (vortices in stable and unstable situations) in curved channels.

  5. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Kaoui, Badr; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; Toschi, Federico

    2012-07-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect: it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnett limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead, which should lead toward robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement, is discussed.

  6. Analytic expressions for polarimetry in plasma with large Cotton endash Mouton or Faraday effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic expressions for plasma polarimetry are derived for the case when either the Cotton endash Mouton effect or the Faraday effect is large while the other effect is small. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Analytical treatment of gas flows through multilayer insulation, project 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of gas flow inside a multilayer insulation system was made for the case of the broadside pumping process. A set of simultaneous first-order differential equations for the temperature and pressure of the gas molecules through the perforations on the insulation layers. A modified Runge-Kutta method was used for numerical experiment. The numerical stability problem was also investigated. It was shown that when the relaxation time is less than the time period over which the gas properties change appreciably, the set of differential equations can be replaced by a set of algebraic equations for solution. Numerical examples were given and comparisons with experimental data were made.

  8. Extension of analytical indicial aerodynamics to generic trapezoidal wings in subsonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DA RONCH

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytical indicial aerodynamic functions are calculated for several trapezoidal wings in subsonic flow, with a Mach number 0.3 ≤ Ma ≤ 0.7. The formulation herein proposed extends well-known aerodynamic theories, which are limited to thin aerofoils in incompressible flow, to generic trapezoidal wing planforms. Firstly, a thorough study is executed to assess the accuracy and limitation of analytical predictions, using unsteady results from two state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics solvers as cross-validated benchmarks. Indicial functions are calculated for a step change in the angle of attack and for a sharp-edge gust, each for four wing configurations and three Mach numbers. Then, analytical and computational indicial responses are used to predict dynamic derivatives and the maximum lift coefficient following an encounter with a one-minus-cosine gust. It is found that the analytical results are in excellent agreement with the computational results for all test cases. In particular, the deviation of the analytical results from the computational results is within the scatter or uncertainty in the data arising from using two computational fluid dynamics solvers. This indicates the usefulness of the developed analytical theories. Keywords: Analytical approach, CFD, Compressible flow, Gust response, Indicial aerodynamics, Trapezoidal wing

  9. Hepatocyte-based flow analytical bioreactor for xenobiotics metabolism bioprediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Helvenstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research for new in vitro screening tools for predictive metabolic profiling of drug candidates is of major interest in the pharmaceutical field. The main motivation is to avoid late rejection in drug development and to deliver safer drugs to the market. Thanks to the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, a flow bioreactor has been developed which is able to perform xenobiotic metabolism studies. The selected cell line (HepaRG maintained its metabolic competencies once iron oxide nanoparticles were internalized. Based on magnetically trapped cells in a homemade immobilization chamber, through which a flow of circulating phase was injected to transport nutrients and/or the studied xenobiotic, off-line and online (when coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography chain metabolic assays were developed using diclofenac as a reference compound. The diclofenac demonstrated a similar metabolization profile chromatogram, both with the newly developed setup and with the control situation. Highly versatile, this pioneering and innovative instrumental design paves the way for a new approach in predictive metabolism studies.

  10. The derivation of the analytic expressions of the dynamical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... expressions of the dynamical susceptibility of the spin system, by setting up the equation of motion and solving it in a generalized HFA of the susceptibility tensor, Χ-+, and quoting the result for the first derivative of the Green's function. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 579-582 ...

  11. Analytical expressions for transition edge sensor excess noise models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Daniel; Fraser, George W.

    2010-01-01

    Transition edge sensors (TESs) are high-sensitivity thermometers used in cryogenic microcalorimeters which exploit the steep gradient in resistivity with temperature during the superconducting phase transition. Practical TES devices tend to exhibit a white noise of uncertain origin, arising inside the device. We discuss two candidate models for this excess noise, phase slip shot noise (PSSN) and percolation noise. We extend the existing PSSN model to include a magnetic field dependence and derive a basic analytical model for percolation noise. We compare the predicted functional forms of the noise current vs. resistivity curves of both models with experimental data and provide a set of equations for both models to facilitate future experimental efforts to clearly identify the source of excess noise.

  12. A two-dimensional analytical well model with applications to groundwater flow and convective transport modelling in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Nakka, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A two-dimensional analytical well model has been developed to describe steady groundwater flow in an idealized, confined aquifer intersected by a withdrawal well. The aquifer comprises a low-dipping fracture zone. The model is useful for making simple quantitative estimates of the transport of contaminants along groundwater pathways in the fracture zone to the well from an underground source that intercepts the fracture zone. This report documents the mathematical development of the analytical well model. It outlines the assumptions and method used to derive an exact analytical solution, which is verified by two other methods. It presents expressions for calculating quantities such as streamlines (groundwater flow paths), fractional volumetric flow rates, contaminant concentration in well water and minimum convective travel time to the well. In addition, this report presents the results of applying the analytical model to a site-specific conceptual model of the Whiteshell Research Area in southeastern Manitoba, Canada. This hydrogeological model includes the presence of a 20-m-thick, low-dipping (18 deg) fracture zone (LD1) that intercepts the horizon of a hypothetical disposal vault located at a depth of 500 m. A withdrawal well intercepts LD1 between the vault level and the ground surface. Predictions based on parameters and boundary conditions specific to LD1 are presented graphically. The analytical model has specific applications in the SYVAC geosphere model (GEONET) to calculate the fraction of a plume of contaminants moving up the fracture zone that is captured by the well, and to describe the drawdown in the hydraulic head in the fracture zone caused by the withdrawal well. (author). 16 refs., 6 tabs., 35 figs

  13. Five-point Element Scheme of Finite Analytic Method for Unsteady Groundwater Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Bo; Mi Xiao; Ji Changming; Luo Qingsong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the finite analytic method's adaptability for irregular unit, by using coordinates rotation technique this paper establishes a five-point element scheme of finite analytic method. It not only solves unsteady groundwater flow equation but also gives the boundary condition. This method can be used to calculate the three typical questions of groundwater. By compared with predecessor's computed result, the result of this method is more satisfactory.

  14. Fluid-elastic instability in a confined annular flow: an experimental and analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcher, G.; Langre, E. de

    1996-12-31

    Self excitation of slender structures under axial flow have been reported in a large variety of local flow configurations. This paper reports the result of a research program, both experimental and analytical, aimed at the result of the basic phenomena leading to such instabilities. A cylindrical body with a diffuser is put in a confined annular flow of water. A case of flutter is observed and analysed with a classical potential flow method and with a friction based model. Closed-form solutions are proposed and the origin of the flutter instability is discussed. (authors). 25 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Analytical expression for the nonsinglet structure functions at small x in the double logarithmic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lublinsky, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the nonsinglet structure function f NS is given. The expression is derived from the result of Ermolaev, Manaenkov, and Ryskin obtained by low x resummation of the quark ladder diagrams in the double logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD

  16. Analytical Solution for 2D Inter-Well Porous Flow in a Rectangular Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-well fluid flows through porous media are commonly encountered in the production of groundwater, oil, and geothermal energy. In this paper, inter-well porous flow inside a rectangular reservoir is solved based on the complex variable function theory combined with the method of mirror images. In order to derive the solution analytically, the inter-well flow is modeled as a 2D flow in a homogenous and isotropic porous medium. The resulted exact analytical solution takes the form of an infinite series, but it can be truncated to give high accuracy approximation. In terms of nine cases of inter-well porous flow associated with enhanced geothermal systems, the applications of the obtained analytical solution are demonstrated, and the convergence properties of the truncated series are investigated. It is shown that the convergent rate of the truncated series increases with the symmetric level of well distribution inside the reservoir, and the adoption of Euler transform significantly accelerates the convergence of alternating series cases associated with asymmetric well distribution. In principle, the analytical solution proposed in this paper can be applied to other scientific and engineering fields, as long as the involved problem is governed by 2D Laplace equation in a rectangular domain and subject to similar source/sink and boundary conditions, i.e., isolated point sources/sinks and uniform Dirichlet or homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions.

  17. Simple analytical expression for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the mode coupling coe cient in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is derived, which has a sim- ple relationship with the one in normal step-index structures. The amount of inter-core crosstalk reduction (in dB) with trench-assisted structures compared...... to the one with normal step-index structures can then be written by a simple expression. Comparison with numerical simulations confirms that the obtained analytical expression has very good accuracy for crosstalk estimation. The crosstalk properties in trench-assisted multi-core fibers, such as crosstalk...... dependence on core pitch and wavelength-dependent crosstalk, can be obtained by this simple analytical expression....

  18. An analytical solution to the heat transfer problem in thick-walled hunt flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluck, Michael J; Wolfendale, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Convective heat transfer in Hunt type flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct. • Analytical solution to the H1 constant peripheral temperature in a rectangular duct. • New H1 result demonstrating the enhancement of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Analytical solution to the H2 constant peripheral heat flux in a rectangular duct. • New H2 result demonstrating the reduction of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Results are important for validation of CFD in magnetohydrodynamics and for implementation of systems code approaches. - Abstract: The flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct, subject to a strong transverse magnetic field is of interest in a number of applications. An important application of such flows is in the context of coolants in fusion reactors, where heat is transferred to a lead-lithium eutectic. It is vital, therefore, that the heat transfer mechanisms are understood. Forced convection heat transfer is strongly dependent on the flow profile. In the hydrodynamic case, Nusselt numbers and the like, have long been well characterised in duct geometries. In the case of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields (magnetohydrodynamics), the flow profiles are very different and one can expect a concomitant effect on convective heat transfer. For fully developed laminar flows, the magnetohydrodynamic problem can be characterised in terms of two coupled partial differential equations. The problem of heat transfer for perfectly electrically insulating boundaries (Shercliff case) has been studied previously (Bluck et al., 2015). In this paper, we demonstrate corresponding analytical solutions for the case of conducting hartmann walls of arbitrary thickness. The flow is very different from the Shercliff case, exhibiting jets near the side walls and core flow suppression which have profound effects on heat transfer.

  19. Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the 'flow monograms' describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the 'interface monograms', whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system 'operational monogram'. The 'operational monogram' enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop

  20. Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1995-09-01

    The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.

  1. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, V.

    2013-01-25

    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, V.; Schotting, R.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Analytical Solution of Unsteady Gravity Flows of A Power-Law Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present an analytical study of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The governing equations are derived and similarity solutions are determined. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the viscosity is temperature ...

  4. Analytical method for predicting plastic flow in notched fiber composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, P.L.; Ebert, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical system was developed for prediction of the onset and progress of plastic flow of oriented fiber composite materials in which both externally applied complex stress states and stress raisers were present. The predictive system was a unique combination of two numerical systems, the ''SAAS II'' finite element analysis system and a micromechanics finite element program. The SAAS II system was used to generate the three-dimensional stress distributions, which were used as the input into the finite element micromechanics program. Appropriate yielding criteria were then applied to this latter program. The accuracy of the analytical system was demonstrated by the agreement between the analytically predicted and the experimentally measured flow values of externally notched tungsten wire reinforced copper oriented fiber composites, in which the fiber fraction was 50 vol pct

  5. Analytical expression for initial magnetization curve of Fe-based soft magnetic composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birčáková, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.bircakova@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Kollár, Peter; Füzer, Ján [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Bureš, Radovan; Fáberová, Mária [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-02-01

    The analytical expression for the initial magnetization curve for Fe-phenolphormaldehyde resin composite material was derived based on the already proposed ideas of the magnetization vector deviation function and the domain wall annihilation function, characterizing the reversible magnetization processes through the extent of deviation of magnetization vectors from magnetic field direction and the irreversible processes through the effective numbers of movable domain walls, respectively. As for composite materials the specific dependences of these functions were observed, the ideas were extended meeting the composites special features, which are principally the much higher inner demagnetizing fields produced by magnetic poles on ferromagnetic particle surfaces. The proposed analytical expression enables us to find the relative extent of each type of magnetization processes when magnetizing a specimen along the initial curve. - Highlights: • Analytical expression of the initial curve derived for SMC. • Initial curve described by elementary magnetization processes. • Influence of inner demagnetizing fields on magnetization process in SMC.

  6. Experimental and Analytical Study of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitrian; Dostal, Vaclav; Takahashi, Minoru

    The characteristics of lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi)-water boiling two-phase flow were investigated experimentally and analytically using a Pb-Bi-water direct contact boiling two-phase flow loop. Pb-Bi flow rates and void fraction were measured in a vertical circular tube at conditions of system pressure 7MPa, liquid metal temperature 460°C and injected water temperature 220°C. The drift-flux model with the assumption that bubble sizes were dependent on the fluid surface tension and the density ratio of Pb-Bi to steam-water mixture was chosen and modified by the best fit to the measured void fraction. Pb-Bi flow rates were analytically estimated using balance condition between buoyancy force and pressure losses, where the buoyancy force was calculated from void fraction estimated using the modified drift-flux model. The deviation of the analytical results of the flow rates from the experimental ones was less than 10%.

  7. An analytic, approximate method for modeling steady, three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2001-05-01

    An analytic, approximate solution is derived for the modeling of three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells. The solution is written in terms of a correction on the solution for a fully penetrating well and is obtained by dividing the aquifer up, locally, in a number of aquifer layers. The resulting system of differential equations is solved by application of the theory for multiaquifer flow. The presented approach has three major benefits. First, the solution may be applied to any groundwater model that can simulate flow to a fully penetrating well; the solution may be superimposed onto the solution for the fully penetrating well to simulate the local three-dimensional drawdown and flow field. Second, the approach is applicable to isotropic, anisotropic, and stratified aquifers and to both confined and unconfined flow. Third, the solution extends over a small area around the well only; outside this area the three-dimensional effect of the partially penetrating well is negligible, and no correction to the fully penetrating well is needed. A number of comparisons are made to existing three-dimensional, analytic solutions, including radial confined and unconfined flow and a well in a uniform flow field. It is shown that a subdivision in three layers is accurate for many practical cases; very accurate solutions are obtained with more layers.

  8. Analytical evaluation of two-phase natural circulation flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical method of evaluating the effects of design and operating parameters on the low-pressure two-phase natural circulation flow through the annular shaped gap at the reactor vessel exterior surface heated by corium (molten core) relocated to the reactor vessel lower plenum after loss of coolant accidents. A natural circulation flow velocity equation derived from steady-state mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for homogeneous two-phase flow is numerically solved for the core melting conditions of the APR1400 reactor. The solution is compared with existing experiments which measured natural circulation flow through the annular gap slice model. Two kinds of parameters are considered for this analytical method. One is the thermal-hydraulic conditions such as thermal power of corium, pressure and inlet subcooling. The others are those for the thermal insulation system design for the purpose of providing natural circulation flow path outside the reactor vessel: inlet flow area, annular gap clearance and system resistance. A computer program NCIRC is developed for the numerical solution of the implicit flow velocity equation.

  9. An analytical model for prediction of two-phase (noncondensable) flow pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, O.

    1985-01-01

    During operational transients or a hypothetical LOCA (loss of coolant accident) condition, the recirculating coolant of PWR (pressurized water reactor) may flash into steam due to a loss of line pressure. Under such two-phase flow conditions, it is well known that the recirculation pump becomes unable to generate the same head as that of the single-phase flow case. Similar situations also exist in oil well submersible pumps where a fair amount of gas is contained in oil. Based on the one dimensional control volume method, an analytical method has been developed to determine the performance of pumps operating under two-phase flow conditions. The analytical method has incorporated pump geometry, void fraction, flow slippage and flow regime into the basic formula, but neglected the compressibility and condensation effects. During the course of model development, it has been found that the head degradation is mainly caused by higher acceleration on liquid phase and deceleration on gas phase than in the case of single-phase flows. The numerical results for head degradations and torques obtained with the model favorably compared with the air/water two-phase flow test data of Babcock and Wilcox (1/3 scale) and Creare (1/20 scale) pumps

  10. Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Safia, E-mail: safia_akram@yahoomail.com [Department of Basic Sciences, Military College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan); Nadeem, S. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hanif, M. [Department of Basic Sciences, Military College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper the effects of induced magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of a Williamson fluid model in an asymmetric channel has been investigated. The problem is simplified by using long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The perturbation and numerical solutions have been presented. The expressions for pressure rise, pressure gradient, stream function, magnetic force function, current density distribution have been computed. The results of pertinent parameters have been discussed graphically. The trapping phenomena for different wave forms have been also discussed. - highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. In literature no attempt is taken to discuss the lateral Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. • We do not want to fill the gap in literature after studying this.

  11. Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Safia; Nadeem, S.; Hanif, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the effects of induced magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of a Williamson fluid model in an asymmetric channel has been investigated. The problem is simplified by using long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The perturbation and numerical solutions have been presented. The expressions for pressure rise, pressure gradient, stream function, magnetic force function, current density distribution have been computed. The results of pertinent parameters have been discussed graphically. The trapping phenomena for different wave forms have been also discussed. - highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. In literature no attempt is taken to discuss the lateral Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. • We do not want to fill the gap in literature after studying this

  12. Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, S.

    2003-01-01

    We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed.......We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed....

  13. Analytical study on coolant temperature of several leak flows in the experimental VHTr core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoh; Arai, Taketoshi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1982-08-01

    This report describes heat transfer analysis of several leak flows which bypass main coolant flow path in the experimental VHTR core. The analysis contains the leak flow at permanent reflectors, replaceable reflectors and gaps between fuel columns. The summary of the results are as follows: (1) the temperature of the leak flow gas increases up to the surface temperature of permanent reflectors, (2) the gas temperature at replaceable reflectors increases at least 40 0 C in case of the worst analytical condition, (3) the gas temperature increases remarkably with decreasing equivalent diameter which is changed by the angle of bevel edge of the reflector, (4) while the gas temperature is low at the upper part of the fuel element, the temperature increases rapidly when it flow down along the gap of the fuel columns. (author)

  14. Time-Domain Analytical Expression for Near Fields of Arbitrarily Oriented Electric Dipole and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The near fields of electric dipole are commonly used in wide-band analysis of complex electromagnetic problems. In this paper, we propose new near field time-domain expressions for electric dipole. The analytical expressions for the frequency-domain of arbitrarily oriented electric dipole are given at first; next we give the time-domain expressions by time-frequency transformation. The proposed expressions are used in hybrid TDIE/DGTD method for analysis of circular antenna with radome. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified by numerical examples.

  15. Analytical expressions for time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence experiments in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Lawless, J.; Chen, R.; Chithambo, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals can be obtained using a time-resolved optical stimulation (TR-OSL) method, also known as pulsed OSL. During TR-OSL measurements, the stimulation and emission of luminescence are experimentally separated in time using short light pulses. This paper presents analytical expressions for the TR-OSL intensity observed during and after such a pulse in quartz experiments. The analytical expressions are derived using a recently published kinetic model which describes thermal quenching phenomena in quartz samples. In addition, analytical expressions are derived for the concentration of electrons in the conduction band during and after the TR-OSL pulse, and for the maximum signals attained during optical stimulation of the samples. The relevance of the model for dosimetric applications is examined, by studying the dependence of the maximum TR-OSL signals on the degree of initial trap filling, and also on the probability of electron retrapping into the dosimetric trap. Analytical expressions are derived for two characteristic times of the TR-OSL mechanism; these times are the relaxation time for electrons in the conduction band, and the corresponding relaxation time for the radiative transition within the luminescence center. The former relaxation time is found to depend on several experimental parameters, while the latter relaxation time depends only on internal parameters characteristic of the recombination center. These differences between the two relaxation times can be explained by the presence of localized and delocalized transitions in the quartz sample. The analytical expressions in this paper are shown to be equivalent to previous analytical expressions derived using a different mathematical approach. A description of thermal quenching processes in quartz based on AlO 4 - /AlO 4 defects is presented, which illustrates the connection between the different descriptions of the luminescence process found in the literature

  16. Analytical and experimental investigations of magnetohydrodynamic flows near the entrance to a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Dauzvardis, P.V.; Walker, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A program of analytical and experimental investigations in MHD flows has been established at Argonne National Lab. (ANL) within the framework of the Blanket Technology Program. An experimental facility for such investigations has been built and is being operated at ANL. The investigations carried out on the Argonne Liquid-Metal engineering EXperiment (ALEX) are complemented by analysis carried out at the Univ. of Illinois. The first phase of the experimental program is devoted to investigations of well-defined cases for which analytical solutions exist. Such testing will allow validation and increased confidence in the theory. Because analytical solutions exist for only a few cases, which do not cover the entire range of anticipated flow behavior, confining testing to these cases will not be an adequate validation of the theory. For this reason, this phase involves testing and a companion analytical effort aimed toward obtaining solutions for a broad range of cases, which, although simple in geometry, are believed to encompass the range of flow phenomena relevant to fusion. This parallel approach is necessary so that analysis will guide and help plan the experiments, whereas the experimental results will provide information needed to validate and/or refine the analysis

  17. Facial Expression Recognition Based on TensorFlow Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiao-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition have a wide range of applications in human-machine interaction, pattern recognition, image understanding, machine vision and other fields. Recent years, it has gradually become a hot research. However, different people have different ways of expressing their emotions, and under the influence of brightness, background and other factors, there are some difficulties in facial expression recognition. In this paper, based on the Inception-v3 model of TensorFlow platform, we use the transfer learning techniques to retrain facial expression dataset (The Extended Cohn-Kanade dataset, which can keep the accuracy of recognition and greatly reduce the training time.

  18. Analytical expression for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung background in high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S; Brahme, A.

    1995-01-01

    Qualification of the bremsstrahlung photon background generated by an electron beam in a phantom is important for accurate high energy electron beam dosimetry in radiation therapy. An analytical expression has been derived for the background of phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane parallel electron beams normally incident on phantoms of any atomic number between 4 and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U). The expression can be used with fairly good accuracy in the energy range between 1 and 50 MeV. The expression is globally based on known scattering power and radiation and collision stopping power data for the phantom material at the mean energy of the incident electrons. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated in the phantom is derived by folding the bremsstrahlung energy fluence with a simple analytical one-dimensional photon energy deposition kernel. The energy loss of the primary electrons and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are taken into account in the analytical formula. The photon energy deposition kernel is used to account for the bremsstrahlung produced at one depth that will contribute to the down stream dose. A simple analytical expression for photon energy deposition kernel is consistent with the classical analytical relation describing the photon depth dose distribution. From the surface to the practical range the photon dose increases almost linearly due to accumulation and buildup of the photon produced at different phantom layers. At depths beyond the practical range a simple exponential function can be use to describe the bremsstrahlung attenuation in the phantom. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated distributions using ITS3 Monte Carlo Code were used. Good agreement is found between the analytical expression and Monte Carlo calculation. Deviations of 5% from Monte Carlo calculated bremmstrahlung background are observed for high atomic number materials. The method can

  19. Electro-osmotic and pressure-driven flow of viscoelastic fluids in microchannels: Analytical and semi-analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrás, L. L.; Afonso, A. M.; Alves, M. A.; Nóbrega, J. M.; Pinho, F. T.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a series of solutions for combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven flows of viscoelastic fluids in microchannels. The solutions are semi-analytical, a feature made possible by the use of the Debye-Hückel approximation for the electrokinetic fields, thus restricted to cases with small electric double-layers, in which the distance between the microfluidic device walls is at least one order of magnitude larger than the electric double-layer thickness. To describe the complex fluid rheology, several viscoelastic differential constitutive models were used, namely, the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model with linear, quadratic or exponential kernel for the stress coefficient function, the Johnson-Segalman model, and the Giesekus model. The results obtained illustrate the effects of the Weissenberg number, the Johnson-Segalman slip parameter, the Giesekus mobility parameter, and the relative strengths of the electro-osmotic and pressure gradient-driven forcings on the dynamics of these viscoelastic flows.

  20. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal; Wibowo, Aris T.; Rahmawati, Silvya D.; Yasutra, Amega; Sukarno, Pudjo

    2017-01-01

    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  1. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal

    2017-10-17

    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  2. Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.

  3. An analytical evaluation for the pressure drop characteristics of bottom nozzle flow holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S. G.; Kim, H. J.; Lim, H. T.; Park, E. J.; Jeon, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical evaluation for the bottom nozzle flow holes was performed to find a best design concept in terms of pressure drop. For this analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), FLUENT 5.5, code was selected as an analytical evaluation tool. The applicability of CFD code was verified by benchmarking study with Vibration Investigation of Small-scale Test Assemblies (VISTA) test data in several flow conditions and typical flow hole shape. From this verification, the analytical data were benchmarked roughly within 17% to the VISTA test data. And, overall trend under various flow conditions looked very similar between both cases. Based on the evaluated results using CFD code, it is concluded that the deburring and multiple chamfer hole features at leading edge are the excellent design concept to decrease pressure drop across bottom nozzle plate. The deburring and multiple chamfer hole features at leading edge on the bottom nozzle plate have 12% and 17% pressure drop benefit against a single chamfer hole feature on the bottom nozzle plate, respectively. These design features are meaningful and applicable as a low pressure drop design concept of bottom nozzle for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly

  4. Analytic Expression of Arbitrary Matrix Elements for Boson Exponential Quadratic Polynomial Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiu-Wei; REN Ting-Qi; LIU Shu-Yan; MA Qiu-Ming; LIU Sheng-Dian

    2007-01-01

    Making use of the transformation relation among usual, normal, and antinormal ordering for the multimode boson exponential quadratic polynomial operators (BEQPO's), we present the analytic expression of arbitrary matrix elements for BEQPO's. As a preliminary application, we obtain the exact expressions of partition function about the boson quadratic polynomial system, matrix elements in particle-number, coordinate, and momentum representation, and P representation for the BEQPO's.

  5. Analytical expressions for two-nucleon transfer spectroscopic factors in sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical expressions for two-nucleon (l = 0,2 and 4) transfer spectroscopic factors are derived in the SU sdg (3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model. In addition, large N (boson number) limit expressions for the ratio of summed l = 0 transfer strength to excited 0 + states to that of ground state are derived in all the symmetry limits of the sdg model. Some comparisons with data are made. (author)

  6. Analytical expressions for two-nucleon transfer spectroscopic factors in sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B. (Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India))

    1991-11-01

    Analytical expressions for two-nucleon (l = 0,2 and 4) transfer spectroscopic factors are derived in the SU{sub sdg}(3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model. In addition, large N (boson number) limit expressions for the ratio of summed l = 0 transfer strength to excited 0{sup +} states to that of ground state are derived in all the symmetry limits of the sdg model. Some comparisons with data are made. (author).

  7. Experimental and analytical investigations of granular materials: Shear flow and convective heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hojin

    1989-12-01

    Granular materials flowing down an inclined chute were studied experimentally and analytically. Characteristics of convective heat transfer to granular flows were also investigated experimentally and numerically. Experiments on continuous, steady flows of granular materials in an inclined chute were conducted with the objectives of understanding the characteristics of chute flows and of acquiring information on the rheological behavior of granular material flow. Existing constitutive equations and governing equations were used to solve for fully developed chute flows of granular materials, and thus the boundary value problem was formulated with two parameters (the coefficient of restitution between particles, and the chute inclination) and three boundary values at the chute base wall (the values of solid fraction, granular temperature, and mean velocity at the wall). The boundary value problem was numerically solved by the shooting method. These analytical results were also compared with the present experimental values and with the computer simulations by other investigators in their literature. Experiments on heat transfer to granular flows over a flat heating plate were conducted with three sizes of glass beads, polystyrene beads, and mustard seeds. A modification on the existing model for the convective heat transfer was made using the effective Nusselt number and the effective Peclet number, which include the effects of solid fraction variations. The slightly modified model could describe the heat transfer characteristics of both fast and slow flows (supercritical and subcritical). A numerical analysis of the transfer to granular flows was also performed. The results were compared with the present experimental data, and reasonable agreement was found in the comparison.

  8. The Role of Nanoparticle Design in Determining Analytical Performance of Lateral Flow Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li; Guo, Shuang-Zhuang; Song, Fayi; Gong, Yan; Xu, Feng; Boulware, David R; McAlpine, Michael C; Chan, Warren C W; Bischof, John C

    2017-12-13

    Rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostics are needed to improve healthcare at the point of care (POC). However, the most widely used POC diagnostic, the lateral flow immunoassay (LFA), is ∼1000-times less sensitive and has a smaller analytical range than laboratory tests, requiring a confirmatory test to establish truly negative results. Here, a rational and systematic strategy is used to design the LFA contrast label (i.e., gold nanoparticles) to improve the analytical sensitivity, analytical detection range, and antigen quantification of LFAs. Specifically, we discovered that the size (30, 60, or 100 nm) of the gold nanoparticles is a main contributor to the LFA analytical performance through both the degree of receptor interaction and the ultimate visual or thermal contrast signals. Using the optimal LFA design, we demonstrated the ability to improve the analytical sensitivity by 256-fold and expand the analytical detection range from 3 log 10 to 6 log 10 for diagnosing patients with inflammatory conditions by measuring C-reactive protein. This work demonstrates that, with appropriate design of the contrast label, a simple and commonly used diagnostic technology can compete with more expensive state-of-the-art laboratory tests.

  9. Analytical Expressions of Matrix Elements of Physical Quantities for Dirac Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; JU Guo-Xing; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2004-01-01

    The analytical expressions of the matrix elements for physical quantities are obtained for the Dirac oscillator in two and three spatial dimensions. Their behaviour for the case of operator's square is discussed in details. The twodimensional Dirac oscillator has similar behavior to that for three-dimensional one.

  10. Analytical Expressions for Harmonic Distortion at Low Frequencies due to Device Mismatch in CMOS Current Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    One of the origins of harmonic distortion in current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the mirror transistors. In this brief we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop analytical expressions for the mismatch induced harmonic distortion. ...

  11. Tests of the TRAC code against known analytical solutions for stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, P.S.; Leslie, D.C.; Hewitt, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The area averaged equations for gas-liquid flow are briefly summarized and related, for the specific case of stratified flow, to the shallow water equations commonly used in hydraulics. These equations are then compared to the equations used in TRAC-PF/MOD1 and are shown to differ in their treatment of the gravity head terms. A modification of the TRAC code is therefore necessary to bring it into line with established shallow water theory. The corrected form of the code was compared with a number of specific cases, each of which throws further light on the code behavior. The following areas are discussed in the paper: (1) the dam break problem; (2) Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; (3) counter-current flow; and (4) slug flow. It is concluded that detailed comparisons of the code with known analytic solutions and with a number of the more complex phenomenological experiments can give useful insights into its behavior

  12. Analytical and grid-free solutions to the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model

    KAUST Repository

    Mazaré , Pierre Emmanuel; Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Claudel, Christian G.; Bayen, Alexandre M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we propose a computational method for solving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) partial differential equation (PDE) semi-analytically for arbitrary piecewise-constant initial and boundary conditions, and for arbitrary concave fundamental diagrams. With these assumptions, we show that the solution to the LWR PDE at any location and time can be computed exactly and semi-analytically for a very low computational cost using the cumulative number of vehicles formulation of the problem. We implement the proposed computational method on a representative traffic flow scenario to illustrate the exactness of the analytical solution. We also show that the proposed scheme can handle more complex scenarios including traffic lights or moving bottlenecks. The computational cost of the method is very favorable, and is compared with existing algorithms. A toolbox implementation available for public download is briefly described, and posted at http://traffic.berkeley.edu/project/downloads/lwrsolver. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Analytical and grid-free solutions to the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model

    KAUST Repository

    Mazaré, Pierre Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we propose a computational method for solving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) partial differential equation (PDE) semi-analytically for arbitrary piecewise-constant initial and boundary conditions, and for arbitrary concave fundamental diagrams. With these assumptions, we show that the solution to the LWR PDE at any location and time can be computed exactly and semi-analytically for a very low computational cost using the cumulative number of vehicles formulation of the problem. We implement the proposed computational method on a representative traffic flow scenario to illustrate the exactness of the analytical solution. We also show that the proposed scheme can handle more complex scenarios including traffic lights or moving bottlenecks. The computational cost of the method is very favorable, and is compared with existing algorithms. A toolbox implementation available for public download is briefly described, and posted at http://traffic.berkeley.edu/project/downloads/lwrsolver. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Comparison of analytic models of instability of rarefied gas flow in a channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenova, Olga A. [St.-Petersburg State University, Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, 198504, Universitetskiy pr., 28, Peterhof, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khalidov, Iskander A. [St.-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, 195251, Polytechnicheskaya ul., 29, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    Numerical and analytical results are compared concerning the limit properties of the trajectories, attractors and bifurcations of rarefied gas flows in channels. The cascade of bifurcations obtained in our previous analytical and numerical investigations is simulated numerically for different scattering functions V generalizing the ray-diffuse reflection of gas particles from the surface. The main purpose of numerical simulation by Monte Carlo method is the investigation of the properties of different analytic nonlinear dynamic systems corresponding to rarefied gas flow in a channel. The results are compared as well for the models suggested originally by R. N. Miroshin, as for the approximations considered for the first time or for studied in our subsequent papers. Analytical solutions we obtained earlier for the ray reflection which means only one determined velocity of scattered from the walls gas atoms, generally different from the specular reflection. The nonlinear iterative equation describing a rarefied gas flow in a long channel becomes unstable in some regions of corresponding parameters of V (it means the sensitivity to boundary conditions). The values of the parameters are found from analytical approximations in these regions. Numerical results show that the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear dynamic system corresponds to strange attractors and distinguishes clearly from Maxwellian distribution and from the equilibrium on the whole. In the regions of instability (as the dimension of the attractor increases) the search for a corresponding state requires a lot more computation time and a lot of data (the amount of data required increases exponentially with embedding dimension). Therefore the main complication in the computation is reducing as well the computing time as the amount of data to find a suitably close solution. To reduce the computing time our analytical results are applied. Flow conditions satisfying the requirements to the experiment are

  15. Analytical and numerical study of electroosmotic slip flows of fractional second grade fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Qi, Haitao; Yu, Bo; Xiong, Zhen; Xu, Huanying

    2017-09-01

    This work investigates the unsteady electroosmotic slip flow of viscoelastic fluid through a parallel plate micro-channel under combined influence of electroosmotic and pressure gradient forcings with asymmetric zeta potentials at the walls. The generalized second grade fluid with fractional derivative was used for the constitutive equation. The Navier slip model with different slip coefficients at both walls was also considered. By employing the Debye-Hückel linearization and the Laplace and sin-cos-Fourier transforms, the analytical solutions for the velocity distribution are derived. And the finite difference method for this problem was also given. Finally, the influence of pertinent parameters on the generation of flow is presented graphically.

  16. Three-dimensional analytic probabilities of coupled vibrational-rotational-translational energy transfer for DSMC modeling of nonequilibrium flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes

  17. Analytical solution for pulsatile viscous flow in a straight elliptic annulus and application to the motion of the cerebrospinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2008-09-01

    We present here the analytical solution of transient, laminar, viscous flow of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid driven by a harmonically oscillating pressure gradient in a straight elliptic annulus. The analytical formulation is based on the exact solution of the governing fluid flow equations known as Navier-Stokes equations. We validate the analytical solution using a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics approach. As the analytical solution includes Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions, we also present a stepwise procedure for their evaluation for large complex arguments typically associated with viscous flows. We further outline the procedure for evaluating the associated Fourier coefficients and their eigenvalues. We finally apply the analytical solution to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid flow in the human spinal cavity, which features a shape similar to an elliptic annulus.

  18. Analytical and numerical comparisons of the α parameter obtained from several expressions versus reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, E.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the analytical expressions between α-parameter and reactivity (rho) has been done in this article. Finally, several lineal approximations have been obtained for two important points of values. The analytical expansion has been made using only one family of precursors from delayed neutrons; diffusion equation in one energy groups; neutron flux separability with known spatial function. Numerical results have been obtained using typical data from fast and thermal reactors; considering and homogeneous media of Pu 239 in the first case, and U-235 in the second one. (author)

  19. A semi-analytical solution for slug tests in an unconfined aquifer considering unsaturated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    A semi-analytical solution considering the vertical unsaturated flow is developed for groundwater flow in response to a slug test in an unconfined aquifer in Laplace space. The new solution incorporates the effects of partial penetrating, anisotropy, vertical unsaturated flow, and a moving water table boundary. Compared to the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) model, the new solution can significantly improve the fittings of the modeled to the measured hydraulic heads at the late stage of slug tests in an unconfined aquifer, particularly when the slug well has a partially submerged screen and moisture drainage above the water table is significant. The radial hydraulic conductivities estimated with the new solution are comparable to those from the KGS, Bouwer and Rice, and Hvorslev methods. In addition, the new solution also can be used to examine the vertical conductivity, specific storage, specific yield, and the moisture retention parameters in an unconfined aquifer based on slug test data.

  20. Explicit analytical expression for the condition number of polynomials in power form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Heinz-Joachim

    2017-07-01

    In his influential papers [1-3] W. Gautschi has defined and reshaped the condition number κ∞ of polynomials Pn of degree ≤ n which are represented in power form on a zero-symmetric interval [-ω, ω]. Basically, κ∞ is expressed as the product of two operator norms: an explicit factor times an implicit one (the l∞-norm of the coefficient vector of the n-th Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind relative to [-ω, ω]). We provide a new proof, economize the second factor and express it by an explicit analytical formula.

  1. Analytical expressions for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonho; Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid. A set of integral equations is obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with Percus-Yevick approximation. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of the individual correlation functions are obtained. By the inverse Laplace transformation, the radial distribution function (RDF) is obtained in closed form out to 3D (D is the segment diameter). The analytical expression for the RDF of the hard dimer should be useful in developing the perturbation theory of dimer fluids.

  2. Analytical expression for the correlation function of a hard sphere chain fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of flexible hard sphere chain fluid. A set of integral equations obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with the polymer Percus-Yevick ideal chain approximation is considered. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of individual correlation functions are obtained. By inverse Laplace transformation the inter- and intramolecular radial distribution functions (RDFs) are obtained in closed forms up to 3D(D is segment diameter). These analytical expressions for the RDFs would be useful in developing the perturbation theory of chain fluids.

  3. Finite volume approximation of the three-dimensional flow equation in axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous media based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-09-01

    In this work the problem of flow in three-dimensional, axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous medium domain is investigated numerically. For this system, it is natural to use cylindrical coordinate system, which is useful in describing phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis. This can happen in porous media, for example, in the vicinity of production/injection wells. The basic feature of this system is the fact that the flux component (volume flow rate per unit area) in the radial direction is changing because of the continuous change of the area. In this case, variables change rapidly closer to the axis of symmetry and this requires the mesh to be denser. In this work, we generalize a methodology that allows coarser mesh to be used and yet yields accurate results. This method is based on constructing local analytical solution in each cell in the radial direction and moves the derivatives in the other directions to the source term. A new expression for the harmonic mean of the hydraulic conductivity in the radial direction is developed. Apparently, this approach conforms to the analytical solution for uni-directional flows in radial direction in homogeneous porous media. For the case when the porous medium is heterogeneous or the boundary conditions is more complex, comparing with the mesh-independent solution, this approach requires only coarser mesh to arrive at this solution while the traditional methods require more denser mesh. Comparisons for different hydraulic conductivity scenarios and boundary conditions have also been introduced. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Analytical Solution of Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Stretching Wall in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dayyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary layer flow through a porous medium over a stretching porous wall has seen solved with analytical solution. It has been considered two wall boundary conditions which are power-law distribution of either wall temperature or heat flux. These are general enough to cover the isothermal and isoflux cases. In addition to momentum, both first and second laws of thermodynamics analyses of the problem are investigated. The governing equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The transformed ordinary equations are solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. A comprehensive parametric study is presented, and it is shown that the rate of heat transfer increases with Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and suction to the surface.

  5. Analytical Solutions of a Space-Time Fractional Derivative of Groundwater Flow Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical Darcy law is generalized by regarding the water flow as a function of a noninteger order derivative of the piezometric head. This generalized law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Two methods including Frobenius and Adomian decomposition method are used to obtain an asymptotic analytical solution to the generalized groundwater flow equation. The solution obtained via Frobenius method is valid in the vicinity of the borehole. This solution is in perfect agreement with the data observed from the pumping test performed by the institute for groundwater study on one of their boreholes settled on the test site of the University of the Free State. The test consisted of the pumping of the borehole at the constant discharge rate Q and monitoring the piezometric head for 350 minutes. Numerical solutions obtained via Adomian method are compared with the Barker generalized radial flow model for which a fractal dimension for the flow is assumed. Proposition for uncertainties in groundwater studies was given.

  6. Electroosmotic flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner fluids at high zeta potentials: An exact analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rajkumar; Deka, Nabajit; Sarma, Kuldeep; Mondal, Pranab Kumar

    2018-06-01

    We present a mathematical model to study the electroosmotic flow of a viscoelastic fluid in a parallel plate microchannel with a high zeta potential, taking hydrodynamic slippage at the walls into account in the underlying analysis. We use the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (s-PTT) constitutive relationships to describe the rheological behavior of the viscoelastic fluid, while Navier's slip law is employed to model the interfacial hydrodynamic slip. Here, we derive analytical solutions for the potential distribution, flow velocity, and volumetric flow rate based on the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation (without considering the frequently used Debye-Hückel linear approximation). For the underlying electrokinetic transport, this investigation primarily reveals the influence of fluid rheology, wall zeta potential as modulated by the interfacial electrochemistry and interfacial slip on the velocity distribution, volumetric flow rate, and fluid stress, as well as the apparent viscosity. We show that combined with the viscoelasticity of the fluid, a higher wall zeta potential and slip coefficient lead to a phenomenal enhancement in the volumetric flow rate. We believe that this analysis, besides providing a deep theoretical insight to interpret the transport process, will also serve as a fundamental design tool for microfluidic devices/systems under electrokinetic influence.

  7. Analytic Approximate Solutions for Unsteady Two-Dimensional and Axisymmetric Squeezing Flows between Parallel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the plates is investigated. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation by using similarity solutions. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve this nonlinear equation analytically. The convergence of the obtained series solution is carefully analyzed. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta.

  8. Modelling a flows in supply chain with analytical models: Case of a chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhida, Khalid; Azougagh, Yassine; Elfezazi, Said

    2016-02-01

    This study is interested on the modelling of the logistics flows in a supply chain composed on a production sites and a logistics platform. The contribution of this research is to develop an analytical model (integrated linear programming model), based on a case study of a real company operating in the phosphate field, considering a various constraints in this supply chain to resolve the planning problems for a better decision-making. The objectives of this model is to determine and define the optimal quantities of different products to route, to and from the various entities in the supply chain studied.

  9. Facing mixed emotions: Analytic and holistic perception of facial emotion expressions engages separate brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaux, Emilie; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-11-01

    The ability to decode facial emotions is of primary importance for human social interactions; yet, it is still debated how we analyze faces to determine their expression. Here we compared the processing of emotional face expressions through holistic integration and/or local analysis of visual features, and determined which brain systems mediate these distinct processes. Behavioral, physiological, and brain responses to happy and angry faces were assessed by presenting congruent global configurations of expressions (e.g., happy top+happy bottom), incongruent composite configurations (e.g., angry top+happy bottom), and isolated features (e.g. happy top only). Top and bottom parts were always from the same individual. Twenty-six healthy volunteers were scanned using fMRI while they classified the expression in either the top or the bottom face part but ignored information in the other non-target part. Results indicate that the recognition of happy and anger expressions is neither strictly holistic nor analytic Both routes were involved, but with a different role for analytic and holistic information depending on the emotion type, and different weights of local features between happy and anger expressions. Dissociable neural pathways were engaged depending on emotional face configurations. In particular, regions within the face processing network differed in their sensitivity to holistic expression information, which predominantly activated fusiform, inferior occipital areas and amygdala when internal features were congruent (i.e. template matching), whereas more local analysis of independent features preferentially engaged STS and prefrontal areas (IFG/OFC) in the context of full face configurations, but early visual areas and pulvinar when seen in isolated parts. Collectively, these findings suggest that facial emotion recognition recruits separate, but interactive dorsal and ventral routes within the face processing networks, whose engagement may be shaped by

  10. On the analytic solution of the steady flow of a fourth grade fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.; Hayat, T.; Asghar, S.

    2006-01-01

    The steady flow of a fourth grade fluid is a problem belonging to non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and deserves to be more widely studied than it has been to date. In the non-linear regime the literature is scarce. We develop a formulation suitable for solution of hydrodynamic equation containing non-linear rheological effects of fourth grade fluids. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to investigate the flow of a fourth grade fluid past a porous plate. Explicit analytic solution is given. The non-linear effects on the velocity distribution is shown and discussed. Comparison of the present analysis is also made with the existing results in the literature

  11. Flow modeling in a porous cylinder with regressing walls using semi analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of the flow in a porous cylinder with a focus on applications to solid rocket motors is presented. As usual, the cylindrical propellant grain of a solid rocket motor is modeled as a long tube with one end closed at the headwall, while the other remains open. The cylindrical wall is assumed to be permeable so as to simulate the propellant burning and normal gas injection. At first, the problem description and formulation are considered. The Navier-Stokes equations for the viscous flow in a porous cylinder with regressing walls are reduced to a nonlinear ODE by using a similarity transformation in time and space. Application of Differential Transformation Method (DTM as an approximate analytical method has been successfully applied. Finally the results have been presented for various cases.

  12. Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Oldroyd 8-constant framework for continuum constitutive theory contains a rich diversity of popular special cases for polymeric liquids. In this paper, we use part of our exact solution for shear stress to arrive at unique exact analytical solutions for the normal stress difference responses to large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flow. The nonlinearity of the polymeric liquids, triggered by LAOS, causes these responses at even multiples of the test frequency. We call responses at a frequency higher than twice the test frequency higher harmonics. We find the new exact analytical solutions to be compact and intrinsically beautiful. These solutions reduce to those of our previous work on the special case of the corotational Maxwell fluid. Our solutions also agree with our new truncated Goddard integral expansion for the special case of the corotational Jeffreys fluid. The limiting behaviors of these exact solutions also yield new explicit expressions. Finally, we use our exact solutions to see how η∞ affects the normal stress differences in LAOS.

  13. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP: A Fast and Effective Data Mining Tool for Gene Expression Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharouf Nadim W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression databases contain a wealth of information, but current data mining tools are limited in their speed and effectiveness in extracting meaningful biological knowledge from them. Online analytical processing (OLAP can be used as a supplement to cluster analysis for fast and effective data mining of gene expression databases. We used Analysis Services 2000, a product that ships with SQLServer2000, to construct an OLAP cube that was used to mine a time series experiment designed to identify genes associated with resistance of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode, a devastating pest of soybean. The data for these experiments is stored in the soybean genomics and microarray database (SGMD. A number of candidate resistance genes and pathways were found. Compared to traditional cluster analysis of gene expression data, OLAP was more effective and faster in finding biologically meaningful information. OLAP is available from a number of vendors and can work with any relational database management system through OLE DB.

  14. Online analytical processing (OLAP): a fast and effective data mining tool for gene expression databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Jamison, D Curtis; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2005-06-30

    Gene expression databases contain a wealth of information, but current data mining tools are limited in their speed and effectiveness in extracting meaningful biological knowledge from them. Online analytical processing (OLAP) can be used as a supplement to cluster analysis for fast and effective data mining of gene expression databases. We used Analysis Services 2000, a product that ships with SQLServer2000, to construct an OLAP cube that was used to mine a time series experiment designed to identify genes associated with resistance of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode, a devastating pest of soybean. The data for these experiments is stored in the soybean genomics and microarray database (SGMD). A number of candidate resistance genes and pathways were found. Compared to traditional cluster analysis of gene expression data, OLAP was more effective and faster in finding biologically meaningful information. OLAP is available from a number of vendors and can work with any relational database management system through OLE DB.

  15. Analytical study of the non orthogonal stagnation point flow of a micro polar fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali. Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the steady two dimensional flow of micro polar fluids on a flat plate. The flow under discussion is the modified Hiemenz flow for a micro polar fluid which occurs in the hjkns + skms boundary layer near an orthogonal stagnation point. The full governing equation reduced to a modified Hiemenz flow. The solution to the boundary value problem is governed by two non dimensional parameters, the material parameter K and the ratio of the micro rotation to skin friction parameter n. The obtained nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are solved by using the Homotopy perturbation method. Comparison between numerical and analytical solutions of the problem is shown in tables form for different values of the governing parameters K and n. Effects of the material parameter K on the velocity profile and microrotation profiles for different cases of n are discussed graphically as well as numerically. Velocity profile decreases as the material parameter K increases and the microrotation profile increases as the material parameter K increases for different cases of n.

  16. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  17. Mapping debris flow susceptibility using analytical network process in Kodaikkanal Hills, Tamil Nadu (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2017-12-01

    Rapid debris flows, a mixture of unconsolidated sediments and water travelling at speeds > 10 m/s are the most destructive water related mass movements that affect hill and mountain regions. The predisposing factors setting the stage for the event are the availability of materials, type of materials, stream power, slope gradient, aspect and curvature, lithology, land use and land cover, lineament density, and drainage. Rainfall is the most common triggering factor that causes debris flow in the Palar subwatershed and seismicity is not considered as it is a stable continental region and moderate seismic zone. Also, there are no records of major seismic activities in the past. In this study, one of the less explored heuristic methods known as the analytical network process (ANP) is used to map the spatial propensity of debris flow. This method is based on top-down decision model and is a multi-criteria, decision-making tool that translates subjective assessment of relative importance to weights or scores and is implemented in the Palar subwatershed which is part of the Western Ghats in southern India. The results suggest that the factors influencing debris flow susceptibility in this region are the availability of material on the slope, peak flow, gradient of the slope, land use and land cover, and proximity to streams. Among all, peak discharge is identified as the chief factor causing debris flow. The use of micro-scale watersheds demonstrated in this study to develop the susceptibility map can be very effective for local level planning and land management.

  18. Turbofan forced mixer lobe flow modeling. 1: Experimental and analytical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T.; Paterson, R. W.; Skebe, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A joint analytical and experimental investigation of three-dimensional flowfield development within the lobe region of turbofan forced mixer nozzles is described. The objective was to develop a method for predicting the lobe exit flowfield. In the analytical approach, a linearized inviscid aerodynamical theory was used for representing the axial and secondary flows within the three-dimensional convoluted mixer lobes and three-dimensional boundary layer analysis was applied thereafter to account for viscous effects. The experimental phase of the program employed three planar mixer lobe models having different waveform shapes and lobe heights for which detailed measurements were made of the three-dimensional velocity field and total pressure field at the lobe exit plane. Velocity data was obtained using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and total pressure probing and hot wire anemometry were employed to define exit plane total pressure and boundary layer development. Comparison of data and analysis was performed to assess analytical model prediction accuracy. As a result of this study a planar mixed geometry analysis was developed. A principal conclusion is that the global mixer lobe flowfield is inviscid and can be predicted from an inviscid analysis and Kutta condition.

  19. Analytical solutions of heat transfer for laminar flow in rectangular channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybiński Witold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two analytical solutions namely for Fanning friction factor and for Nusselt number of fully developed laminar fluid flow in straight mini channels with rectangular cross-section. This type of channels is common in mini- and microchannel heat exchangers. Analytical formulae, both for velocity and temperature profiles, were obtained in the explicit form of two terms. The first term is an asymptotic solution of laminar flow between parallel plates. The second one is a rapidly convergent series. This series becomes zero as the cross-section aspect ratio goes to infinity. This clear mathematical form is also inherited by the formulae for friction factor and Nusselt number. As the boundary conditions for velocity and temperature profiles no-slip and peripherally constant temperature with axially constant heat flux were assumed (H1 type. The velocity profile is assumed to be independent of the temperature profile. The assumption of constant temperature at the channel’s perimeter is related to the asymptotic case of channel’s wall thermal resistance: infinite in the axial direction and zero in the peripheral one. It represents typical conditions in a minichannel heat exchanger made of metal.

  20. Analytic expression for the giant fieldlike spin torque in spin-filter magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Huang, Z.-W.; Huang, B.-H.

    2017-08-01

    We propose analytic expressions for fieldlike, T⊥, and spin-transfer, T∥, spin torque components in the spin-filter-based magnetic tunnel junction (SFMTJ), by using the single-band tight-binding model with the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. In consideration of multireflection processes between noncollinear magnetization of the spin-filter (SF) barrier and the ferromagnetic (FM) electrode, the central spin-selective SF barrier plays an active role in the striking discovery T⊥≫T∥ , which can be further identified by the unusual barrier thickness dependence of giant T⊥. Our general expressions reveal the sinusoidal angular dependence of both spin torque components, even in the presence of the SF barrier.

  1. An Analytical Time–Domain Expression for the Net Ripple Produced by Parallel Interleaved Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B.; Krein, Philip T.

    2017-03-01

    We apply modular arithmetic and Fourier series to analyze the superposition of N interleaved triangular waveforms with identical amplitudes and duty-ratios. Here, interleaving refers to the condition when a collection of periodic waveforms with identical periods are each uniformly phase-shifted across one period. The main result is a time-domain expression which provides an exact representation of the summed and interleaved triangular waveforms, where the peak amplitude and parameters of the time-periodic component are all specified in closed-form. Analysis is general and can be used to study various applications in multi-converter systems. This model is unique not only in that it reveals a simple and intuitive expression for the net ripple, but its derivation via modular arithmetic and Fourier series is distinct from prior approaches. The analytical framework is experimentally validated with a system of three parallel converters under time-varying operating conditions.

  2. Exact analytic expressions for the evolution of polarization for radiation propagating in a plasma with non uniformly sheared magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    The known analytic expressions for the evolution of the polarization of electromagnetic waves propagating in a plasma with uniformly sheared magnetic field are extended to the case where the shear is not constant. Exact analytic expressions are found for the case when the space variations of the medium are such that the magnetic field components and the plasma density satisfy a particular condition (eq. 13), possibly in a convenient reference frame of polarization space [it

  3. Steady Stokes flow past dumbbell shaped axially symmetric body of revolution: An analytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Kumar Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of steady Stokes flow past dumbbell-shaped axially symmetric isolated body of revolution about its axis of symmetry is considered by utilizing a method (Datta and Srivastava, 1999 based on body geometry under the restrictions of continuously turning tangent on the boundary. The relationship between drag and moment is established in transverse flow situation. The closed form expression of Stokes drag is then calculated for dumbbell-shaped body in terms of geometric parameters b, c, d and a with the aid of this linear relation and the formula of torque obtained by (Chwang and Wu, part 1, 1974 with the use of singularity distribution along axis of symmetry. Drag coefficient and moment coefficient are defined in various forms in terms of dumbbell parameters. Their numerical values are calculated and depicted in respective graphs and compared with some known values.

  4. Analytic solution to verify code predictions of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor core channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.; Olson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    One reliable method that can be used to verify the solution scheme of a computer code is to compare the code prediction to a simplified problem for which an analytic solution can be derived. An analytic solution for the axial pressure drop as a function of the flow was obtained for the simplified problem of homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow in a vertical, heated channel with a cosine axial heat flux shape. This analytic solution was then used to verify the predictions of the CONDOR computer code, which is used to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of boiling water reactors. The results show excellent agreement between the analytic solution and CONDOR prediction

  5. An analytical expression for the non-singlet structure functions at small χ in the double logarithmic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lublinsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the non-singlet structure function fns is given. The expression is derived from the result of B. I. Ermolaev et al. (1996) obtained by low x resummation of the quark ladder diagrams in the double logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  6. A study on evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anezaki, S.

    1998-03-01

    Sea/fresh-water boundary caused by density and concentration balance of sea-water and fresh-water is an important item for groundwater flow evaluation in deep underground near the coast. Also, in order to evaluate groundwater quality, it is important to understand the characteristics of sea/fresh-water boundary, for example boundary shape, salt distribution. In order to establish the evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary, we investigated the following items in this study. (1) Literature survey and data collection. (2) Investigation of analytical methods. (3) Planning of further study. (author). 78 refs

  7. Analytical results for a stochastic model of gene expression with arbitrary partitioning of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Hugo; Platini, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    In biophysics, the search for analytical solutions of stochastic models of cellular processes is often a challenging task. In recent work on models of gene expression, it was shown that a mapping based on partitioning of Poisson arrivals (PPA-mapping) can lead to exact solutions for previously unsolved problems. While the approach can be used in general when the model involves Poisson processes corresponding to creation or degradation, current applications of the method and new results derived using it have been limited to date. In this paper, we present the exact solution of a variation of the two-stage model of gene expression (with time dependent transition rates) describing the arbitrary partitioning of proteins. The methodology proposed makes full use of the PPA-mapping by transforming the original problem into a new process describing the evolution of three biological switches. Based on a succession of transformations, the method leads to a hierarchy of reduced models. We give an integral expression of the time dependent generating function as well as explicit results for the mean, variance, and correlation function. Finally, we discuss how results for time dependent parameters can be extended to the three-stage model and used to make inferences about models with parameter fluctuations induced by hidden stochastic variables.

  8. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  9. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T., E-mail: messaris@upatras.gr [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Hadjinicolaou, Maria [School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Karahalios, George T. [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  10. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-08-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses augmented by approximately 100% with respect to the matched asymptotic expansions

  11. Analytical study of flow instability behaviour in a boiling two-phase natural circulation loop under low quality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.; Kumar, N.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical investigations have been carried out to study the flow instability behaviour in a boiling two-phase natural circulation loop under low quality conditions. For this purpose, the computer code TINFLO-S has been developed. The code solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy and equation of state for homogeneous equilibrium twophase flow using linear analytical technique. The results of the code have been validated with the experimental data of the loop for both the steady state and stability. The study reveals that the stability behaviour of low quality flow oscillations is different from that of the high quality flow oscillations. The instability reduces with increase in power and throttling at the inlet of the heater. The instability first increases and then reduces with increase in pressure at any subcooling. The effects of diameter of riser pipe, heater and the height of the riser on this instability are also investigated. (orig.) [de

  12. Analytic expressions for mode conversion in a plasma with a parabolic density profile: Generalized results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, D.E.; Fried, B.D.; Morales, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides an analytic solution to the general problem of mode conversion in an unmagnetized plasma. Specifically, an electromagnetic wave of frequency ω propagating through a plasma with a parabolic density profile of scale length L p is examined. The mode conversion points are located a distance Δ 0 from the peak of the profile, where the electron plasma frequency ω p (z) matches the wave frequency ω. The corresponding reflection, transmission, and mode conversion coefficients are expressed analytically in terms of parabolic cylinder functions for all values of Δ 0 . The method of solution is based on a source approximation technique that is valid when the electromagnetic and electrostatic scale lengths are well separated. For large Δ 0 , i.e., (cL p /ω) 1/2 much-lt Δ 0 p , the appropriately scaled result [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 559 (1992)] for a linear density profile is recovered as the parabolic cylinder functions asymptotically become Airy functions. When Δ 0 →0, the special case of conversion at the peak of the profile [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 1772 (1992)] is obtained

  13. Analytic expressions of amplitudes by the cross-ratio identity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kang

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain the analytic expression of an amplitude from a generic CHY-integrand, a new algorithm based on the so-called cross-ratio identities has been proposed recently. In this paper, we apply this new approach to a variety of theories including the non-linear sigma model, special Galileon theory, pure Yang-Mills theory, pure gravity, Born-Infeld theory, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory and its extension, Yang-Mills-scalar theory, and Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. CHY-integrands of these theories which contain higher-order poles can be calculated conveniently by using the cross-ratio identity method, and all results above have been verified numerically. (orig.)

  14. Analytic expressions of amplitudes by the cross-ratio identity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kang [Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    In order to obtain the analytic expression of an amplitude from a generic CHY-integrand, a new algorithm based on the so-called cross-ratio identities has been proposed recently. In this paper, we apply this new approach to a variety of theories including the non-linear sigma model, special Galileon theory, pure Yang-Mills theory, pure gravity, Born-Infeld theory, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory and its extension, Yang-Mills-scalar theory, and Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. CHY-integrands of these theories which contain higher-order poles can be calculated conveniently by using the cross-ratio identity method, and all results above have been verified numerically. (orig.)

  15. Analytical expressions for thermophysical properties of solid and liquid tungsten relevant for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tolias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of the literature is reviewed for several thermophysical properties of pure solid and liquid tungsten which constitute input for the modelling of intense plasma-surface interaction phenomena that are important for fusion applications. Reliable experimental data are analyzed for the latent heat of fusion, the electrical resistivity, the specific isobaric heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the mass density from the room temperature up to the boiling point of tungsten as well as for the surface tension and the dynamic viscosity across the liquid state. Analytical expressions of high accuracy are recommended for these thermophysical properties that involved a minimum degree of extrapolations. In particular, extrapolations were only required for the surface tension and viscosity.

  16. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Children: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences, and moderators of differences, in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant, but very small, gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = −.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = −.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = −.20) and adolescence (g = −.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = −.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children’s healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534

  17. Gender differences in emotion expression in children: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Aldao, Amelia

    2013-07-01

    Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences and moderators of differences in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant but very small gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = -.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = -.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = -.20) and adolescence (g = -.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = -.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children's healthy and maladaptive development. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. A semi-analytical study of the vibrations induced by flow in the piping of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneschy, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A semi-analytical method is presented to evaluate the piping system safety due to internal flow vibration excitation. The method is based on the application of a plane spectrum on the system, resulted by measured modal accelerations. A criteria is established to verify stress levels and compare with the allowable levels. (Author) [pt

  19. Analytical scale purification of zirconia colloidal suspension using field programmed sedimentation field flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Quynh, Alexandra; Blanchart, Philippe; Battu, Serge; Clédat, Dominique; Cardot, Philippe

    2006-03-03

    Sedimentation field flow fractionation was used to obtain purified fractions from a polydispersed zirconia colloidal suspension in the potential purpose of optical material hybrid coating. The zirconia particle size ranged from 50/70 nm to 1000 nm. It exhibited a log-Gaussian particle size distribution (in mass or volume) and a 115% polydispersity index (P.I.). Time dependent eluted fractions of the original zirconia colloidal suspension were collected. The particle size distribution of each fraction was determined with scanning electron microscopy and Coulter sub-micron particle sizer (CSPS). These orthogonal techniques generated similar data. From fraction average elution times and granulometry measurements, it was shown that zirconia colloids are eluted according to the Brownian elution mode. The four collected fractions have a Gaussian like distribution and respective average size and polydispersity index of 153 nm (P.I. = 34.7%); 188 nm (P.I. = 27.9%); 228 nm (P.I. = 22.6%), and 276 nm (P.I. = 22.3%). These data demonstrate the strong size selectivity of SdFFF operated with programmed field of exponential profile for sorting particles in the sub-micron range. Using this technique, the analytical production of zirconia of given average size and reduced polydispersity is possible.

  20. Semi-analytical solutions for flow to a well in an unconfined-fractured aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad M.; Samani, Nozar

    2015-09-01

    Semi-analytical solutions of flow to a well in an unconfined single porosity aquifer underlain by a fractured double porosity aquifer, both of infinite radial extent, are obtained. The upper aquifer is pumped at a constant rate from a pumping well of infinitesimal radius. The solutions are obtained via Laplace and Hankel transforms and are then numerically inverted to time domain solutions using the de Hoog et al. algorithm and Gaussian quadrature. The results are presented in the form of dimensionless type curves. The solution takes into account the effects of pumping well partial penetration, water table with instantaneous drainage, leakage with storage in the lower aquifer into the upper aquifer, and storativity and hydraulic conductivity of both fractures and matrix blocks. Both spheres and slab-shaped matrix blocks are considered. The effects of the underlying fractured aquifer hydraulic parameters on the dimensionless drawdown produced by the pumping well in the overlying unconfined aquifer are examined. The presented solution can be used to estimate hydraulic parameters of the unconfined and the underlying fractured aquifer by type curve matching techniques or with automated optimization algorithms. Errors arising from ignoring the underlying fractured aquifer in the drawdown distribution in the unconfined aquifer are also investigated.

  1. Analytical solution to the circularity problem in the discounted cash flow valuation framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mejía-Peláez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an analytical solution to the circularity problem between value and cost of capital. Our solution is derived starting from a central principle of finance that relates value today to value, cash flow, and the discount rate for next period. We present a general formulation without circularity for the equity value (E, cost of levered equity (Ke, levered firm value (V, and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC. We furthermore compare the results obtained from these formulas with the results of the application of the Adjusted Present Value approach (no circularity and the iterative solution of circularity based upon the iteration feature of a spreadsheet, concluding that all methods yield exactly the same answer. The advantage of this solution is that it avoids problems such as using manual methods (i.e., the popular “Rolling WACC” ignoring the circularity issue, setting a target leverage (usually constant with the inconsistencies that result from it, the wrong use of book values, or attributing the discrepancies in values to rounding errors.

  2. Experimental Observation and Analytical Modeling of Melting and Solidification during Aluminum Alloy Repair by Turbulence Flow Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muki Satya Permana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the state of the art of applicable casting technology for applications in the field of repairing aluminum alloy components. Repair process on the Al alloy sample using similar metal has been carried out to investigate the micro-structural effect. Joining occurs as a result of convection heat transfer of molten flow into the sand mold which melts the existing base metal inside the mold and subsequent solidification. The analytical model has been developed to describe aluminum alloy component repair by turbulence flow casting. The model is designed based on heat transfer principle that can handle the phenomena of heat flow. The experimental result and analytical model analyses pointed out that joint quality are greatly affected by parameters of preheating temperature and duration of molten metal flow in the mold. To obtain a desired metallurgical sound at the joint, the optimum temperature and time were adjusted in order to obtain a similarity of microstructure between filler and base metal. This model is aimed to predict the use of the process parameter ranges in order to have the optimum parameters when it is applied to the experiment. The fixed parameters are flow rate, sand ratio, and pouring temperature. The process parameters are preheating temperature and pouring time. It is concluded that analytical modeling has good agreement with the experimental result.

  3. Decentral gene expression analysis: analytical validation of the Endopredict genomic multianalyte breast cancer prognosis test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronenwett Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EndoPredict (EP is a clinically validated multianalyte gene expression test to predict distant metastasis in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy alone. The test is based on the combined analysis of 12 genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Recently, it was shown that EP is feasible for reliable decentralized assessment of gene expression. The aim of this study was the analytical validation of the performance characteristics of the assay and its verification in a molecular-pathological routine laboratory. Methods Gene expression values to calculate the EP score were assayed by one-step RT-qPCR using RNA from FFPE tumor tissue. Limit of blank, limit of detection, linear range, and PCR efficiency were assessed for each of the 12 PCR assays using serial samples dilutions. Different breast cancer samples were used to evaluate RNA input range, precision and inter-laboratory variability. Results PCR assays were linear up to Cq values between 35.1 and 37.2. Amplification efficiencies ranged from 75% to 101%. The RNA input range without considerable change of the EP score was between 0.16 and 18.5 ng/μl. Analysis of precision (variation of day, day time, instrument, operator, reagent lots resulted in a total noise (standard deviation of 0.16 EP score units on a scale from 0 to 15. The major part of the total noise (SD 0.14 was caused by the replicate-to-replicate noise of the PCR assays (repeatability and was not associated with different operating conditions (reproducibility. Performance characteristics established in the manufacturer’s laboratory were verified in a routine molecular pathology laboratory. Comparison of 10 tumor samples analyzed in two different laboratories showed a Pearson coefficient of 0.995 and a mean deviation of 0.15 score units. Conclusions The EP test showed reproducible performance

  4. Decentral gene expression analysis: analytical validation of the Endopredict genomic multianalyte breast cancer prognosis test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenwett, Ralf; Brase, Jan C; Weber, Karsten E; Fisch, Karin; Müller, Berit M; Schmidt, Marcus; Filipits, Martin; Dubsky, Peter; Petry, Christoph; Dietel, Manfred; Denkert, Carsten; Bohmann, Kerstin; Prinzler, Judith; Sinn, Bruno V; Haufe, Franziska; Roth, Claudia; Averdick, Manuela; Ropers, Tanja; Windbergs, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    EndoPredict (EP) is a clinically validated multianalyte gene expression test to predict distant metastasis in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy alone. The test is based on the combined analysis of 12 genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Recently, it was shown that EP is feasible for reliable decentralized assessment of gene expression. The aim of this study was the analytical validation of the performance characteristics of the assay and its verification in a molecular-pathological routine laboratory. Gene expression values to calculate the EP score were assayed by one-step RT-qPCR using RNA from FFPE tumor tissue. Limit of blank, limit of detection, linear range, and PCR efficiency were assessed for each of the 12 PCR assays using serial samples dilutions. Different breast cancer samples were used to evaluate RNA input range, precision and inter-laboratory variability. PCR assays were linear up to C q values between 35.1 and 37.2. Amplification efficiencies ranged from 75% to 101%. The RNA input range without considerable change of the EP score was between 0.16 and 18.5 ng/μl. Analysis of precision (variation of day, day time, instrument, operator, reagent lots) resulted in a total noise (standard deviation) of 0.16 EP score units on a scale from 0 to 15. The major part of the total noise (SD 0.14) was caused by the replicate-to-replicate noise of the PCR assays (repeatability) and was not associated with different operating conditions (reproducibility). Performance characteristics established in the manufacturer’s laboratory were verified in a routine molecular pathology laboratory. Comparison of 10 tumor samples analyzed in two different laboratories showed a Pearson coefficient of 0.995 and a mean deviation of 0.15 score units. The EP test showed reproducible performance characteristics with good precision and negligible laboratory

  5. Analytic expression for any pure rotational transition (ΔJ≥1) for a diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korek, M.; Hamdoun, B.; Fakhreddine, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.The problem of the pure rotational transitions vJ↔vJ' for any spectra |J-J'|≥1 for a diatomic molecule is considered. It is proved that, the wave functions ΨvJ and ΨvJ' are expanded in terms of the running number m=[J'(J'+1)-J(J+1)]/2 as ΨvJ=Σπ n m n (n=0) and ΨvJ'=Σπ n (-m) n (n=0) where π n are expressed in terms of the pure vibrational wave function φ 0 and its rotational corrections φ n (defined in the conventional perturbation theory). By using this m-representation of the wave functions the pure rotational matrix elements of the considered transitions are given by M vJ vJ' = =Σμ 2n m 2n (n=0) where μ 2n are simple combinations of simple integrals of the form i |γ|φ n >. This formulation is valid for any potential (either numerical or analytical), any vibrational level v and any operator γ. The numerical application to the Dunham potential of the molecule H 2 in the Raman transitions and to the Huffaker potential of the molecule CO in the infrared transitions shows the validity and the high accuracy of the present formulation

  6. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  7. ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF THE SINGLE MODE LASER HOMOGENEOUS BROADENING IN THE PULSE REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1],  similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have proposed a simple harmonic expansion method to obtain a series of harmonics terms that yield analytical solutions to the laser equations. ¶This method allows us to derive an analytical expression of the laser field amplitude  when this last  undergoes a  periodic oscillations around zero mean value. We also obtain an analytical expression of the pulsing frequency.

  8. Analytical expressions for group delay in the far field from an optical fiber having an arbitrary index profile

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Per Lander

    1981-01-01

    A general and efficient model for optical fibers with a few modes and arbitrary index profiles is established. The model yields a solution of the vectorial wave equation and analytical expressions for the group delay and the far field. Convergence tests have shown that the dispersion can be calculated with an accuracy better than 0.2 ps/(km . nm).

  9. Analytical expressions for group delay in the far field from an optical fiber having an arbitrary index profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Per Lander

    1981-01-01

    A general and efficient model for optical fibers with a few modes and arbitrary index profiles is established. The model yields a solution of the vectorial wave equation and analytical expressions for the group delay and the far field. Convergence tests have shown that the dispersion can...

  10. Unified analytical expressions for calculating resonant frequencies, transimpedances, and equivalent input noise current densities of tuned receiver front ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing Zhong

    1992-01-01

    Unified analytical expressions have been derived for calculating the resonant frequencies, transimpedance and equivalent input noise current densities of the four most widely used tuned optical receiver front ends built with FETs and p-i-n diodes. A more accurate FET model has been used to improve...

  11. Experimental Observation and Analytical Modeling of Melting and Solidification during Aluminum Alloy Repair by Turbulence Flow Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muki Satya Permana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the state of the art of applicable casting technology for applications in the field of repairing Aluminium Alloy components. Repair process on the Aluminium sample using similar metal has been carried out to investigate the micro-structural effect. Joining occurs as a result of convection heat transfer of molten flow into the sand mold which melts the existing base metal inside the mold and subsequent solidification. The analytical model has been developed to describe aluminium component repair by Turbulence Flow Casting. The model built is based on heat transfer principle that can handle the phenomena of heat flow. The experimental result and analytical model analyses pointed out that joint quality are greatly affected by parameters of preheating temperature and duration of molten metal flow in the mold. To obtain a desired metallurgical sound at the joint, the optimum temperature and time were adjusted in order to obtain a similarity of microstructure between filler and base metal. This model is aimed to predict the use of the process parameter ranges in order to have the optimum parameters when it is applied to the experiment. The fixed parameters are flow rate, sand ratio, and pouring temperature. The process parameters are preheating temperature and pouring time. It is concluded that anaytical modeling has good agreement with the experimental result

  12. Analytic Approximate Solutions to the Boundary Layer Flow Equation over a Stretching Wall with Partial Slip at the Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.

  13. Expressing analytical performance from multi-sample evaluation in laboratory EQA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Marc H M; Jansen, Rob T P; Weykamp, Cas W; Steigstra, Herman; Meijer, Ron; Cobbaert, Christa M

    2017-08-28

    To provide its participants with an external quality assessment system (EQAS) that can be used to check trueness, the Dutch EQAS organizer, Organization for Quality Assessment of Laboratory Diagnostics (SKML), has innovated its general chemistry scheme over the last decade by introducing fresh frozen commutable samples whose values were assigned by Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM)-listed reference laboratories using reference methods where possible. Here we present some important innovations in our feedback reports that allow participants to judge whether their trueness and imprecision meet predefined analytical performance specifications. Sigma metrics are used to calculate performance indicators named 'sigma values'. Tolerance intervals are based on both Total Error allowable (TEa) according to biological variation data and state of the art (SA) in line with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Milan consensus. The existing SKML feedback reports that express trueness as the agreement between the regression line through the results of the last 12 months and the values obtained from reference laboratories and calculate imprecision from the residuals of the regression line are now enriched with sigma values calculated from the degree to which the combination of trueness and imprecision are within tolerance limits. The information and its conclusion to a simple two-point scoring system are also graphically represented in addition to the existing difference plot. By adding sigma metrics-based performance evaluation in relation to both TEa and SA tolerance intervals to its EQAS schemes, SKML provides its participants with a powerful and actionable check on accuracy.

  14. Analytic Expressions for the Inner-rim Structure of Passively Heated Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takahiro; Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan); Flock, Mario, E-mail: t_ueda@geo.titech.ac.jp [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We analytically derive the expressions for the structure of the inner region of protoplanetary disks based on the results from the recent hydrodynamical simulations. The inner part of a disk can be divided into four regions: a dust-free region with a gas temperature in the optically thin limit, an optically thin dust halo, an optically thick condensation front, and the classical, optically thick region, in order from the innermost to the outermost. We derive the dust-to-gas mass ratio profile in the dust halo using the fact that partial dust condensation regulates the temperature relative to the dust evaporation temperature. Beyond the dust halo, there is an optically thick condensation front where all the available silicate gas condenses out. The curvature of the condensation surface is determined by the condition that the surface temperature must be nearly equal to the characteristic temperature ∼1200 K. We derive the midplane temperature in the outer two regions using the two-layer approximation, with the additional heating by the condensation front for the outermost region. As a result, the overall temperature profile is step-like, with steep gradients at the borders between the outer three regions. The borders might act as planet traps where the inward migration of planets due to gravitational interaction with the gas disk stops. The temperature at the border between the two outermost regions coincides with the temperature needed to activate magnetorotational instability, suggesting that the inner edge of the dead zone must lie at this border. The radius of the dead zone inner edge predicted from our solution is ∼2–3 times larger than that expected from the classical optically thick temperature.

  15. Implementation of a state-to-state analytical framework for the calculation of expansion tube flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. M.; Gildfind, D. E.; Lewis, S. W.; Morgan, R. G.; Zander, F.

    2018-03-01

    Expansion tubes are an important type of test facility for the study of planetary entry flow-fields, being the only type of impulse facility capable of simulating the aerothermodynamics of superorbital planetary entry conditions from 10 to 20 km/s. However, the complex flow processes involved in expansion tube operation make it difficult to fully characterise flow conditions, with two-dimensional full facility computational fluid dynamics simulations often requiring tens or hundreds of thousands of computational hours to complete. In an attempt to simplify this problem and provide a rapid flow condition prediction tool, this paper presents a validated and comprehensive analytical framework for the simulation of an expansion tube facility. It identifies central flow processes and models them from state to state through the facility using established compressible and isentropic flow relations, and equilibrium and frozen chemistry. How the model simulates each section of an expansion tube is discussed, as well as how the model can be used to simulate situations where flow conditions diverge from ideal theory. The model is then validated against experimental data from the X2 expansion tube at the University of Queensland.

  16. Semi-analytical solution for flow in a leaky unconfined aquifer toward a partially penetrating pumping well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Bwalya; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Barrash, Warren

    2008-07-01

    SummaryA semi-analytical solution is presented for the problem of flow in a system consisting of unconfined and confined aquifers, separated by an aquitard. The unconfined aquifer is pumped continuously at a constant rate from a well of infinitesimal radius that partially penetrates its saturated thickness. The solution is termed semi-analytical because the exact solution obtained in double Laplace-Hankel transform space is inverted numerically. The solution presented here is more general than similar solutions obtained for confined aquifer flow as we do not adopt the assumption of unidirectional flow in the confined aquifer (typically assumed to be horizontal) and the aquitard (typically assumed to be vertical). Model predicted results show significant departure from the solution that does not take into account the effect of leakage even for cases where aquitard hydraulic conductivities are two orders of magnitude smaller than those of the aquifers. The results show low sensitivity to changes in radial hydraulic conductivities for aquitards that are two or more orders of magnitude smaller than those of the aquifers, in conformity to findings of earlier workers that radial flow in aquitards may be neglected under such conditions. Hence, for cases were aquitard hydraulic conductivities are two or more orders of magnitude smaller than aquifer conductivities, the simpler models that restrict flow to the radial direction in aquifers and to the vertical direction in aquitards may be sufficient. However, the model developed here can be used to model flow in aquifer-aquitard systems where radial flow is significant in aquitards.

  17. An Analytical Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Flow Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    .... The analytical solution presented here provides insight into the scaling laws governing fill times and resin inlet placement as a function of the properties of the preform, distribution media, and resin...

  18. An Experimental and analytical study on the bubble-to-slug flow regime transition based on the void wave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa

    1995-02-01

    An experimental and analytical work is performed to investigate the relation between the developing phenomena in bubble flow and the propagation phenomena of void waves. For this purpose, the structural developments in bubble flow and the propagation property of void waves are measured over a broad range of flow conditions including the bubble-to-slug flow regime transition (BSFRT) region. And a linear stability analysis is performed, based on the two-fluid model, to establish the analytical model on the wave propagation parameters, and the predictability of the model is validated by comparing analytical results with experimental observations. In the experimental work, an impedance void meter is developed to measure the void fraction, and a series of test are performed by varying the bubble size in order to investigate the bubble size effect on the bubble flow structures for various flow conditions. Statistical signal processing techniques are applied to void signals in order to objectively identify the changing modes of bubble flow structures and to estimate the wave propagation properties. The impedance void meter developed in this study showed very good temporal and spatial resolutions enough to identify the developing phenomena in bubble flow structures and to investigate the void wave propagations, and the void distribution effect could be minimized by electrically shielding the guard electrodes. It was also designed so that the inherent errors due to the phase shifts between channels be negligible. Various features occurred in the transitional process of bubble flow could be objectively identified by introducing some statistical parameters evaluated from void signals. Two distinct modes of structural development in bubble flow were observed in the transitional process, and they are found to be much influenced by the initial bubble size. And the mechanism to govern BSFRT could be characterized by two ways depending on the developing modes of bubble flow

  19. Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, F. I.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.

  20. Analytical applications of a recycled flow nuclear magnetic resonance system: quantitative analysis of slowly relaxing nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, D.A. Jr.; Lee, R.W.K.; Wilkins, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of a recycled flow system for the efficient quantitative analysis of NMR spectra is demonstrated. Requisite conditions are first established for the quantitative flow experiment and then applied to a variety of compounds. An application of the technique to determination of the average polymer chain length for a silicone polymer by quantitative flow 29 Si NMR is also presented. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  1. Analytical Solution for Time-drawdown Response to Constant Pumping from a Homogeneous, Confined Horizontal Aquifer with Unidirectional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, K. E.; Zhang, J.; Teasdale, E.

    2007-12-01

    An exact analytical solution to the ordinary one-dimensional partial differential equation is derived for transient groundwater flow in a homogeneous, confined, horizontal aquifer using Laplace transformation. The theoretical analysis is based on the assumption that the aquifer is homogeneous and one-dimensional (horizontal); confined between impermeable formations on top and bottom; and of infinite horizontal extent and constant thickness. It is also assumed that there is only a single pumping well penetrating the entire aquifer; flow is everywhere horizontal within the aquifer to the well; the well is pumping with a constant discharge rate; the well diameter is infinitesimally small; and the hydraulic head is uniform throughout the aquifer before pumping. Similar to the Theis solution, this solution is suited to determine transmissivity and storativity for a two- dimensional, vertically confined aquifer, such as a long vertically fractured zone of high permeability within low permeable rocks or a long, high-permeability trench inside a low-permeability porous media. In addition, it can be used to analyze time-drawdown responses to pumping and injection in similar settings. The solution can also be used to approximate the groundwater flow for unconfined conditions if (1) the variation of transmissivity is negligible (groundwater table variation is small in comparison to the saturated thickness); and (2) the unsaturated flow is negligible. The errors associated with the use of the solution to unconfined conditions depend on the accuracies of the above two assumptions. The solution can also be used to assess the impacts of recharge from a seasonal river or irrigation canal on the groundwater system by assuming uniform, time- constant recharge along the river or canal. This paper presents the details for derivation of the analytical solution. The analytical solution is compared to numerical simulation results with example cases. Its accuracy is also assessed and

  2. Analytical solution to the problem of heat transfer in an MHD flow inside a channel with prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zniber, K.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.

    2005-01-01

    An MHD laminar flow through a two dimensional channel subjected to a uniform magnetic field and heated at the walls of the conduit over the whole length with a sinusoidal heat flux of vanishing mean value or not, is studied analytically. General expressions of the temperature distribution and of the local and mean Nusselt numbers are obtained by using the technique of linear operators in the case of negligible Joule and viscous dissipation and by taking into account the axial conduction effect. The principal results show that an increase of the local Nusselt number with Hartmann number is observed, and, far from the inlet section, the average heat transfer between the fluid and the walls shows a significant improvement at all values of Hartmann number used when the frequency of the prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux is increasing in the case of vanishing mean value of the heat flux and this is true especially at low Peclet numbers

  3. Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurien, E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is

  4. Laminar dispersion in parallel plate sections of flowing systems used in analytical chemistry and chemical engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, S.D.; Kolev, Spas D.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exact solution of the convective-diffusion equation for fully developed parallel plate laminar flow was obtained. It allows the derivation of theoretical relationships for calculating the Peclet number in the axially dispersed plug flow model and the concentration distribution perpendicular to

  5. A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models for two-phase Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) floods (oil displacement by gases, polymers, carbonized water, hot water, etc.). The main result presented here is the splitting of the EOR mathematical model into thermodynamical and hydrodynamical parts...... formation water for chemical flooding can be calculated from the reduced auxiliary system. Reduction of the number of equations allows the generation of new analytical models for EOR. The analytical model for displacement of oil by a polymer slug with water drive is presented....

  6. Analytical Expressions for the Mixed-Order Kinetics Parameters of TL Glow Peaks Based on the two Heating Rates Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Mufeed; Al-Abdullah, Tariq; Khattari, Ziad

    2018-03-24

    The two heating rates method (originally developed for first-order glow peaks) was used for the first time to evaluate the activation energy (E) from glow peaks obeying mixed-order (MO) kinetics. The derived expression for E has an insignificant additional term (on the scale of a few meV) when compared with the first-order case. Hence, the original expression for E using the two heating rates method can be used with excellent accuracy in the case of MO glow peaks. In addition, we derived a simple analytical expression for the MO parameter. The present procedure has the advantage that the MO parameter can now be evaluated using analytical expression instead of using the graphical representation between the geometrical factor and the MO parameter as given by the existing peak shape methods. The applicability of the derived expressions for real samples was demonstrated for the glow curve of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn single crystal. The obtained parameters compare very well with those obtained by glow curve fitting and with the available published data.

  7. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows using the analytic hierarchy process method − A case study in Subao river valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhang Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many debris flows have occurred in the areas surrounding the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows in this area is especially important for disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper studies one of the worst hit areas, the Subao river valley, and the susceptibility assessment of debris flows is performed based on field surveys and remote sensing interpretation. By investigating the formation conditions of debris flows in the valley, the following assessment factors are selected: mixture density of landslides and rock avalanches, distance to the seismogenic fault, stratum lithology, ground roughness, and hillside angle. The weights of the assessment factors are determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Each of the assessment factors is further divided into five grades. Then, the assessment model is built using the multifactor superposition method to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Based on the assessment results, the Subao river valley is divided into three areas: high susceptibility areas, medium susceptibility areas, and low susceptibility areas. The high susceptibility areas are concentrated in the middle of the valley, accounting for 17.6% of the valley area. The medium susceptibility areas are in the middle and lower reaches, most of which are located on both sides of the high susceptibility areas and account for 45.3% of the valley area. The remainders are classified as low susceptibility areas. The results of the model are in accordance with the actual debris flow events that occurred after the earthquake in the valley, confirming that the proposed model is capable of assessing the debris flow susceptibility. The results can also provide guidance for reconstruction planning and debris flow prevention in the Subao river valley.

  8. Electrophoretic mobilities of neutral analytes and electroosmotic flow markers in aqueous solutions of Hofmeister salts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, T.; Kubíčková, A.; Hladílková, Jana; Coufal, P.; Heyda, J.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2014), s. 617-624 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : EOF markers * ion-specific effects * ion-specific mobilization * molecular dynamics simulations * neutral analytes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014

  9. Salt flow direction and velocity during subsalt normal faulting and syn-kinematic sedimentation—implications from analytical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kukowski, N.; Kley, J.

    2018-04-01

    Salt flow induced by subsalt normal faulting is mainly controlled by tilting of the salt layer, the amount of differential loading due to syn-kinematic deposition, and tectonic shearing at the top or the base of the salt layer. Our study addresses the first two mechanisms and aims to examine salt flow patterns above a continuously moving subsalt normal fault and beneath a syn-kinematic minibasin. In such a setting, salt either tends to flow down towards the basin centre driven by its own weight or is squeezed up towards the footwall side owing to loading differences between the minibasin and the region above the footwall block. Applying isostatic balancing in analytical models, we calculated the steady-state flow velocity in a salt layer. This procedure gives insights into (1) the minimum vertical offset required for upward flow to occur, (2) the magnitude of the flow velocity, and (3) the average density of the supra-salt cover layer at the point at which upward flow starts. In a sensitivity study, we examined how the point of flow reversal and the velocity patterns are influenced by changes of the salt and cover layer thickness, the geometry of the cover flexure, the dip of the subsalt fault, compaction parameters of the supra-salt cover, the salt viscosity and the salt density. Our model results reveal that in most geological scenarios, salt flow above a continuously displacing subsalt normal fault goes through an early phase of downward flow. At sufficiently high fault offset in the range of 700-2600 m, salt is later squeezed upward towards the footwall side. This flow reversal occurs at smaller vertical fault displacement, if the thickness of the pre-kinematic layer is larger, the sedimentation rate of the syn-kinematic cover is higher, the compaction coefficient of cover sediments (i.e. the density increase with depth) is larger or the average density of the salt is lower. Other geometrical parameters such as the width of the cover monocline, the dip of the

  10. A two-dimensional analytical model for groundwater flow in a leaky aquifer extending finite distance under the estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Hung, Chi-Tung; -Yen Lin, Wen; Ma, Kuo-chen

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, cities and industries in the vicinity of the estuarine region have developed rapidly, resulting in a sharp increase in the population concerned. The increasing demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on massive pumping of water in estuarine area. Since the 1950s, numerous studies have focused on the effects of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow in the estuarine area. Tide-induced head fluctuation in a two-dimensional estuarine aquifer system is complicated and rather important in dealing with many groundwater management or remediation problems. The conceptual model of the aquifer system considered is multi-layered with estuarine bank and the leaky aquifer extend finite distance under the estuary. The solution of the model describing the groundwater head distribution in such an estuarine aquifer system and subject to the tidal fluctuation effects from estuarine river is developed based on the method of separation of variables along with river boundary. The solutions by Sun (Sun H. A two-dimensional analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary, Water Resour. Res. 1997; 33:1429-35) as well as Tang and Jiao (Tang Z. and J. J. Jiao, A two-dimensional analytical solution for groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water, Hydrological Processes, 2001; 15: 573-585) can be shown to be special cases of the present solution. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head distribution in response to estuarine boundary is examined and the influences of leakage, hydraulic parameters, and loading effect on the groundwater head fluctuation due to tide are investigated and discussed. KEYWORDS: analytical model, estuarine river, groundwater fluctuation, leaky aquifer.

  11. Comparison of Different Analytic Solutions to Axisymmetric Squeezing Fluid Flow between Two Infinite Parallel Plates with Slip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate squeezing flow between two large parallel plates by transforming the basic governing equations of the first grade fluid to an ordinary nonlinear differential equation using the stream functions ur(r,z,t=(1/r(∂ψ/∂z and uz(r,z,t=−(1/r(∂ψ/∂r and a transformation ψ(r,z=r2F(z. The velocity profiles are investigated through various analytical techniques like Adomian decomposition method, new iterative method, homotopy perturbation, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, and differential transform method.

  12. BAC-Dkk3-EGFP Transgenic Mouse: An In Vivo Analytical Tool for Dkk3 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Muranishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dickkopf (DKK family proteins are secreted modulators of the Wnt signaling pathway and are capable of regulating the development of many organs and tissues. We previously identified Dkk3 to be a molecule predominantly expressed in the mouse embryonic retina. However, which cell expresses Dkk3 in the developing and mature mouse retina remains to be elucidated. To examine the precise expression of the Dkk3 protein, we generated BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice that express EGFP integrated into the Dkk3 gene in a BAC plasmid. Expression analysis using the BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice revealed that Dkk3 is expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs at embryonic stages and in Müller glial cells in the adult retina. Since Müller glial cells may play a potential role in retinal regeneration, BAC-Dkk3-EGFP mice could be useful for retinal regeneration studies.

  13. Determination of Transport Properties From Flowing Fluid Temperature Logging In Unsaturated Fractured Rocks: Theory And Semi-Analytical Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    2008-01-01

    Flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) has been recently proposed as a method to locate flowing fractures. We argue that FFTL, backed up by data from high-precision distributed temperature sensors, can be a useful tool in locating flowing fractures and in estimating the transport properties of unsaturated fractured rocks. We have developed the theoretical background needed to analyze data from FFTL. In this paper, we present a simplified conceptualization of FFTL in unsaturated fractured rock, and develop a semianalytical solution for spatial and temporal variations of pressure and temperature inside a borehole in response to an applied perturbation (pumping of air from the borehole). We compare the semi-analytical solution with predictions from the TOUGH2 numerical simulator. Based on the semi-analytical solution, we propose a method to estimate the permeability of the fracture continuum surrounding the borehole. Using this proposed method, we estimated the effective fracture continuum permeability of the unsaturated rock hosting the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Our estimate compares well with previous independent estimates for fracture permeability of the DST host rock. The conceptual model of FFTL presented in this paper is based on the assumptions of single-phase flow, convection-only heat transfer, and negligible change in system state of the rock formation. In a sequel paper (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008), we extend the conceptual model to evaluate some of these assumptions. We also perform inverse modeling of FFTL data to estimate, in addition to permeability, other transport parameters (such as porosity and thermal conductivity) of unsaturated fractured rocks

  14. An analytical wall-function for turbulent flows and heat transfer over rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K.; Craft, T.J.; Iacovides, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a refined wall-function strategy for the modelling of turbulent forced convection heat transfer over smooth and rough surfaces. In order to include the effects of fine-grain surface roughness, the present study extends a more fundamental work by Craft et al. [Craft, T.J., Gerasimov, A.V., Iacovides, H., Launder, B.E., 2002. Progress in the generalisation of wall-function treatment. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 148-160] on the development of advanced wall-functions of general applicability. The presently proposed model is validated through comparisons with data available for internal flows through channels and for external flows over flat and curved plates with both smooth and rough surfaces. Then, its further validation in separating flows over a sand dune and a sand-roughened ramp is discussed. The validation results suggest that the presently proposed form can be successfully applied to a wide range of attached and separated turbulent flows with heat transfer over smooth and fine-grain rough surfaces

  15. Analytical solution of velocity for ammonia-water horizontal falling-film flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yide

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We built a new falling-film flow model that analyzed the film flow characteristics. • We have obtained a new formula of film thickness over the horizontal tube. • We derived analysis solution to analyze the effect of inertial force to velocity in the entrance region of liquid film. • It described the characters of the ammonia-waterfalling-film film over the horizontal tube. • It is good for falling-film absorption, generation and evaporation to optimizing the design parameters and further improving the capabilities. - Abstract: A new horizontal tube falling film velocity model was built and calculated to analyze the problem of film flow conditions. This model also analyzed the film thickness distribution in horizontal tube falling film flow and considered the effect of the inertial force on velocity. The film thickness and velocity profile can be obtained based on the principle of linear superposition, a method of separation of variables that introduces the effect of variable inertial force on the velocity profile in the process of falling-film absorption. The film flow condition and the film thickness distribution at different fluid Reynolds numbers (Re) and tube diameters were calculated and compared with the results of the Crank–Nicolson numerical solution under the same conditions. The results show that the film flow condition out of a horizontal tube and that the film thickness increases with the fluid Re. At a specific Re and suitable tube diameter, the horizontal tube reaches a more uniform film. Finally, the analysis results have similar trend with the experimental and numerical predicted data in literature.

  16. Analytical solutions of couple stress fluid flows with slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devakar M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the exact solutions for fundamental flows namely Couette, Poiseuille and generalized Couette flows of an incompressible couple stress fluid between parallel plates are obtained using slip boundary conditions. The effect of various parameters on velocity for each problem is discussed. It is found that, for each of the problems, the solution in the limiting case as couple stresses approaches to zero is similar to that of classical viscous Newtonian fluid. The results indicate that, the presence of couple stresses decreases the velocity of the fluid.

  17. Analytical Solution for Interface Flow to a Sink With an Upconed Saline Water Lens: Strack's Regimes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Obnosov, Y. V.

    2018-01-01

    A study is made of a steady, two-dimensional groundwater flow with a horizontal well (drain), which pumps out freshwater from an aquifer sandwiched between a horizontal bedrock and ponded soil surface, and containing a lens-shaped static volume of a heavier saline water (DNAPL-dense nonaqueous phase liquid) as a free surface. For flow toward a line sink, an explicit analytical solution is obtained by a conformal mapping of the hexagon in the complex potential plane onto a reference plane and the Keldysh-Sedov integral representation of a mixed boundary-value problem for a complex physical coordinate. The interface is found as a function of the pumping rate, the well locus, the ratio of liquid densities, and the hydraulic heads at the soil surface and in the well. The shape with two inflexion points and fronts varies from a small-thickness bedrock-spread pancake to a critical curvilinear triangle, which cusps toward the sink. The problem is mathematically solvable in a relatively narrow band of geometric and hydraulic parameters. A similar analytic solution for a static heavy bubble confined by a closed-curve interface (no contact with the bedrock) is outlined as an illustration of the method to solve a mixed boundary-value problem.

  18. A semi-analytical model for the acoustic impedance of finite length circular holes with mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Morgans, Aimee S.

    2016-12-01

    The acoustic response of a circular hole with mean flow passing through it is highly relevant to Helmholtz resonators, fuel injectors, perforated plates, screens, liners and many other engineering applications. A widely used analytical model [M.S. Howe. "Onthe theory of unsteady high Reynolds number flow through a circular aperture", Proc. of the Royal Soc. A. 366, 1725 (1979), 205-223] which assumes an infinitesimally short hole was recently shown to be insufficient for predicting the impedance of holes with a finite length. In the present work, an analytical model based on Green's function method is developed to take the hole length into consideration for "short" holes. The importance of capturing the modified vortex noise accurately is shown. The vortices shed at the hole inlet edge are convected to the hole outlet and further downstream to form a vortex sheet. This couples with the acoustic waves and this coupling has the potential to generate as well as absorb acoustic energy in the low frequency region. The impedance predicted by this model shows the importance of capturing the path of the shed vortex. When the vortex path is captured accurately, the impedance predictions agree well with previous experimental and CFD results, for example predicting the potential for generation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies. For "long" holes, a simplified model which combines Howe's model with plane acoustic waves within the hole is developed. It is shown that the most important effect in this case is the acoustic non-compactness of the hole.

  19. Analytical modeling of complete Nukiyama curves corresponding to expected low void fraction at high subcooling and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder-Richter, D.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of a new hypothesis of thermodynamic states (the superheated wall layer is not metastable but saturated at locally elevated pressure), an analytical estimation is presented of the whole boiling curve [except critical heat flux (CHF), but fixed at this point, known by experiments or correlation]. The curvature of the boiling curve (bubbly flow) is deduced from thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The wall temperature corresponding to departure from nucleate boiling is calculated from balances of momentum at the interfaces, based on the assumption that the speed of sound may be a limit for maximum evaporation mass flux and thereby heat flux, i.e., CHF. Heat flux during transition boiling is determined from balance of energy at the rewetting front. The Leidenfrost temperature, as well as wall temperature at CHF, can be calculated analytically without using empirical coefficients. Heat flux of bubbly flow and transition boiling can be matched at any empirical CHF point. All these results are determined from properties of state alone, i.e., the models can be verified for all fluids including water and liquid metals (so far at moderate heat fluxes). 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - An Effective and Attractive Analytical Chemical Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Nielsen, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    One of the advantages of the flow injection (FI) concept is that it is compatible with virtually all detection techniques. Being a versatile vehicle for enhancing the performance of the individual detection devices, the most spectacular results have possibly been obtained in conjunction with atom...

  1. Evaluation and purchase of an analytical flow cytometer: some of the numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Fisher, Nancy C

    2013-01-01

    When purchasing a flow cytometer, the decision of which brand, model, specifications, and accessories may be challenging. The decisions should initially be guided by the specific applications intended for the instrument. However, many other factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, quality assurance, support, service, and price and recommendations from colleagues. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process.

  2. Flipping the analytical coin : closing the information flow loop in high speed (real time) analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Shahroudi

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis modules tend to be set up as one way flow of information, i.e a clear distinction between cause and effect or input and output. However, as the speed of analysis approaches real time (or faster than movie rate), it becomes increasingly difficult for an external user to

  3. Material flows and economic models: an analytical comparison of SFA, LCA and partial equilibrium models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.B.; Heijungs, R.; van der Voet, E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Huppes, G.

    2000-01-01

    The growing concern for environmental problems in the current economy has spurred the study of the way materials and substances flow through the economy, resulting in many different types of analysis. Since all of these have their merits and shortcomings, much of the present theoretical research

  4. Analytical Solution for Fractional Derivative Gas-Flow Equation in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution of the fractional derivative gas transport equation using the power-series technique. We present a new universal transform, namely, generalized Boltzmann change of variable which depends on the fractional order, time and space. This universal transform is employed to transfer the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation. Moreover, the convergence of the solution has been investigated and found that solutions are unconditionally converged. Results are introduced and discussed for the universal variable and other physical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the reservoir; time and space.

  5. Analytical Solution for Fractional Derivative Gas-Flow Equation in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-07-06

    In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution of the fractional derivative gas transport equation using the power-series technique. We present a new universal transform, namely, generalized Boltzmann change of variable which depends on the fractional order, time and space. This universal transform is employed to transfer the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation. Moreover, the convergence of the solution has been investigated and found that solutions are unconditionally converged. Results are introduced and discussed for the universal variable and other physical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the reservoir; time and space.

  6. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium.

  7. Analytic expressions for the construction of a fire event PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Dong San; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model is analytically presented and discussed. Many fire PSA models have fire induced initiating event fault trees not shown in an internal event PSA model. Fire-induced initiating fault tree models are developed for addressing multiple initiating event issues. A single fire event within a fire compartment or fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events. As an example, a fire in a turbine building area can cause a loss of the main feed-water and loss of off-site power initiating events. Up to now, there has been no analytic study on the construction of a fire event PSA model using an internal event PSA model with fault trees of initiating events. In this paper, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model was analytically presented and discussed. This study results show that additional cutsets can be obtained if the fault trees of initiating events for a fire event PSA model are not exactly developed.

  8. Analytic expressions for the construction of a fire event PSA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Dong San; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model is analytically presented and discussed. Many fire PSA models have fire induced initiating event fault trees not shown in an internal event PSA model. Fire-induced initiating fault tree models are developed for addressing multiple initiating event issues. A single fire event within a fire compartment or fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events. As an example, a fire in a turbine building area can cause a loss of the main feed-water and loss of off-site power initiating events. Up to now, there has been no analytic study on the construction of a fire event PSA model using an internal event PSA model with fault trees of initiating events. In this paper, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model was analytically presented and discussed. This study results show that additional cutsets can be obtained if the fault trees of initiating events for a fire event PSA model are not exactly developed.

  9. Spectral emissivity of tungsten: analytic expressions for the 340-nm to 2.6-μm spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, R.M.; Hessler, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    To correct emission spectra a standard radiance source is often used to determine the spectral responsivity of the detection system. In the near-UV, visible, and near-IR spectral regions the most common radiance standard is a tungsten strip lamp calibrated by a standards laboratory. For day-to-day experiments where slightly less accuracy is acceptable, a less expensive uncalibrated lamp is useful. In this case, the radiant temperature T/sub r/ of the lamp is measured with an optical pyrometer, generally at a single wavelength such as 650 nm, and the source spectral radiance L(λ) is calculated from L(λ) = tau(λ)epsilon(λ,T)L/sub B/(λ,T). The transmittance of the source is tau(λ), the spectral emissivity is epsilon(λ,T), and L/sub B/(λ,T) is the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation, Planck's radiation law. To obtain the true temperature T, Wien's approximation is employed. To conveniently calibrate a system, especially one which utilizes a microcomputer, it is advantageous to have analytic expressions for the spectral emissivity of tungsten. Although Larrabee has published such expressions, they are limited to the 450-800-nm spectral region. To obtain analytic expressions from 340 nm to 2.6 μm they have used the measurements of DeVos. Although DeVos's results differ by 2% from those of Larrabee, this difference is assumed to be acceptable

  10. Analytical solutions of steady-state conjugate heat transfer in ducts with turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, Djane R.; Jian Su

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present an approximate analytical solution of the steady-state conjugate heat transfer of turbulent forced convection in a circular pipe with wall axial heat conduction and external convective boundary conditions. Improved lumped differential approach based on two points Hermite approximation for integrals was applied to reduce the heat conduction equation in the solid into a second-order ordinary differential equation for the radially averaged solid temperature. The energy equation in the fluid was solved by applying the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). The Sturm-Lioville eigenproblem for fluid energy equation in the cylindrical coordinate system was solved by the sign-count method. The truncated system of N ordinary differential equations for transformed potentials of the fluid temperature and the second-order ordinary differential equation for radially averaged solid temperature formed a homogeneous system of N+2 ordinary differential equations, which was solved analytically. The effects of the fluid-solid thermal conductivity ratio on the Nusselt number, the average fluid and solid temperatures, and the fluid-solid interface temperature were investigated. (author)

  11. Analytical framework for borehole heat exchanger (BHE) simulation influenced by horizontal groundwater flow and complex top boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jaime; Blum, Philipp; Bayer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers (BHE) are the most widely used technologies for tapping low-enthalpy energy resources in the shallow subsurface. Analysis of these systems requires a proper simulation of the relevant processes controlling the transfer of heat between the BHE and the ground. Among the available simulation approaches, analytical methods are broadly accepted, especially when low computational costs and comprehensive analyses are demanded. Moreover, these methods constitute the benchmark solutions to evaluate the performance of more complex numerical models. Within the spectrum of existing (semi-)analytical models, those based on the superposition of problem-specific Green's functions are particularly appealing. Green's functions can be derived, for instance, for nodal or line sources with constant or transient strengths. In the same manner, functional forms can be obtained for scenarios with complex top boundary conditions whose temperature may vary in space and time. Other relevant processes, such as advective heat transport, mechanical dispersion and heat transfer through the unsaturated zone could be incorporated as well. A keystone of the methodology is that individual solutions can be added up invoking the superposition principle. This leads to a flexible and robust framework for studying the interaction of multiple processes on thermal plumes of BHEs. In this contribution, we present a new analytical framework and its verification via comparison with a numerical model. It simulates a BHE as a line source, and it integrates both horizontal groundwater flow and the effect of top boundary effects due to variable land use. All these effects may be implemented as spatially and temporally variable. For validation, the analytical framework is successfully applied to study cases where highly resolved temperature data is available.

  12. Modelling of fluid flow in tape casting of thin ceramics: Analytical approaches and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Tape casting has been used to produce thin layers of ceramics that can be used as single layers or can be stacked and laminated into multilayered structures. Many startup products such as multilayered inductors, multilayered varistors, piezoelectrics, ceramic fuel cells and lithium ion battery...... components are dependent upon tape casting technology. One of the growing sciences in the processing of ceramics by tape casting is the use of fluid flow analysis to control and enhance the final tapes. The fluid dynamics analysis of the ceramic slurries during tape casting is an efficient mean to elucidate...... the physical parameters crucial to the process. A review of the development of the tape casting process with particular focus on modelling the material flow is presented and in this context the current status is examined and future potential discussed....

  13. Web-Based Predictive Analytics to Improve Patient Flow in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) simulation project was established to demonstrate how requirements-driven analysis and process simulation can help improve the quality of patient care for the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMC). This project developed a web-based simulation prototype of patient flow in EDs, validated the performance of the simulation against operational data, and documented IT requirements for the ED simulation.

  14. INTERSTELLAR GAS FLOW PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER-Lo OBSERVATIONS IN 2009 AND 2010: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möbius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wu, X.; Petersen, L.; Valovcin, D.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Crew, G.; Vanderspek, R.; McComas, D. J.; Saul, L.

    2012-01-01

    Neutral atom imaging of the interstellar gas flow in the inner heliosphere provides the most detailed information on physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and its interaction with the heliosphere. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measured neutral H, He, O, and Ne for three years. We compare the He and combined O+Ne flow distributions for two interstellar flow passages in 2009 and 2010 with an analytical calculation, which is simplified because the IBEX orientation provides observations at almost exactly the perihelion of the gas trajectories. This method allows separate determination of the key ISM parameters: inflow speed, longitude, and latitude, as well as temperature. A combined optimization, as in complementary approaches, is thus not necessary. Based on the observed peak position and width in longitude and latitude, inflow speed, latitude, and temperature are found as a function of inflow longitude. The latter is then constrained by the variation of the observed flow latitude as a function of observer longitude and by the ratio of the widths of the distribution in longitude and latitude. Identical results are found for 2009 and 2010: an He flow vector somewhat outside previous determinations (λ ISM∞ = 79. 0 0+3. 0 0(–3. 0 5), β ISM∞ = –4. 0 9 ± 0. 0 2, V ISM∞ 23.5 + 3.0(–2.0) km s –1 , T He = 5000-8200 K), suggesting a larger inflow longitude and lower speed. The O+Ne temperature range, T O+Ne = 5300-9000 K, is found to be close to the upper range for He and consistent with an isothermal medium for all species within current uncertainties.

  15. An analytical expression of electric potential and field of organic thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankalla, S; Glesner, M

    2012-01-01

    The two-dimensional electric potential and field of an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) is derived by conformal mapping using the Schwarz-Christoffel-transformation of the Poisson equation. In this paper we compare this analytical closed-form solution to field simulation results from Silvaco TCAD. Inter alia the potential close to the surface is calculated and we found excellent accordance to the numerical simulations and thus proofed its usability for charge transport calculations. Thus, it is used for calculation of the drain-source-current in the channel.

  16. Analytic solutions to linear, time-dependent fission product deposition models for isothermal laminar, slug, or multiregion flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkee, J.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The time-dependent convective-diffusion equation with radioactive decay is solved analytically in axisymmetric cylindrical geometry for laminar and slug velocity profiles under isothermal conditions. Concentration dependent diffusion is neglected. The laminar flow solution is derived using the method of separation of variables and Frobenius' technique for constructing a series expansion about a regular singular point. The slug flow multiregion solution is obtained using the method of separation of variables. The Davidon Variable Metric Minimization algorithm is used to compute the coupling coefficients. These solutions, which describe the transport of fission products in a flowing stream, are then used to determine the concentration of radioactive material deposited on a conduit wall using a standard mass transfer model. Fission product deposition measurements for five diffusion tubes in a Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor plateout probe are analyzed. Using single region slug and laminar models, the wall mass transfer coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and inlet concentrations are determined using least squares analysis. The diffusion coefficients and inlet concentrations are consistent between tubes. The derived diffusion coefficients and wall mass transfer coefficients are in relative agreement with known literature values

  17. DR-Integrator: a new analytic tool for integrating DNA copy number and gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Keyan; Tibshirani, Robert; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2010-02-01

    DNA copy number alterations (CNA) frequently underlie gene expression changes by increasing or decreasing gene dosage. However, only a subset of genes with altered dosage exhibit concordant changes in gene expression. This subset is likely to be enriched for oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, and can be identified by integrating these two layers of genome-scale data. We introduce DNA/RNA-Integrator (DR-Integrator), a statistical software tool to perform integrative analyses on paired DNA copy number and gene expression data. DR-Integrator identifies genes with significant correlations between DNA copy number and gene expression, and implements a supervised analysis that captures genes with significant alterations in both DNA copy number and gene expression between two sample classes. DR-Integrator is freely available for non-commercial use from the Pollack Lab at http://pollacklab.stanford.edu/ and can be downloaded as a plug-in application to Microsoft Excel and as a package for the R statistical computing environment. The R package is available under the name 'DRI' at http://cran.r-project.org/. An example analysis using DR-Integrator is included as supplemental material. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. How effective are expressive writing interventions for adolescents? A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagin, Gabriele; Margola, Davide; Revenson, Tracey A

    2015-03-01

    This meta-analysis evaluated the effects of the expressive writing intervention (EW; Pennebaker & Beall, 1986) among adolescents. Twenty-one independent studies that assessed the efficacy of expressive writing on youth samples aged 10-18 ears were collected and analyzed. Results indicated an overall mean g-effect size that was positive in direction but relatively small (0.127), as well as significant g-effect sizes ranging from 0.107 to 0.246 for the outcome domains of Emotional Distress, Problem Behavior, Social Adjustment, and School Participation. Few significant effects were found within specific outcome domains for putative moderator variables that included characteristics of the participants, intervention instructions, or research design. Studies involving adolescents with high levels of emotional problems at baseline reported larger effects on school performance. Studies that implemented a higher dosage intervention (i.e., greater number and, to some extent, greater spacing of sessions) reported larger effects on somatic complaints. Overall, the findings suggest that expressive writing tends to produce small yet significant improvements on adolescents' well-being. The findings highlight the importance of modifying the traditional expressive writing protocol to enhance its efficacy and reduce potential detrimental effects. At this stage of research the evidence on expressive writing as a viable intervention for adolescents is promising but not decisive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Semi-analytical investigation of electronics cooling using developing nanofluid flow in rectangular microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mital, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Thermal management issues are limiting barriers to high density electronics packaging and miniaturization. Liquid cooling using microchannels is an attractive alternative to bulky aluminum heat sinks. The channels can be integrated directly into a chip, and cooling can be further enhanced using nanofluids. The goals of this study are to evaluate heat transfer improvement of a rectangular channel nanofluid heat sink with developing laminar flow, taking into account the pumping power penalty. The proposed model uses semi-empirical correlations to calculate effective nanofluid thermophysical properties, which are then incorporated into heat transfer and friction factor correlations in literature for single-phase flows. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental studies. The validated model is used to predict the thermal resistance and pumping power as a function of four design variables that include the channel width, the wall width, the flow velocity and the particle volume fraction. The parameters are optimized using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) with minimum thermal resistance as the objective function, and fixed specified value of pumping power as the constraint. For a given value of pumping power, the benefit of nanoparticle addition is evaluated by independently optimizing the heat sink, first with nanofluid, and then with base fluid. Comparing the minimized thermal resistances revealed only a small benefit since the nanoparticles increase the pumping power which can alternately be diverted toward an increased velocity in a pure fluid heat sink. The benefit further diminishes with increase in available pumping power. -- Highlights: ► Validated model used to predict heat transfer and pumping power (p.p.) in nanofluids. ► Genetic algorithm used to minimize thermal resistance with p.p. constraint. ► Heat sink design independently optimized with nanofluid and base fluid coolant. ► No significant benefit through particle

  20. Analytical expressions for radiatively corrected Higgs masses and couplings in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carena, M.

    1995-03-01

    We propose, for the computation of the Higgs mass spectrum and couplings, a renormalization-group improved leading-log approximation, where the renormalization scale is fixed to the top-quark pole mass. For the case m A ∝M SUSY , our leading-log approximation differs by less than 2 GeV from previous results on the Higgs mass computed using a nearly scale independent renormalization-group improved effective potential up to next-to-leading order. Moreover, for the general case m A SUSY , we provide analytical formulae (including two-loop leading-log corrections) for all the masses and couplings in the Higgs sector. For M SUSY A , tan β and the stop mixing parameters, they reproduce the numerical renormalization-group improved leading-log result for the Higgs masses with an error of less than 3 GeV. For the Higgs couplings, our analytical formulae reproduce the numerical results equally well. Comparison with other methods is also performed. (orig.)

  1. The areal reduction factor: A new analytical expression for the Lazio Region in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, C.; Ridolfi, E.; Napolitano, F.; Russo, F.

    2018-05-01

    For the study and modeling of hydrological phenomena, both in urban and rural areas, a proper estimation of the areal reduction factor (ARF) is crucial. In this paper, we estimated the ARF from observed rainfall data as the ratio between the average rainfall occurring in a specific area and the point rainfall. Then, we compared the obtained ARF values with some of the most widespread empirical approaches in literature which are used when rainfall observations are not available. Results highlight that the literature formulations can lead to a substantial over- or underestimation of the ARF estimated from observed data. These findings can have severe consequences, especially in the design of hydraulic structures where empirical formulations are extensively applied. The aim of this paper is to present a new analytical relationship with an explicit dependence on the rainfall duration and area that can better represent the ARF-area trend over the area case of study. The analytical curve presented here can find an important application to estimate the ARF values for design purposes. The test study area is the Lazio Region (central Italy).

  2. Analytical expression of the thermal stresses in a vessel or pipe with cladding submitted to any thermal transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes an extension of the known analytical solution for the temperature and stresses in the event of a linear shock in a pipe containing a fluid. The intention is to propose a simple solution for any variation of the temperature in the fluid and to cover the influence of cladding on the inner surface. The approach consists of breaking down the fluid temperature variation into a succession of linear shocks. Using the linear shock resolution approach, it is possible to propose a simple analytical solution, using the same constant (Biot number B, etc.). The proposed solution is compared with finite element analysis: the solution is found to be reliable for any thermal shock or cyclic variation of fluid temperature, and can even replicate the transient regime. The following stage has made it possible to account for the effect of cladding on the inner surface of the piping on temperature distribution. The second part gives analytical expressions for the elastic stresses due to the temperature field alone

  3. An experimental and analytical study of fluid flow and critical heat flux in PWR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowditch, F.H.; Mogford, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes experiments that have been carried out at the Winfrith Establishment of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority to determine the critical heat flux characteristics of pressurized water reactor fuel elements over an unusually wide range of coolant flow conditions that are relevant to both normal and fault conditions of reactor operation. The experiments were carried out in the TITAN loop using an electrically heated bundle of 25 rods of 9.5 mm diameter on a 12.7 mm pitch fitted with plain grids in order to provide a generic base for code validation. The fully tabulated experimental data for critical heat flux, pressure drop and sub-channel mixing are encompassed by ranges of pressure between 20 and 160 Bar, coolant flow between 150 and 3600 Kg/m 2 s, and coolant inlet temperature between 150 and 320 0 C. The results of the experiments are compared with predicted data based upon several established critical heat flux correlations. It is concluded that the extrapolation of some correlations to conditions beyond their intended range of application can lead to dangerous over estimates of critical heat flux, but the Winfrith WSC-2 and the EPRI NP-2609 correlations perform well over the whole data range and correlate all data with RMS errors of 9% and 6% respectively. (author)

  4. Analytical Application of Flow Immunosensor in Detection of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine in Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Tanveer A; Zargar, Seema; Majid, Salma; Darwish, Ibrahim A

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an immunosensor based on kinetic exclusion analysis (KinExA) was used for thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) estimation. A KinExA™ 3200 instrument was used for this analysis, which is an automated flow fluorimeter designed to separate free unbound antibody binding sites in reaction mixtures of antibody, antigen, and antibody-antigen complex. A T3-BSA- and T4-BSA-coated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bead microcolumn is generated inside the flow cell of the instrument. A sample mixture containing T3 and T4 with their respective monoclonal antibodies and their complexes are drawn past the microbead column. The unbound T3 or T4 monoclonal antibody binding sites are captured by their respective T3 and T4 antigens coated on the PMMA beads as bovine serum albumin conjugates. Fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies bind to the T3 or T4 antigen-antibody complex to generate fluorescence intensity for analysis. The limit of detection for the T3 and T4 assays was found to be 0.06 and 1.9 ng mL -1 with acceptable precision values. The convenience of the automated KinExA format may be valuable in medical diagnostic laboratories.

  5. Analytical study of narrow channel flow for a spallation target system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Monde, Masanori [Saga Univ., Saga (Japan); Terada, Atsuhiko; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under fully developed turbulent water flow condition were analyzed over a two-dimensional narrow rectangular channel whose height is H=1.2 mm. The channel configuration and water flow condition simulate forced convection cooling of a spallation target system components design such as a solid target and a proton beam window. The high-Reynolds number form of the standard k - {epsilon} and RNG k - {epsilon} models employing wall functions for the Reynolds number (Re) range of 7,000 to 22,000 were used in the analyses. As for heat transfer characteristics of a smooth channel, the Nusselt number obtained by the standard k - {epsilon} model agreed very well with the Dittus-Boelter correlation. No significant differences in friction factors for the smooth channel were observed for these two models, which agreed well with the Blasius correlation. However, the standard k - {epsilon} model could not predict friction factors well for the rib-roughened channel. (author)

  6. Analytical study of narrow channel flow for a spallation target system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Monde, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under fully developed turbulent water flow condition were analyzed over a two-dimensional narrow rectangular channel whose height is H=1.2 mm. The channel configuration and water flow condition simulate forced convection cooling of a spallation target system components design such as a solid target and a proton beam window. The high-Reynolds number form of the standard k - ε and RNG k - ε models employing wall functions for the Reynolds number (Re) range of 7,000 to 22,000 were used in the analyses. As for heat transfer characteristics of a smooth channel, the Nusselt number obtained by the standard k - ε model agreed very well with the Dittus-Boelter correlation. No significant differences in friction factors for the smooth channel were observed for these two models, which agreed well with the Blasius correlation. However, the standard k - ε model could not predict friction factors well for the rib-roughened channel. (author)

  7. Analytical analysis of heat transfer and pumping power of laminar nanofluid developing flow in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mital, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Thermal management issues are limiting barriers to high density electronics packaging and miniaturization. Liquid cooling using micro and mini channels is an attractive alternative to large and bulky aluminum or copper heat sinks. These channels can be integrated directly into a chip or a heat spreader, and cooling can be further enhanced using nanofluids (liquid solutions with dispersed nanometer-sized particles) due to their enhanced heat transfer effects reported in literature. The goals of this study are to evaluate heat transfer improvement of a nanofluid heat sink with developing laminar flow forced convection, taking into account the pumping power penalty. The phrase heat transfer enhancement ratio (HTR) is used to denote the ratio of average heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid to water at the same pumping power. The proposed model uses semi-empirical correlations to calculate nanofluid thermophysical properties. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental studies. The validated model is used to identify important design variables (Reynolds number, volume fraction and particle size) related to thermal and flow characteristics of the microchannel heat sink with nanofluids. Statistical analysis of the model showed that the volume fraction is the most significant factor impacting the HTR, followed by the particle diameter. The impact of the Reynolds number and other interaction terms is relatively weak. The HTR is maximized at smallest possible particle diameter (since smaller particles improve heat transfer but do not impact pumping power). Then, for a given Reynolds number, an optimal value of volume fraction can be obtained to maximize HTR. The overall aim is to present results that would be useful for understanding and optimal design of microchannel heat sinks with nanofluid flow. - Highlights: ► Validated model is used to investigate heat transfer and pumping power in nanofluids. ► Particles improve heat transfer

  8. Bingham plastic fluid flow model in tape casting of ceramics using two doctor blades – analytical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common processes used in manufacturing of multilayer ceramic packages, multilayer capacitors and large scale integration circuits is tape casting. In this process, the wet tape thickness is one of the single most determining parameters affecting the final properties of the product......, and it is therefore of great interest to be able to control it. One way to control the tape thickness is to use a two doctor blade configuration in the tape casting machine. In this case, it becomes important to fix the height of the slurry in front of both doctor blades according to the desired tape thickness...... and casting speed (belt velocity). In the present work, the flow in both doctor blade regions of a slurry is described with a steady state momentum equation in combination with a Bingham plastic constitutive equation, and this is integrated to a closed form analytical solution for both reservoirs based...

  9. Analytical investigation of third grade nanofluidic flow over a riga plate using Cattaneo-Christov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Anum; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Farooq, M. U.

    2018-06-01

    This article addresses third grade nanofluidic flow instigated by riga plate and Cattaneo-Christov theory is adopted to investigate thermal and mass diffusions with the incorporation of newly eminent zero nanoparticles mass flux condition. The governing system of equations is nondimensionalized through relevant similarity transformations and significatory findings are attained by using optimal homotopy analysis method. The behaviors of affecting parameters for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are depicted graphically and also verified through three dimensional patterns for some parameters. Values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number with the apposite discussion have been recorded. The current results reveal that temperature and concentration profiles experience decline when thermal and concentration relaxation parameters are augmented respectively.

  10. An analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for internal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyberg, Mats D; Tryggeson, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives a solution to the Navier-Stokes equation by considering vorticity generated at system boundaries. The result is an explicit expression for the velocity. The Navier-Stokes equation is reformulated as a divergence and integrated, giving a tensor equation that splits into a symmetric and a skew-symmetric part. One equation gives an algebraic system of quadratic equations involving velocity components. A system of nonlinear partial differential equations is reduced to algebra. The velocity is then explicitly calculated and shown to depend on boundary conditions only. This removes the need to solve the Navier-Stokes equation by a 3D numerical computation, replacing it by computation of 2D surface integrals over the boundary. (fast track communication)

  11. Analytical validation of a flow cytometric protocol for quantification of platelet microparticles in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Signe E; Krogh, Anne K H; Hedström, Matilda E K; Christiansen, Liselotte B; Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2018-06-01

    Platelet microparticles (PMPs) are subcellular procoagulant vesicles released upon platelet activation. In people with clinical diseases, alterations in PMP concentrations have been extensively investigated, but few canine studies exist. This study aims to validate a canine flow cytometric protocol for PMP quantification and to assess the influence of calcium on PMP concentrations. Microparticles (MP) were quantified in citrated whole blood (WB) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) using flow cytometry. Anti-CD61 antibody and Annexin V (AnV) were used to detect platelets and phosphatidylserine, respectively. In 13 healthy dogs, CD61 + /AnV - concentrations were analyzed with/without a calcium buffer. CD61 + /AnV - , CD61 + /AnV + , and CD61 - /AnV + MP quantification were validated in 10 healthy dogs. The coefficient of variation (CV) for duplicate (intra-assay) and parallel (inter-assay) analyses and detection limits (DLs) were calculated. CD61 + /AnV - concentrations were higher in calcium buffer; 841,800 MP/μL (526,000-1,666,200) vs without; 474,200 MP/μL (278,800-997,500), P < .05. In WB, PMP were above DLs and demonstrated acceptable (<20%) intra-assay and inter-assay CVs in 9/10 dogs: 1.7% (0.5-8.9) and 9.0% (0.9-11.9), respectively, for CD61 + /AnV - and 2.4% (0.2-8.7) and 7.8% (0.0-12.8), respectively, for CD61 + /AnV + . Acceptable CVs were not seen for the CD61 - /AnV + MP. In PPP, quantifications were challenged by high inter-assay CV, overlapping DLs and hemolysis and lipemia interfered with quantification in 5/10 dogs. Calcium induced higher in vitro PMP concentrations, likely due to platelet activation. PMP concentrations were reliably quantified in WB, indicating the potential for clinical applications. PPP analyses were unreliable due to high inter-CV and DL overlap, and not obtainable due to hemolysis and lipemia interference. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  13. Determination of P-Glycoprotein Expression by Flow Cytometry in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkay Saraymen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determination the expression of P-glycoprotein is especially problematic for normal tissues because immuno­logical methods are limited in terms of sensitivity. We aimed to determine the expression of P-glycoprotein and CD34 by flow cytometry, and to evaluate the level of expression of P-glycoprotein and CD34 with unresponsive to treatment in pa­tients diagnosed with hematologic malignancy. Methods: Our study included fifty patients diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leuke­mia, and twenty healthy controls who were admitted to Erci­yes University Hematology-Oncology Hospital. The suspend­ed cells from bone marrow samples of patients and the pe­ripheral blood samples of healthy people were marked with P-glycoprotein phycoerythrin and CD34 FITC or PerCP Cy 5.5; and then surface expression was measured by means of flow cytometry. Results: In 6 of 30 acute myeloblastic leukemia patients P-glycoprotein and CD34 expression, in 6 of 20 acute lympho­blastic leukemia patients P-glycoprotein, in 5 of them CD34 expression were determined. A significant relation between P-glycoprotein and CD34 expressions in acute myeloblas­tic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia bone marrow samples was reported. Conclusion: Our data indicate that flow cytometry is more reliable, precise and faster than molecular methods for mea­suring P-glycoprotein expression and suggests the pos­sibility of a significant relationship between P-glycoprotein and CD34 expressions in acute myeloblastic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia bone marrow samples. The blast cells expressing CD34 on their surface along with P-glycoprotein simultaneously show that multi drug resistance 1 gene is mostly active in immature cells.

  14. Three-dimensional semi-analytical solution to groundwater flow in confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Samani, Nozar; Sleep, Brent

    2009-06-01

    The Laplace domain solutions have been obtained for three-dimensional groundwater flow to a well in confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers. The solutions take into account partial penetration effects, instantaneous drainage or delayed yield, vertical anisotropy and the water table boundary condition. As a basis, the Laplace domain solutions for drawdown created by a point source in uniform, anisotropic confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers are first derived. Then, by the principle of superposition the point source solutions are extended to the cases of partially and fully penetrating wells. Unlike the previous solution for the confined aquifer that contains improper integrals arising from the Hankel transform [Yeh HD, Chang YC. New analytical solutions for groundwater flow in wedge-shaped aquifers with various topographic boundary conditions. Adv Water Resour 2006;26:471-80], numerical evaluation of our solution is relatively easy using well known numerical Laplace inversion methods. The effects of wedge angle, pumping well location and observation point location on drawdown and the effects of partial penetration, screen location and delay index on the wedge boundary hydraulic gradient in unconfined aquifers have also been investigated. The results are presented in the form of dimensionless drawdown-time and boundary gradient-time type curves. The curves are useful for parameter identification, calculation of stream depletion rates and the assessment of water budgets in river basins.

  15. An analytic expression for the sheath criterion in magnetized plasmas with multi-charged ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The generalized Bohm criterion in magnetized multi-component plasmas consisting of multi-charged positive and negative ion species and electrons is analytically investigated by using the hydrodynamic model. It is assumed that the electrons and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with different temperatures and the positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely. Our results show that the positive and negative ion temperatures, the orientation of the applied magnetic field and the charge number of positive and negative ions strongly affect the Bohm criterion in these multi-component plasmas. To determine the validity of our derived generalized Bohm criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition and it is shown that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when entrance velocity of ion into the sheath satisfies the obtained Bohm criterion. Also, as a practical application of the obtained Bohm criterion, effects of the ionic temperature and concentration as well as magnetic field on the behavior of the charged particle density distributions and so the sheath thickness of a magnetized plasma consisting of electrons and singly charged positive and negative ion species are studied numerically

  16. Analytical expressions for chatter analysis in milling operations with one dominant mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, A.; Munoa, J.; Ciurana, J.; Dombovari, Z.; Stepan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In milling, an accurate prediction of chatter is still one of the most complex problems in the field. The presence of these self-excited vibrations can spoil the surface of the part and can also cause a large reduction in tool life. The stability diagrams provide a practical selection of the optimum cutting conditions determined either by time domain or frequency domain based methods. Applying these methods parametric or parameter traced representations of the linear stability limits can be achieved by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problems. In this work, new analytical formulae are proposed related to the parameter domains of both Hopf and period doubling type stability boundaries emerging in the regenerative mechanical model of time periodical milling processes. These formulae are useful to enrich and speed up the currently used numerical methods. Also, the destabilization mechanism of double period chatter is explained, creating an analogy with the chatter related to the Hopf bifurcation, considering one dominant mode and using concepts established by the Pioneers of chatter research.

  17. Analytical theory for artificial satellites. [nominal orbit expressed by means of Chebyshev polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprit, A.

    1975-01-01

    A theory for generating segmented ephemerides is discussed as a means for fast generation and simple retrieval of nominal orbit data. Over a succession of finite intervals of time, the orbit is represented by a best approximation expressed by Chebyshev polynomials. Storage of coefficients tables for Chebyshev polynomials is seen as a method to reduce data and decrease transmission costs. A general algorithm was constructed and computer programs were designed. The possibility of storing an ephemeris for a few days in the on-board computer, or in microprocessors attached to the data collectors is suggested.

  18. dictyExpress: a web-based platform for sequence data management and analytics in Dictyostelium and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajdohar, Miha; Rosengarten, Rafael D; Kokosar, Janez; Jeran, Luka; Blenkus, Domen; Shaulsky, Gad; Zupan, Blaz

    2017-06-02

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil-dwelling social amoeba, is a model for the study of numerous biological processes. Research in the field has benefited mightily from the adoption of next-generation sequencing for genomics and transcriptomics. Dictyostelium biologists now face the widespread challenges of analyzing and exploring high dimensional data sets to generate hypotheses and discovering novel insights. We present dictyExpress (2.0), a web application designed for exploratory analysis of gene expression data, as well as data from related experiments such as Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq). The application features visualization modules that include time course expression profiles, clustering, gene ontology enrichment analysis, differential expression analysis and comparison of experiments. All visualizations are interactive and interconnected, such that the selection of genes in one module propagates instantly to visualizations in other modules. dictyExpress currently stores the data from over 800 Dictyostelium experiments and is embedded within a general-purpose software framework for management of next-generation sequencing data. dictyExpress allows users to explore their data in a broader context by reciprocal linking with dictyBase-a repository of Dictyostelium genomic data. In addition, we introduce a companion application called GenBoard, an intuitive graphic user interface for data management and bioinformatics analysis. dictyExpress and GenBoard enable broad adoption of next generation sequencing based inquiries by the Dictyostelium research community. Labs without the means to undertake deep sequencing projects can mine the data available to the public. The entire information flow, from raw sequence data to hypothesis testing, can be accomplished in an efficient workspace. The software framework is generalizable and represents a useful approach for any research community. To encourage more wide usage, the backend is open

  19. Expressions of dissatisfaction and complaint by people with learning disabilities: a discourse analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L

    2013-06-01

    This paper uses critical discursive psychology to examine expressions of dissatisfaction and complaint by people with learning disabilities. UK government policies stress that people with learning disabilities should have more control over their lives. Expressing dissatisfaction about services is an important aspect of this process. However, given that such individuals are often treated as incompetent, and given the delicate nature of complaining about services one might rely on for day-to-day support, this can be difficult to do. In building complaints, speakers drew on repertoires about competence and incompetence, the right to free choice as a principle, and tempered dissatisfaction to make contrasts between good and bad supporters and practice. While the complaints show many of the general features of complaints identified in previous work in the general population, they were crafted to the particular institutional context of social care, and attended both explicitly and implicitly to the particular issues of competence, power, and authority found in those services. Speakers positioned themselves as competent, and service workers as more or less competent in their roles. Issues of power in social care services were observed explicitly in the accounts, whereby people described staff as controlling and it being difficult to voice dissatisfaction. They were also implicit in the way speakers drew on the others with institutional authority for corroboration and comparison. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the three-dimensional flow field and relative analyte concentration distribution in an atmospheric pressure ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  1. Data analysis and analytical predictions of a steam generator tube bundle flow field for verification of 2-D T/H computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J.Y.; Reid, H.C.; Berringer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical predictions of the flow field within a 60 deg segment flow model of a proposed sodium heated steam generator are compared to experimental results obtained from several axial levels between baffling. The axial/crossflow field is developed by use of alternating multi-ported baffling, accomplished by radial perforation distribution. Radial and axial porous model predictions from an axisymmetric computational analysis compared to intra-pitch experimental data at the mid baffle span location for various levels. The analytical mechanics utilizes a cylindrical, axisymmetric, finite difference model, solving conservation mass and momentum equations. 6 refs

  2. Analytical Expressions for the Hard-Scattering Production of Massive Partons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We obtain explicit expressions for the two-particle differential cross section $E_c E_\\kappa d\\sigma (AB \\to c\\kappa X) /d\\bb c d \\bb \\kappa$ and the two-particle angular correlation function \\break $d\\sigma(AB$$ \\to$$ c\\kappa X)/d\\Delta \\phi \\, d\\Delta y$ in the hard-scattering production of massive partons in order to exhibit the ``ridge" structure on the away side in the hard-scattering process. The single-particle production cross section $d\\sigma(AB \\to cX) /dy_c c_T dc_T $ is also obtained and compared with the ALICE experimental data for charm production in $pp$ collisions at 7 TeV at LHC.

  3. On the use of analytical approximate expressions for the transfer rate in excitation transfer kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusba, J.; Sipp, B.

    1985-01-01

    We present a discussion about the range of validity of the usual approximate transfer rate expressions used in the description of the kinetics of diffusion-modulated excitation transfer, for a reactive interaction of exponential functional form. We simulate the features of energy transfer by a numerical inversion of the exact Laplace transform of the transfer rate. It is shown that for high diffusion coefficients of the order of 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 , the kinetics may be well reproduced, even at short times, by the asymptotic form of the transfer rate. For slow molecular displacements, the short time static regime is brought to direct observation, but the transfer rate approaches is asymptotic value at a much later time

  4. Analytic Expression of Geometric Discord in Arbitrary Mixture of any Two Bi-qubit Product Pure States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuan-Mei; Xing Hang; Zhang Zhan-Jun; Liu Yi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Quantum correlations in a family of states comprising any mixture of a pair of arbitrary bi-qubit product pure states are studied by employing geometric discord [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 190502] as the quantifier. First, the inherent symmetry in the family of states about local unitary transformations is revealed. Then, the analytic expression of geometric discords in the states is worked out. Some concrete discussions and analyses on the captured geometric discords are made so that their distinct features are exposed. It is found that, the more averagely the two bi-qubit product states are mixed, the bigger geometric discord the mixed state owns. Moreover, the monotonic relationships of geometric discord with different parameters are revealed. (paper)

  5. Induction studies with Escherichia coli expressing recombinant interleukin-13 using multi-parameter flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shitu, J. O.; Woodley, John; Wnek, R.

    2009-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-13 (IL13) following induction with IPTG in Escherichia coli results in metabolic changes as indicated by multi-parameter flow cytometry and traditional methods of fermentation profiling (O-2 uptake rate, CO2 evolution rate and optical density measurements). Induction...

  6. Relationship between aquaporin-5 expression and saliva flow in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyfoo, M S; Bolaky, N; Depoortere, I; Delporte, C

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of AQP5 in submandibular acinar cells from sham- and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice in relation to the salivary flow. Mice were sham or STZ injected. Distribution of AQP5 subcellular expression in submandibular glands was determined by immunohistochemistry. AQP5 labelling indices (LI), reflecting AQP5 subcellular distribution, were determined in acinar cells. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of AQP5 in submandibular glands. Blood glycaemia and osmolality and saliva flow rates were also determined. AQP5 immunoreactivity was primarily located at the apical and apical-basolateral membranes of submandibular gland acinar cells from sham- and STZ-treated mice. No significant differences in AQP5 protein levels were observed between sham- and STZ-treated mice. Compared to sham-treated mice, STZ-treated mice had significant increased glycaemia, while no significant differences in blood osmolality were observed. Saliva flow rate was significantly decreased in STZ-treated mice as compared to sham-treated mice. In STZ-treated mice, significant reduction in salivary flow rate was observed without any concomitant modification in AQP5 expression and localization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pleguezuelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.

  8. Online self-expression and experimentation as 'reflectivism': Using text analytics to examine the participatory forum Hello Sunday Morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carah, Nicholas; Meurk, Carla; Angus, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Hello Sunday Morning is an online health promotion organisation that began in 2009. Hello Sunday Morning asks participants to stop consuming alcohol for a period of time, set a goal and document their progress on a personal blog. Hello Sunday Morning is a unique health intervention for three interrelated reasons: (1) it was generated outside a clinical setting, (2) it uses new media technologies to create structured forms of participation in an iterative and open-ended way and (3) participants generate a written record of their progress along with demographic, behavioural and engagement data. This article presents a text analysis of the blog posts of Hello Sunday Morning participants using the software program Leximancer. Analysis of blogs illustrates how participants' expressions change over time. In the first month, participants tended to set goals, describe their current drinking practices in individual and cultural terms, express hopes and anxieties and report on early efforts to change. After month 1, participants continued to report on efforts to change and associated challenges and reflect on their place as individuals in a drinking culture. In addition to this, participants evaluated their efforts to change and presented their 'findings' and 'theorised' them to provide advice for others. We contextualise this text analysis with respect to Hello Sunday Morning's development of more structured forms of online participation. We offer a critical appraisal of the value of text analytics in the development of online health interventions.

  9. Flow cytometric analysis of p21 protein expression on irradiated human lymphocytes; Analise por citometria de fluxo da expressao da proteina p21 em linfocitos humanos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, N.F.G.; Amaral, A., E-mail: neyliane@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Laboratorio de Modelagem e Biodosimetria Aplicada; Freitas-Silva, R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Garanhuns, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas; Pereira, V.R.A. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes. Departamento de Imunologia. Lab. de Imunoparasitologia; Tasat, D.R. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Laboratorio de Biologia Celular del Pulmon

    2013-08-15

    Cell cycle blockage in G1 is a mechanism p21 protein-regulated and coupled to DNA damage response to permit genetic content analysis, damage repair and cell death. Analysis of proteins that participates of this response has progressed with new analytic tools, and data contributes to comprehension of radioinduced molecular events as well as to new approaches on practices that employ ionizing radiation. On this perspective, the aim of this research was to evaluate, by flow cytometry, p21 expression on irradiated human lymphocytes, maintained under different experimental conditions. Peripheral blood samples from 10 healthy subjects were irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2 and 4 Gy. Lymphocytes were processed to analysis on ex vivo (no cultured) condition and after 24; 48 and 72 hours culture, with and without phytohemagglutinin stimulation. p21 protein expression levels were measured by flow cytometry, as percentage values. Results indicate that flow cytometric assay allows detection of changes on p21 expression, since it was detected significant increase on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated samples, for all times, against basal expression (ex vivo). However, it was not observed significant alterations on p21 protein radioinduced levels, for all doses, times and culture conditions analyzed. These results not indicate so p21 protein as bioindicator of ionizing radiation exposure. Nevertheless, data confirmation may to require analysis of a more numerous population. (author)

  10. Analytical Expressions Pertaining to the Concentration of Substrates and Product in Phenol-Polyphenol Oxidase System Immobilized in Laponite Hydrogels: A Reciprocal Competitive Inhibition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Indira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis corresponding to the diffusion and kinetics of substrate and product in an amperometric biosensor is developed and reported in this paper. The nonlinear coupled system of diffusion equations was analytically solved by Homotopy perturbation method. Herein, we report the approximate analytical expressions pertaining to substrate concentration, product concentration, and current response for all possible values of diffusion and kinetic parameters. The numerical solution of this problem is also reported using Scilab/Matlab program. Also, we found excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical results upon comparison.

  11. Semi-analytical solution of flow to a well in an unconfined-fractured aquifer system separated by an aquitard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad M.; Samani, Nozar; Barry, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Semi-analytical solutions are presented for flow to a well in an extensive homogeneous and anisotropic unconfined-fractured aquifer system separated by an aquitard. The pumping well is of infinitesimal radius and screened in either the overlying unconfined aquifer or the underlying fractured aquifer. An existing linearization method was used to determine the watertable drainage. The solution was obtained via Laplace and Hankel transforms, with results calculated by numerical inversion. The main findings are presented in the form of non-dimensional drawdown-time curves, as well as scaled sensitivity-dimensionless time curves. The new solution permits determination of the influence of fractures, matrix blocks and watertable drainage parameters on the aquifer drawdown. The effect of the aquitard on the drawdown response of the overlying unconfined aquifer and the underlying fractured aquifer was also explored. The results permit estimation of the unconfined and fractured aquifer hydraulic parameters via type-curve matching or coupling of the solution with a parameter estimation code. The solution can also be used to determine aquifer hydraulic properties from an optimal pumping test set up and duration.

  12. Analytical solution for the problem of maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction in gravity flow discharge chutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinic, Slavisa [University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kraljevo (RS)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, an analytical solution for the problem of finding profiles of gravity flow discharge chutes required to achieve maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction is obtained by application of variational calculus. The model of a particle which moves down a rough curve in a uniform gravitational field is used to obtain a solution of the problem for various boundary conditions. The projection sign of the normal reaction force of the rough curve onto the normal to the curve and the restriction requiring that the tangential acceleration be non-negative are introduced as the additional constraints in the form of inequalities. These inequalities are transformed into equalities by introducing new state variables. Although this is fundamentally a constrained variational problem, by further introducing a new functional with an expanded set of unknown functions, it is transformed into an unconstrained problem where broken extremals appear. The obtained equations of the chute profiles contain a certain number of unknown constants which are determined from a corresponding system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The obtained results are compared with the known results from the literature. (orig.)

  13. Multi-parameter flow cytometry as a process analytical technology (PAT) approach for the assessment of bacterial ghost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, Timo; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Meitz, Andrea; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a tool for the analysis of single-cell properties in a cell suspension. In this contribution, we present an improved FCM method for the assessment of E-lysis in Enterobacteriaceae. The result of the E-lysis process is empty bacterial envelopes-called bacterial ghosts (BGs)-that constitute potential products in the pharmaceutical field. BGs have reduced light scattering properties when compared with intact cells. In combination with viability information obtained from staining samples with the membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dye bis-(1,3-dibutylarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC4(3)), the presented method allows to differentiate between populations of viable cells, dead cells, and BGs. Using a second fluorescent dye RH414 as a membrane marker, non-cellular background was excluded from the data which greatly improved the quality of the results. Using true volumetric absolute counting, the FCM data correlated well with cell count data obtained from colony-forming units (CFU) for viable populations. Applicability of the method to several Enterobacteriaceae (different Escherichia coli strains, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a) could be shown. The method was validated as a resilient process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the assessment of E-lysis and for particle counting during 20-l batch processes for the production of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 BGs.

  14. Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

  15. Thrombospondin-1 expression may be implicated in liver atrophic mechanism due to obstructed portal venous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Kuroki, Hideyuki; Higashi, Takaaki; Takeyama, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Naomi; Okabe, Hirohisa; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Beppu, Toru; Takamori, Hiroshi; Baba, Hideo

    2017-07-01

    Liver is an amazing organ that can undergo regenerative and atrophic changes inversely, depending on blood flow conditions. Although the regenerative mechanism has been extensively studied, the atrophic mechanism remains to be elucidated. To assess the molecular mechanism of liver atrophy due to reduced portal blood flow, we analyzed the gene expressions between atrophic and hypertrophic livers induced by portal vein embolization in three human liver tissues using microarray analyses. Thrombospondin (TSP)-1 is an extracellular protein and a negative regulator of liver regeneration through its activation of the transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway. TSP-1 was extracted as the most upregulated gene in atrophic liver compared to hypertrophic liver due to portal flow obstruction in human. Liver atrophic and hypertrophic changes were confirmed by HE and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling. In an in vivo model with portal ligation, TSP-1 and phosphorylated Smad2 expression were continuously induced at 6 h and thereafter in the portal ligated liver, whereas the induction was transient at 6 h in the portal non-ligated liver. Indeed, while cell proliferation represented by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression at 48 h was induced in the portal ligated liver, the sinusoidal dilatation and hepatocyte cell death with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling was detectable at 48 h in the portal ligated liver. Obstructed portal flow induces persistent TSP-1 expression and transforming growth factor-β/Smad signal activation in atrophic liver. Thrombospondin-1 may be implicated in the liver atrophic change due to obstructed portal flow as a pro-atrophic factor. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  16. Development of quantitative analytical procedures on two-phase flow in tight-lattice fuel bundles for reduced-moderation light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, A.; Kureta, M.; Takae, K.; Tamai, H.; Akimoto, H.; Yoshida, H.

    2004-01-01

    The research project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 2002. The RMWR is a light water reactor for which a higher conversion ratio more than one can be expected. In order to attain this higher conversion ratio, triangular tight-lattice fuel bundles whose gap spacing between each fuel rod is around 1 mm are required. As for the thermal design of the RMWR core, conventional analytical methods are no good because the conventional composition equations can not predict the RMWR core with high accuracy. Then, development of new quantitative analytical procedures was carried out. Those analytical procedures are constructed by model experiments and advanced two-phase flow analysis codes. This paper describes the results of the model experiments and analytical results with the developed analysis codes. (authors)

  17. A closed-form analytical model for predicting 3D boundary layer displacement thickness for the validation of viscous flow solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. R. Sanal; Sankar, Vigneshwaran; Chandrasekaran, Nichith; Saravanan, Vignesh; Natarajan, Vishnu; Padmanabhan, Sathyan; Sukumaran, Ajith; Mani, Sivabalan; Rameshkumar, Tharikaa; Nagaraju Doddi, Hema Sai; Vysaprasad, Krithika; Sharan, Sharad; Murugesh, Pavithra; Shankar, S. Ganesh; Nejaamtheen, Mohammed Niyasdeen; Baskaran, Roshan Vignesh; Rahman Mohamed Rafic, Sulthan Ariff; Harisrinivasan, Ukeshkumar; Srinivasan, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.

  18. A closed-form analytical model for predicting 3D boundary layer displacement thickness for the validation of viscous flow solvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Sanal Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.

  19. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study about pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bernardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flow cytometry (FC is an increasingly required technique on which veterinary oncologists rely to have an accurate, fast, minimally invasive lymphoma or leukemia diagnosis. FC has been studied and applied with great results in canine oncology, whereas in feline oncology the use of this technique is still to be experienced. This is mainly due to a supposed discomfort in sampling, because of the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods 97 consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors’ institution FC database. The referring veterinarians were recalled and interrogated about several different variables, including signalling, features of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of being finally processed for FC. Results None of the investigated variables significantly influenced the quality of the submitted samples, but the needle size, with 21G needles providing the highest cellularity (Table 1. Notably, the samples quality did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Sample cellularity alone influenced the likelihood of being processed. About a half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling. Conclusions FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, even for intra-abdominal lesions. 21G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the bases for the spread of this minimally invasive, fast and cost-effective technique in feline medicine.

  20. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study regarding pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Valeria; Bernardi, Serena; Marelli, Priscilla; Cozzi, Marzia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Flow cytometry (FC) is becoming increasingly popular among veterinary oncologists for the diagnosis of lymphoma or leukaemia. It is accurate, fast and minimally invasive. Several studies of FC have been carried out in canine oncology and applied with great results, whereas there is limited knowledge and use of this technique in feline patients. This is mainly owing to the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas in this species and the difficulty associated with the diagnostic procedures needed to collect the sample. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods Ninety-seven consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors' institution's FC database. The referring veterinarians were contacted and interviewed about several different variables, including signalment, appearance of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of it being finally processed for FC. Results Sample cellularity is a major factor in the likelihood of the sample being processed. Moreover, sample cellularity was significantly influenced by the needle size, with 21 G needles providing the highest cellularity. Notably, the sample cellularity and the likelihood of being processed did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Approximately half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling). Conclusions and relevance FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, including intra-abdominal lesions. A 21 G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the basis for

  1. The Direct Effect of Toroidal Magnetic Fields on Stellar Oscillations: An Analytical Expression for the General Matrix Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, René; Schad, Ariane; Roth, Markus [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstraße 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-09-10

    Where is the solar dynamo located and what is its modus operandi? These are still open questions in solar physics. Helio- and asteroseismology can help answer them by enabling us to study solar and stellar internal structures through global oscillations. The properties of solar and stellar acoustic modes are changing with the level of magnetic activity. However, until now, the inference on subsurface magnetic fields with seismic measures has been very limited. The aim of this paper is to develop a formalism to calculate the effect of large-scale toroidal magnetic fields on solar and stellar global oscillation eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies. If the Lorentz force is added to the equilibrium equation of motion, stellar eigenmodes can couple. In quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, this coupling, also known as the direct effect, can be quantified by the general matrix element. We present the analytical expression of the matrix element for a superposition of subsurface zonal toroidal magnetic field configurations. The matrix element is important for forward calculations of perturbed solar and stellar eigenfunctions and frequency perturbations. The results presented here will help to ascertain solar and stellar large-scale subsurface magnetic fields, and their geometric configuration, strength, and change over the course of activity cycles.

  2. Analytical expression for a post-quench time evolution of the one-body density matrix of one-dimensional hard-core bosons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nardis, J.; Caux, J.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We apply the logic of the quench action to give an exact analytical expression for the time evolution of the one-body density matrix after an interaction quench in the Lieb-Liniger model from the ground state of the free theory (BEC state) to the infinitely repulsive regime. In this limit there

  3. Heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel and its application to a flow analytical system using flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Masanobu; Suzuki, Toshinobu; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Daisuke; Hirayama, Kazuo; Onozato, Makoto; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcium-alginate-modified dien-silica gel adsorbed multivalent metal ions. • Metal ions adsorbed on CaAD were eluted using low acidic concentrations. • Flow system with CaAD-packed column enriched metal concentrations up to 50-fold. - Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel (CaAD) and incorporate this biosorbent into a flow analytical system for heavy metal ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The biosorbent was synthesized by electrostatically coating calcium alginate onto diethylenetriamine (dien)-silica gel. Copper ion adsorption tests by a batch method showed that CaAD exhibited a higher adsorption rate compared with other biosorbents despite its low maximum adsorption capacity. Next, CaAD was packed into a 1 mL microcolumn, which was connected to a flow analytical system equipped with an FAAS instrument. The flow system quantitatively adsorbed heavy metals and enriched their concentrations. This quantitative adsorption was achieved for pH 3–4 solutions containing 1.0 × 10 −6 M of heavy metal ions at a flow rate of 5.0 mL min −1 . Furthermore, the metal ions were successfully desorbed from CaAD at low nitric acid concentrations (0.05–0.15 M) than from the polyaminecarboxylic acid chelating resin (Chelex 100). Therefore, CaAD may be considered as a biosorbent that quickly adsorbs and easily desorbs analyte metal ions. In addition, the flow system enhanced the concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Pb 2+ by 50-fold. This new enrichment system successfully performed the separation and determination of Cu 2+ (5.0 × 10 −8 M) and Zn 2+ (5.7 × 10 −8 M) in a river water sample and Pb 2+ (3.8 × 10 −9 M) in a ground water sample

  4. Recanalization and flow regulate venous thrombus resolution and Matrix metalloproteinases expression in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, Christine; Siefert, Suzanne A.; Chaudry, Mohammed; Hoofnagle, Mark H.; Lal, Brajesh K.; Sarkar, Rajabrata

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the role of thrombus recanalization and ongoing blood flow in the process of thrombus resolution by comparing two murine in vivo models of deep venous thrombosis. Design of study In CD1 mice, we performed surgical inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation (stasis thrombosis), stenosis (thrombosis with recanalization) or sham procedure. We analyzed thrombus weight over time as a measure of thrombus resolution, and quantified the mRNA and protein levels of Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) as well as effectors of the plasmin complex at day 4, 8 and 12 post-surgery. Results Despite similar initial thrombus size, the presence of ongoing blood flow (stenosis model) was associated with a 45.91% subsequent improvement in thrombus resolution at day 8, and 12.57% at day 12, as compared with stasis thrombosis (ligation model). Immunoblot and real-time PCR demonstrated a difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at day 8 between the two models (P=.03 and P=.006 respectively), as well as a difference in MT2-MMP gene expression at day 8 (P=.044) and day 12 (P=0.03) and MT1-MMP protein expression at day 4 (P=.021). Histological analyses revealed distinct areas of recanalization in the thrombi of the stenosis model compared to the ligation model, as well as the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, and a focal pattern of localized expression of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP proteins surrounding the areas of recanalization in the stenosis model. Conclusions Recanalization and ongoing blood flow accelerate deep venous thrombus resolution in vivo, and are associated with distinct patterns of MT1- and MT3-MMP expression and macrophages localization in areas of intra-thrombus recanalization. PMID:26993683

  5. Recanalization and flow regulate venous thrombus resolution and matrix metalloproteinase expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, Christine; Siefert, Suzanne A; Chaudry, Mohammed; Hoofnagle, Mark H; Lal, Brajesh K; Sarkar, Rajabrata

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of thrombus recanalization and ongoing blood flow in the process of thrombus resolution by comparing two murine in vivo models of deep venous thrombosis. In CD1 mice, we performed surgical inferior vena cava ligation (stasis thrombosis), stenosis (thrombosis with recanalization), or sham procedure. We analyzed thrombus weight over time as a measure of thrombus resolution and quantified the messenger RNA and protein levels of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) as well as effectors of the plasmin complex at days 4, 8, and 12 after surgery. Despite similar initial thrombus size, the presence of ongoing blood flow (stenosis model) was associated with a 45.91% subsequent improvement in thrombus resolution at day 8 and 12.57% at day 12 compared with stasis thrombosis (ligation model). Immunoblot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated a difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at day 8 between the two models (P = .03 and P = .006, respectively) as well as a difference in MT2-MMP gene expression at day 8 (P = .044) and day 12 (P = .03) and MT1-MMP protein expression at day 4 (P = .021). Histologic analyses revealed distinct areas of recanalization in the thrombi of the stenosis model compared with the ligation model as well as the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, and a focal pattern of localized expression of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP proteins surrounding the areas of recanalization in the stenosis model. Recanalization and ongoing blood flow accelerate deep venous thrombus resolution in vivo and are associated with distinct patterns of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP expression and macrophage localization in areas of intrathrombus recanalization. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical solutions for the temperature field in a 2D incompressible inviscid flow through a channel with walls of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BERBENTE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A gas (oxidizer flows between two parallel walls of solid fuel. A combustion is initiated: the solid fuel is vaporized and a diffusive flame occurs. The hot combustion products are submitted both to thermal diffusion and convection. Analytical solutions can be obtained both for the velocity and temperature distributions by considering an equivalent mean temperature where the density and the thermal conductivity are evaluated. The main effects of heat transfer are due to heat convection at the flame. Because the detailed mechanism of the diffusion flame is not introduced the reference chemical reaction is the combustion of premixed fuel with oxidizer in excess. In exchange the analytical solution is used to define an ideal quasi-uniform combustion that could be realized by an n adequate control. The given analytical closed solutions prove themselves flexible enough to adjust the main data of some existing experiments and to suggest new approaches to the problem.

  7. Analytical Solutions of Heat Transfer and Film Thickness with Slip Condition Effect in Thin-Film Evaporation for Two-Phase Flow in Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jassim Shkarah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mathematical model has been developed to predict the two-phase flow and heat transfer in a microchannel with evaporative heat transfer. Sample solutions to the model were obtained for both analytical analysis and numerical analysis. It is assumed that the capillary pressure is neglected (Morris, 2003. Results are provided for liquid film thickness, total heat flux, and evaporating heat flux distribution. In addition to the sample calculations that were used to illustrate the transport characteristics, computations based on the current model were performed to generate results for comparisons with the analytical results of Wang et al. (2008 and Wayner Jr. et al. (1976. The calculated results from the current model match closely with those of analytical results of Wang et al. (2008 and Wayner Jr. et al. (1976. This work will lead to a better understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow occurring in the evaporating film region and develop an analytical equation for evaporating liquid film thickness.

  8. Gas-liquid mass transfer in a cross-flow hollow fiber module : Analytical model and experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V. Y.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The cross-flow operation of hollow fiber membrane contactors offers many advantages and is preferred over the parallel-flow contactors for gas-liquid mass transfer operations. However, the analysis of such a cross-flow membrane gas-liquid contactor is complicated due to the change in concentrations

  9. Use of Gene Expression Programming in regionalization of flow duration curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a recently introduced artificial intelligence technique known as Gene Expression Programming (GEP) has been employed to perform symbolic regression for developing a parametric scheme of flow duration curve (FDC) regionalization, to relate selected FDC characteristics to catchment characteristics. Stream flow records of selected catchments located in the Auckland Region of New Zealand were used. FDCs of the selected catchments were normalised by dividing the ordinates by their median value. Input for the symbolic regression analysis using GEP was (a) selected characteristics of normalised FDCs; and (b) 26 catchment characteristics related to climate, morphology, soil properties and land cover properties obtained using the observed data and GIS analysis. Our study showed that application of this artificial intelligence technique expedites the selection of a set of the most relevant independent variables out of a large set, because these are automatically selected through the GEP process. Values of the FDC characteristics obtained from the developed relationships have high correlations with the observed values.

  10. Obtaining of Analytical Relations for Hydraulic Parameters of Channels With Two Phase Flow Using Open CFD Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varseev, E.

    2017-11-01

    The present work is dedicated to verification of numerical model in standard solver of open-source CFD code OpenFOAM for two-phase flow simulation and to determination of so-called “baseline” model parameters. Investigation of heterogeneous coolant flow parameters, which leads to abnormal friction increase of channel in two-phase adiabatic “water-gas” flows with low void fractions, presented.

  11. Analytical expression for the evolution of interfacial area density between transformed grains during nucleation and growth transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios, P.R.; Godiksen, R.B.; Schmidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that interfacial area density between transformed grains during nucleation and growth transformations and the contiguity are useful descriptors of microstructural evolution. These descriptors are evaluated analytically and compared with results from computer simulation. Usage...

  12. MHD unsteady GO-water-squeezing nanofluid flow-heat and mass transfer between two infinite parallel moving plates: analytical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Investigation for unsteady squeezing viscous flow is one of the most important research topics due to its wide range of engineering applications such as polymer processing and lubrication systems. The aim of the present paper is to study the unsteady squeezing viscous graphene oxide-water nanofluid flow with heat transfer between two infinite parallel plates. The governing equations, continuity, momentum and energy for this problem are reduced to coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. The transmuted model is shown to be controlled by a number of thermo-physical parameters, viz., moving parameter, graphene oxide nanoparticles solid volume fraction, Eckert and Prandtl numbers. Nusselt number and skin friction parameter are obtained for various values of GO solid volume fraction and Eckert number. Comparison between analytical results and numerical ones achieved by fourth order Runge-Kutta method revealed that our analytical method can be a simple, powerful and efficient technique for finding analytical solutions in science and engineering nonlinear differential equations. (author)

  13. Investigation of analytical methods in thermal stratification analysis. Evaluation of flow rates through flow holes for normal and scram conditions of 40% power operation with AQUA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1997-08-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are observed in an upper plenum of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under reactor scram conditions, which give rise to thermal stress on structural components. Therefore it is important to evaluate characteristics of phenomena in the design of the internal structure in an LMFBR plenum. To evaluate flow rates through flow holes of the prototype fast breeder reactor, MONJU, numerical analyses were carried out with AQUA code for normal and scram conditions with 40% power operation. Through comparison of analysis results and measured temperature, thermal stratification phenomena in 300 second period after the scram was evaluated. Flow rate through the upper flow holes, the lower flow holes and annular gap between the inner barrel and the reactor vessel were evaluated with the measured temperature and the analysis results individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. DEA 1 expression on dog erythrocytes analyzed by immunochromatographic and flow cytometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, M M; Raj, K; Giger, U

    2014-01-01

    The Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 blood group system was thought to contain types DEA 1.1 and 1.2 (and possibly 1.3 [A3]). However, DEA 1.2+ dogs are very rare and newer typing methods reveal varying degrees of DEA 1 positivity. To assess if variation in DEA 1 positivity is because of quantitative differences in surface antigen expression. To determine expression patterns in dogs over time and effects of blood storage (4°C). To evaluate DEA 1.2+ samples by DEA 1 typing methods. Anticoagulated blood samples from 66 dogs in a research colony and from a hospital, and 9 previously typed DEA 1.2+ dogs from an animal blood bank. Research study: Samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunochromatographic strip using a monoclonal anti-DEA 1 antibody. Twenty dogs were DEA 1-, whereas 46 dogs were weakly to strongly DEA 1+. Antigen quantification revealed excellent correlation between strip and flow cytometry (r = 0.929). Both methods reclassified DEA 1.2+ samples as weakly to moderately DEA 1+, but they were not retyped with the polyclonal anti-DEA 1.1/1.X antibodies. Dogs and blood samples retained their relative DEA 1 antigen densities over time. The blood group system DEA 1 is a continuum from negative to strongly positive antigen expression. Previously typed DEA 1.2+ appears to be DEA 1+. These findings further the understanding of the DEA 1 system and suggest that all alleles within the DEA 1 system have a similarly based epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Strategy for solving semi-analytically three-dimensional transient flow in a coupled N-layer aquifer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, E.J.M.; Maas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient strategies for solving semi-analytically the transient groundwater head in a coupled N-layer aquifer system phi(i)(r, z, t), i = 1, ..., N, with radial symmetry, with full z-dependency, and partially penetrating wells are presented. Aquitards are treated as aquifers with their own

  16. An analytical study on nested flow systems in a Tóthian basin with a periodically changing water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Yu; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wang, Heng; Li, Hailong

    2018-01-01

    Classical understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow patterns is based on Tóth's findings of a single flow system in a unit basin (Tóth, 1962) and nested flow systems in a complex basin (Tóth, 1963), both of which were based on steady state models. Vandenberg (1980) extended Tóth (1962) by deriving a transient solution under a periodically changing water table in a unit basin and examined the flow field distortion under different dimensionless response time, τ∗. Following Vandenberg's (1980) approach, we extended Tóth (1963) by deriving the transient solution under a periodically changing water table in a complex basin and examined the transient behavior of nested flow systems. Due to the effect of specific storage, the flow field is asymmetric with respect to the midline, and the trajectory of internal stagnation points constitutes a non-enclosed loop, whose width decreases when τ∗ decreases. The distribution of the relative magnitude of hydraulic head fluctuation, Δh∗ , is dependent on the horizontal distance away from a divide and the depth below the land surface. In the shallow part, Δh∗ decreases from 1 at the divide to 0 at its neighboring valley under all τ∗, while in the deep part, Δh∗ reaches a threshold, whose value decreases when τ∗ increases. The zones with flowing wells are also found to change periodically. As water table falls, there is a general trend of shrinkage in the area of zones with flowing wells, which has a lag to the declining water table under a large τ∗. Although fluxes have not been assigned in our model, the recharge/discharge flux across the top boundary can be obtained. This study is critical to understand a series of periodically changing hydrogeological phenomena in large-scale basins.

  17. Experimental and analytical studies on high-speed plane jet along concave wall simulating IFMIF Li target flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Kato, Y.; Maekawa, H.; Katsuta, H.; Itoh, K.; Kukita, Y.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the conceptual design activity (CDA) of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF), the characteristics of the high-speed liquid lithium (Li) plane jet target flow have been studied by water experiments and numerical analyses for both heating and non-heating conditions. The simulated prototypal-size water flows were stable over the entire length of ∝130 mm at the average velocity up to 17 m/s. The jet flow had a specific radial velocity profile, close to that of free-vortex flow, because of a static pressure distribution in the jet thickness due to centrifugal force. Detailed velocity measurement revealed that this flow condition is penetrating into the upstream reducer nozzle up to a distance ∼ the jet thickness. The numerical analyses using a two-dimensional Cartesian-coordinate model were successful to predict the velocity profile transient around the nozzle exit, though underestimated the development of the velocity profile and the jet thickness. (orig.)

  18. Detection of nanoplastics in food by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering: possibilities, challenges and analytical limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Manuel; Löschner, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    We tested the suitability of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for detection of nanoplastics in fish. A homogenized fish sample was spiked with 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) (1.3 mg/g fish). Two sample preparation strategies...... were tested: acid digestion and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. Both procedures were found suitable for degradation of the organic matrix. However, acid digestion resulted in large PSNPs aggregates/agglomerates (> 1 μm). The presence of large particulates was not observed after enzymatic...

  19. Multiparameter flow cytometry reveals myelodysplasia-related aberrant antigen expression in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Wolfgang; Bacher, Ulrike; Schnittger, Susanne; Alpermann, Tamara; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2013-05-01

    Within the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) category of the WHO (2008), only chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was so far evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). To investigate the potential of MFC for MDS/MPNs, unclassifiable (MDS/MPNu), and refractory anemia associated with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis (RARS-T), we studied 91 patients with these entities (60 males/31 females; 35.3-87.4 years) for MDS-related aberrant immunophenotypes (≥ 2 different cell lineages with ≥ 3 aberrantly expressed antigens). Data were correlated with cytomorphology and cytogenetics. MFC identified MDS-related immunophenotypes in 54/91 (59.3%) of patients. Patients with or without MDS-related immunophenotype did not differ significantly by demographic characteristics, blood values, or median overall survival. MDS-related immunophenotype cases showed a higher number of aberrantly expressed antigens (mean ± SD, 4.9 ± 2.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.4; P MPNu and RARS-T. MFC therefore may be helpful to separate cases into more "MDS-like" or "MPN-like" subgroups. Copyright © 2012 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  20. Analytical and numerical study on cooling flow field designs performance of PEM fuel cell with variable heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Ebrahim; Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Jahantigh, Nabi

    2016-06-01

    In PEM fuel cells, during electrochemical generation of electricity more than half of the chemical energy of hydrogen is converted to heat. This heat of reactions, if not exhausted properly, would impair the performance and durability of the cell. In general, large scale PEM fuel cells are cooled by liquid water that circulates through coolant flow channels formed in bipolar plates or in dedicated cooling plates. In this paper, a numerical method has been presented to study cooling and temperature distribution of a polymer membrane fuel cell stack. The heat flux on the cooling plate is variable. A three-dimensional model of fluid flow and heat transfer in cooling plates with 15 cm × 15 cm square area is considered and the performances of four different coolant flow field designs, parallel field and serpentine fields are compared in terms of maximum surface temperature, temperature uniformity and pressure drop characteristics. By comparing the results in two cases, the constant and variable heat flux, it is observed that applying constant heat flux instead of variable heat flux which is actually occurring in the fuel cells is not an accurate assumption. The numerical results indicated that the straight flow field model has temperature uniformity index and almost the same temperature difference with the serpentine models, while its pressure drop is less than all of the serpentine models. Another important advantage of this model is the much easier design and building than the spiral models.

  1. Experimental and analytical study of intermittency in direct contact condensation of steam in a cross-flow of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerx, N.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The topology of a condensing steam jet, at low steam mass fluxes, injected in a cross-flow of water has been investigatedexperimentally for various conditions (system pressure around 3 bar). The intermittent character of the steam pocket growthand collapse clearly appeared from the high speed

  2. Analytical importance of determination of lipase activity for the express analysis of contamination by heavy metals of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Dyachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades becoming more sharply there is a problem of chemical and environmental monitoring and industrial inspection the content of toxic elements in food raw materials and foodstuff. At the same time there is a need to develop rapid methods, informative, integral, reflecting not only the safety but also the ecological purity of food raw materials. The method of determination of content of toxic elements on activity of its own lipase of in situ (AОL-method in seeds of oil-bearing crops, on the example of sunflower is offered. The system of mathematical assessment of analytical criteria of laboratory test used in clinical laboratory diagnostics was for this purpose adapted. Sunflower seeds in which established the maintenance of toxiferous elements served as an object of a research: Cd, Pb, As, Hg, by atomic absorption method on the KVANT-Z.ETA device. Further tests divided on clear, including high-quality and pollution-free, and polluted - naturally containing toxiferous elements and which are artificially contaminated. Definition of activity of a lipase of seeds was carried out by the standard titrimetric method. Decrease of the activity of enzyme was connected with the maintenance of toxiferous elements. Proceeding from the received results counted an analytical significance (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of descriptiveness the positive and negative results of determination of level of maintenance of toxiferous elements in sunflower seeds by the AОL-method. The set values of analytical specificity of a method and predictive value of a positive take at the level of 77.3% and 71.4% respectively, do not allow to use the offered method for the quantitative analysis, however, analytical sensitivity at the level of 86.2% and the predictive value of the negative result at the level of 89.5%, allow to recommend the AOL-method for screening programs of chemical environmental monitoring and technological monitoring of a

  3. Self-driven particles in linear flows and trapped in a harmonic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Mario; Hidalgo-Gonzalez, Julio C.; Jimenez-Aquino, Jose I.

    2018-03-01

    We present analytical expressions for the mean-square displacement of self-driven particles in general linear flows and trapped in a harmonic potential. The general expressions are applied to three types of linear flows, namely, shear flow, solid-body rotation flow, and extensional flow. By using Brownian dynamics simulations, the effect of trapping and external linear flows on the particles' distribution is also elucidated. These simulations also enabled us to validate our theoretical results.

  4. Simple analytical expressions for the analysis of the phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency in a double-Λ atomic scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijević, J; Arsenović, D

    2012-01-01

    We study a double-Λ atomic scheme that interacts with four laser light beams so that a closed loop of radiation-induced transitions is formed. When specific relations for field phases, frequencies and amplitudes are satisfied, coherent superpositions (the so-called ‘dark states’) can be formed in a double-Λ, which leads to the well-known effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). If the interaction scheme in a double-Λ system is such that a closed loop is formed, the relative phase of the laser light fields becomes very important. We analyze here the effect of the lasers' relative phase on the EIT in double-Λ configuration of levels. The theoretical study of interactions of lasers with a double-Λ atomic scheme is commonly conducted by solving the optical Bloch equations (OBEs). We use here a perturbative method for solving OBEs, where the interaction of lasers with double-Λ is considered a perturbation. An advantage of the perturbative method is that it generally produces simpler solutions, and analytical expressions can be obtained. We present analytical expressions for the lower-order corrections of the EIT signal. Our results show that the EIT by the perturbative method can be approximated by the sum of products of complex Lorentzians. Through these expressions, we see in what way the relative phase affects the overall EIT profile. (paper)

  5. An analytical model for flow induced by a constant-head pumping in a leaky unconfined aquifer system with considering unsaturated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye-Chen; Li, Ming-Hsu; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2017-09-01

    A new mathematical model is developed to describe the flow in response to a constant-head pumping (or constant-head test, CHT) in a leaky unconfined aquifer system of infinite lateral extent with considering unsaturated flow. The model consists of an unsaturated zone on the top, an unconfined aquifer in the middle, and a second aquifer (aquitard) at the bottom. The unsaturated flow is described by Richard's equation, and the flows in unconfined aquifer and second layer are governed by the groundwater flow equation. The well partially penetrates the unconfined aquifer with a constant head in the well due to CHT. The governing equations of the model are linearized by the perturbation method and Gardner's exponential model is adopted to describe the soil retention curves. The solution of the model for drawdown distribution is obtained by applying the methods of Laplace transform and Weber transform. Then the solution for the wellbore flowrate is derived from the drawdown solution with Darcy's law. The issue of the equivalence of normalized drawdown predicted by the present solution for constant-head pumping and Tartakovsky and Neuman's (2007) solution for constant-rate pumping is discussed. On the basis of the wellbore flowrate solution, the results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the wellbore flowrate is very sensitive to the changes in the radial hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the saturated zone. Moreover, the results predicted from the present wellbore flowrate solution indicate that this new solution can reduce to Chang's et al. (2010a) solution for homogenous aquifers when the dimensionless unsaturated exponent approaches 100. The unsaturated zone can be considered as infinite extent in the vertical direction if the thickness ratio of the unsaturated zone to the unconfined aquifer is equal to or greater than one. As for the leakage effect, it can be ignored when the vertical hydraulic conductivity ratio (i.e., the vertical hydraulic

  6. Analytical expression of giant Goos-Hänchen shift in terms of proper and improper modes in waveguide structures with arbitrary refractive index profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, Fatemeh; Mehrany, Khashayar

    2010-06-01

    We analytically relate the giant Goos-Hänchen shift, observed at the interface of a high refractive index prism and a waveguide structure with an arbitrary refractive index profile, to the spatial resonance phenomenon. The proximity effect of the high refractive index prism on modal properties of the waveguide is discussed, and the observed shift is expressed in terms of proper and improper electromagnetic modes supported by the waveguide with no prism. The transversely increasing improper modes are shown playing an increasingly important role as the high refractive index prism comes closer to the waveguide.

  7. A first-order Green's function approach to supersonic oscillatory flow: A mixed analytic and numeric treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M. I.; Sipcic, S.; Tseng, K.

    1985-01-01

    A frequency domain Green's Function Method for unsteady supersonic potential flow around complex aircraft configurations is presented. The focus is on the supersonic range wherein the linear potential flow assumption is valid. In this range the effects of the nonlinear terms in the unsteady supersonic compressible velocity potential equation are negligible and therefore these terms will be omitted. The Green's function method is employed in order to convert the potential flow differential equation into an integral one. This integral equation is then discretized, through standard finite element technique, to yield a linear algebraic system of equations relating the unknown potential to its prescribed co-normalwash (boundary condition) on the surface of the aircraft. The arbitrary complex aircraft configuration (e.g., finite-thickness wing, wing-body-tail) is discretized into hyperboloidal (twisted quadrilateral) panels. The potential and co-normalwash are assumed to vary linearly within each panel. The long range goal is to develop a comprehensive theory for unsteady supersonic potential aerodynamic which is capable of yielding accurate results even in the low supersonic (i.e., high transonic) range.

  8. Distinguished hyperbolic trajectories in time-dependent fluid flows: analytical and computational approach for velocity fields defined as data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ide

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, where space and time are discretized. While the notion of a hyperbolic trajectory is central to dynamical systems theory, much of the theoretical developments for Lagrangian transport proceed under the assumption that such a special hyperbolic trajectory exists. This brings in new mathematical issues that must be addressed in order for Lagrangian transport theory to be applicable in practice, i.e. how to determine whether or not such a trajectory exists and, if it does exist, how to identify it in a sequence of instantaneous velocity fields. We address these issues by developing the notion of a distinguished hyperbolic trajectory (DHT. We develop an existence criteria for certain classes of DHTs in general time-dependent velocity fields, based on the time evolution of Eulerian structures that are observed in individual instantaneous fields over the entire time interval of the data set. We demonstrate the concept of DHTs in inhomogeneous (or "forced" time-dependent linear systems and develop a theory and analytical formula for computing DHTs. Throughout this work the notion of linearization is very important. This is not surprising since hyperbolicity is a "linearized" notion. To extend the analytical formula to more general nonlinear time-dependent velocity fields, we develop a series of coordinate transforms including a type of linearization that is not typically used in dynamical systems theory. We refer to it as Eulerian linearization, which is related to the frame independence of DHTs, as opposed to the Lagrangian linearization, which is typical in dynamical systems theory, which is used in the computation of Lyapunov exponents. We

  9. Determination of the diffusivity, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis in heterogeneous porous flow. Part I: Analytical solutions with the extended method of moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Vikhansky, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The extended method of moments (EMM) is elaborated in recursive algorithmic form for the prediction of the effective diffusivity, the Taylor dispersion dyadic and the associated longitudinal high-order coefficients in mean-concentration profiles and residence-time distributions. The method applies in any streamwise-periodic stationary d-dimensional velocity field resolved in the piecewise continuous heterogeneous porosity field. It is demonstrated that EMM reduces to the method of moments and the volume-averaging formulation in microscopic velocity field and homogeneous soil, respectively. The EMM simultaneously constructs two systems of moments, the spatial and the temporal, without resorting to solving of the high-order upscaled PDE. At the same time, the EMM is supported with the reconstruction of distribution from its moments, allowing to visualize the deviation from the classical ADE solution. The EMM can be handled by any linear advection-diffusion solver with explicit mass-source and diffusive-flux jump condition on the solid boundary and permeable interface. The prediction of the first four moments is decisive in the optimization of the dispersion, asymmetry, peakedness and heavy-tails of the solute distributions, through an adequate design of the composite materials, wetlands, chemical devices or oil recovery. The symbolic solutions for dispersion, skewness and kurtosis are constructed in basic configurations: diffusion process and Darcy flow through two porous blocks in "series", straight and radial Poiseuille flow, porous flow governed by the Stokes-Brinkman-Darcy channel equation and a fracture surrounded by penetrable diffusive matrix or embedded in porous flow. We examine the moments dependency upon porosity contrast, aspect ratio, Péclet and Darcy numbers, but also for their response on the effective Brinkman viscosity applied in flow modeling. Two numerical Lattice Boltzmann algorithms, a direct solver of the microscopic ADE in heterogeneous

  10. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biotinylation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) for flow cytometric analysis of IL-2 receptor expression. Comparison of different methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. de Jong (Marg); H. Rozemuller (Henk); J.G.J. Bauman (J. G J); J.W.M. Visser (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe main prerequisites for the use of biotinylated ligands to study the expression of growth factor receptors on heterogeneous cell populations, such as peripheral blood or bone marrow, by flow cytometric methods, are that the biotinylated ligand retains its binding ability and that

  12. A general analytical expression for the three-dimensional Franck-Condon integral and simulation of the photodetachment spectrum of the PO2- anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Cui, Fang; Wang, Ru; Huang, Wei; Cui, Zhifeng

    2013-04-01

    Calculations of Franck-Condon factors are crucial for interpreting vibronic spectra of molecules and studying nonradiative processes. We have derived straightforwardly a more general analytical expression for the calculation of the three-dimensional Franck-Condon overlap integrals on the basis of harmonic oscillator approximation under the influence of mode mixing effects. This new analytical expression was applied to study the photoelectron spectra of PO2-. The theoretical spectrum obtained by employing CCSD(T) values is in excellent agreement with the observed one. An 'irregular spacing' observed in the experimental photoelectron spectrum of PO2- is interpreted as contributing from a hot-band sequence of the bending vibration ω2 and combination bands of the stretching vibration ω1 and the bending vibration ω2. In addition, the equilibrium geometry parameters, r(O-P) = 1.495 ± 0.005 Å and ∠(O-P-O) = 119.5 ± 0.5°, of theXA1 state of PO2-, are derived by employing an iterative Franck-Condon analysis procedure in the spectral simulation.

  13. On equivalency of various expressions for speed of wave propagation for compressible liquid flows with heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated that for a compressible flow model with heat transfer, the introduction of a specific state equation to supplement the continuity, momentum an enthalpy equations, leads to a very specific form of an expression for a speed of wave propagation. Consequently, the numerous expressions obtained for various choices of state equations are not easily identifiable and, therefore, can not be evaluated directly in terms of measurable properties. By use of the various thermodynamic relationships, it has been shown that these expressions are all equivalent and are identifiable as isentropic sonic velocity. As a corollary to this demonstration, expressions have also been obtained in terms of measurable properties for various thermodynamic-state variables occurring in the coefficients of the governing equations. These expressions are required if loss in accuracy owing to noise introduced in the direct numerical differentiation of the derivatives that these state-variables represent is to be avoided. (author)

  14. Comparison between a Direct-Flow SPR Immunosensor for Ampicillin and a Competitive Conventional Amperometric Device: Analytical Features and Possible Applications to Real Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Merola, Giovanni; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Sanzò, Gabriella; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we developed a direct-flow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for ampicillin to perform direct, simple, and fast measurements of this important antibiotic. In order to better evaluate the performance, it was compared with a conventional amperometric immunosensor, working with a competitive format with the aim of finding out experimental real advantages and disadvantages of two respective methods. Results showed that certain analytical features of the new SPR immunodevice, such as the lower limit of detection (LOD) value and the width of the linear range, are poorer than those of a conventional amperometric immunosensor, which adversely affects the application to samples such as natural waters. On the other hand, the SPR immunosensor was more selective to ampicillin, and measurements were more easily and quickly attained compared to those performed with the conventional competitive immunosensor. PMID:28394296

  15. Analytical transport network theory to guide the design of 3-D microstructural networks in energy materials: Part 1. Flow without reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alex P.; Nakajo, Arata; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2017-12-01

    We present a fully analytical, heuristic model - the "Analytical Transport Network Model" - for steady-state, diffusive, potential flow through a 3-D network. Employing a combination of graph theory, linear algebra, and geometry, the model explicitly relates a microstructural network's topology and the morphology of its channels to an effective material transport coefficient (a general term meant to encompass, e.g., conductivity or diffusion coefficient). The model's transport coefficient predictions agree well with those from electrochemical fin (ECF) theory and finite element analysis (FEA), but are computed 0.5-1.5 and 5-6 orders of magnitude faster, respectively. In addition, the theory explicitly relates a number of morphological and topological parameters directly to the transport coefficient, whereby the distributions that characterize the structure are readily available for further analysis. Furthermore, ATN's explicit development provides insight into the nature of the tortuosity factor and offers the potential to apply theory from network science and to consider the optimization of a network's effective resistance in a mathematically rigorous manner. The ATN model's speed and relative ease-of-use offer the potential to aid in accelerating the design (with respect to transport), and thus reducing the cost, of energy materials.

  16. Flow cytometric analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain expression in B-cell lymphoma and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, David D; Al-Quran, Samer Z; Cardona, Diana M; Li, Ying; Braylan, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is often dependent on the detection of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain expression. In some BCLs, the determination of clonality based on Ig light chain restriction may be difficult. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of flow cytometric analysis of surface Ig heavy chain (HC) expression in lymphoid tissues in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasias from BCLs, and also differentiating various BCL subtypes. HC expression on B-cells varied among different types of hyperplasias. In follicular hyperplasia, IgM and IgD expression was high in mantle cells while germinal center cells showed poor HC expression. In other hyperplasias, B cell compartments were blurred but generally showed high IgD and IgM expression. Compared to hyperplasias, BCLs varied in IgM expression. Small lymphocytic lymphomas had lower IgM expression than mantle cell lymphomas. Of importance, IgD expression was significantly lower in BCLs than in hyperplasias, a finding that can be useful in differentiating lymphoma from reactive processes. PMID:22400070

  17. An expression for the water-sediment moving layer in unsteady flows valid for open channels and embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Berta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During the floods, the effects of sediment transport in river beds are particulary significant and can be studied through the evolution of the water-sediment layer which moves in the lower part of a flow, named "moving layer". Moving layer variations along rivers lead to depositions and erosions and are typically unsteady, but are often tackled with expressions developed for steady (equilibrium conditions. In this paper, we develop an expression for the moving layer in unsteady conditions and calibrate it with experimental data. During laboratory tests, we have in fact reproduced a rapidly changing unsteady flow by the erosion of a granular steep slope. Results have shown a clear tendency of the moving layer, for fixed discharges, toward equilibrium conditions. Knowing the equilibrium achievement has presented many difficulties, being influenced by the choice of the equilibrium expression and moreover by the estimation of the parameters involved (for example friction angle. Since we used only data relevant to hyper-concentrated mono-dimensional flows for the calibration – occurring for slope gradients in the range 0.03–0.20 – our model can be applied both on open channels and on embankments/dams, providing that the flows can be modelled as mono-dimensional, and that slopes and applied shear stress levels fall within the considered ranges.

  18. A meta-analytic review of life cycle assessment and flow analyses studies of palm oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Yosef; Halog, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews and performs a meta-analysis of the recent life cycle assessment and flow analyses studies palm oil biodiesel. The best available data and information are extracted, summarized, and discussed. Most studies found palm oil biodiesel would produce positive energy balance with an energy ratio between 2.27 and 4.81, and with a net energy production of 112 GJ ha(-1) y(-1). With the exception of a few studies, most conclude that palm oil biodiesel is a net emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG). The origin of oil palm plantation (planted area) is the foremost determinant of GHG emissions and C payback time (CPBT). Converting peatland forest results in GHG emissions up to 60 tons CO(2) equivalent (eq) ha(-1) y(-1) leading to 420 years of CPBT. In contrast, converting degraded land or grassland for plantation can positively offset the system to become a net sequester of 5 tons CO(2) eq ha(-1) y(-1). Few studies have discussed cradle-to-grave environmental impacts such as acidification, eutrophication, toxicity, and biodiversity, which open opportunity for further studies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Explicit Expressions for Solar Panel Equivalent Circuit Parameters Based on Analytical Formulation and the Lambert W-Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation..., it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testing/calculation campaigns, the only information available for them being the manufacturer datasheet. The solution to this problem is the development of new and simple methods to define equivalent circuits able to reproduce the behavior of the panel for any working condition, from a very small amount of information. In the present work a direct and completely explicit method to extract solar cell parameters from the manufacturer datasheet is presented and tested. This method is based on analytical formulation which includes the use of the Lambert W-function to turn the series resistor equation explicit. The presented method is used to analyze commercial solar panel performance (i.e., the current-voltage–I-V–curve at different levels of irradiation and temperature. The analysis performed is based only on the information included in the manufacturer’s datasheet.

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis

  1. An analytical two-flow model to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ming

    1997-06-01

    An analytical two-flow model is derived from the radiative transfer equation to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance. The model utilizes unique boundary conditions, including the surface slope of the downwelling and upwelling irradiance as well as the influence of wind and bottom reflectance on simulated surface reflectance. The developed model provides a simple mathematical concept for understanding the irradiant light flux and associated processes in coastal or fresh water as well as turbid estuarine waters. The model is applied to data from the Banana River and coastal Atlantic Ocean water off the east coast of central Florida, USA. The two-flow irradiance model is capable of simulating realistic above-surface reflectance signatures under wind-roughened air-water surface given realistic input parameters including a specular flux conversion coefficient, absorption coefficient, backscattering coefficient, atmospheric visibility, bottom reflectance, and water depth. The root-mean-squared error of the calculated above-surface reflectances is approximately 3% in the Banana River and is less than 15% in coastal Atlantic Ocean off the east of Florida. Result of the subsurface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the specular conversion coefficient is the most sensitive parameter in the model, followed by the beam attenuation coefficient, absorption coefficient, water depth, backscattering coefficient, specular irradiance, diffuse irradiance, bottom reflectance, and wind speed. On the other hand, result of the above-surface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the wind speed is the most important parameter, followed by bottom reflectance, attenuation coefficient, water depth, conversion coefficient, specular irradiance, downwelling irradiance, absorption coefficient, and backscattering coefficient. Model results depend on the accuracy of these parameters to a large degree and

  2. GLP-2 receptor localizes to enteric neurons and endocrine cells expressing vasoactive peptides and mediates increased blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xinfu; Karpen, Heidi E; Stephens, John

    2006-01-01

    . These actions are mediated by the G-protein-coupled receptor, GLP-2R. Cellular localization of the GLP-2R and the nature of its signaling network in the gut, however, are poorly defined. Thus, our aim was to establish cellular localization of GLP-2R and functional connection to vascular action of GLP-2......-dependently stimulated intestinal blood flow and coordinately upregulated the expression of intestinal eNOS mRNA, protein, and phosphorylation (eNOS-Ser1117). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the GLP-2-induced stimulation of blood flow is mediated by vasoactive neurotransmitters that are colocalized with GLP-2R in 2...

  3. Detection of palytoxin-like compounds by a flow cytometry-based immunoassay supported by functional and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, María; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Fernández, Diego A; Poli, Mark; Botana, Luis M

    2016-01-15

    Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis) and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). PLTX outbreaks are usually associated with Indo-Pacific waters, however their recent repeated occurrence in Mediterranean-European Atlantic coasts demonstrate their current worldwide distribution. Human sickness and fatalities have been associated with toxic algal blooms and ingestion of seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules. These toxins represent a serious threat to human health. There is an immediate need to develop easy-to-use, rapid detection methods due to the lack of validated protocols for their detection and quantification. We have developed an immuno-detection method for PLTX-like molecules based on the use of microspheres coupled to flow-cytometry detection (Luminex 200™). The assay consisted of the competition between free PLTX-like compounds in solution and PLTX immobilized on the surface of microspheres for binding to a specific monoclonal anti-PLTX antibody. This method displays an IC50 of 1.83 ± 0.21 nM and a dynamic range of 0.47-6.54 nM for PLTX. An easy-to-perform extraction protocol, based on a mixture of methanol and acetate buffer, was applied to spiked mussel samples providing a recovery rate of 104 ± 8% and a range of detection from 374 ± 81 to 4430 ± 150 μg kg(-1) when assayed with this method. Extracts of Ostreopsis cf. siamensis and Palythoa tuberculosa were tested and yielded positive results for PLTX-like molecules. However, the data obtained for the coral sample suggested that this antibody did not detect 42-OH-PLTX efficiently. The same samples were further analyzed using a neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay and UPLC-IT-TOF spectrometry, which also pointed to the presence of PLTX-like compounds. Therefore, this single detection method for PLTX provides a semi-quantitative tool useful for the screening of PLTX-like molecules in different matrixes. Copyright © 2015

  4. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2017-01-01

    to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads...... in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e...

  6. Prognostic value of ZAP-70 expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca L C; Cheung, Catherine; Banh, Raymond; Saal, Russell; Cross, Donna; Gill, Devinder; Self, Marlene; Klein, Kerenaftali; Mollee, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disorder in which the tempo of disease progression is highly variable, and prognostic markers that can be utilized at diagnosis are regarded as clinically important. Currently, there are several prognostic factors, such as immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH) mutational status, and ZAP-70 protein expression in neoplastic B-cells, that have demonstrated significant discriminative power in the prognostication of CLL. They are, however, largely unavailable in the routine diagnostic laboratory setting. In this study, we characterized the IgVH status and ZAP-70 expression by molecular techniques in a cohort of 108 patients with CLL, and correlated these results with three different methods of ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometry. We then assessed the results of these methods in terms of prognostic power as characterized by time to first treatment (TTFT). By comparing three different flow cytometry methods using receiver–operator curve (ROC) analysis, we identified that by utilizing a corrected mean fluorescence intensity (CorrMFI) algorithm for assessing ZAP-70 expression, there was good correlation with both IgVH mutational status, and ZAP-70 expression as assessed by qPCR. We were also able to show that ZAP-70 expression, as assessed by both qPCR and the CorrMFI method, was prognostic of TTFT. While confirmation in a larger patient cohort, with longer follow-up is required, we believe that the CorrMFI represents the most promising method currently available in a routine diagnostic setting for the assessment of ZAP-70 expression in CLL patients. © 2013 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  7. Quantitative monitoring of the Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle using GFP-expressing bacteria, microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Vromman

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria. These pathogens develop inside host cells through a biphasic cycle alternating between two morphologically distinct forms, the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. Recently, C. trachomatis strains stably expressing fluorescent proteins were obtained. The fluorochromes are expressed during the intracellular growth of the microbe, allowing bacterial visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Whether they are also present in the infectious form, the elementary body, to a detectable level has not been studied. Here, we show that a C. trachomatis strain transformed with a plasmid expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulates sufficient quantities of the probe in elementary bodies for detection by microscopy and flow cytometry. Adhesion of single bacteria was detected. The precise kinetics of bacterial entry were determined by microscopy using automated procedures. We show that during the intracellular replication phase, GFP is a convenient read-out for bacterial growth with several advantages over current methods. In particular, infection rates within a non-homogenous cell population are easily quantified. Finally, in spite of their small size, individual elementary bodies are detected by flow cytometers, allowing for direct enumeration of a bacterial preparation. In conclusion, GFP-expressing chlamydiae are suitable to monitor, in a quantitative manner, progression throughout the developmental cycle. This will facilitate the identification of the developmental steps targeted by anti-chlamydial drugs or host factors.

  8. How Important Is Connectivity for Surface Water Fluxes? A Generalized Expression for Flow Through Heterogeneous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Ma, Jie; Kaplan, David

    2017-10-01

    How important is hydrologic connectivity for surface water fluxes through heterogeneous floodplains, deltas, and wetlands? While significant for management, this question remains poorly addressed. Here we adopt spatial resistance averaging, based on channel and patch configuration metrics quantifiable from aerial imagery, to produce an upscaled rate law for discharge. Our model suggests that patch coverage largely controls discharge sensitivity, with smaller effects from channel connectivity and vegetation patch fractal dimension. However, connectivity and patch configuration become increasingly important near the percolation threshold and at low water levels. These effects can establish positive feedbacks responsible for substantial flow change in evolving landscapes (14-36%, in our Everglades case study). Connectivity also interacts with other drivers; flow through poorly connected hydroscapes is less resilient to perturbations in other drivers. Finally, we found that flow through heterogeneous patches is alone sufficient to produce non-Manning flow-depth relationships commonly observed in wetlands but previously attributed to depth-varying roughness.

  9. Monitoring hyperproliferative disorders in human skin: flow cytometry of changing cytokeratin expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.E.J.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring dynamics of different cell populations in solid tissues using flow cytometry has several limitations. The interaction and changes in epidermal subpopulations in hyperproliferative skin disorders such as psoriasis, a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease, may, however,

  10. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS WITH A NON-ZERO TORQUE BOUNDARY CONDITION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-12-20

    A stellar-mass black hole (BH) surrounded by a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) has been discussed in a number of works as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It is widely believed that NDAF cannot liberate enough energy for bright GRBs. However, these works have been based on the assumption of a “no torque” boundary condition, which is invalid when the disk is magnetized. In this paper, we present both numerical and analytical solutions for NDAFs with non-zero boundary stresses and reexamine their properties. We find that an NDAF with such a boundary torque can be powerful enough to account for those bright short GRBs, energetic long GRBs, and ultra-long GRBs. The disk becomes viscously unstable, which makes it possible to interpret the variability of GRB prompt emission and the steep decay phase in the early X-ray afterglow. Finally, we study the gravitational waves radiated from a processing BH-NDAF. We find that the effects of the boundary torque on the strength of the gravitational waves can be ignored.

  11. An analytic solution to the time-dependent first-daughter fission-product plateout problem for multi-region isothermal slug flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkee, J.W. Jr.; Lee, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The time-dependent, axisymmetric, isothermal slug flow convective-diffusion equation with radioactive decay is solved analytically to predict the behavior of a first-daughter fission-product undergoing gaseous transport through multiple materials in a cylindrical pipe. The integration coefficients are determined using the Davidon variable metric minimization method. The behavior of fission-product material deposited on the conduit wall is described by a standard mass-transfer model. The time-dependent plateout rate behavior, determined previously for parent fission-product deposition, is again evident for daughter product plateout. Dominance of the daughter plateout by parent deposition characteristics is apparent. The determination of the daughter wall mass-transfer and diffusion coefficient using a least-squares analysis of measured data depends upon a reasonably low ratio of parent/daughter half-lives. This is illustrated with 137 Cs/ 137 Ba(=2x10 5 ) and 140 Ba/ 140 La(=7.6), where for 137 Cs/ 137 Ba the solution sensitivity to the 137 Ba deposition parameters is small and for 140 Ba/ 140 La a reasonable solution is readily obtained. (author)

  12. Expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan molecular complex in six human melanoma xenograft lines studied by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhus, T A; Rofstad, E K

    1993-06-01

    The expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSP) molecular complex in six human melanoma xenograft lines (BEX-t, COX-t, HUX-t, ROX-t, SAX-t, WIX-t) was studied by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibodies 9.2.27, ME31.3, G7A5, and NKI.M6. The two methods and the four antibodies gave consistent results. The six melanoma lines could be divided into three distinct groups of two lines each; expression was high in the HUX-t and ROX-t lines and intermediate in the BEX-t and SAX-t lines, whereas the COX-t and WIX-t lines were negative. The mean number of epitopes per cell for 9.2.27 was approximately twice as high as for ME31.3, G7A5, and NKI.M6 and was estimated to range from 0.8 +/- 0.1 x 10(5) to 1.9 +/- 0.2 x 10(5) in the positive xenograft lines. The expression of the CSP complex was heterogeneous. The immunofluorescence histograms measured by flow cytometry were therefore broad for all tumour lines. A significant fraction of the HUX-t cells was negative or weakly stained. These cells appeared as clear negative patches in the immunohistochemical preparations. Moreover, most morphologically intact tumour cells adjacent to necrotic areas did not show significant expression of the CSP complex, irrespective of tumour line. These cells were probably hypoxic and thus resistant to radiation therapy. The expression of the CSP complex in the xenograft lines was similar to that reported for melanoma in man.

  13. DEA 1 Expression on Dog Erythrocytes Analyzed by Immunochromatographic and Flow Cytometric Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Acierno, M.M.; Raj, K.; Giger, U.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 blood group system was thought to contain types DEA 1.1 and 1.2 (and possibly 1.3 [A3]). However, DEA 1.2+ dogs are very rare and newer typing methods reveal varying degrees of DEA 1 positivity. Objectives To assess if variation in DEA 1 positivity is because of quantitative differences in surface antigen expression. To determine expression patterns in dogs over time and effects of blood storage (4?C). To evaluate DEA 1.2+ samples by DEA 1 typing...

  14. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  15. Flow cytometric assay detecting cytotoxicity against human endogenous retrovirus antigens expressed on cultured multiple sclerosis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Larsen, A; Brudek, T; Petersen, T

    2013-01-01

    on their surface. Polyclonal antibodies against defined peptides in the Env- and Gag-regions of the HERVs were raised in rabbits and used in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) -assays. Rituximab® (Roche), a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 expressed primarily on B cells, was used...

  16. Zonal flow generation in collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J; Nordman, H; Singh, R; Weiland, J

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the generation of zonal flows in collisionless trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence is studied analytically. A reduced model for TEM turbulence is utilized based on an advanced fluid model for reactive drift waves. An analytical expression for the zonal flow growth rate is derived and compared with the linear TEM growth, and its scaling with plasma parameters is examined for typical tokamak parameter values

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Josephson flux-flow oscillators in nonuniform microwave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple theory for Josephson flux-flow oscillators in the presence of nonuniform microwave fields. In particular we derive an analytical expression for the I-V characteristic of the oscillator from which we show that satellite steps are spaced around the main flux-flow resonance by only...

  19. An improved flow cytometric method using FACS lysing solution for measurement of ZAP-70 expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkema, Roelof; Tadema, Afke; Daenen, Simon M. G. J.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Mulder, Andre B.

    Background: B-cell expression of ZAP-70, normally expressed in T and NK cells, correlates with poor prognosis in B-CLL. Poor discrimination between ZAP-70 positive and negative cells hampers routine application of flow cytometry. We examined the usefulness of FACS Lysing Solution. Methods: ZAP-70

  20. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  1. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  2. Flow cytometric characterization of phenotype, DNA indices and p53 gene expression in 55 cases of acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powari, Manish; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Sandhu, Harpreet; Ganguly, Nirmal Kumar

    2002-06-01

    To characterize the phenotype of acute leukemia cases using flow cytometry, to detect mixed lineage cases and to use DNA index determination, including S-phase fraction (SPF) and p53 detection, to find if there was any correlation of SPF and p53 expression with outcome. Fifty-five cases of acute leukemia were enrolled in this study. A complete hemogram and routine bone marrow examination, including cytochemistry, was done. Mycloperoxidase-negative cases were evaluated on a flow cytometer using monoclonal antibodies. DNA indices were determined by flow cytometry in all cases, and p53 was detected immunohistochemically using the alkaline phosphatase/antialkaline phosphatase technique. Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was diagnosed in 32 cases; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was diagnosed in 18 (14 B lineage and 4 T line age). Four cases showed mixed lineage leukemia, and undifferentiated acute leukemia was diagnosed in one case. The mean/range of SPF for these groups were 3.76/0.33-6.91, 6.25/0.15-21.4, 2.89/0.35-10.64, 2.60/0.72-6.94 and 7.34, respectively. Aneuploidy was detected in two cases of B-lineage ALL and tetraploidy in a case of AML-M7, while all others were diploid p53. Was detected in 6 of 55 cases (10.90%). Follow-up was available for 24 patients. Five patients relapsed, and four had B-cell type ALL and were diploid and expressed no p53 gene. SPF% did not show any correlation with outcome. These data suggest that within acute leukemia subtypes, there is a wide variation in SPF. SPF does not seem to correlate with outcome. Immunophenotyping is essential to determine the lineage in myeloperoxidase-negative cases. It is perhaps the only way to diagnose mixed lineage leukemia and aberrant expression of markers presently. The p53 gene was detected less frequently. However, more studies are required from different centers with longer follow-up to evaluate prognostic significance.

  3. Some elements of a theory of multidimensional complex variables. I - General theory. II - Expansions of analytic functions and application to fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1989-01-01

    The paper introduces a new theory of N-dimensional complex variables and analytic functions which, for N greater than 2, is both a direct generalization and a close analog of the theory of ordinary complex variables. The algebra in the present theory is a commutative ring, not a field. Functions of a three-dimensional variable were defined and the definition of the derivative then led to analytic functions.

  4. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Mayo; Johkura, Kohei; Sato, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H 2 O 2 -added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H 2 O 2 . As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H 2 O 2 -medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H 2 O 2 -medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H 2 O 2 -medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN and FOS, were detected and notably elevated in

  5. Vimentin expression influences flow dependent VASP phosphorylation and regulates cell migration and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Natalie; Henrion, Daniel; Tiede, Petra; Ziche, Marina; Schunkert, Heribert; Ito, Wulf D.

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton plays a central role for the integration of biochemical and biomechanical signals across the cell required for complex cellular functions. Recent studies indicate that the intermediate filament vimentin is necessary for endothelial cell morphogenesis e.g. in the context of leukocyte transmigration. Here, we present evidence, that the scaffold provided by vimentin is essential for VASP localization and PKG mediated VASP phosphorylation and thus controls endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Vimentin suppression using siRNA technique significantly decreased migration velocity by 50% (videomicroscopy), diminished transmigration activity by 42.5% (Boyden chamber) and reduced proliferation by 43% (BrdU-incorporation). In confocal microscopy Vimentin colocalized with VASP and PKG in endothelial cells. Vimentin suppression was accompanied with a translocation of VASP from focal contacts to the perinuclear region. VASP/Vimentin and PKG/Vimentin colocalization appeared to be essential for proper PKG mediated VASP phosphorylation because we detected a diminished expression of PKG and p Ser239 -VASP in vimentin-suppressed cells, Furthermore, the induction of VASP phosphorylation in perfused arteries was markedly decreased in vimentin knockout mice compared to wildtypes. A link is proposed between vimentin, VASP phosphorylation and actin dynamics that delivers an explanation for the important role of vimentin in controlling endothelial cell morphogenesis.

  6. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  7. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  8. Comparison of the Gen Expression Programming, Nonlinear Time Series and Artificial Neural Network in Estimating the River Daily Flow (Case Study: The Karun River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zamani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the daily flow forecasting of rivers is an important issue in hydrology and water resources and thus can be used the results of daily river flow modeling in water resources management, droughts and floods monitoring. In this study, due to the importance of this issue, using nonlinear time series models and artificial intelligence (Artificial Neural Network and Gen Expression Programming, the daily flow modeling has been at the time interval (1981-2012 in the Armand hydrometric station on the Karun River. Armand station upstream basin is one of the most basins in the North Karun basin and includes four sub basins (Vanak, Middle Karun, Beheshtabad and Kohrang.The results of this study shown that artificial intelligence models have superior than nonlinear time series in flow daily simulation in the Karun River. As well as, modeling and comparison of artificial intelligence models showed that the Gen Expression Programming have evaluation criteria better than artificial neural network.

  9. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  10. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  11. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  12. Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of

  13. Process Analytical Technology for High Shear Wet Granulation: Wet Mass Consistency Reported by In-Line Drag Flow Force Sensor Is Consistent With Powder Rheology Measured by At-Line FT4 Powder Rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Analytical Predictions of Fatigue Crack Growth in the Lower Plate of the F-111 Wing Pivot Fitting Fuel Flow Hole Number 58

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MUrtagh, B

    1998-01-01

    ... (then General Dynamics), predicted a fatigue life of approximately 57,000 flight hours. An equivalent analysis was conducted using the analytical crack closure code, FASTRAN II, and this resulted in a life prediction of about 25,000 flight hours...

  15. Evaluation of CD307a expression patterns during normal B-cell maturation and in B-cell malignancies by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auat, Mariangeles; Cardoso, Chandra Chiappin; Santos-Pirath, Iris Mattos; Rudolf-Oliveira, Renata Cristina Messores; Matiollo, Camila; Lange, Bárbara Gil; da Silva, Jessica Pires; Dametto, Gisele Cristina; Pirolli, Mayara Marin; Colombo, Maria Daniela Holthausen Perico; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia

    2018-02-24

    Flow cytometric immunophenotyping is deemed a fundamental tool for the diagnosis of B-cell neoplasms. Currently, the investigation of novel immunophenotypic markers has gained importance, as they can assist in the precise subclassification of B-cell malignancies by flow cytometry. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the expression of CD307a during normal B-cell maturation and in B-cell malignancies as well as to investigate its potential role in the differential diagnosis of these entities. CD307a expression was assessed by flow cytometry in normal precursor and mature B cells and in 115 samples collected from patients diagnosed with precursor and mature B-cell neoplasms. CD307a expression was compared between neoplastic and normal B cells. B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases exhibited minimal expression of CD307a, displaying a similar expression pattern to that of normal B-cell precursors. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cases showed the lowest levels of CD307a among mature B-cell neoplasms. CD307a expression was statistically lower in MCL cases than in chronic B lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases. No statistical differences were observed between CD307a expression in neoplastic and normal plasma cells. These results indicate that the assessment of CD307a expression by flow cytometry could be helpful to distinguish CLL from MCL, and the latter from MZL. Although these results are not entirely conclusive, they provide a basis for further studies in a larger cohort of patients. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Mayo, E-mail: yokoyama@plasma.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: kohei@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sato, Takehiko, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN

  17. On regional flow in Baltic shield rock. An application of an analytical solution using hydrogeologic conditions at Aberg, Beberg, and Ceberg of SR97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbinder, G.; Isaksson, Alf

    1997-11-01

    This report is one of many in support of SR 97, and is an analysis of the residence and transport times of a fluid particle at the three hypothetical domains of SR 97. The three domains are arbitrary named Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The report is intended to provide a quantitative assessment of the lateral length scales governing groundwater flow. The largest of these scales is believed to govern regional flow, i.e., flow at great depth. The calculated reference times presented in this report are fairly constant with the shortest reference time for Ceberg and the longest for Beberg. The difference in the calculated reference times are mainly due to the obtained differences in the lateral length scales at the three domains. However, the calculated residence times are extremely long. The corresponding transport times are very different from those obtained by means of numerical modeling of regional flow at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The value is also contradicted by recent hydrochemical composition analyses of deep groundwater at Laxemar and Aespoe. A speculative interpretation of this result is that large scale regional flow, in the sense of meaning flow paths with long lateral extent, should be questioned for the kind of depth (500 m) and hydrogeologic system (hard rock) dealt with in this report. In other words, large scale regional flow may play a role for a repository at great depth (>>500 m), whereas non-periodic local variations in the topography may govern the flow pattern at moderate depths, e.g., depths less than 1000 m. There are several observations which support this interpretation

  18. An analytical model for the prediction of fluid-elastic forces in a rod bundle subjected to axial flow: theory, experimental validation and application to PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaud, F.

    1997-01-01

    A model predicting the fluid-elastic forces in a bundle of circular cylinders subjected to axial flow is presented in this paper. Whereas previously published models were limited to circular flow channel, the present one allows to take a rectangular flow external boundary into account. For that purpose, an original approach is derived from the standard method of images. This model will eventually be used to predict the fluid-structure coupling between the flow of primary coolant and a fuel assemblies in PWR nuclear reactors. It is indeed of major importance since the flow is shown to induce quite high damping and could therefore mitigate the incidence of an external load like a seismic excitation on the dynamics of the assemblies. The proposed model is validated on two cases from the literature but still needs further comparisons with the experiments being currently carried out on the EDF set-up. The flow has been shown to induce an approximate 12% damping on a PWR fuel assembly, at nominal reactor conditions. The possible grid effect on the fluid-structure coupling has been neglected so far but will soon be investigated at EDF. (author)

  19. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate interstitial flow mechanotransduction regulating MMP-13 expression and cell motility via FAK-ERK in 3D collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Dong Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial flow directly affects cells that reside in tissues and regulates tissue physiology and pathology by modulating important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the structures that cells utilize to sense interstitial flow in a 3-dimensional (3D environment have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have shown that interstitial flow upregulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts via activation of an ERK1/2-c-Jun pathway, which in turn promotes cell migration in collagen. Herein, we focused on uncovering the flow-induced mechanotransduction mechanism in 3D.Cleavage of rat vascular SMC surface glycocalyx heparan sulfate (HS chains from proteoglycan (PG core proteins by heparinase or disruption of HS biosynthesis by silencing N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1 suppressed interstitial flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, interstitial collagenase (MMP-13 expression, and SMC motility in 3D collagen. Inhibition or knockdown of focal adhesion kinase (FAK also attenuated or blocked flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility. Interstitial flow induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr925, and this activation was blocked when heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs were disrupted. These data suggest that HSPGs mediate interstitial flow-induced mechanotransduction through FAK-ERK. In addition, we show that integrins are crucial for mechanotransduction through HSPGs as they mediate cell spreading and maintain cytoskeletal rigidity.We propose a conceptual mechanotransduction model wherein cell surface glycocalyx HSPGs, in the presence of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeleton organization, sense interstitial flow and activate the FAK-ERK signaling axis, leading to upregulation of MMP expression and cell motility in 3D. This is the first study to describe a flow-induced mechanotransduction

  20. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Nivaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton–Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand's theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analyt...

  1. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  2. Analytical chemistry of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, H.; Marty, P.

    2001-01-01

    Different characterization methods specifically applied to the actinides are presented in this review such as ICP/OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry), ICP/MS (inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry), TIMS (thermal ionization-mass spectrometry) and GD/OES (flow discharge optical emission). Molecular absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis are also available to complete the excellent range of analytical tools at our disposal. (authors)

  3. Viscous slip coefficients for binary gas mixtures measured from mass flow rates through a single microtube

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.

    2016-01-01

    The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip bounda...

  4. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  5. GenFlow: generic flow for integration, management and analysis of molecular biology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Katsumi Oikawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of DNA sequencing projects all over the world have yielded a fantastic amount of data, whose analysis is, currently, a big challenge for computational biology. The limiting step in this task is the integration of large volumes of data stored in highly heterogeneous repositories of genomic and cDNA sequences, as well as gene expression results. Solving this problem requires automated analytical tools to optimize operations and efficiently generate knowledge. This paper presents an information flow model , called GenFlow, that can tackle this analytical task.

  6. Prediction of liquid film dryout in two-phase annular-mist flow in a uniformly heated narrow tube development of analytical method under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuno, Hideaki; Kaminaga, Fumito

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed based on the conservation lows to predict critical heat flux (CHF) causing liquid film dryout in two-phase annular-mist flow in a uniformly heated narrow tube under BWR conditions. The applicable range of the method is within the pressure of 3-9 MPa, mass flux of 500-2,000 kg/m 2 ·s, heat flux of 0.33-2.0 MW/m 2 and boiling length-to-tube diameter ratio of 200-800. The two-phase annular-mist flow was modeled with the three-fluid streams with liquid film, entrained droplets and gas flow. Governing equations of the method are mass continuity and energy conservation on the three-fluid streams. Constitutive equations on the mass transfer which consist of the entrainment fraction at equilibrium and the mass transfer coefficient were newly proposed in this study. Confirmation of the present method were performed in comparison with the available film flow measurements and various CHF data from experiments in uniformly heated narrow tubes under high pressure steam-water conditions. In the heat flux range (q'' 2 ) practical for a BWR, agreement of the present method with CHF data was obtained as, (Averaged ratio) ± (Standard deviation) = 0.984 ± 0.077, which was shown to be the same or better agreement than the widely-used CHF correlations. (author)

  7. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  8. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  9. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  10. Analytical and numerical solution of three-dimensional channel flow in presence of a sinusoidal fluid injection and a chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of three-dimensional channel flow in a chemically-reacting fluid between two long vertical parallel flat plates in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is presented. The stationary plate is subjected to a transverse sinusoidal injection velocity distribution while the uniformly moving plate is subjected to a constant suction and slip boundary conditions. Due to this type of injection velocity, the flow becomes three dimensional. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement. An increase in the permeability/magnetic parameter is found to escalate the velocity near the plate in motion. Growing Reynolds number or magnetic parameter enhances the x-component and reduces the z-component of the skin-friction at the wall at rest. The acquired knowledge in our study can be used by designers to control MHD flow as suitable for certain applications which include laminar magneto-aerodynamics, materials processing and MHD propulsion thermo-fluid dynamics.

  11. Analytical Validation and Clinical Qualification of a New Immunohistochemical Assay for Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 Protein Expression in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, Jonathan; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Sharp, Adam; Sun, Shihua; Lorente, David; Riisnaes, Ruth; Figueiredo, Ines; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Rescigno, Pasquale; de Bono, Johann S; Plymate, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) has been implicated in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. To develop a validated assay for detection of AR-V7 protein in tumour tissue and determine its expression and clinical significance as patients progress from hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) to CRPC. Following monoclonal antibody generation and validation, we retrospectively identified patients who had HSPC and CRPC tissue available for AR-V7 immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Nuclear AR-V7 expression was determined using IHC H score (HS) data. The change in nuclear AR-V7 expression from HSPC to CRPC and the association between nuclear AR-V7 expression and overall survival (OS) was determined. Nuclear AR-V7 expression was significantly lower in HSPC (median HS 50, interquartile range [IQR] 17.5-90) compared to CRPC (HS 135, IQR 80-157.5; pprostate cancer. A higher level of AR-V7 identifies a group of patients who respond less well to certain prostate cancer treatments and live for a shorter period of time. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An analytical expression for electron elastic scattering cross section from atoms and molecules in 1.0 keV to 1.0 MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)]. E-mail: yalcin@gazi.edu.tr; Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gultekin, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2006-07-31

    In this Letter, an expression is presented to calculate elastic scattering cross sections for incident electrons as a function of both energy and atomic number in the energy range between 1 keV and 1 MeV for materials with effective atomic number between 3 and 18. The expression we present has a rather simple analytical form which gives accurate results that are in very good agreement with the results calculated by a relativistic partial-wave expansion method. Hence, this equation can be employed accurately and efficiently in a continuous manner, without the need to go through rather large look-up tables, thus making the whole process quick, efficient and removing possible computational errors that may arise from the efforts of interpolation.

  13. An analytical expression for electron elastic scattering cross section from atoms and molecules in 1.0 keV to 1.0 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.; Gurler, O.; Gultekin, A.; Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, an expression is presented to calculate elastic scattering cross sections for incident electrons as a function of both energy and atomic number in the energy range between 1 keV and 1 MeV for materials with effective atomic number between 3 and 18. The expression we present has a rather simple analytical form which gives accurate results that are in very good agreement with the results calculated by a relativistic partial-wave expansion method. Hence, this equation can be employed accurately and efficiently in a continuous manner, without the need to go through rather large look-up tables, thus making the whole process quick, efficient and removing possible computational errors that may arise from the efforts of interpolation

  14. Analytical solutions for hydromagnetic natural convection flow of a particulate suspension through isoflux-isothermal channels in the presence of a heat source or sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamkha, Ali J.; Al-Rashidi, Seham S.

    2010-01-01

    This work considers the problem of steady natural convection hydromagnetic flow of a particulate suspension through an infinitely long channel in the presence of heat generation or absorption effects. The channel walls are maintained at isoflux-isothermal condition. That is, the thermal boundary conditions are such that one of the channel walls is maintained at constant heat flux while the other is maintained at a constant temperature. Various closed-form solutions of the governing equations for different special cases are obtained. A parametric study of the physical parameters involved in the problem is done to illustrate the influence of these parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles of both phases.

  15. The effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Anna Cecilia; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results of laboratory analyses are affected by pre-analytical variables, and in particular can platelets be activated by shear handling stress and secrete granular substances. We therefore evaluated the effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation....... METHODS: Citrate- and EDTA-anticoagulated blood from healthy volunteers were centrifuged at 80-10,000 g for 5-15 min to prepare plasma and platelet-rich plasma. Pre-analytical platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of platelet P-selectin (CD62p) expression. Blood cell counts, mean...... of platelets expressing P-selectin in citrate- and EDTA-plasma centrifuged at 2000 g for 10 min were 43% [interquartile range (IQR), 38%-53%] and 56% (IQR, 31%-78%), respectively (p=0.82). Platelet-rich plasma prepared at 100-250 g for 10 min had significantly lower platelet P-selectin expression (11%-15%), p...

  16. Flow chemistry vs. flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The flow mode of conducting chemical syntheses facilitates chemical processes through the use of on-line analytical monitoring of occurring reactions, the application of solid-supported reagents to minimize downstream processing and computerized control systems to perform multi-step sequences. They are exactly the same attributes as those of flow analysis, which has solid place in modern analytical chemistry in several last decades. The following review paper, based on 131 references to original papers as well as pre-selected reviews, presents basic aspects, selected instrumental achievements and developmental directions of a rapidly growing field of continuous flow chemical synthesis. Interestingly, many of them might be potentially employed in the development of new methods in flow analysis too. In this paper, examples of application of flow analytical measurements for on-line monitoring of flow syntheses have been indicated and perspectives for a wider application of real-time analytical measurements have been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical flow cytometric screening of SAP and XIAP expression accurately identifies patients with SH2D1A and XIAP/BIRC4 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Carrie E; Weingartner, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Joyce; Johnson, Judith; Zhang, Kejian; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Bleesing, Jack J; Marsh, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is caused by mutations in two genes, SH2D1A and XIAP/BIRC4. Flow cytometric methods have been developed to detect the gene products, SAP and XIAP. However, there is no literature describing the accuracy of flow cytometric screening performed in a clinical lab setting. We reviewed the clinical flow cytometric testing results for 656 SAP and 586 XIAP samples tested during a 3-year period. Genetic testing was clinically performed as directed by the managing physician in 137 SAP (21%) and 115 XIAP (20%) samples. We included these samples for analyses of flow cytometric test accuracy. SH2D1A mutations were detected in 15/137 samples. SAP expression was low in 13/15 (sensitivity 87%, CI 61-97%). Of the 122 samples with normal sequencing, SAP was normal in 109 (specificity 89%, CI 82-94%). The positive predictive values (PPVs) and the negative predictive values (NPVs) were 50% and 98%, respectively. XIAP/BIRC4 mutations were detected in 19/115 samples. XIAP expression was low in 18/19 (sensitivity 95%, CI 73-100%). Of the 96 samples with normal sequencing, 59 had normal XIAP expression (specificity 61%, CI 51-71%). The PPVs and NPVs were 33% and 98%, respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was able to improve the specificity to 75%. Clinical flow cytometric screening tests for SAP and XIAP deficiencies offer good sensitivity and specificity for detecting genetic mutations, and are characterized by high NPVs. We recommend these tests for patients suspected of having X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP1) or XLP2. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  18. Analytical calculation of magnet interactions in 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Yonnet , Jean-Paul; Allag , Hicham

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A synthesis of all the analytical expressions of the interaction energy, force components and torque components is presented. It allows the analytical calculation of all the interactions when the magnetizations are in any direction. The 3D analytical expressions are difficult to obtain, but the torque and force expressions are very simple to use.

  19. An in situ spatially resolved analytical technique to simultaneously probe gas phase reactions and temperature within the packed bed of a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Jamal; Burch, Robbie; Hardacre, Christopher; McManus, Colin; Morgan, Kevin; Sá, Jacinto; Goguet, Alexandre

    2013-05-21

    This paper reports the detailed description and validation of a fully automated, computer controlled analytical method to spatially probe the gas composition and thermal characteristics in packed bed systems. As an exemplar, we have examined a heterogeneously catalysed gas phase reaction within the bed of a powdered oxide supported metal catalyst. The design of the gas sampling and the temperature recording systems are disclosed. A stationary capillary with holes drilled in its wall and a moveable reactor coupled with a mass spectrometer are used to enable sampling and analysis. This method has been designed to limit the invasiveness of the probe on the reactor by using the smallest combination of thermocouple and capillary which can be employed practically. An 80 μm (O.D.) thermocouple has been inserted in a 250 μm (O.D.) capillary. The thermocouple is aligned with the sampling holes to enable both the gas composition and temperature profiles to be simultaneously measured at equivalent spatially resolved positions. This analysis technique has been validated by studying CO oxidation over a 1% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst and the spatial resolution profiles of chemical species concentrations and temperature as a function of the axial position within the catalyst bed are reported.

  20. Effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone on endometrial blood flow and volume as well as Smad2/3 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Chan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone on endometrial blood flow and volume as well as Smad2/3 expression. Methods: A total of 64 patients with moderate or severe intrauterine adhesions who received hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in our hospital from May 2013 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups who received different postoperative drug treatment, observation group received postoperative manual cycle intervention combined with growth hormone treatment and control group only received manual cycle intervention. Transvaginal ultrasonography was conducted after treatment to assess endometrial thickness, volume and blood flow, and endometrium was collected to determine Smad2, Smad3 and TGF- β1 levels. Results: After treatment, endometrial blood flow signal of observation group was more abundant than that of control group, ultrasound parameters RI and PI were significantly lower than those of control group, and VI, FI and VFI as well as endometrial thickness and endometrial cavity volume were significantly higher than those of control group; Smad2, Smad3 and TGF-β1 levels in endometrial tissue of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis combined with growth hormone therapy can promote endometrial repair and growth, increase endometrial blood flow and volume and also suppress the expression of Smad2/3 and TGF-β1 in patients with intrauterine adhesions.

  1. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  2. Analytical determination of 3-D global modes in Rayleigh-Benard-Poiseuille-type mixed convection flow; Determination analytique des modes globaux tridimensionnels en ecoulement de convection mixte du type Rayleigh-Benard-Poiseuille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinand, D

    2003-01-15

    This analytical study deals with the spatio-temporal evolution of linear thermo-convective instabilities in a horizontal fluid layer heated from below (the Rayleigh--Benard system) and subject to a horizontal pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The novelty consists of a spatially inhomogeneous temperature, in the form of a two-dimensional bump imposed on the lower plate, while the upper plate is kept at a constant temperature. The inhomogeneous boundary temperature and the mean flow of the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system break the symmetries of the classical Rayleigh--Benard system. The instabilities of interest are therefore spatially localised packets of convection rolls. If a mode of this type is synchronized, it is called a global mode. Assuming that the characteristic scale of the spatial variation of the lower plate temperature is large compared to the wavelength of the rolls, global modes are sought in the form of Eigenmodes in the confined vertical direction, modulated by a two-dimensional WKBJ expansion in the slowly-varying horizontal directions. Such an expansion breaks down at points where the group velocity of the instability vanishes, i.e. at WKBJ turning points. In the neighbourhood of one such point, located at the top of the temperature bump, the boundedness of the solution imposes a selection criterion for the global modes which provides the growth rate (or equivalently the critical threshold), the frequency and the wave vector of the most amplified global mode. This study thus generalizes to two-dimensional cases the methods used and the results obtained for one-dimensional inhomogeneities. The analysis is first applied to a simplified governing equation obtained by an envelope formalism and the analytical results are compared with numerical solutions of the amplitude equation. The formalism is finally applied to the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system described by the Navier--Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation. (author)

  3. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  4. Molecular pathways of early CD105-positive erythroid cells as compared with CD34-positive common precursor cells by flow cytometric cell-sorting and gene expression profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machherndl-Spandl, S; Suessner, S; Danzer, M; Proell, J; Gabriel, C; Lauf, J; Sylie, R; Klein, H-U; Béné, M C; Weltermann, A; Bettelheim, P

    2013-01-01

    Special attention has recently been drawn to the molecular network of different genes that are responsible for the development of erythroid cells. The aim of the present study was to establish in detail the immunophenotype of early erythroid cells and to compare the gene expression profile of freshly isolated early erythroid precursors with that of the CD34-positive (CD34 + ) compartment. Multiparameter flow cytometric analyses of human bone marrow mononuclear cell fractions (n=20) defined three distinct early erythroid stages. The gene expression profile of sorted early erythroid cells was analyzed by Affymetrix array technology. For 4524 genes, a differential regulation was found in CD105-positive erythroid cells as compared with the CD34 + progenitor compartment (2362 upregulated genes). A highly significant difference was observed in the expression level of genes involved in transcription, heme synthesis, iron and mitochondrial metabolism and transforming growth factor-β signaling. A comparison with recently published data showed over 1000 genes that as yet have not been reported to be upregulated in the early erythroid lineage. The gene expression level within distinct pathways could be illustrated directly by applying the Ingenuity software program. The results of gene expression analyses can be seen at the Gene Expression Omnibus repository

  5. Derivation of general analytic gradient expressions for density-fitted post-Hartree-Fock methods: An efficient implementation for the density-fitted second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkaya, Uğur, E-mail: ugur.bozkaya@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240, Turkey and Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-09-28

    General analytic gradient expressions (with the frozen-core approximation) are presented for density-fitted post-HF methods. An efficient implementation of frozen-core analytic gradients for the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the density-fitting (DF) approximation (applying to both reference and correlation energies), which is denoted as DF-MP2, is reported. The DF-MP2 method is applied to a set of alkanes, conjugated dienes, and noncovalent interaction complexes to compare the computational cost of single point analytic gradients with MP2 with the resolution of the identity approach (RI-MP2) [F. Weigend and M. Häser, Theor. Chem. Acc. 97, 331 (1997); R. A. Distasio, R. P. Steele, Y. M. Rhee, Y. Shao, and M. Head-Gordon, J. Comput. Chem. 28, 839 (2007)]. In the RI-MP2 method, the DF approach is used only for the correlation energy. Our results demonstrate that the DF-MP2 method substantially accelerate the RI-MP2 method for analytic gradient computations due to the reduced input/output (I/O) time. Because in the DF-MP2 method the DF approach is used for both reference and correlation energies, the storage of 4-index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) are avoided, 3-index ERI tensors are employed instead. Further, as in case of integrals, our gradient equation is completely avoid construction or storage of the 4-index two-particle density matrix (TPDM), instead we use 2- and 3-index TPDMs. Hence, the I/O bottleneck of a gradient computation is significantly overcome. Therefore, the cost of the generalized-Fock matrix (GFM), TPDM, solution of Z-vector equations, the back transformation of TPDM, and integral derivatives are substantially reduced when the DF approach is used for the entire energy expression. Further application results show that the DF approach introduce negligible errors for closed-shell reaction energies and equilibrium bond lengths.

  6. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, B.H.; Bergveld, Piet; Bousse, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Transgenic Poplar Dwarf Mutant Reveals Numerous Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research, the Tamarix androssowii LEA gene (Tamarix androssowii late embryogenesis abundant protein Mrna, GenBank ID: DQ663481 was transferred into Populus simonii × Populus nigra. Among the eleven transgenic lines, one exhibited a dwarf phenotype compared to the wild type and other transgenic lines, named dwf1. To uncover the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, digital gene expression libraries were produced from dwf1, wild-type, and other normal transgenic lines, XL-5 and XL-6. Gene expression profile analysis indicated that dwf1 had a unique gene expression pattern in comparison to the other two transgenic lines. Finally, a total of 1246 dwf1-unique differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were further subjected to gene ontology and pathway analysis. Results indicated that photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism related genes were significantly affected. In addition, many transcription factors genes were also differentially expressed in dwf1. These various differentially expressed genes may be critical for dwarf mutant formation; thus, the findings presented here might provide insight for our understanding of the mechanisms of tree growth and development.

  8. Analysis of forced convective transient boiling by homogeneous model of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao

    1985-01-01

    Transient forced convective boiling is of practical importance in relation to the accident analysis of nuclear reactor etc. For large length-to-diameter ratio, the transient boiling characteristics are predicted by transient two-phase flow calculations. Based on homogeneous model of two-phase flow, the transient forced convective boiling for power and flow transients are analysed. Analytical expressions of various parameters of transient two-phase flow have been obtained for several simple cases of power and flow transients. Based on these results, heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition are predicted analytically for step and exponential power increases, and step, exponential and linear velocity decreases. The effects of various parameters on heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition have been clarified. Numerical approach combined with analytical method is proposed for more complicated cases. Solution method for pressure transient are also described. (author)

  9. On-line solid-phase enrichment coupled to packed reactor flow injection analysis in a green analytical procedure to determine low levels of folic acid using fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emara Samy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of folic acid (FA is not an easy task because of its presence in lower concentrations, its lower stability under acidic conditions, and its sensitiveness against light and high temperature. The present study is concerned with the development and validation of an automated environmentally friendly pre-column derivatization combined by solid-phase enrichment (SPEn to determine low levels of FA. Results Cerium (IV trihydroxyhydroperoxide (CTH as a packed oxidant reactor has been used for oxidative cleavage of FA into highly fluorescent product, 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine-6-carboxylic acid. FA was injected into a carrier stream of 0.04 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.4 at a flow-rate of 0.25 mL/min. The sample zone containing the analyte was passed through the CTH reactor thermostated at 40°C, and the fluorescent product was trapped and enriched on a head of small ODS column (10 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size. The enriched product was then back-flush eluted by column-switching from the small ODS column to the detector with a greener mobile phase consisting of ethanol and phosphate buffer (0.04M, pH 3.4 in the ratio of 5:95 (v/v. The eluent was monitored fluorimetrically at emission and excitation wavelengths of 463 and 367 nm, respectively. The calibration graph was linear over concentrations of FA in the range of 1.25-50 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.49 ng/mL. Conclusion A new simple and sensitive green analytical procedure including on-line pre-column derivatization combined by SPEn has been developed for the routine quality control and dosage form assay of FA at very low concentration level. The method was a powerful analytical technique that had excellent sensitivity, sufficient accuracy and required relatively simple and inexpensive instrumentation.

  10. Transfer of Genomics Information to Flow Cytometry: Expression of CD27 and CD44 Discriminates Subtypes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vášková, M.; Mejstříková, E.; Kalina, T.; Martinková, Patrícia; Omelka, M.; Trka, J.; Starý, J.; Hrušák, O.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2005), s. 876-878 ISSN 0887-6924 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : transfer * genomics * information * cytometry * expression * discriminates * subtypesacute * lymphoblastic * leukemia Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 6.612, year: 2005

  11. Applying Pragmatics Principles for Interaction with Visual Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Enamul; Setlur, Vidya; Tory, Melanie; Dykeman, Isaac

    2018-01-01

    Interactive visual data analysis is most productive when users can focus on answering the questions they have about their data, rather than focusing on how to operate the interface to the analysis tool. One viable approach to engaging users in interactive conversations with their data is a natural language interface to visualizations. These interfaces have the potential to be both more expressive and more accessible than other interaction paradigms. We explore how principles from language pragmatics can be applied to the flow of visual analytical conversations, using natural language as an input modality. We evaluate the effectiveness of pragmatics support in our system Evizeon, and present design considerations for conversation interfaces to visual analytics tools.

  12. Development and analytical characterization of a Grimm-type glow discharge ion source operated with high gas flow rates and coupled to a mass spectrometer with high mass resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Claus; Feldmann, Ingo; Gilmour, Dave; Hoffmann, Volker; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    A Grimm-type glow discharge ion source has been developed and was coupled to a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) with high mass resolution (Axiom, ThermoElemental, Winsford, UK) by exchanging the front plate of the ICP-MS interface system only. In addition to high discharge powers of up to 70 W, which are typical for a Grimm-type design, this source could be operated with relative high gas flow rates of up to 240 ml min -1 . In combination with a high discharge voltage the signal intensities are reaching a constant level within the first 20 s after the discharge has started. An analytical characterization of this source is given utilizing a calibration using the steel standard reference material NIST 1261A-1265A. The sensitivity for the investigated elements measured with a resolution of 4000 is in the range of 500-6000 cps μg -1 g -1 , and a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the measured isotope relative to Fe of less than 8% for the major and minor components of the sample has been achieved. Limits of detection at ng g -1 levels could be obtained

  13. A Study of Analytical Solution for the Special Dissolution Rate Model of Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By calculating the concentration distributions of rock salt solutions at the boundary layer, an ordinary differential equation for describing a special dissolution rate model of rock salt under the assumption of an instantaneous diffusion process was established to investigate the dissolution mechanism of rock salt under transient but stable conditions. The ordinary differential equation was then solved mathematically to give an analytical solution and related expressions for the dissolved radius and solution concentration. Thereafter, the analytical solution was fitted with transient dissolution test data of rock salt to provide the dissolution parameters at different flow rates, and the physical meaning of the analytical formula was also discussed. Finally, the influential factors of the analytical formula were investigated. There was approximately a linear relationship between the dissolution parameters and the flow rate. The effects of the dissolution area and initial volume of the solution on the dissolution rate equation of rock salt were computationally investigated. The results showed that the present analytical solution gives a good description of the dissolution mechanism of rock salt under some special conditions, which may provide a primary theoretical basis and an analytical way to investigate the dissolution characteristics of rock salt.

  14. What's behind the mask? A look at blood flow changes with prolonged facial pressure and expression using laser Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Buendia, Lan B; Allely, Rebekah R; Lassiter, Ronald; Weinand, Christian; Jordan, Marion H; Jeng, James C

    2010-01-01

    Clinically, the initial blanching in burn scar seen on transparent plastic face mask application seems to diminish with time and movement requiring mask alteration. To date, studies quantifying perfusion with prolonged mask use do not exist. This study used laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to assess perfusion through the transparent face mask and movement in subjects with and without burn over time. Five subjects fitted with transparent face masks were scanned with the LDI on four occasions. The four subjects without burn were scanned in the following manner: 1) no mask, 2) mask on while at rest, 3) mask on with alternating intervals of sustained facial expression and rest, and 4) after mask removal. Images were acquired every 3 minutes throughout the 85-minute study period. The subject with burn underwent a shortened scanning protocol to increase comfort. Each face was divided into five regions of interest for analysis. Compared with baseline, mask application decreased perfusion significantly in all subjects (P mask removal, all regions of the face demonstrated a hyperemic effect with the chin (P = .05) and each cheek (P mask removal. Perfusions remain constantly low while wearing the face mask, despite changing facial expressions. Changing facial expressions with the mask on did not alter perfusion. Hyperemic response occurs on removal of the mask. This study exposed methodology and statistical issues worth considering when conducting future research with the face, pressure therapy, and with LDI technology.

  15. Oscillating flow of a Burgers' fluid in a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Asghar, S.; Hayat, T.

    2005-12-01

    An analysis is made to see the influences of Hall current on the flow of a Burgers' fluid. The velocity field corresponding to flow in a pipe is determined. The closed form analytical solutions for several Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models can be obtained from the present analysis as the limiting cases. The purpose of this work is twofold. Firstly, to investigate the oscillating flow in a pipe using Burgers? fluid model. Secondly, to see the effects of Hall current on the velocity field. The flow in a pipe is induced due to imposition of an oscillating pressure gradient. An exact analytical solution to the governing problem is given using the Fourier transform technique. The obtained expression for the velocity field shows that there are pronounced effects of Hall and rheological parameters. The considered fluid model is a viscoelastic model and has been used to characterize food products such as cheese, soil, asphalt and asphalt mixes etc. (author)

  16. Flow cytometry-assisted quantification of γH2AX expression has potential as a rapid high-throughput biodosimetry tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achel, Daniel G; Serafin, Antonio M; Akudugu, John M

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale radiological events require immediate and accurate estimates of doses received by victims, and possibly the first responders, to assist in treatment decisions. Although there are numerous efforts worldwide to develop biodosimetric tools to adequately handle triage needs during radiological incidents, such endeavours do not seem to actively involve sub-Saharan Africa which currently has a significant level of nuclear-related activity. To initiate a similar interest in Africa, ex vivo radiation-induced γH2AX expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes from fourteen healthy donors was assessed using flow cytometry. While the technique shows potential for use as a rapid high-throughput biodosimetric tool for radiation absorbed doses up to 5 Gy, significant inter-individual differences in γH2AX expression emerged. Also, female donors exhibited higher levels of γH2AX expression than their male counterparts. To address these shortcomings, gender-based in-house dose-response curves for γH2AX induction in lymphocytes 2, 4, and 6 h after X-ray irradiation are proposed for the South African population. The obtained results show that γH2AX is a good candidate biomarker for biodosimetry, but might need some refinement and validation through further studies involving a larger cohort of donors.

  17. Analytic approximations for inside-outside interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, S.S.; Gyulassy, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div.)

    1990-07-30

    Analytical expressions for pion interferometry are derived illustrating the competing effects of various non-ideal aspects of inside-outside cascade dynamics at energies {proportional to}200 AGeV. (orig.).

  18. The analytic renormalization group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k∈Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk=2πk/β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct “Analytic Renormalization Group” linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|<μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0, together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|≥μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  19. Let's Talk... Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  1. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  2. Forced and free convection hydromagnetic flow past a vertical flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkhalek, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of magnetic field and temperature heat source on the free and forced convection flow past an infinite vertical plate is studied analytically. Solutions of the reduced equation appropriate in the forced convection and free convection regime are obtained using perturbation technique. The expression for the velocity field, skin friction and Nusselt number have been obtained

  3. International Congress on Analytical Chemistry. Abstracts. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The collection of materials of the international congress on analytical chemistry taken place in Moscow in June 1997. The main directs of investigations in such regions of analytical chemistry as quantitative and qualitative analysis, microanalysis, sample preparation and preconcentration, analytical reagents, chromatography and related techniques, flow analysis, electroanalytical and kinetic methods sensors are elucidated

  4. Upscaling of Forchheimer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Aulisa, Eugenio; Bloshanskaya, Lidia I.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Ibragimov, Akif I.

    2014-01-01

    analytical results (Aulisa et al., 2009) [1] and formulate the resulting system in terms of a degenerate nonlinear flow equation for the pressure with the nonlinearity depending on the pressure gradient. The coarse scale parameters for the steady state

  5. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  6. Automated analysis of flow cytometric data for measuring neutrophil CD64 expression using a multi-instrument compatible probability state model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Linda; Hill, Beth L; Hunsberger, Benjamin C; Bagwell, C Bruce; Curtis, Adam D; Davis, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    Leuko64™ (Trillium Diagnostics) is a flow cytometric assay that measures neutrophil CD64 expression and serves as an in vitro indicator of infection/sepsis or the presence of a systemic acute inflammatory response. Leuko64 assay currently utilizes QuantiCALC, a semiautomated software that employs cluster algorithms to define cell populations. The software reduces subjective gating decisions, resulting in interanalyst variability of state modeling (PSM). Four hundred and fifty-seven human blood samples were processed using the Leuko64 assay. Samples were analyzed on four different flow cytometer models: BD FACSCanto II, BD FACScan, BC Gallios/Navios, and BC FC500. A probability state model was designed to identify calibration beads and three leukocyte subpopulations based on differences in intensity levels of several parameters. PSM automatically calculates CD64 index values for each cell population using equations programmed into the model. GemStone software uses PSM that requires no operator intervention, thus totally automating data analysis and internal quality control flagging. Expert analysis with the predicate method (QuantiCALC) was performed. Interanalyst precision was evaluated for both methods of data analysis. PSM with GemStone correlates well with the expert manual analysis, r(2) = 0.99675 for the neutrophil CD64 index values with no intermethod bias detected. The average interanalyst imprecision for the QuantiCALC method was 1.06% (range 0.00-7.94%), which was reduced to 0.00% with the GemStone PSM. The operator-to-operator agreement in GemStone was a perfect correlation, r(2) = 1.000. Automated quantification of CD64 index values produced results that strongly correlate with expert analysis using a standard gate-based data analysis method. PSM successfully evaluated flow cytometric data generated by multiple instruments across multiple lots of the Leuko64 kit in all 457 cases. The probability-based method provides greater objectivity, higher

  7. Spatial Correlation Of Streamflows: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betterle, A.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2016-12-01

    The interwoven space and time variability of climate and landscape properties results in complex and non-linear hydrological response of streamflow dynamics. Understanding how meteorologic and morphological characteristics of catchments affect similarity/dissimilarity of streamflow timeseries at their outlets represents a scientific challenge with application in water resources management, ecological studies and regionalization approaches aimed to predict streamflows in ungauged areas. In this study, we establish an analytical approach to estimate the spatial correlation of daily streamflows in two arbitrary locations within a given hydrologic district or river basin at seasonal and annual time scales. The method is based on a stochastic description of the coupled streamflow dynamics at the outlet of two catchments. The framework aims to express the correlation of daily streamflows at two locations along a river network as a function of a limited number of physical parameters characterizing the main underlying hydrological drivers, that include climate conditions, precipitation regime and catchment drainage rates. The proposed method portrays how heterogeneity of climate and landscape features affect the spatial variability of flow regimes along river systems. In particular, we show that frequency and intensity of synchronous effective rainfall events in the relevant contributing catchments are the main driver of the spatial correlation of daily discharge, whereas only pronounced differences in the drainage rate of the two basins bear a significant effect on the streamflow correlation. The topological arrangement of the two outlets also influences the underlying streamflow correlation, as we show that nested catchments tend to maximize the spatial correlation of flow regimes. The application of the method to a set of catchments in the South-Eastern US suggests the potential of the proposed tool for the characterization of spatial connections of flow regimes in the

  8. Evaluation of steady flow torques and pressure losses in a rotary flow control valve by means of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhotnikov, Ivan; Noroozi, Siamak; Sewell, Philip; Godfrey, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design of a rotary flow control valve driven by a stepper motor is proposed. • The intended use of the valve in the high flow rate independent metering hydraulic system is suggested. • Pressure drops, steady flow torques of the valve for various flow rates and orifice openings are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics. • The discharge coefficient and flow jet angles dependencies on the orifice opening are obtained. • A design method to decrease the flow forces without reducing the flow rate in single-staged valves is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel design of a rotary hydraulic flow control valve has been presented for high flow rate fluid power systems. High flow rates in these systems account for substantial flow forces acting on the throttling elements of the valves and cause the application of mechanically sophisticated multi-staged servo valves for flow regulation. The suggested design enables utilisation of single-stage valves in power hydraulics operating at high flow rates regimes. A spool driver and auxiliary mechanisms of the proposed valve design were discussed and selection criteria were suggested. Analytical expressions for metering characteristics as well as steady flow torques have been derived. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of steady state flow regimes was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic behaviour of the proposed valve. This study represents a special case of an independent metering concept applied to the design of power hydraulic systems with direct proportional valve control operating at flow rates above 150 litres per minute. The result gained using parametric CFD simulations predicted the induced torque and the pressure drops due to a steady flow. Magnitudes of these values prove that by minimising the number of spool's mobile metering surfaces it is possible to reduce the flow-generated forces in the new generation of hydraulic valves proposed in this study

  9. Fall Velocities of Hydrometeors in the Atmosphere: Refinements to a Continuous Analytical Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Vitaly I.; Curry, Judith A.

    2005-12-01

    This paper extends the previous research of the authors on the unified representation of fall velocities for both liquid and crystalline particles as a power law over the entire size range of hydrometeors observed in the atmosphere. The power-law coefficients are determined as continuous analytical functions of the Best or Reynolds number or of the particle size. Here, analytical expressions are formulated for the turbulent corrections to the Reynolds number and to the power-law coefficients that describe the continuous transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow around a falling particle. A simple analytical expression is found for the correction of fall velocities for temperature and pressure. These expressions and the resulting fall velocities are compared with observations and other calculations for a range of ice crystal habits and sizes. This approach provides a continuous analytical power-law description of the terminal velocities of liquid and crystalline hydrometeors with sufficiently high accuracy and can be directly used in bin-resolving models or incorporated into parameterizations for cloud- and large-scale models and remote sensing techniques.

  10. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  11. Entropy-based viscous regularization for the multi-dimensional Euler equations in low-Mach and transonic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc O Delchini; Jean E. Ragusa; Ray A. Berry

    2015-07-01

    We present a new version of the entropy viscosity method, a viscous regularization technique for hyperbolic conservation laws, that is well-suited for low-Mach flows. By means of a low-Mach asymptotic study, new expressions for the entropy viscosity coefficients are derived. These definitions are valid for a wide range of Mach numbers, from subsonic flows (with very low Mach numbers) to supersonic flows, and no longer depend on an analytical expression for the entropy function. In addition, the entropy viscosity method is extended to Euler equations with variable area for nozzle flow problems. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using various 1-D and 2-D benchmark tests: flow in a converging–diverging nozzle; Leblanc shock tube; slow moving shock; strong shock for liquid phase; low-Mach flows around a cylinder and over a circular hump; and supersonic flow in a compression corner. Convergence studies are performed for smooth solutions and solutions with shocks present.

  12. Analyticity without Differentiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  13. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytics have been used in organizations for a variety of reasons for quite some time; ranging from the simple (generating and understanding business analytics...process. understanding business analytics 3 How well these two components are orchestrated will determine the level of success an organization has in

  14. Unsteady two-dimensional potential-flow model for thin variable geometry airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, analytical expressions for distributed and integral unsteady two-dimensional forces on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camber line...... in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the integral forces can be reduced to Munk's steady and Theodorsen's unsteady results for thin airfoils, and numerical evaluation shows...

  15. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Marieta L.C. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Pinto, Paula C.A.G., E-mail: ppinto@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Santos, João L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S., E-mail: lsaraiva@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Araujo, André R.T.S. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Unidade de Investigação para o Desenvolvimento do Interior, Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Av. Dr. Francisco de Sá Carneiro, n° 50, 6300-559 Guarda (Portugal)

    2015-08-19

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section.

  16. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Marieta L.C.; Pinto, Paula C.A.G.; Santos, João L.M.; Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S.; Araujo, André R.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section

  17. Flow cytometry protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaroszeski, Mark J; Heller, Richard

    1998-01-01

    ... are individually analyzed, and it is typical for flow cytometers to quantitatively process thousands of individual particles in a matter of seconds. This a powerful analytic feat particularly if one relates it to the time required to examine several thousand individual cells using a microscope. This leaves little doubt regarding why the field of flow cytometry has...

  18. Determination of normal expression patterns of CD86, CD210a, CD261, CD262, CD264, CD358, and CD361 in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf-Oliveira, Renata Cristina Messores; Auat, Mariangeles; Cardoso, Chandra Chiappin; Santos-Pirath, Iris Mattos; Lange, Barbara Gil; Pires-Silva, Jéssica; Moraes, Ana Carolina Rabello de; Dametto, Gisele Cristina; Pirolli, Mayara Marin; Colombo, Maria Daniela Holthausen Périco; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia

    2018-02-01

    In 2010, new monoclonal antibodies were submitted to the 9th International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, and there are few studies demonstrating normal expression patterns of these markers. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the normal patterns of cell expression of CD86, CD210a, CD261, CD262, CD264, CD358, and CD361 in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples by flow cytometry. In the present study, CD86 was expressed only in monocytes and B lymphocytes in PB and in monocytes and plasma cells in BM. Regarding CD210a expression, in PB samples, monocytes and NK cells showed weak expression, while neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, and basophils showed weak and partial expression. In BM samples, expression of CD210a was observed in eosinophils, monocytes, and B and T/NK lymphocytes. Weak expression of CD210a was also observed in neutrophilic cells and plasma cells. All B cell maturation stages had weak expression of CD210a except for immature B cells, which did not express this marker. In the present study, no cell type in PB samples showed positivity for CD261 and, in BM samples, there was very weak expression in neutrophilic series, monocytes, and B lymphocytes. Conversely, plasma cells showed positivity for CD261 with a homogeneous expression. For CD262, there was weak expression in monocytes, neutrophils, and B lymphocytes in PB samples and weak expression in monocytes, B lymphocytes, and plasma cells in BM samples. The evaluation of CD264 showed very weak expression in B cells in PB samples and no expression in BM cells. Very weak expression of CD358 was observed in neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes in PB and BM samples. In addition, in BM samples, plasma cells and T lymphocytes showed weak expression of CD358. In relation to the maturation stages of B cells, there was weak expression in pro-B cel, pre-B cell, and mature B cell. In the present study, it was possible to observe expression of CD361 in all

  19. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, L., E-mail: laleh.safari@ist.ac.at [IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Santos, J. P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Amaro, P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jänkälä, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Fratini, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  20. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U 238 were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  1. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U{sup 238} were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  2. 3D Analytical Calculation of the Interactions between Permanent Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham; Yonnet , Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Up to now, the analytical calculation has been made only when the magnets own parallel magnetization directions. We have succeeded in two new results of first importance for the analytical calculation: the torque between two magnets, and the force components and torque when the magnetization directions are perpendicular. The last result allows the analytical calculation of the interactions when the magnetizations are in all the directions. The 3D analytical expressions...

  3. On semi-inverse solutions for the time-dependent flows of a second-grade fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analytical solutions for the time-dependent equations arising in a second-grade fluid. The solutions have been developed by assuming certain forms of the stream function. Expressions for velocity components are obtained for flows in plane polar, axisymmetric cylindrical, and axisymmetric spherical polar coordinates. The obtained solutions are compared with existing results.

  4. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  5. Analytical properties of multiple production amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1984-05-01

    Local analytical properties of amplitudes 2..-->..3 and 2..-->..4 are studied. The amplitudes are shown to be analytical functions of total and partial energies at fixed momentum transfers in the neighbourhood of any physical point on the energy shell 14 (for the 2..-->..3 case) and 242 (for the 2..-->..4 case) boundary values are expressed through the amplitudes of real processes.

  6. An analytical approximation for resonance integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, C.G. de; Martinez, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is developed a method which allows to obtain an analytical solution for the resonance integral. The problem formulation is completely theoretical and based in concepts of physics of general character. The analytical expression for integral does not involve any empiric correlation or parameter. Results of approximation are compared with pattern values for each individual resonance and for sum of all resonances. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  8. Analytic theory of the gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentini, P.J.

    1989-06-01

    An analytic theory is derived for a gyrotron operating in the linear gain regime. The gyrotron is a coherent source of microwave and millimeter wave radiation based on an electron beam emitting at cyclotron resonance Ω in a strong, uniform magnetic field. Relativistic equations of motion and first order perturbation theory are used. Results are obtained in both laboratory and normalized variables. An expression for cavity threshold gain is derived in the linear regime. An analytic expression for the electron phase angle in momentum space shows that the effect of the RF field is to form bunches that are equal to the unperturbed transit phase plus a correction term which varies as the sine of the input phase angle. The expression for the phase angle is plotted and bunching effects in and out of phase (0 and -π) with respect to the RF field are evident for detunings leading to gain and absorption, respectively. For exact resonance, field frequency ω = Ω, a bunch also forms at a phase of -π/2. This beam yields the same energy exchange with the RF field as an unbunched, (nonrelativistic) beam. 6 refs., 10 figs

  9. Writing analytic element programs in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A

    2009-01-01

    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  11. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  12. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  13. Myria: Scalable Analytics as a Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B.; Halperin, D.; Whitaker, A.

    2014-12-01

    At the UW eScience Institute, we're working to empower non-experts, especially in the sciences, to write and use data-parallel algorithms. To this end, we are building Myria, a web-based platform for scalable analytics and data-parallel programming. Myria's internal model of computation is the relational algebra extended with iteration, such that every program is inherently data-parallel, just as every query in a database is inherently data-parallel. But unlike databases, iteration is a first class concept, allowing us to express machine learning tasks, graph traversal tasks, and more. Programs can be expressed in a number of languages and can be executed on a number of execution environments, but we emphasize a particular language called MyriaL that supports both imperative and declarative styles and a particular execution engine called MyriaX that uses an in-memory column-oriented representation and asynchronous iteration. We deliver Myria over the web as a service, providing an editor, performance analysis tools, and catalog browsing features in a single environment. We find that this web-based "delivery vector" is critical in reaching non-experts: they are insulated from irrelevant effort technical work associated with installation, configuration, and resource management. The MyriaX backend, one of several execution runtimes we support, is a main-memory, column-oriented, RDBMS-on-the-worker system that supports cyclic data flows as a first-class citizen and has been shown to outperform competitive systems on 100-machine cluster sizes. I will describe the Myria system, give a demo, and present some new results in large-scale oceanographic microbiology.

  14. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  15. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  16. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Advanced, Analytic, Automated (AAA) Measurement of Engagement During Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney; Dieterle, Ed; Duckworth, Angela

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that engagement plays a critical role in learning. Unfortunately, the study of engagement has been stymied by a lack of valid and efficient measures. We introduce the advanced, analytic, and automated (AAA) approach to measure engagement at fine-grained temporal resolutions. The AAA measurement approach is grounded in embodied theories of cognition and affect, which advocate a close coupling between thought and action. It uses machine-learned computational models to automatically infer mental states associated with engagement (e.g., interest, flow) from machine-readable behavioral and physiological signals (e.g., facial expressions, eye tracking, click-stream data) and from aspects of the environmental context. We present15 case studies that illustrate the potential of the AAA approach for measuring engagement in digital learning environments. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the AAA approach, concluding that it has significant promise to catalyze engagement research.

  18. Emerging technology and architecture for big-data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chip; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the current state of the art in big-data analytics, from a technology and hardware architecture perspective. The presentation is designed to be accessible to a broad audience, with general knowledge of hardware design and some interest in big-data analytics. Coverage includes emerging technology and devices for data-analytics, circuit design for data-analytics, and architecture and algorithms to support data-analytics. Readers will benefit from the realistic context used by the authors, which demonstrates what works, what doesn’t work, and what are the fundamental problems, solutions, upcoming challenges and opportunities. Provides a single-source reference to hardware architectures for big-data analytics; Covers various levels of big-data analytics hardware design abstraction and flow, from device, to circuits and systems; Demonstrates how non-volatile memory (NVM) based hardware platforms can be a viable solution to existing challenges in hardware architecture for big-data analytics.

  19. A family of analytical solutions of a nonlinear diffusion-convection equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Despite its popularity in many engineering fields, the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation has no general analytical solutions. This work presents a family of closed-form analytical traveling wave solutions for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with power law nonlinearities. This kind of equations typically appears in nonlinear problems of flow and transport in porous media. The solutions that are addressed are simple and fully analytical. Three classes of analytical solutions are presented depending on the type of the nonlinear diffusion coefficient (increasing, decreasing or constant). It has shown that the structure of the traveling wave solution is strongly related to the diffusion term. The main advantage of the proposed solutions is that they are presented in a unified form contrary to existing solutions in the literature where the derivation of each solution depends on the specific values of the diffusion and convection parameters. The proposed closed-form solutions are simple to use, do not require any numerical implementation, and may be implemented in a simple spreadsheet. The analytical expressions are also useful to mathematically analyze the structure and properties of the solutions.

  20. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER FOR VISCO-ELASTIC MHD BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW PAST A VERTICAL FLAT PLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Choudhury; Hridi Ranjan Deb

    2012-01-01

    The two-dimensional free convection flow of visco-elastic and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary differential equation by introducing appropriate co-ordinate transformation. The analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and species concentration fields have been obtained. The corresponding expressions for the non-dimensional rates of he...

  1. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  2. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  3. Analytic Moufang-transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, Eh.N.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is aimed to be an introduction to the concept of an analytic birepresentation of an analytic Moufang loop. To describe the deviation of (S,T) from associativity, the associators (S,T) are defined and certain constraints for them, called the minimality conditions of (S,T) are established

  4. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  5. Learning analytics dashboard applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Klerkx, J.; Govaerts, S.; Santos, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces learning analytics dashboards that visualize learning traces for learners and teachers. We present a conceptual framework that helps to analyze learning analytics applications for these kinds of users. We then present our own work in this area and compare with 15 related

  6. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  7. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  8. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  9. Second Law Analysis for a Variable Viscosity Reactive Couette Flow under Arrhenius Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kobo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the inherent irreversibility associated with the Couette flow of a reacting variable viscosity combustible material under Arrhenius kinetics. The nonlinear equations of momentum and energy governing the flow system are solved both analytically using a perturbation method and numerically using the standard Newton Raphson shooting method along with a fourth-order Runge Kutta integration algorithm to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions which essentially expedite to obtain expressions for volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio, and the Bejan number in the flow field.

  10. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  11. Elevated D8/17 expression on B lymphocytes, a marker of rheumatic fever, measured with flow cytometry in tic disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Bijzet, J; Limburg, PC; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Oosterhoff, MD; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    Objective: Elevated D8/17 expression on B lymphocytes is a known susceptibility marker of rheumatic fever. Previous studies have reported higher than usual D8/ 17 expression on B lymphocytes of patients with tic disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess D8/17 expression on B lymphocytes of

  12. Analytical Modeling of Natural Convection in a Tall Rectangular Enclosure with Multiple Disconnected Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Bae

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, laminar natural circulation and heat transfer in a tall rectangular enclosure with disconnected vertical partitions inside were investigated. Analytical expressions were developed to predict the circulation flow rate and the average Nusselt number in a partially partitioned enclosure with isothermal side walls at different temperatures and insulated top and bottom walls. The proposed formulas are then validated against numerical results for modified Rayleigh numbers of up to 106. The impacts of the governing parameters are also examined along with a discussion of the heat transfer regimes.

  13. Counter-current flow limited CHF in thin rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical expression for counter-current-flow-limitation (CCFL) was used to predict critical heat flux (CHF) for downward flow in thin vertical rectangular channels which are prototypes of coolant channels in test and research nuclear reactors. Top flooding is the mechanism for counter-current flow limited CHF. The CCFL correlation also was used to determine the circulation and flooding-limited CHF. Good agreements were observed between the period the model predictions and data on the CHF for downflow. The minimum CHF for downflow is lower than the flooding-limited CHF and it is predicted to occur at a liquid flow rate higher than that at the flooding limit. 17 refs., 7 figs

  14. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  15. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Learning objectives:* To provide an introduction to automated assays* To describe the basic principles of FIA * To demonstrate the capabilities of FIA in relation to batch assays and conventional continuous flow systems* To show that FIA allows one to augment existing analytical techniques* To sh...... how FIA offers novel analytical procedures which are not feasible by conventional means* To hightlight the potentials of FIA in selected practical assays...

  16. Modeling and analytical simulation of a smouldering carbonaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and analytical simulation of a smouldering carbonaceous rod. A.A. Mohammed, R.O. Olayiwola, M Eseyin, A.A. Wachin. Abstract. Modeling of pyrolysis and combustion in a smouldering fuel bed requires the solution of flow, heat and mass transfer through porous media. This paper presents an analytical method ...

  17. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  18. Study of two-phase foam flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G

    1970-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.

  19. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  20. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  1. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  2. Modulation by Blood-cooling and Blood Flow-promoting Herbs to the expression of TNF-α and bFGF in radiation induced lung damage of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Minghui; Zang Qian; Dou Yongqi; Feng Linchun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the modulation by Blood-cooling and Blood Flow-promoting Herbs to expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGF) in radiation-induced lung injury of rats at different radiation times, and explore the mechanism of prevention and curative effect of the herbs on radiation lung injury. Methods: 160 wistar rats were randomly allocated into irradiation group, treatment group, herb-fracture group and control group. The first two groups were irradiated to right hemithorax with a dose of 30 Gy/10 fraction/5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at weeks 3,5,8,12 and 26 post irradiation. The level of immunoreactivity of cytokine TNF-α and bFGF was evaluated. Results: The acute radiation-induced pneumonia occurred at weeks 3 and was most serious at weeks 5 and pulmonary fibrosis was remarkable at the late phase in irradiation group. The pneumonia and fibrosis of treatment group were lighter than that of irradiation group. Expressions of TNF-α and bFGF reached their peaks at weeks 5 and 26 of respectively. The expressions in treatment group was significantly lower than that the irradiation group( P<0.01). Conclusions: Blood-cooling and Blood Flow-promoting Herbs can prevent and treat the radiation-reduced lung injury by restraining the expression of TNF-α and bFGF. (authors)

  3. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  4. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  5. SRL online Analytical Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R ampersand D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R ampersand D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control ampersand Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications

  6. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  7. Analytical Calculation of Mutual Information between Weakly Coupled Poisson-Spiking Neurons in Models of Dynamically Gated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mutual information is a commonly used measure of communication between neurons, but little theory exists describing the relationship between mutual information and the parameters of the underlying neuronal interaction. Such a theory could help us understand how specific physiological changes affect the capacity of neurons to synaptically communicate, and, in particular, they could help us characterize the mechanisms by which neuronal dynamics gate the flow of information in the brain. Here we study a pair of linear-nonlinear-Poisson neurons coupled by a weak synapse. We derive an analytical expression describing the mutual information between their spike trains in terms of synapse strength, neuronal activation function, the time course of postsynaptic currents, and the time course of the background input received by the two neurons. This expression allows mutual information calculations that would otherwise be computationally intractable. We use this expression to analytically explore the interaction of excitation, information transmission, and the convexity of the activation function. Then, using this expression to quantify mutual information in simulations, we illustrate the information-gating effects of neural oscillations and oscillatory coherence, which may either increase or decrease the mutual information across the synapse depending on parameters. Finally, we show analytically that our results can quantitatively describe the selection of one information pathway over another when multiple sending neurons project weakly to a single receiving neuron.

  8. Analytic manifolds in uniform algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, T.V.

    1988-12-01

    Here we extend Bear-Hile's result concerning the version of famous Bishop's theorem for one-dimensional analytic structures in two directions: for n-dimensional complex analytic manifolds, n>1, and for generalized analytic manifolds. 14 refs

  9. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions

  10. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The

  11. International Congress on Analytical Chemistry. Abstracts. V. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The collection of materials of the international congress on analytical chemistry taken place in Moscow in June 1997 is presented. The main directs of investigations are elucidated in such regions of analytical chemistry as quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis, sample preparation, express test methods of environmental and biological materials, clinical analysis, analysis of food and agricultural products

  12. Analytical models for low-power rectenna design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.A.G.; Beurden, van M.C.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Visser, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of a low-cost rectenna for low-power applications is presented. The rectenna is designed with the use of analytical models and closed-form analytical expressions. This allows for a fast design of the rectenna system. To acquire a small-area rectenna, a layered design is proposed.

  13. International Congress on Analytical Chemistry. Abstracts. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The collection of materials of the international congress on analytical chemistry taken place in Moscow in June 1997 is presented. The main directs of investigations are elucidated in such regions of analytical chemistry as quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis, sample preparation, express test methods of environmental and biological materials, clinical analysis, analysis of food and agricultural products

  14. Analytical one parameter method for PID motion controller settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper analytical expressions for PID-controllers settings for electromechanical motion systems are presented. It will be shown that by an adequate frequency domain oriented parametrization, the parameters of a PID-controller are analytically dependent on one variable only, the cross-over

  15. Information theory in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eckschlager, Karel; Danzer, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    Contents: The aim of analytical chemistry - Basic concepts of information theory - Identification of components - Qualitative analysis - Quantitative analysis - Multicomponent analysis - Optimum analytical...

  16. Analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated curled beam problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    This works presents analytical expressions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. The formulation is based on the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We

  17. Untangling Slab Dynamics Using 3-D Numerical and Analytical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Increasingly sophisticated numerical models have enabled us to make significant strides in identifying the key controls on how subducting slabs deform. For example, 3-D models have demonstrated that subducting plate width, and the related strength of toroidal flow around the plate edge, exerts a strong control on both the curvature and the rate of migration of the trench. However, the results of numerical subduction models can be difficult to interpret, and many first order dynamics issues remain at least partially unresolved. Such issues include the dominant controls on trench migration, the interdependence of asthenospheric pressure and slab dynamics, and how nearby slabs influence each other's dynamics. We augment 3-D, dynamically evolving finite element models with simple, analytical force-balance models to distill the physics associated with subduction into more manageable parts. We demonstrate that for single, isolated subducting slabs much of the complexity of our fully numerical models can be encapsulated by simple analytical expressions. Rates of subduction and slab dip correlate strongly with the asthenospheric pressure difference across the subducting slab. For double subduction, an additional slab gives rise to more complex mantle pressure and flow fields, and significantly extends the range of plate kinematics (e.g., convergence rate, trench migration rate) beyond those present in single slab models. Despite these additional complexities, we show that much of the dynamics of such multi-slab systems can be understood using the physics illuminated by our single slab study, and that a force-balance method can be used to relate intra-plate stress to viscous pressure in the asthenosphere and coupling forces at plate boundaries. This method has promise for rapid modeling of large systems of subduction zones on a global scale.

  18. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Eung-Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  19. Competing on talent analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  20. Advanced business analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Lev, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The book describes advanced business analytics and shows how to apply them to many different professional areas of engineering and management. Each chapter of the book is contributed by a different author and covers a different area of business analytics. The book connects the analytic principles with business practice and provides an interface between the main disciplines of engineering/technology and the organizational, administrative and planning abilities of management. It also refers to other disciplines such as economy, finance, marketing, behavioral economics and risk analysis. This book is of special interest to engineers, economists and researchers who are developing new advances in engineering management but also to practitioners working on this subject.

  1. Analysis of thin film flow over a vertical oscillating belt with a second grade fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza Gul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the unsteady thin film flow of a second grade fluid over a vertical oscillating belt. The governing equation for velocity field with appropriate boundary conditions is solved analytically using Adomian decomposition method (ADM. Expressions for velocity field have been obtained. Optimal asymptotic method (OHAM has also been used for comparison. The effects of Stocks number, frequency parameter and pressure gradient parameters have been sketched graphically and discussed.

  2. A model for the two-point velocity correlation function in turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, A.; Sreenivasan, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical expression is presented to approximate the equal-time, two-point, double-velocity correlation function in turbulent channel flow. To assess the accuracy of the model, we perform the spectral decomposition of the integral operator having the model correlation function as its kernel. Comparisons of the empirical eigenvalues and eigenfunctions with those constructed from direct numerical simulations data show good agreement. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  4. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  5. An analytic thomism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Pérez Chamorro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 50 years the philosophers of the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition (E. Anscombre, P. Geach, A. Kenny, P. Foot have tried to follow the Thomas Aquinas School which they use as a source to surpass the Cartesian Epistemology and to develop the virtue ethics. Recently, J. Haldane has inaugurated a program of “analytical thomism” which main result until the present has been his “theory of identity mind/world”. Nevertheless, none of Thomás’ admirers has still found the means of assimilating his metaphysics of being.

  6. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  7. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    welfare. In conjunction with the meeting of the steering committee in Tallinn, Estonia, in April, Mihkel Kaljurand and Mihkel Koel of Tallinn University of Technology organised a successful symposium attended by 51 participants. The symposium illustrated the scientific work of the steering committee...... directed to various topics of analytical chemistry. Although affected by the global financial crisis, the Euroanalysis Conference will be held on 6 to 10 September in Innsbruck, Austria. For next year, the programme for the analytical section of the 3rd European Chemistry Congress is in preparation...

  8. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  9. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  10. Analytical model of gromeka — beltrami flow МОДЕЛЬ ТЕЧЕНИЯ ГРОМЕКИ — БЕЛЬТРАМИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuykov Andrey L’vovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide a summarized overview of the analytical model of the Gromeka — Beltrami helical flow of nonviscous incompressible fluid in a cylindrical channel. The model is developed on the basis of the method of decomposition for Fourier — Bessel equations. The authors discuss the analytical distribution function for axial, azimuthal and radial fluid velocities and the flow function depending on the length and radius of the cylindrical channel. The analysis of the proposed solution demonstrates that the properties of the flows inside the channel depend on the value of the scalar coefficient. When the value of the coefficient is within the zero-order Bessel function of the first kind, the velocity distribution is characterized by significant reverse currents in the axial zone of the channel. The findings comply with the results of laboratory and field tests. The authors have identified that this type of flow has components of the wave. Similar flows have high angular velocity. The authors assume that these conditions correspond to the emergence of toroidal Taylor — Gertler vortices. Therefore, the analytical model of the Gromeka — Beltrami flow complies with the phenomena observed in the course of experiments and in the natural environment.Рассмотрена аналитическая модель винтового течения невязкой несжимаемой жидкости в цилиндрическом канале. Модель основана на решении уравнений Громеки методом разложения Фурье — Бесселя. Получены аналитические функции распределения по длине и радиусу цилиндрического канала аксиальных, азимутальных и радиальных скоростей движения жидкости и функции тока. Выполнен анализ п

  11. Analytical models for lower and upper bounds of the condensation-induced water hammer in long horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Moon Hyun; Park, Joo Wan; Nam, Ho Yun

    1992-01-01

    Improved analytical models have been proposed that can predict the lower and upper limits of the water hammer region for given flow conditions by incorporation of recent advances made in the understanding of phenomena associated with the condensation-induced water hammer into existing methods. Present models are applicable for steam-water counterflow in a long horizontal pipe geometry. Both lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region are expressed in terms of the 'critical inlet water flow rate' as a function of axial position. Water hammer region boundaries predicted by present and typical existing models are compared for particular flow conditions of the water hammer event occurred at San Onofre Unit 1 to assess the applicability of the models examined. The result shows that present models for lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region compare favorably with the best performing existing models

  12. Driving gradual endogenous c-myc overexpression by flow-sorting: intracellular signaling and tumor cell phenotype correlate with oncogene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kasper Jermiin; Holm, G.M.N.; Krabbe, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-exposed rat mammary cancer cells were flow sorted based on a c-myc reporter plasmid encoding a destabilized green fluorescent protein. Sorted cells exhibited gradual increases in c-myc levels. Cells overexpressing c-myc by only 10% exhibited phenotypic changes attributable to c-myc overex...

  13. Intravenous beta-endorphin administration fails to alter hypothalamic blood flow in rats expressing normal or reduced nitric oxide synthase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benyo, Z.; Szabo, C; Velkel, M.H; Bohus, B.G J; Wahl, M.A; Sandor, P

    1996-01-01

    beta-Endorphin (beta-END) significantly contributes to the maintenance of hypothalamic blood flow (HBF) autoregulation during hemorrhagic hypotension in rats. Recently, several natural and synthetic opioid peptides were reported to induce nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation in the cerebrovascular

  14. Steady flow in a rotating sphere with strong precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    The steady flow in a rotating sphere is investigated by asymptotic analysis in the limit of strong precession. The whole spherical body is divided into three regions in terms of the flow characteristics: the critical band, which is the close vicinity surrounding the great circle perpendicular to the precession axis, the boundary layer, which is attached to the whole sphere surface and the inviscid region that occupies the majority of the sphere. The analytic expressions, in the leading order of the asymptotic expansion, of the velocity field are obtained in the former two, whereas partial differential equations for the velocity field are derived in the latter, which are solved numerically. This steady flow structure is confirmed by the corresponding direct numerical simulation.

  15. Analytical system availability techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Verbeek, P.H.J.; Thomson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical techniques are presented to assess the probability distributions and related statistical parameters of loss of production from equipment networks subject to random failures and repairs. The techniques are based on a theoretical model for system availability, which was further developed

  16. Explanatory analytics in OLAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, E.A.M.; Daniëls, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a method to integrate explanatory business analytics in OLAP information systems. This method supports the discovery of exceptional values in OLAP data and the explanation of such values by giving their underlying causes. OLAP applications offer a support tool for

  17. Analytical procedures. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1985-01-01

    In analytical procedures (Boole procedures) there is certain to be a close relationship between the safety assessment and reliability assessment of technical facilities. The paper gives an overview of the organization of models, fault trees, the probabilistic evaluation of systems, evaluation with minimum steps or minimum paths regarding statistically dependent components and of systems liable to suffer different kinds of outages. (orig.) [de

  18. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  19. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  20. Of the Analytical Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cloth will be woven all of one colour; but there will be a damask pattern upon it ... mathematical view of the Analytical Engine, and illustrate by example some of its .... be to v~rify the number of the card given it by subtracting its number from 2 3 ...

  1. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  2. Social Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  3. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  4. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  5. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  6. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  7. Upscaling of Forchheimer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Aulisa, Eugenio

    2014-08-01

    In this work we propose upscaling method for nonlinear Forchheimer flow in heterogeneous porous media. The generalized Forchheimer law is considered for incompressible and slightly-compressible single-phase flows. We use recently developed analytical results (Aulisa et al., 2009) [1] and formulate the resulting system in terms of a degenerate nonlinear flow equation for the pressure with the nonlinearity depending on the pressure gradient. The coarse scale parameters for the steady state problem are determined so that the volumetric average of velocity of the flow in the domain on fine scale and on coarse scale are close. A flow-based coarsening approach is used, where the equivalent permeability tensor is first evaluated following streamline methods for linear cases, and modified in order to take into account the nonlinear effects. Compared to previous works (Garibotti and Peszynska, 2009) [2], (Durlofsky and Karimi-Fard) [3], this approach can be combined with rigorous mathematical upscaling theory for monotone operators, (Efendiev et al., 2004) [4], using our recent theoretical results (Aulisa et al., 2009) [1]. The developed upscaling algorithm for nonlinear steady state problems is effectively used for variety of heterogeneities in the domain of computation. Direct numerical computations for average velocity and productivity index justify the usage of the coarse scale parameters obtained for the special steady state case in the fully transient problem. For nonlinear case analytical upscaling formulas in stratified domain are obtained. Numerical results were compared to these analytical formulas and proved to be highly accurate. © 2014.

  8. Multispectral analytical image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, T.C.

    2000-04-01

    With new and advanced analytical imaging methods emerging, the limits of physical analysis capabilities and furthermore of data acquisition quantities are constantly pushed, claiming high demands to the field of scientific data processing and visualisation. Physical analysis methods like Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) or Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and others are capable of delivering high-resolution multispectral two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data; usually this multispectral data is available in form of n separate image files with each showing one element or other singular aspect of the sample. There is high need for digital image processing methods enabling the analytical scientist, confronted with such amounts of data routinely, to get rapid insight into the composition of the sample examined, to filter the relevant data and to integrate the information of numerous separate multispectral images to get the complete picture. Sophisticated image processing methods like classification and fusion provide possible solution approaches to this challenge. Classification is a treatment by multivariate statistical means in order to extract analytical information. Image fusion on the other hand denotes a process where images obtained from various sensors or at different moments of time are combined together to provide a more complete picture of a scene or object under investigation. Both techniques are important for the task of information extraction and integration and often one technique depends on the other. Therefore overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the possibilities of both techniques regarding the task of analytical image processing and to find solutions for the integration and condensation of multispectral analytical image data in order to facilitate the interpretation of the enormous amounts of data routinely acquired by modern physical analysis instruments. (author)

  9. Non Newtonian gravity creeping flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, J.; Mahajan, S.M.; Minotti, F.

    1988-11-01

    We derive the governing equations for creeping gravity currents of non Newtonian liquids having a power law rheology, using a lubrication approximation. We consider unidirectional and axisymmetric currents. The equations differ from those for Newtonian liquids, being nonlinear in the spatial derivative of the thickness of the current. However, many solutions are closely analogous to those for Newtonian rheology; in particular the spreading relations can also be expressed as power laws of time, with exponents that depend on the rheological index. Similarity solutions for currents whose volume varies as a power of time are obtained. For the spread of a constant volume of liquid, analytic solutions are found. We also derive solutions of the waiting-time type, as well as the ones describing steady flows from a constant source to a sink. General travelling wave solutions are given, and analytic formulae for a simple case are derived. A phase plane formalism, that allows the systematic derivation of self similar solutions, is introduced. The application of the Boltzmann transform is briefly discussed. Present results are closely analogous to those for Newtonian liquids; all the solutions obtained here have their counterparts in Newtonian flows. This happens because the power law rheology, like the Newtonian constitutive relation, involves a single dimensional parameter. Thus one finds similarity solutions whenever the analogous Newtonian problem is self similar. Although the spreading relations are rheology-dependent, in most cases the dependence is rather weak. The present results may be of interest for geophysics since the lithosphere deforms according to an average power law rheology. (author). 17 refs

  10. Analytical calculations of the rotational transform angles in the torsatron systems with different plasma pressure profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Pinos, I.B.; Tyupa, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    With formulas for averaging over magnetic surfaces general analytical expressions are here deduced to determine the rotational transform angles in stellarator systems having different plasma pressure profiles

  11. Effects of aerobic exercise training on ACE and ADRB2 gene expression, plasma angiotensin II level, and flow-mediated dilation: a study on obese postmenopausal women with prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadpour, Noushin; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Koşar, Şükran Nazan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of 10 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIET) on blood pressure (BP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene expression in leukocytes, plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in obese postmenopausal women (PMW) with prehypertension. Twenty-four obese prehypertensive PMW (aged 50-70 y; body mass index ≥30 kg/m) randomly assigned to control (n = 12) and exercise (n = 12) groups. Exercise group performed MIET (25-40 min/d, 3 d/wk at 50%-70% of heart rate reserve) for 10 weeks. Control group maintained their normal daily physical activity level. Body composition, VO2max, BP, ACE and ADRB2 gene expression, plasma Ang II, and FMD were measured before and after the training program. After MIET, systolic and diastolic BPs decreased by 4.6% and 2.4%, respectively (P ACE gene expressions (P ACE (r values range 0.68-0.86) (P ACE and ADRB2 gene expression, decreases Ang II plasma levels, and improves endothelial function in obese PMW, and these alterations are associated with reduction in BP.

  12. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  13. The value of flow cytometric analysis of platelet glycoprotein expression of CD34+ cells measured under conditions that prevent P-selectin-mediated binding of platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercksen, M. W.; Weimar, I. S.; Richel, D. J.; Breton-Gorius, J.; Vainchenker, W.; Slaper-Cortenbach, C. M.; Pinedo, H. M.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Gerritsen, W. R.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we show by adhesion assays and ultrastructural studies that platelets can bind to CD34+ cells from human blood and bone marrow and that this interaction interferes with the accurate detection of endogenously expressed platelet glycoproteins (GPs). The interaction between these

  14. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  15. Analytical electromagnetic calculations for practical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaka, T

    2008-01-01

    The current distributions of twisted long filamentary composites are studied during the current sweep and under the transverse and longitudinal external field, using the inductance matrix among superconducting helical filaments and the inductive voltage between filaments and the external coil in the circuit equation. The self- and mutual inductances of helical conductors with a uniform helical current density are approximately calculated from the analytical expressions of long helical thin conductors. In addition, the magnetic field and the vector potential distributions of a twisted superconducting composite are also obtained by the numerical integral calculation over the cross section of the analytical expressions for the magnetic field and vector potential due to an infinitely long helical conductor

  16. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de; Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  17. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  18. Analytical chemists and dinosaurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the analytical chemist in the development of the extraterrestrial impact theory for mass extinctions at the terminal Cretaceous Period is reviewed. High iridium concentrations in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays have been linked to a terrestrial impact from an iridium-rich asteroid or large meteorite som 65 million years ago. Other evidence in favour of the occurrence of such an impact has been provided by the detection of shocked quartz grains originating from impact and of amorphous carbon particles similar to soot, derived presumably from wordwide wildfires at the terminal Cretaceous. Further evidence provided by the analytical chemist involves the determination of isotopic ratios such as 144 Nd/ 143 Nd, 187 Os/ 186 Os, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. Countervailing arguments put forward by the gradualist school (mainly palaeontological) as opposed to the catastrophists (mainly chemists and geochemists) are also presented and discussed

  19. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  20. Hermeneutical and analytical jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main strands of development in jurisprudence in the last few decades from the standpoint of the metatheoretical differentiation between analytical and hermeneutical perspective in the study of law. The author claims that recent jurisprudent accounts can rarely be positioned within the traditional dichotomy natural law theories - legal positivism, and that this dichotomy is not able to account for the differences between contemporary conceptions of law. As an alternative the difference between the analytical and hermeneutical traditions in philosophy are explained, as they have crucially influenced posthartian strands in Anglo-American philosophy and postkelsenian strands in continental philosophy of law. Finally, the influence of hermeneutical philosophy and legal theory is examined in regards of the development of a hermeneutical theory of law and the development of legal hermeneutics.

  1. Analytical chemists and dinosaurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, R R

    1987-05-01

    The role of the analytical chemist in the development of the extraterrestrial impact theory for mass extinctions at the terminal Cretaceous Period is reviewed. High iridium concentrations in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays have been linked to a terrestrial impact from an iridium-rich asteroid or large meteorite som 65 million years ago. Other evidence in favour of the occurrence of such an impact has been provided by the detection of shocked quartz grains originating from impact and of amorphous carbon particles similar to soot, derived presumably from wordwide wildfires at the terminal Cretaceous. Further evidence provided by the analytical chemist involves the determination of isotopic ratios such as /sup 144/Nd//sup 143/Nd, /sup 187/Os//sup 186/Os, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr. Countervailing arguments put forward by the gradualist school (mainly palaeontological) as opposed to the catastrophists (mainly chemists and geochemists) are also presented and discussed.

  2. Two-Phase Flow in Wire Coating with Heat Transfer Analysis of an Elastic-Viscous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers two-phase flow of an elastic-viscous fluid for double-layer coating of wire. The wet-on-wet (WOW coating process is used in this study. The analytical solution of the theoretical model is obtained by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The expression for the velocity field and temperature distribution for both layers is obtained. The convergence of the obtained series solution is established. The analytical results are verified by Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The obtained velocity field is compared with the existing exact solution of the same flow problem of second-grade fluid and with analytical solution of a third-grade fluid. Also, emerging parameters on the solutions are discussed and appropriate conclusions are drawn.

  3. Communication Theoretic Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Lun; Zheng, Lizhong; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of the Internet and social networks invokes the generation of big data, which is proving to be useful in a number of applications. To deal with explosively growing amounts of data, data analytics has emerged as a critical technology related to computing, signal processing, and information networking. In this paper, a formalism is considered in which data is modeled as a generalized social network and communication theory and information theory are thereby extended to data analy...

  4. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  5. Analytic chemistry of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical, colorimetric, gravimetric, spectroscopic, and radiochemical methods for the determination of molybdenum are summarized in this book. Some laboratory procedures are described in detail while literature citations are given for others. The reader is also referred to older comprehensive reviews of the analytical chemistry of molybdenum. Contents, abridged: Gravimetric methods. Titrimetric methods. Colorimetric methods. X-ray fluorescence. Voltammetry. Catalytic methods. Molybdenum in non-ferrous alloys. Molydbenum compounds

  6. Competing on analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  7. Introduction to analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamalath, KAILW

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTICAL MECHANICS is an attempt to introduce the modern treatment of classical mechanics so that transition to many fields in physics can be made with the least difficulty. This book deal with the formulation of Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian dynamics, conservation laws relating to symmetries, Hamiltonian dynamics Hamilton's principle, Poisson brackets, canonical transformations which are invaluable in formulating the quantum mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation which provides the transition to wave mechanics.

  8. Analytical and physical electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Girault, Hubert H

    2004-01-01

    The study of electrochemistry is pertinent to a wide variety of fields, including bioenergetics, environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. In addition, electrochemistry plays a fundamental role in specific applications as diverse as the conversion and storage of energy and the sequencing of DNA.Intended both as a basic course for undergraduate students and as a reference work for graduates and researchers, Analytical and Physical Electrochemistry covers two fundamental aspects of electrochemistry: electrochemistry in solution and interfacial electrochemistry. By bringing these two subj

  9. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  10. k-spectrum of decaying, aging and growing passive scalars in Lagrangian chaotic fluid flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalda, Jaan [CENS, Institute of Cybernetics, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2011-12-22

    We derive the k-spectrum of decaying passive scalars in Lagrangian chaotic fluid flows. In the case of exponentially decaying scalar particles, this is a power law, the exponent of which depends on the scalar decay rate, as well as on the dimensionality and compressibility of the flow. In the case of aging scalar particles, the k-spectrum departs from a power law. We express analytically it in terms of the scalar decay function, and provide calculations in the particular case of constant life-time scalar particles.

  11. Bioconvection in Second Grade Nanofluid Flow Containing Nanoparticles and Gyrotactic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noor Saeed

    2018-06-01

    The bioconvection in steady second grade nanofluid thin film flow containing nanoparticles and gyrotactic microorganisms is considered using passively controlled nanofluid model boundary conditions. A real-life system evolves under the flow and various taxis. The study is initially proposed in the context of gyrotactic system, which is used as a key element for the description of complex bioconvection patterns and dynamics in such systems. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary ones through the similarity variables and solved analytically via homotopy analysis method (HAM). The solution is expressed through graphs and illustrated which show the influences of all the parameters.

  12. Business analytics a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to businesses on how to use analytics to help drive from ideas to execution. Analytics used in this way provides "full lifecycle support" for business and helps during all stages of management decision-making and execution.The framework presented in the book enables the effective interplay of business, analytics, and information technology (business intelligence) both to leverage analytics for competitive advantage and to embed the use of business analytics into the business culture. It lays out an approach for analytics, describes the processes used, and provides gu

  13. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in the right cortex homologous to left language areas are directly affected by left hemispheric damage in aphasic stroke patients: evaluation by Tc-ECD SPECT and novel analytic software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, G; Kakuda, W; Abo, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on rCBF in each region in the non-dominant hemisphere in post-stroke aphasic patients. The study subjects were 27 aphasic patients who suffered their first symptomatic stroke in the left hemisphere. In each subject, we measured rCBF by means of 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimmer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The SPECT images were analyzed by the statistical imaging analysis programs easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS) and voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). Segmented into Brodmann Area (BA) levels, Regions of Interest (ROIs) were set in language-relevant areas bilaterally, and changes in the relative rCBF as average negative and positive Z-values were computed fully automatically. To assess the relationship between rCBF changes of each ROIs in the left and right hemispheres, the Spearman ranked correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied. Globally, a negative and asymmetric influence of rCBF changes in the language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on the right hemisphere was found. The rCBF decrease in left BA22 significantly influenced the rCBF increase in right BA39, BA40, BA44 and BA45. The results suggested that the chronic increase in rCBF in the right language-relevant areas is due at least in part to reduction in the trancallosal inhibitory activity of the language-dominant left hemisphere caused by the stroke lesion itself and that these relationships are not always symmetric.

  14. Development of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Lateral Flow Device Capable of Differentiating Phytase Expressed from Recombinant Aspergillus niger phyA2 and Genetically Modified Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Hui, Elizabeth; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Lin, Zhen; Pu, Ling-Kui; Tu, Zhiguan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Juan

    2015-05-06

    Phytase is a phosphohydrolase considered highly specific for the degradation of phytate to release bound phosphorus for animal consumption and aid in the reduction of environmental nutrient loading. New sources of phytase have been sought that are economically and efficiently productive including the construction of genetically modified (GM) phytase products designed to bypass the costs associated with feed processing. Four monoclonal antibodies (EH10a, FA7, AF9a, and CC1) raised against recombinant Aspergillus niger phyA2 were used to develop a highly specific and sensitive immunochromatographic lateral flow device for rapid detection of transgenic phytase, such as in GM corn. Antibodies sequentially paired and tested along lateral flow strips showed that the EH10a-FA7 antibody pair was able to detect the recombinant yeast-phytase at 5 ng/mL, whereas the AF9a-CC1 antibody pair to GM phytase corn was able to detect at 2 ng/mL. Concurrent to this development, evidence was revealed which suggests that antibody binding sites may be glycosylated.

  15. Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces on a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by itscamberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory...... using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use ofDuhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use...

  16. Mars Analytical Microimager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  17. MERRA Analytic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  18. EXPRESIÓN SEMI-ANALÍTICA PARA EL CÁLCULO DE MATRICES DE CONDUCTIVIDAD DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS EN PROBLEMAS DE CONDUCCIÓN DE CALOR //\tA SEMI-ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR CALCULATING FINITE ELEMENT CONDUCTIVITY MATRICES IN HEAT CONDUCTION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Godoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer equation by conduction is not more than a mathematical expression of the energy conservation law for a given solid. Solving the equation which model this problem is generally very dificult or impossible in an analytical way, so it is necessary to make a discrete approximation of the continuous problem. In this paper, we present a methodology applied to the quadrilateral finite elements in problems of heat transfer by conduction, where the components of the thermal conductivity matrix are obtained by a semi-analytical expression and simple algebraic manipulations. This technique has been used successfully in stiness arrays' integrations of bidimensional and tridimensional finite elements, reporting substantial improvements of CPU times compared with the Gaussian integration. // RESUMEN: La ecuación para la transferencia de calor por conducción no es más que una expresión matemática de la ley de conservación de la energía para un sólido dado. La resolución de la ecuación que modela este problema generalmente es muy difícil o imposible de obtener de forma analítica, por ello es necesario efectuar una aproximación discreta del problema continuo. En este trabajo, se presenta una metodología aplicada a elementos finitos cuadriláteros en problemas de transferencia de calor por conducción, donde las componentes de la matriz de conductividad térmica son obtenidas mediante una expresión semi-analítica y manipulaciones algebraicas sencillas. Esta técnica ha sido utilizada exitosamente en integraciones de matrices de rigidez de elementos finitos bidimensionales y tridimensionales,reportando mejoras sustanciales de tiempos de CPU en comparación con la integración Gaussiana.

  19. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2016-08-20

    Aug 20, 2016 ... System) data and Google map co-ordinates to find the location of my smart phone ... techniques to capture, store, and analyze it; and is used to enhance decision making, provide insight and discovery, and support and ..... are placing sensors in the pipelines to monitor flow of water in the complex water ...

  20. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A