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Sample records for flores human endemic

  1. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  2. Epidemiology of fascioliasis in human endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S

    2005-09-01

    Considered a secondary zoonotic disease until the mid-1990s, human fascioliasis is at present emerging or re-emerging in many countries, including increases of prevalence and intensity and geographical expansion. Research in recent years has justified the inclusion of fascioliasis in the list of important human parasitic diseases. At present, fascioliasis is a vector-borne disease presenting the widest known latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Fasciola hepatica has succeeded in expanding from its European original geographical area to colonize five continents, despite theoretical restrictions related to its biology and in turn dependent upon environmental and human activities. Among the different epidemiological situations, human hypo- to hyperendemic areas, including epidemics, are noteworthy. A global analysis of the distribution of human cases shows that the expected correlation between animal and human fascioliasis only appears at a basic level. Areas presenting very high human prevalences and intensities, especially in children and females, have been recently described. In hypo- to hyperendemic areas of Central and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, human fascioliasis presents a range of epidemiological characteristics related to a wide diversity of environments. Thus far well-known epidemiological patterns of fascioliasis may not always explain the transmission characteristics in any given area and control measures should consider the results of ecoepidemiological studies undertaken in the zones concerned.

  3. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J A; Neumayr, A L; Hatz, C F

    2012-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy in the first stage and by sleep disturbances and neuro-psychiatric disorders in the second stage. Recent descriptions of the clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense in endemic populations show a high variability in different foci. The symptomatology of travellers is markedly different from the usual textbook descriptions of African HAT patients. The onset of both infections is almost invariably an acute and febrile disease. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult and rely mostly on old methods and drugs. However, new molecular diagnostic technologies are under development. A promising new drug combination is currently evaluated in a phase 3 b study and further new drugs are under evaluation.

  4. The Flores Island tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  5. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa.

  6. Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions.

  7. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic focus of Abraka, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clement Isaac; Igho Benjamin Igbinosa; Duncan Ogheneocovo Umukoro; Dafe Palmer Aitaikuru

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigated the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) , a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiens in an endemic focus of Nigeria, as it relates to age, sex and occupational differences. Methods:A total of 474 human subjects were screened using card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis kit. Positive samples were further investigated for parasite positivity in blood/serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results:Of the 474 screened, 44(9.3%) were seropositive with seroprevalence of 22(9.6%) in Urhouka, 14(9.5%) in Umeghe and 8(7.9%) for Ugonu. The number of seropositives, observed for weakly, moderately and strongly positives for the three communities were 4, 7 and 11 in Urhouka, 4, 5 and 5 in Umeghe and 3, 2 and 3 in Ugonu respectively. Among the 16 volunteers with detected parasite in their blood , 4 of them were weakly positive, 5 of them were moderately positive and 7 of them strongly positive. 4 volunteers from Urhouka community were found parasites in their CSF and they were all strongly positive. The difference between the seroprevalence of males and females was not statistically significant (OR=1.14, 95%CI=0.37-3.4, P>0.05). The prevalence difference between age group 21-30 years old and the youngest and oldest age groups was statistically significant (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.08-12.57, P0.05). It was observed that farmers had significantly higher prevalence of HAT infection as well as greater risk of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection than inhabitants with other occupations (OR=3.25, 95%CI=0.99-11.79, P<0.05). Conclusions:Human activities such as farming and visits to the river have been identified as major risk factors to HAT. Also the breakdown of HAT control program has been advanced for the rise in HAT in Abraka, an endemic focus in Nigeria.

  8. PENENTUAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI FLORES

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    Harijani A. Marwoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study on entomology has been conducted in 6 villages which were located in coastal and in-land areas of Sikka Regency of Central Flores since April 1990 - October 1991. The results of this study showed that the suspected malaria vectors in those areas were An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. aconitus and An. maculatus. Only 3 species were confirmed as vector using ELISA test, i.e. An. sundaicus, An. barbirostris and An. subpictus with sporosoite rates of 4.2%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. An. aconitus, a potential malaria vector in Java and in some onther places was not confirmed as vector in Flores yet. The 3 confirmed vectors were also found positive with sporozoites in West Flores and also found predominant in East Flores.

  9. Mapping internal connectivity through human migration in malaria endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Bird, Tom J; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Pezzulo, Carla; Tejedor, Natalia; Waldock, Ian C; Sadler, Jason D; Garcia, Andres J; Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-08-16

    Human mobility continues to increase in terms of volumes and reach, producing growing global connectivity. This connectivity hampers efforts to eliminate infectious diseases such as malaria through reintroductions of pathogens, and thus accounting for it becomes important in designing global, continental, regional, and national strategies. Recent works have shown that census-derived migration data provides a good proxy for internal connectivity, in terms of relative strengths of movement between administrative units, across temporal scales. To support global malaria eradication strategy efforts, here we describe the construction of an open access archive of estimated internal migration flows in endemic countries built through pooling of census microdata. These connectivity datasets, described here along with the approaches and methods used to create and validate them, are available both through the WorldPop website and the WorldPop Dataverse Repository.

  10. The 1992 Flores Earthquake and the Flores Backthrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Koulali, A.; Hossen, J.; Latief, H.

    2014-12-01

    The 1992 Flores earthquake (Mw=7.8) occurred on a back arc thrust near the island of Flores, Indonesia, causing widespread coastal uplift and subsidence, and generating a local tsunami with maximum runup height of over 25 meters that killed over 2,000 people. The event has been the subject of numerous publications on its various aspects, including the earthquake source mechanism determined from seismic data, and modelling of inundation and tide gauge study data to study generation of the tsunami. To date, however, no studies have quantitatively assessed the constraints placed on the source mechanism by all the different types of data - seismic, geodetic and tsunami tide gauge waveforms and inundation. The seismic and coastal uplift data provide strong constraints on the location and orientation of the earthquake fault that are inconsistent with most published information on the "Flores Thrust". In this talk we re-examine the constraints on the earthquake fault, and consider these in light of recent GPS and seismicity data, to suggest the existence of an active fault at depth beneath Flores Island itself.

  11. THE REPRESENTATION OF THE DIVINE AND HUMAN BEING IMAGERY IN THE ENTITY OF RITUS SA’O NGAZA IN GURU SINA, NGADA, FLORES

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    Watu Yohanes Vianey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the representation of the Divine and human being imagery in theentity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza in the village of Guru Sina in Ngada Regency, Flores. The empiricproblems of this dissertasion are connected with the marginalized phenomenon of the local religionthat submerged in the entity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza and its ritual practices. This probelm is relevant tobe investigated from the perspectives cultural studies.The problems raised in this study are : 1 the representation of the Divine and human beingimagery in the entity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza, 2 the representation of the relationhip between the Divineand human being in ritual practices of Sa’o Ngaza, and 3 the meaning of the representation of theDivine and human being imagery in the entity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza. This study applies the qualitativemethod and the data collection was done using techniques of intensive interview, participationobservation,and documentation. The data were analyzed using the theory of ritus, the theory ofprocess,the theory of semiotics, and the theory of deconstruction.The findings of the study can be explained as follows. Firstly, the representation of theDivine imagery is dyadic and triadic. In the dyadic imagery representation, The Divine is depicted as’The Giver of an Unlimited Love and at the same time as ’The Unpredictable Taker of Love’. In thetriadic representation, The Divine is depicted as The Sacred, in the attributive as ‘The Beginning’,‘The End’, and ‘The Present Throughout’. In the dyadic imagery, the human being consists of theelements of the body and the soul, and in the triadic imagery, the human being consists of theelements of the body, the psyche, and the spirit.Secondly, the relation between the Divine and human being is representatively revealed inthe ritual practices of legitimating Sa’o Ngaza. This relation centers in the methapor of relationshipbetween the simbolic body dan the religious body, and

  12. Human African trypanosomiasis: a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migchelsen, S.J.; Büscher, P.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Adams, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to travele

  13. Human African trypanosomiasis : a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migchelsen, Stephanie J.; Buescher, Philippe; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Adams, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to travele

  14. Human African trypanosomiasis: a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migchelsen, S.J.; Büscher, P.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Adams, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to travele

  15. Human African trypanosomiasis : a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migchelsen, Stephanie J.; Buescher, Philippe; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Adams, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to travele

  16. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the

  17. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

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    Tenzin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  18. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation.

  19. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A disc

  20. Human African trypanosomiasis: a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migchelsen, Stephanie J; Büscher, Philippe; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Schallig, Henk D F H; Adams, Emily R

    2011-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to travelers, ex-patriots or military personnel returning from abroad or due to immigrants from endemic areas. In this paper, non-endemic cases reported over the past 20 years are reviewed; a total of 68 cases are reported, 19 cases of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT and 49 cases of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense HAT. Patients ranged in age from 19 months to 72 years and all but two patients survived. Physicians in non-endemic areas should be aware of the signs and symptoms of this disease, as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment, especially as travel to HAT endemic areas increases. We recommend extension of the current surveillance systems such as TropNetEurop and maintaining and promotion of existing reference centers of diagnostics and expertise. Important contact information is also included, should physicians require assistance in diagnosing or treating HAT.

  1. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano: a region highly endemic for human fascioliasis.

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    Mas-Coma, S; Anglés, R; Esteban, J G; Bargues, M D; Buchon, P; Franken, M; Strauss, W

    1999-06-01

    The worldwide importance of human infection by Fasciola hepatica has been recognized in recent years. The endemic region between Lake Titicaca and the valley of La Paz, Bolivia, at 3800-4100 m altitude, presents the highest prevalences and intensities recorded. Large geographical studies involving Lymnaea truncatula snails (malacological, physico-chemical, and botanic studies of 59, 28 and 30 water bodies, respectively, inhabited by lymnaeids; environmental mean temperature studies covering a 40-year period), livestock (5491 cattle) and human coprological surveys (2723 subjects, 2521 of whom were school children) were conducted during 1991-97 to establish the boundaries and distributional characteristics of this endemic Northern Altiplano region. The endemic area covers part of the Los Andes, Ingavi, Omasuyos and Murillo provinces of the La Paz Department. The human endemic zone is stable, isolated and apparently fixed in its present outline, the boundaries being marked by geographical, climatic and soil-water chemical characteristics. The parasite distribution is irregular in the endemic area, the transmission foci being patchily distributed and linked to the presence of appropriate water bodies. Prevalences in school children are related to snail population distribution and extent. Altiplanic lymnaeids mainly inhabit permanent water bodies, which enables parasite transmission during the whole year. A confluence of several factors mitigates the negative effects of the high altitude.

  2. Human and animal fasciolasis in Peru: impact in the economy of endemic zones

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, José R.; Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Terashima, Angélica; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Tropicales y Dermatológicas, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Médica Parasitóloga.; Herrera-Velit, Patricia; Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Marcos, Luis A.; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Infectious Diseases Division, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA. Médico Infectólogo.

    2010-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in Peru; the disease is an important public health problem by the high prevalence of the human infection affecting mainly children and a major veterinary problem by the high rates of infected livestock. The human disease is endemic in the Sierra and the Coast but sporadic in the Amazonia, and reported in 18 Departments, while the animal infection in 21 of 24 Departments of Peru. Transmission occurs in Andean rural populations engaged...

  3. 1992 Flores Region, Maumere, Indonesia Images

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On December 12, 1992, a magnitude 7.5 Ms (USGS) earthquake at 05:29 UT occurred in the Flores, Indonesia, region producing a tsunami that reached shore in five...

  4. en flores de ginger (Alpinia purpurata

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    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de 3 condiciones de luz (completa-548,63 W m-2, media luz-280,02 W m-2, sombra-76,38 W m-2, el uso de repelentes (ajo más chile, neem y pichichío y el uso de bolsas de exclusión, en el daño de Cholus pilicauda a las flores de ginger rosado (Alpinia purpurata en una plantación asociada con poró (Erythrina poeppigiana. El embolse de las flores redujo significativamente el número de flores dañadas, independientemente de la intensidad lumínica. No se encontró diferencias entre el número de flores dañadas con el uso de Azatina®flores dañadas. La sombra densa resultó en un mayor número de flores dañadas, seguida por luz completa y la media.

  5. Costs of Rabies Control: An Economic Calculation Method Applied to Flores Island

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    Wera, E.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Geong, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that, in most human cases, is fatal once clinical signs appear. The disease transmits to humans through an animal bite. Dogs are the main vector of rabies in humans on Flores Island, Indonesia, resulting in about 19 human deaths each year. Currently, rabies

  6. A small skull from Flores dated to the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Persson, Liselott; Alexandersen, Verner

    2012-01-01

    A human skull with mandible from the Ngada District on the island of Flores, Indonesia, is described in order to contribute to the knowledge of variation in cranial architecture, which is important in interpretations of evolutionary cerebralisation. The skull was excavated in 1924 and sent...... to the National Museum in Copenhagen. The "Copenhagen Flores" (CF) male skull is radiocarbon-dated and of modern age. The cranium is small, but larger than e.g. Liang Bua skull (LB1) in every measurement. The (CT-scan based) cranial capacity of 1258 ml is normal for modern humans, but somewhat lower than values...

  7. Flores hominid: new species or microcephalic dwarf?

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    Martin, Robert D; Maclarnon, Ann M; Phillips, James L; Dobyns, William B

    2006-11-01

    The proposed new hominid "Homo floresiensis" is based on specimens from cave deposits on the Indonesian island Flores. The primary evidence, dated at approximately 18,000 y, is a skull and partial skeleton of a very small but dentally adult individual (LB1). Incomplete specimens are attributed to eight additional individuals. Stone tools at the site are also attributed to H. floresiensis. The discoverers interpreted H. floresiensis as an insular dwarf derived from Homo erectus, but others see LB1 as a small-bodied microcephalic Homo sapiens. Study of virtual endocasts, including LB1 and a European microcephalic, purportedly excluded microcephaly, but reconsideration reveals several problems. The cranial capacity of LB1 ( approximately 400 cc) is smaller than in any other known hominid < 3.5 Ma and is far too small to derive from Homo erectus by normal dwarfing. By contrast, some associated tools were generated with a prepared-core technique previously unknown for H. erectus, including bladelets otherwise associated exclusively with H. sapiens. The single European microcephalic skull used in comparing virtual endocasts was particularly unsuitable. The specimen was a cast, not the original skull (traced to Stuttgart), from a 10-year-old child with massive pathology. Moreover, the calotte does not fit well with the rest of the cast, probably being a later addition of unknown history. Consideration of various forms of human microcephaly and of two adult specimens indicates that LB1 could well be a microcephalic Homo sapiens. This is the most likely explanation for the incongruous association of a small-brained recent hominid with advanced stone tools.

  8. Canine Filarial Infections in a Human Brugia malayi Endemic Area of India

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    Reghu Ravindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in Cherthala (of Alappuzha district of Kerala state, a known human Brugia malayi endemic area of south India. The species of canine microfilariae were identified as Dirofilaria repens, Brugia malayi, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum. D. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by B. pahangi. D. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. Based on molecular techniques, microfilariae with histochemical staining pattern of “local staining at anal pore and diffuse staining at central body” was identified as D. repens in addition to those showing acid phosphatase activity only at the anal pore. Even though B. malayi like acid phosphatase activity was observed in few dogs examined, they were identified as genetically closer to B. pahangi. Hence, the possibility of dogs acting as reservoirs of human B. malayi in this area was ruled out.

  9. Socio-economic modelling of rabies control in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that can cause encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Since its introduction in Flores Island, Indonesia in 1997, it has been a serious public health threat with significant economic consequences. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have

  10. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

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    Okello A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”, Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm” or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”. Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. Keywords: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, cysticercosis, zoonotic disease, neglected tropical diseases

  11. Fitopatología en flores

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    Zapata Ángela Cristina

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    La generación de nuevos empleos y mayores divisas para el país, han sido los objetivos principales de las empresas dedicadas a la exportación de flores, actividad que ha pasado a ocupar un lugar importante en la economía colombiana; por tal razón, se hace necesario el estudio a fondo de la biología y el control de los patógenos que más afectan este sector de la agricultura ya que uno de los factores limitantes en la producción de flores de corte son las enfermedades causadas por hongos, bacterias, nernatodos y virus.

  12. Molecular characterization of human Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from endemic areas in Panama

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    Octavio E Sousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides information on Trypanosoma cruzi genotype circulating in endemic areas of Chagas disease in Panama. A total of 26 crude stocks of T. cruzi, isolated from the blood of persons with different clinical profiles of Chagas disease were collected and crio-conserved until used. Most of the stocks had been characterized by means of isoenzyme electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes. The clinical profiles of infected persons included 9 (34.6% asymptomatic and 17 acute (65.4% including 5 (19.2% fatal cases, 2 under 5 years old and 3 adults. A multiplex-PCR assay based on the amplification of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene was performed. All stocks of T. cruzi included in the study were found to correspond to Tc I group. This result supports the predominance of T. cruzi-I in the transmission cycles affecting the human population in the Republic of Panama.

  13. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

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    Hikmatullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  14. Human and mosquito infections by dengue viruses during and after epidemics in a dengue-endemic region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Fabián; Barreto, Mauricio; Arias, Juan F; Rengifo, Graciela; Muñoz, Jaime; Burbano, María E; Parra, Beatriz

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a study in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia to evaluate the dynamics of transmission of dengue viruses during and after epidemics. Information was simultaneously gathered about occurrence of infection in humans and mosquitoes every three months in four cities with endemic transmission. Viral isolation was confirmed in 6.7% of the persons and most were asymptomatic. Adult mosquito and larvae house indexes were not found associated with increased burden of disease. The only entomologic indicator related to dengue infection in humans was the pooled infection rate of mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti infection rates showed significant differences between the epidemic (10.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.04-15.62) and after epidemic periods of the study (6.15, 95% CI = 3.46-10.19). In addition, Ae. albopictus were also infected with dengue viruses. Increases in mosquito infection rates were associated with increases in human infection rates in the following trimester.

  15. ANALISIS PERIKANAN HUHATE DI PERAIRAN LARANTUKA, FLORES

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    Mohamad Adha Akbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Informasi mengenai beberapa aspek perikanan huhate sangat diperlukan sebagai bahan untuk perencanaan pengelolaan perikanan yang berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Larantuka, Flores Timur pada tahun 2014 dengan tujuan untuk menganalisis perikanan huhate sebagai salah satu tulang punggung perikanan TCT. Kegiatan penelitian diprioritaskan pada analisis unit alat tangkap, daerah penangkapan, komposisi hasil tangkapan dan estimasi Total Faktor Produktivitas (TFP perikanan huhate. Basis data pengukuran adalah himpunan  data pendaratan dan observasi lapang. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa karakteristik armada terdiri dari kapal yang terbuat dari fibreglass dengan kisaran bobot kapal 6 - 30 GT. Daerah penangkapan di sekitar perairan Laut Sawu dan Laut Flores. Hasil tangkapan utama didominansi oleh cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis sebanyak 82%, juwana tuna (Thunnus spp. 17% dan tongkol (Auxis spp. 1% serta hasil tangkapan ikutan lemadang (Coryphaena hippurus dan marlin (Makaira spp. < 1%. Hasil analisis tangkapan per unit upaya (CPUE memberikan nilai rata-rata sebesar 1,1 ton/trip (0,4-1,7 ton/trip dengan nilai tertinggi terjadi pada Februari, sedangkan terendah terjadi pada Januari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara tren bulanan CPUE dan nilai TFP.

  16. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity

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    Kabaria Caroline W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed

  17. Molecular characterization of Leishmania infantum in domestic cats in a region of Brazil endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzdorf, Isabel Parizotto; da Costa Lima, Manoel Sebastião; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; de Souza Filho, Antonio Francisco; de Souza Tsujisaki, Rosianne A; Franco, Karina Garcia; Shapiro, Julie Teresa; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a "neglected tropical disease" and serious public health issue in Brazil. While dogs are recognized as particularly important reservoirs, recent reports of domestic cats infected with Leishmania sp. in urban areas suggest their participation in the epidemiological chain of the parasite in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to screen domestic cats for Leishmania sp. infection in an area where human and canine visceral leishmaniasis are endemic, followed by the identification of the species circulating in cats. We collected peripheral blood, lymph-node aspirates and bone marrow from 100 adult animals, both male and female, and analyzed the samples using cytological and molecular (PCR) detection techniques. We detected Leishmania in 6% of animals, which were then analyzed by RFLP-PCR to identify the species. Leishmania infantum (synonym: L. chagasi), a species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in humans and other animals, was identified from all six samples. Amastigotes were observed in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph-node aspirates in 4 of the 6 PCR-positive animals. The presence of infected cats in endemic areas should not be neglected, because it demonstrates the potential role of these animals in the biological cycle of the pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil

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    Ilana Mirian Almeida Felipe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8% out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881, only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.

  19. Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilariasis is endemic. The nematode was morphologically and molecularly identified and surgical removal of the parasite was documented. The relationship between the prevalence of D. repens in dogs and the occurrence of human cases of ocular dirofilariasis is discussed on the basis of a review of the historical literature. PMID:21633041

  20. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

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    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  1. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

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    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  2. Comment on "Forecasting dengue vaccine demand in disease endemic and non-endemic countries" Amarasinghe et al; Human Vaccines 2010; 6:9, 745-753.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Recent forecasts of dengue travel vaccine demand, while worthy, might be improved by modelling future travel flows, and by accounting for incremental reductions in demand at the different points in the sequence of events leading to travel vaccine purchase. In particular, we suggest that an alternative method of projecting dengue travel vaccine uptake would account for (1) future flows of travellers from all non-endemic source to all endemic destination countries, based on data that are comparable between countries, and corrected for double-counting and other sources of error; (2) the proportion of such travellers that seek premedical travel advice within a timescale compatible with the probable dengue vaccine schedule; (3) the proportion of these travellers that will present with a combination of risk factors (above and beyond destination country) sufficient to prompt a physician to prescribe a dengue vaccine; and (4) the proportion of these travellers that actually purchase a vaccine when advised to do so.

  3. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  4. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for human Brucellosis in an endemic area

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    Filiz Arabacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical utility of complementary tests for brucellosis are not clear in many situation. This study aimed toevaluate value of these tests for brucellosis in an endemic area in Turkey.Materials and methods: This study was performed at Çanakkale General Hospital in 2009. In a retrospective approach, recordsof the patients who evaluated for brucellosis were collected. During the study period, 236 people (131 symptomaticand 105 non-symptomatic were evaluated for diagnosis of brucellosis. All of the samples from these patients were testedfor Brucella antibody seropositivity by RB slide agglutination, standard serum agglutination, Brucella Coombs, BrucellaCapt,and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. Results: In total, 49 symptomatic patients were hospitalized and blood cultures wereobtained. Brucella spp. were isolated from nine of them (18.4%.The BrucellaCapt test was found to be the most sensitivefor Brucella (74.0% and close behind it was the Coombs test (72.5%. The sensitivity for the RB test was 48.1%. The ELISAIgG test was found more sensitive for brucellosis than the ELISA IgM test was (65.6% and 49.6%, respectively. All examinedtests were found about 100% specific for brucellosis but the RB test was found less specific than the others were (96.1%Positive predictive value for all tests was about 1 but negative predictive values were only valuable for the Coombs andBrucella Capt test (0.744 and 0.755, respectively. The other serological tests were around and below 0.50, which was weakfor negative results.Conclusions: The ELISA IgG and IgM tests were no superior to the other tests. By assessment of receiver operating characteristics(ROC analysis, the Brucella Coombs and BrucellaCapt tests were found to be the most valuable tests for serologicaldiagnosis of brucellosis in endemic areas. The seronegative tests in the symptomatic patients should be evaluated andrepeated in short time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(2: 50-56Key words: Brucella

  5. The Endemicity of Human Fascioliasis in Guilan Province, Northern Iran: the Baseline for Implementation of Control Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhan Ashrafi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest global outbreaks of liver fluke disease (Fascioliasis in humans, caused by species of the genus Fasciola, have occurred in Guilan Province of Iran, affecting more than 15000 people. Although, different aspects of fascioliasis have been the subject of various researches during last two decades, nevertheless no community-based study has been performed in endemic regions of Guilan. The aim of present study was to obtain the basic information needed to develop future control strategies.Fecal and blood samples were collected from 1,984 volunteers in the Bandar-Anzali district, the region where previous epidemics occurred. Fecal samples were examined by Kato-Katz and formalin-ether methods for the presence of Fasciola eggs. Sera samples were analyzed by ELISA to detect anti-cathepsin L antibodies.Twenty-seven (1.36% individuals were seropositive, 9 (0.45% individuals were egg positive (mean egg count 50.7 (±30.36 eggs per gram of faeces and 30 individuals (1.51% were positive using both methods. No statistical association was observed between infection and age, gender, location, occupation, educational status and dietary habits. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is also included.Human fascioliasis is hypoendemic in this region and recommends a passive case-finding approach, effective primary prevention measures, health education through mass media and effective veterinary public health measures for control of human disease.

  6. The Endemicity of Human Fascioliasis in Guilan Province, Northern Iran: the Baseline for Implementation of Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Saadat, Farshid; O'Neill, Sandra; Rahmati, Behnaz; Amin Tahmasbi, Hadid; Pius Dalton, John; Nadim, Abolhassan; Asadinezhad, Mohsen; Rezvani, Sayed Mahmood

    2015-04-01

    The largest global outbreaks of liver fluke disease (Fascioliasis) in humans, caused by species of the genus Fasciola, have occurred in Guilan Province of Iran, affecting more than 15000 people. Although, different aspects of fascioliasis have been the subject of various researches during last two decades, nevertheless no community-based study has been performed in endemic regions of Guilan. The aim of present study was to obtain the basic information needed to develop future control strategies. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 1,984 volunteers in the Bandar-Anzali district, the region where previous epidemics occurred. Fecal samples were examined by Kato-Katz and formalin-ether methods for the presence of Fasciola eggs. Sera samples were analyzed by ELISA to detect anti-cathepsin L antibodies. Twenty-seven (1.36%) individuals were seropositive, 9 (0.45%) individuals were egg positive (mean egg count 50.7 (±30.36) eggs per gram of faeces) and 30 individuals (1.51%) were positive using both methods. No statistical association was observed between infection and age, gender, location, occupation, educational status and dietary habits. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is also included. Human fascioliasis is hypoendemic in this region and recommends a passive case-finding approach, effective primary prevention measures, health education through mass media and effective veterinary public health measures for control of human disease.

  7. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  8. Balkan Endemic Nephropathy - Still continuing enigma, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals or humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2017-01-05

    The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. The natural content of the most frequent nephrotoxic mycotoxins in target feedstuffs/foods were investigated, in addition to their significance for development of renal damages in endemic areas. An estimation of the level of exposure of humans to the nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), is made. The possible synergism or additive effects between some target mycotoxins in the development of nephropathy is also covered. The significance of joint mycotoxin interaction and masked mycotoxins, in addition to some newly isolated fungal toxic agents in the complicated etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in Balkan countries is discussed. The importance of some target fungal species which can induce kidney damages was evaluated. The morphological/ultrastructural, functional and toxicological similarities between human and animal nephropathy are studied. The possible hazard of low content of combinations of some target mycotoxins in food or feedstuff ingested by pigs, chickens or humans under natural conditions is evaluated and a risk assessment was made. Some different but more effective manners of prophylaxis and/or prevention against OTA contamination of feedstuffs/foods are suggested. A survey was made in regard to the best possible ways of veterinary hygiene control of OTA-exposed animals at slaughter time for preventing the entrance of OTA in commercial feedstuffs/food channels with a view to reduce the possible health hazard for humans. The economic efficacy and applicability of such preventive measures is additionally discussed and some practical suggestions are made.

  9. Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Hviid, L;

    1996-01-01

    in individuals from malaria-endemic areas of Sudan, Indonesia and The Gambia to study antibody responses to these peptides in donors living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to the peptides increased with malaria endemicity, although there were no differences in reactivities...... to the GLURP peptide between non-exposed donors and donors living in areas of low malaria endemicity. IgG reactivities to the GLURP peptide in Sudanese adults were high one month after treatment in all adults tested, while IgG reactivities to the ABRA peptide were infrequent. IgM responses to the peptides...... in areas of low malaria endemicity....

  10. Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Silva-Antunes, Ilce; Morgado, Adilson de Aguiar; Menz, Ingrid; Palatnik, Marcos; Lavor, Carlile

    2009-06-02

    Leishmune, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune uninfected vaccinees. We also analyzed the possible additive effect of Leishmune vaccination over dog culling, on the decrease of the incidence of CVL and VL in two Brazilian endemic areas, from 2004 to 2006. In Araçatuba, a 25% of decline was seen in CVL with a 61% decline in human cases, indicating the additive effect of Leishmune vaccination of 5.7% of the healthy dogs (1419 dogs), on regular dog culling. In Belo Horizonte (BH), rising curves of canine and human incidence were observed in the districts of Barreiro, Venda Nova and Noroeste, while the canine and human incidence of Centro Sul, Leste, Nordeste, Norte, Pampulha and Oeste, started to decrease or maintained a stabilized plateau after Leishmune vaccination. Among the districts showing a percent decrease of human incidence (-36.5%), Centro Sul and Pampulha showed the highest dog vaccination percents (63.27% and 27.27%, respectively) and the lowest dog incidence (-3.36% and 1.89%, respectively). They were followed by Oeste, that vaccinated 25.30% of the animals and experienced an increase of only 12.86% of dog incidence and by Leste and Nordeste, with lower proportions of vaccinees (11.72% and 10.76%, respectively) and probably because of that, slightly higher canine incidences (42.77% and 35.73%). The only exception was found in Norte district where the reduced human and canine incidence were not correlated to Leishmune vaccination. Much lower proportions of dogs were vaccinated in Venda Nova (4.35%), Noroeste (10.27%) and Barreiro (0.09%) districts, which according to that exhibited very

  11. Magmatic Evolution of the Western Azores Islands (Corvo and Flores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, P.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Widom, E.; Lago, M.; França, Z.; Tierz, P.

    2012-12-01

    Corvo and Flores islands belong to the western group of the Azores archipelago, to the west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Several studies have proposed a common magmatic evolution for both islands. However, most of these studies focus on other Azorean islands. In order to investigate the processes that control the evolution of Corvo and Flores we have studied representative samples of the whole volcanostratigraphical sequence in both islands, including lava flows and dikes. Similarly to other oceanic islands, Corvo and Flores are made up of an alternation of porphyritic rocks and microlitic rocks. The former are picrobasalts and basalts with 5 to 60 volume fraction of large (2-15 mm), primitive antecrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The latter are Mg-poor hawaites to trachytes. The Mg-rich composition of the porphyritic rocks is due to the accumulation of primitive antecrysts within a more evolved groundmass. In contrast, the composition of the microlitic rocks provides information on the differentiation processes that controlled the evolution of both islands. The microlitic rocks present holocrystalline to hypocrystalline textures with a mineral assemblage mainly composed of microcrysts of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene opaque minerals and accessory amphibole and apatite. Their major element whole rock composition can be best modeled by a polybaric fractional crystallization process (MELTS software) starting at 500 MPa with cooling steps of 5 degrees Celsius and a water content of 1 %, starting from the most primitive analyzed microlitic rock (MgO: 9.04%; Cr: 630 ppm; Ni: 200 ppm). Hence, we confirm that both islands derived from a common primary magma. The crystallization of the antecrysts included in the porphyritic rocks was probably related to the initial stages of the differentiation process. On the other hand, the microlitic rocks and the groundmass of the porphyritic rocks are related to the residual melts of the polybaric fractional

  12. Human Genetic Ancestral Composition Correlates with the Origin of Mycobacterium leprae Strains in a Leprosy Endemic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Cortés, Edwin; Beltrán, Camilo; Romero, Marcela; Badel-Mogollón, Jaime E.; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that leprosy originated in Africa, extended to Asia and Europe, and arrived in the Americas during European colonization and the African slave trade. Due to colonization, the contemporary Colombian population is an admixture of Native-American, European and African ancestries. Because microorganisms are known to accompany humans during migrations, patterns of human migration can be traced by examining genomic changes in associated microbes. The current study analyzed 118 leprosy cases and 116 unrelated controls from two Colombian regions endemic for leprosy (Atlantic and Andean) in order to determine possible associations of leprosy with patient ancestral background (determined using 36 ancestry informative markers), Mycobacterium leprae genotype and/or patient geographical origin. We found significant differences between ancestral genetic composition. European components were predominant in Andean populations. In contrast, African components were higher in the Atlantic region. M. leprae genotypes were then analyzed for cluster associations and compared with the ancestral composition of leprosy patients. Two M. leprae principal clusters were found: haplotypes C54 and T45. Haplotype C54 associated with African origin and was more frequent in patients from the Atlantic region with a high African component. In contrast, haplotype T45 associated with European origin and was more frequent in Andean patients with a higher European component. These results suggest that the human and M. leprae genomes have co-existed since the African and European origins of the disease, with leprosy ultimately arriving in Colombia during colonization. Distinct M. leprae strains followed European and African settlement in the country and can be detected in contemporary Colombian populations. PMID:26360617

  13. Human Genetic Ancestral Composition Correlates with the Origin of Mycobacterium leprae Strains in a Leprosy Endemic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Cortés, Edwin; Beltrán, Camilo; Romero, Marcela; Badel-Mogollón, Jaime E; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that leprosy originated in Africa, extended to Asia and Europe, and arrived in the Americas during European colonization and the African slave trade. Due to colonization, the contemporary Colombian population is an admixture of Native-American, European and African ancestries. Because microorganisms are known to accompany humans during migrations, patterns of human migration can be traced by examining genomic changes in associated microbes. The current study analyzed 118 leprosy cases and 116 unrelated controls from two Colombian regions endemic for leprosy (Atlantic and Andean) in order to determine possible associations of leprosy with patient ancestral background (determined using 36 ancestry informative markers), Mycobacterium leprae genotype and/or patient geographical origin. We found significant differences between ancestral genetic composition. European components were predominant in Andean populations. In contrast, African components were higher in the Atlantic region. M. leprae genotypes were then analyzed for cluster associations and compared with the ancestral composition of leprosy patients. Two M. leprae principal clusters were found: haplotypes C54 and T45. Haplotype C54 associated with African origin and was more frequent in patients from the Atlantic region with a high African component. In contrast, haplotype T45 associated with European origin and was more frequent in Andean patients with a higher European component. These results suggest that the human and M. leprae genomes have co-existed since the African and European origins of the disease, with leprosy ultimately arriving in Colombia during colonization. Distinct M. leprae strains followed European and African settlement in the country and can be detected in contemporary Colombian populations.

  14. Signature of a Pre-Human Population Decline in the Critically Endangered Reunion Island Endemic Forest Bird Coracina newtoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Jordi; Salamolard, Marc; Fouillot, Damien; Ghestemme, Thomas; Larose, Jerry; Centon, Jean-François; Sousa, Vitor; Dawson, Deborah A.; Thebaud, Christophe; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-01-01

    The exceptional biodiversity of Reunion Island is threatened by anthropogenic landscape changes that took place during the 350 years of human colonization. During this period the human population size increased dramatically from 250 to 800,000. The arrival of humans together with the development of agriculture, invasive species such as rats and cats, and deforestation has lead to the extinction of more than half of the original vertebrate species of the island. For the remaining species, significant work is being carried out to identify threats and conservation status, but little genetic work has been carried on some of the most endangered species. In the last decade theoretical studies have shown the ability of neutral genetic markers to infer the demographic history of endangered species and identify and date past population size changes (expansions or bottlenecks). In this study we provide the first genetic data on the critically endangered species the Reunion cuckoo-shrike Coracina newtoni. The Reunion cuckoo-shrike is a rare endemic forest bird surviving in a restricted 12-km2 area of forested uplands and mountains. The total known population consists of less than one hundred individuals out of which 45 were genotyped using seventeen polymorphic microsatellite loci. We found a limited level of genetic variability and weak population structure, probably due to the limited geographic distribution. Using Bayesian methods, we identified a strong decline in population size during the Holocene, most likely caused by an ancient climatic or volcanic event around 5000 years ago. This result was surprising as it appeared in apparent contradiction with the accepted theory of recent population collapse due to deforestation and predator introduction. These results suggest that new methods allowing for more complex demographic models are necessary to reconstruct the demographic history of populations. PMID:22916272

  15. UMA “VIAGEM” AO MUNDO DOS ERP INSPIRADA EM WINOGRAD E FLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Ludmer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning systems constitute a phenomenon of relevant dimension in the current business world and have been provoking radical changes in the market and in the administration ofinformation technology. This article analyses problems, limitations and new perspectives of the implementation of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning in the organizations, through a parallel between selected ideas of Winograd and Flores’ classical work Understanding Computers and Cognition: a new foundation for design (1986, and the criticisms recently arisen to the implementation of these technologies. Criticisms and Winograd & Flores ideas are grouped in major themes. Central concerns are: the meaning of knowledge, as associated to ERP; the conditions to changes be made in a compatible way within its context; the problems of integration of ERP to cultural universe, processes and actions of the organizations. These concerns guided largely the choice of Winograd and Flores as reference for this essay. Almost 20 years after its publication, this work stays as influential exemple of how to recognize, in technological subjects, opportunities for the understanding of fundamental human and social processes

  16. Immunological Identification of Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages in Human Infection Along the Endemic Area

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping studies show a polarized geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi lineages in humans. Here, we assessed their distribution along Latin America through an immunological approach we designated Western blot (WB) assay with Trypomastigote small-surface antigen (TSSA) I and TSSA II (TSSA-WB). These antigens are expressed by T. cruzi I (TCI; now TcI) and T. cruzi II (TCII; reclassified as TcII to TcVI) parasites. TSSA-WB showed good concordance with genotyping tests. An unexpected fr...

  17. Humans, dogs and parasitic zoonoses--unravelling the relationships in a remote endemic community in northeast India using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R J; Robertson, I D; Irwin, P; Mencke, N; Monis, P; Thompson, R C A

    2003-07-01

    Canine parasitic zoonoses pose a continuing public health problem, especially in developing countries and communities that are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Our study combined the use of conventional and molecular epidemiological tools to determine the role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites such as hookworms, Giardiaand Ascarisin a parasite endemic tea-growing community in northeast India. A highly sensitive and specific PCR-RFLP was developed to detect and differentiate the zoonotic species of canine hookworm eggs directly from faeces. This allowed epidemiological screening of canine hookworm species in this community to be conducted with ease and accuracy. Seventy two percent of dogs were found to harbour A. caninum, 60% A. braziliense and 37% harboured mixed infections with both hookworms. No A. ceylanicum was detected in the dog population. The zoonotic potential of canine Giardiawas also investigated by characterising Giardia duodenalisrecovered from humans and dogs living in the same locality and households, at three different loci. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis provided compelling evidence to support the zoonotic transmission of canine Giardia. Molecular tools were also used to identify the species of Ascarisegg present in over 30% of dog faecal samples. The results demonstrated the role of dogs as a significant disseminator and environmental contaminator of Ascaris lumbricoidesin communities where promiscuous defecation practices exist. Our study demonstrated the usefulness of combining conventional and molecular parasitological and epidemiological tools to help solve unresolved relationships with regards to parasitic zoonoses.

  18. First step in pre-miRNAs processing by human Dicer Carlos Fabian FLORES-JASSO1,3, Catalina ARENAS-HUERTERO2,4, Jose Luis REYES2, Cecilia CONTRERAS-CUBAS1,3,

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos Fabián FLORES-JASSO; Catalina ARENAS-HUERTERO; Jose Luis REYES; Cecilia CONTRERAS-CUBAS; Alejandra COVARRUBIAS; Luis VACA

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the strand preference of the initial cleavage of human pre-miRNAs by human Dicer in vitro.Methods: We used a series of in vitro transcribed pre-miRNAs that were radioactively labeled at their 5' or 3' ends in cleavage reactions with recombinant human Dicer or HeLa cytoplasmic S100 extracts. Pre-miRNAs samples were purified by denaturing and native PAGE and only the stem-loop structures were used in the experiments. Products of cleavage reactions were resolved by denaturing PAGE,and scanned by phosphor-imaging.Results: Recombinant hDicer performs a biased first-cleavage in the pre-let-7b and hsa-pre-miR-17 3' strand. This result is recapitu-lated in HeLa S100 cytoplasmic extracts. Conclusion: The differential first-nick is observed in cleavage reactions only when stem-loops are substrates for hDicer.

  19. Homo floresiensis contextualized: a geometric morphometric comparative analysis of fossil and pathological human samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Baab

    Full Text Available The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism ("cretinism" and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity. This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1 is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo.

  20. Homo floresiensis contextualized: a geometric morphometric comparative analysis of fossil and pathological human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baab, Karen L; McNulty, Kieran P; Harvati, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus) migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism ("cretinism") and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity). This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1) is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo.

  1. Genetic characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in Mozambique: transcontinental lineages drive the HTLV-1 endemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina P Vicente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. It has been estimated that 10-20 million people are infected worldwide, but no successful treatment is available. Recently, the epidemiology of this virus was addressed in blood donors from Maputo, showing rates from 0.9 to 1.2%. However, the origin and impact of HTLV endemic in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the HTLV-1 molecular epidemiology in Mozambique and to investigate their relationship with HTLV-1 lineages circulating worldwide. METHODS: Blood donors and HIV patients were screened for HTLV antibodies by using enzyme immunoassay, followed by Western Blot. PCR and sequencing of HTLV-1 LTR region were applied and genetic HTLV-1 subtypes were assigned by the neighbor-joining method. The mean genetic distance of Mozambican HTLV-1 lineages among the genetic clusters were determined. Human mitochondrial (mt DNA analysis was performed and individuals classified in mtDNA haplogroups. RESULTS: LTR HTLV-1 analysis demonstrated that all isolates belong to the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype. Mozambican HTLV-1 sequences had a high inter-strain genetic distance, reflecting in three major clusters. One cluster is associated with the South Africa sequences, one is related with Middle East and India strains and the third is a specific Mozambican cluster. Interestingly, 83.3% of HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection was observed in the Mozambican cluster. The human mtDNA haplotypes revealed that all belong to the African macrohaplogroup L with frequencies representatives of the country. CONCLUSIONS: The Mozambican HTLV-1 genetic diversity detected in this study reveals that although the strains belong to the most prevalent and worldwide distributed Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype, there is a high HTLV diversity that could be

  2. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  3. Human and Epstein-Barr Virus miRNA Profiling as Predictive Biomarkers for Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Cliff I; Movassagh, Mercedeh; Kaymaz, Yasin; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Otieno, Juliana; Ong'echa, John M; Moormann, Ann M; Bailey, Jeffrey A

    2017-01-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell lymphoma and is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria co-infections. Central to BL oncogenesis is the over-expression of the MYC proto-oncogene which is caused by a translocation of an Ig enhancer in approximation to the myc gene. While whole genome/transcriptome sequencing methods have been used to define driver mutations and transcriptional dysregulation, microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation and differential expression has yet to be fully characterized. We hypothesized that both human and EBV miRNAs contribute to eBL clinical presentation, disease progression, and poor outcomes. Using sensitive and precise deep sequencing, we identified miRNAs from 17 Kenyan eBL patient tumor samples and delineated the complement of both host and EBV miRNAs. One human miRNA, hsa-miR-10a-5p was found to be differentially expressed (DE), being down-regulated in jaw tumors relative to abdominal and in non-survivors compared to survivors. We also examined EBV miRNAs, which made up 2.7% of the miRNA composition in the eBL samples. However, we did not find any significant associations regarding initial patient outcome or anatomical presentation. Gene ontology analysis and pathway enrichment of previously validated targets of miR-10a-5p suggest that it can promote tumor cell survival as well as aid in evasion of apoptosis. To examine miR-10a-5p regulatory effect on gene expression in eBL, we performed a pairwise correlation coefficient analysis on the expression levels of all its validated targets. We found a significant enrichment of correlated target genes consistent with miR-10a-5p impacting expression. The functions of genes and their correlation fit with multiple target genes impacting tumor resilience. The observed downregulation of miR-10a and associated genes suggests a role for miRNA in eBL patient outcomes and has potential as a predictive biomarker that warrants further investigation.

  4. Notes et contributions à la flore de Corse, XXII

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, Daniel; Schüssel, André

    2008-01-01

    Les "notes" traitent de 66 taxons intéressants dont 9 néophytes nouveaux pour la flore sauvage de l'île: Aloe arborescens, Armoracia rusticana, Chasmanthe bicolor, C. floribunda, Erigeron annuus, Kalanchoe delagoensis, Ludwigia peploides, Securigera varia et Tillaea alata. De nouvelles stations sont données d'une part pour 23 taxons tenus pour "très rares" (RR) dont 7 (Crataegus laevigata, Fumana laevipes, Iris foetidissima, Lonicera japonica, Medicago arborea, Oxalis articulata et Phyllostac...

  5. Actividad antioxidante de flores de Vochysia discolor Mart

    OpenAIRE

    NAJEH M. KHALIL; Petacci, Fernando; Leite, Rafaela R. S.; Silva, Ediany; Souza, Grínia F. de; Oliveira, Rina E. L. de; Costa, Flaviana; Rocha, Vinicius A.; Mendonça Filho,Carlos V

    2006-01-01

    En este estudio fue evaluada la propiedad antioxidante del extracto alcohólico de flores de Vochysia discolor Mart. (Vochysiaceae) por los ensayos de i) decoloración del radical monocatiónico [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS+) y ii) supresión del ácido hipocloroso por el método del ácido 5-tio-2-nitro-benzóico (TNB). Nuestros resultados muestran, por primera vez, la existencia de propiedades antioxidantes en una especie del género Vochysia, hecho que, debido ...

  6. Projetos de Prefácios de As Flores do Mal, de Charles Baudelaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Baudelaire

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O trabalho consiste na tradução dos quatro projetos de prefácios que Baudelaire escreveu para As Flores do Mal, cujos rascunhos foram publicados apenas postumamente. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Charles Baudelaire, As Flores do Mal, Crítica literária, Poesia, Tradução.

  7. Projetos de Prefácios de As Flores do Mal, de Charles Baudelaire

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Baudelaire; Grace Alves da Paixão

    2009-01-01

    RESUMO: O trabalho consiste na tradução dos quatro projetos de prefácios que Baudelaire escreveu para As Flores do Mal, cujos rascunhos foram publicados apenas postumamente. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Charles Baudelaire, As Flores do Mal, Crítica literária, Poesia, Tradução.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  9. La pintura de flores de Miguel Parra (1780-1846

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Terrada, María José

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Miguel Parra Abril (Valencia, 1780-Madrid, 1846 is one of the most important Valencian School painters of floral still lifes, this aspect of his work remains little known. The present article addresses this oversight in two ways. First, by offering an overview of his oeuvre as a painter of floral subjects from his student days at the Fine Arts Academy of Valencia through his mature works. Second, by analyzing two heretofore-unpublished floral compositions in relation to his more familiar works, particularly those located in private collections until recent years.Aunque Miguel Parra Abril (Valencia, 1780-Madrid, 1846 es uno de los pintores de flores más importantes de la Escuela valenciana, esta faceta pictórica de su producción es todavía poco conocida. El presente artículo trata de paliar esta situación ofreciendo, en primer lugar, una visión general de su obra como pintor de flores desde su proceso de aprendizaje en la Academia de Bellas Artes valenciana hasta sus composiciones de madurez. En segundo lugar, se presenta el análisis de dos composiciones florales inéditas y su relación con las obras conocidas hasta el momento, especialmente con aquellas que hasta hace pocos años se encontraban en colecciones particulares.

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors of human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence in a highly endemic area of epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Dschanou, Armel Romeo; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the larvae of Taenia solium is a serious and emerging threat to public health in the endemic areas as well as in the non-endemic areas. Neurocysticercosis, an affection of the central nervous system is a leading cause of epilepsy in endemic areas. This study was carried out to investigate human cysticercosis, taeniasis and risk factors, and also their association with epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon where epilepsy is highly prevalent. Out of 384 people investigated, 12 (3.1%) exhibited antibody response against low molecular weight antigens of T. solium by ELISA. Immunoblot revealed that six persons (1.6%) were seropositive with the same antigens. Among 61 epileptic patients, only one was seropositive by immunoblot and the study did not find any statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in seropositivity to T. solium between epileptic persons (1/61, 1.6%) and non-epileptic group (5/323, 1.5%). In addition, cysticercosis was associated with households eating pork meat from pigs slaughtered at home, but not with other factors. The risk factors including pig farming, the consumption of pork meat, vegetables, and non-drinkable water were attenuated by the relatively good hygiene and pig husbandry practices of the population. No egg of Taenia was found in stool by microscopic examination. All data obtained in this study suggested that cysticercosis might not be the principal causative agent of epilepsy in this area.

  11. Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubinstein

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores. In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8% and cryptococcin (31.9% in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.

  12. Little Lady of Flores Forces Rethink of Human Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rex; Dalton; 钟云鹏

    2005-01-01

    人类进化历史研究中的一次极重要的发现!一支印度尼西亚和澳大利亚联合考古队最近在印尼境内发现了一个全新的人种--"弗洛里斯人"。这种人身高只有1米左右,外形酷似《指环王》三步曲中的"霍比特矮人"。

  13. Cadeia de flores e plantas ornamentais de jardim em Pareci Novo - Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    O Rio Grande do Sul, além de ser o Estado que mais consome flores e plantas ornamentais no país, é um dos maiores produtores do Brasil. Essa produção tem aumentado visivelmente nos últimos cinco anos. Recentemente, houve um acréscimo considerável de consumo de flores e plantas ornamentais de jardim. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a produção e a comercialização de uma cadeia de flores e plantas ornamentais de jardim para a região de Pareci Novo, a qual foi escolhida por ser uma das ...

  14. Comparative infectivity of Fasciola hepatica metacercariae from isolates of the main and secondary reservoir animal host species in the Bolivian Altiplano high human endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M A; Mas-Coma, S

    2000-01-01

    Fascioliasis due to Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) is an endemic disease on the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, where human prevalences and intensities are the highest known, sheep and cattle are the main reservoir hosts, and pigs and donkeys the secondary ones. Investigations were carried out to study the viability of metacercariae experimentally obtained from eggs shed by naturally infected Altiplanic sheep, cattle, pigs and donkeys. A total of 157 Wistar rats were infected with doses of 5, 10, 20 and 150 metacercariae. Metacercariae aged for different number of weeks were used to analyse the influence of age on their viability. The number of worms successfully developed in each rat was established by dissection. Results obtained show that metacercarial infectivity is dependent upon storage time, being lower when metacercariae are older. The maximum longevity is 31 weeks using doses of 20 metacercariae per rat and 48 weeks with 150 metacercariae per rat, although in the latter case only a very low percentage of worms is recovered. Age-related infectivity of metacercariae from Altiplanic F. hepatica does not significantly differ from that of the liver fluke in lowlands of other countries. Concerning the influence of the isolate according to host species, results indicate that metacercarial viabilities of pig and donkey isolates are similar to the viabilities of metacercariae of sheep and cattle isolates. Thus, pig and donkey have a high transmission potential capacity concerning this aspect. This fact is of great importance for the control of human and animal fascioliasis in this highly endemic zone.

  15. Antigens and antibodies in sera from human cases of epilepsy or taeniasis from an area of Mexico where Taenia solium cysticercosis is endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, D; Sarti, E; Tapia-Romero, R; Rico, R; Alcántara-Anguiano, I; Salgado, A; Valdez, L; Flisser, A

    1999-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis is an important parasitic disease in developing countries. Most epidemiological studies on the disease have used antibody-based assays that allow the detection of transmission 'hot spots' and the identification of the main risk factors for transmission. However, such assays have low predictive value in the detection of active cases of neurocysticercosis. The screening potential of the most commonly used antibody-detection technique, the electroimmunotransfer blot assay (EITB), has now been compared with an antigen-capture assay, in an endemic region of Mexico. The subjects were 68 patients with late-onset epilepsy, 35 cases of taeniasis and a randomly selected, control group of 133 individuals from the same region. Parasite-specific antibodies and antigens were more common among the epileptics and taeniasis cases than among the controls. The antigens appeared to be associated with late-onset epilepsy and the antibodies with the presence of subcutaneous nodules. The sensitivities of both tests, to detect epilepsy or taeniasis, were low, but the specificity and the positive predictive value of the antigen-capture assay was high when used with the epileptics. As late-onset epilepsy and neurocysticercosis seem to be associated in endemic regions, antigen-capture assays are probably the most reliable method of detecting active cases of neurocysticercosis in epidemiological studies.

  16. Andromonoecy and buzz pollination in Solanum species (Solanaceae endemic to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the pollination and reproductive biology of two Canary Island endemics, Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae. We measured male function (pollen development, female function (fruit initiation and spatial arrangement of reproductive parts within flowers and inflorescences. Furthermore, we observed flower visitors and monitored visitation rates. Both species of Solanum display andromonoecy: Longstyled flowers are functionally hermaphrodite and borne proximally on the inflorescences, while short-styled flowers are functionally male and borne distally on inflorescences. Large bees capable of buzzing were the main flower visitors. In particular, the endemic Canarian bumblebee, Bombus terrestris canariensis, was a frequent visitor and pollen vector of S. vespertilio.Se estudiaron la polinización y biología reproductiva de dos especies endémicas de las Islas Canarias: Solanum vespertilio y S. lidii (Solanaceae. Se midieron la función masculina (desarrollo polínico, la función femenina (iniciación de fruto y la disposición espacial de los órganos reproductivos, tanto en las flores como en las inflorescencias. Se registraron además los visitantes de las flores y su frecuencia. Ambos Solanum son andromonoicos: las flores con estilo largo son funcionalmente hermafroditas y proximales en las inflorescencias, mientras que las flores con estilo corto son funcionalmente masculinas y distales en la inflorescencia. Los visitantes más asiduos fueron grandes abejas y abejorros zumbadores. El abejorro endémico Bombus terrestris canariensis, en particular, fue un visitante frecuente y un vector de polen para S. vespertilio.

  17. Eddies spatial variability at Makassar Strait – Flores Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzula, F.; Syamsudin, M. L.; Yuliadi, L. P. S.; Purba, N. P.; Martono

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to get the distribution of eddies spatially and temporally from Makassar Waters (MW) to Flores Sea (FS), as well as its relations with the upwelling, the downwelling, and chlorophyll-a concentration. The study area extends from 115º–125º E to 2.5º–8º S. The datasets were consisted of monthly geostrophic currents, sea surface heights, sea surface temperatures, and chlorophyll-a from 2008 – 2012. The results showed that eddies which found at Makassar Strait (MS) has the highest diameter and speed of 255.3 km and 21.4 cm/s respectively, while at the southern MW has 266.4 km and 15.6 cm/s, and at FS has 182.04 km and 11.4 cm/s. From a total of 51 eddies found, the majority of eddies type was anticyclonic. At MS and FS, eddies formed along the year, whereas at southern MW were found missing in West Season. Moreover, the chlorophyll-a concentration was consistently higher at the eddies area. Even though, the correlation among eddies and the upwelling downwelling phenomena was not significantly as shown by sea surface temperatures value.

  18. Brugia timori INFECTION IN LEKEBAI, FLORES: clinical aspects

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    Arbain Joesoef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan filariasis pada penduduk Nualolo-Lekebai, Pulau Flores telah dilakukan pada bulan Februari 1975. Kampung Nualolo-Lekebai berpenduduk 680 jiwa, pekerjaan bertani dan menganut agama Nasrani. Kebiasaan hidup di antara penduduk di daerah ini adalah menyerahkan pelaksanaan pekerjaan berat pada kaum wanita, baik di rumah ataupun di kebun. Dalam perjalanan jauh baik ke kebun atau ke pasar, kaum wanitanya selalu berjalan kaki sedangkan kaum prianya menunggang kuda. Sejumlah 80% dari penduduk kampung ini telah diperiksa terhadap infeksi parasit filaria dan terhadap gejala filariasis. Dari hasil yang ditemukan ternyata penduduk kampung ini menderita infeksi Brugia timori dengan angka derajat infeksi sebesar 7.0% dan angka derajat elephantiasis sebesar 10.3%. Hal yang menarik yang ditemukan dalam pengamatan ini adalah tingginya angka derajat elephantiasis pada kaum wanita dibandingkan dengan pada kaum pria. Fenomena ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kebiasaan hidup kaum wanita di daerah ini sehari-hari yang bekerja lebih berat dan berjalan kaki lebih sering dan lebih jauh dibandingkan kaum prianya.

  19. SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Mariane Angélica Finger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02 and flooding (p = 0.03. Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study.

  20. First phenotypic description of Fasciola hepatica/Fasciola gigantica intermediate forms from the human endemic area of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M V; Valero, M A; El Sayed, M; Ashrafi, K; El Wakeel, A; Mohamed, M Y; Desquesnes, M; Curtale, F; Mas-Coma, S

    2008-01-01

    Fasciola gigantica is the main fasciolid species in Africa; however, F. hepatica and F. gigantica overlap in some countries. Egypt deserves mentioning because of the emerging situation of human fascioliasis in the Nile Delta area. The morphometric characteristics of fasciolid adults infecting the main livestock species present in the Nile Delta human endemic area are analyzed through a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements known to be useful for the differentiation of both fasciolid species. This is the first time that such a study is performed in an African country and, therefore, the results are compared to (i) F. hepatica (European Mediterranean area) and F. gigantica (Burkina Faso) standard populations, i.e. geographical areas where both species do not co-exist, and (ii) F. hepatica and F. gigantica populations from geographical areas where both species do co-exist, including the presence of intermediate forms (Iran). Results indicate the presence of F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate forms (Fasciola sp.) in Egypt for the first time, and demonstrate the usefulness of CIAS for the phenotypic characterization of liver fluke adults from a concrete fascioliasis endemic area. Body roundness, body length over body width, and distance between the ventral sucker and the posterior end of the body provide useful tools for studying inter- and intraspecific morphological diversity in Fasciola adults. The application of these markers to specimens from geographical areas where F. hepatica and F. gigantica co-exist, such as in Egypt and Iran, suggest a strong population-level variation in Fasciola adult morphology.

  1. Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy and applicability of a PCR system for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human urine samples from an endemic area.

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    Martin Johannes Enk

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni, one of the most neglected human parasitoses in Latin America and Africa, is routinely confirmed by microscopic visualization of eggs in stool. The main limitation of this diagnostic approach is its lack of sensitivity in detecting individual low worm burdens and consequently data on infection rates in low transmission settings are little reliable. According to the scientific literature, PCR assays are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity in detecting parasite DNA in biological samples. A simple and cost effective extraction method for DNA of Schistosoma mansoni from urine samples in combination with a conventional PCR assay was developed and applied in an endemic area. This urine based PCR system was tested for diagnostic accuracy among a population of a small village in an endemic area, comparing it to a reference test composed of three different parasitological techniques. The diagnostic parameters revealed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 91.20%, positive and negative predictive values of 86.25% and 100%, respectively, and a test accuracy of 94.33%. Further statistical analysis showed a k index of 0.8806, indicating an excellent agreement between the reference test and the PCR system. Data obtained from the mouse model indicate the infection can be detected one week after cercariae penetration, opening a new perspective for early detection and patient management during this stage of the disease. The data indicate that this innovative PCR system provides a simple to handle and robust diagnostic tool for the detection of S. mansoni DNA from urine samples and a promising approach to overcome the diagnostic obstacles in low transmission settings. Furthermore the principals of this molecular technique, based on the examination of human urine samples may be useful for the diagnosis of other neglected tropical diseases that can be detected by trans-renal DNA.

  3. Flora de capões e hymenoptera (abelhas e vespas) visitantes de flores no Pantanal do Miranda-Abobral

    OpenAIRE

    Boff, Samuel Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Foram estudadas ao longo de 12 meses as abelhas e vespas visitantes de flores em vegetação da borda de 10 capões nas sub-regiões de Miranda-Abobral, Pantanal. As abelhas e vespas que coletaram recursos nessas flores foram coletadas e identificadas. Foi estudada também a biologia floral, bem como os visitantes florais (abelhas e vespas) associados às flores de Couepia uiti (Chrysobalanaceae), trazendo notas sobre freqüência de visitas às flores, bem como sobre o comportamento durante as visita...

  4. Commentary on "Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Flores-Crespo has written a timely paper, "Education, employment and human development: illustrations from Mexico". Flores-Crespo uses Amartya Sen's ideas to bring a fresh perspective to bear on the relationship between higher education and human development. Although there is growing interest in applying Sen's ideas in a range of…

  5. Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilaria...

  6. Incidencia de infecciones quiescentes de Botrytis cinerea en flores y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MolinaG. Gilma Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se aisló Botrytis cinerea de flores y frutos asintomáticos de mora de castilla ( Rubus glaucus Benth. en  seis estados fenológicos desde botón cerrado hasta fruto maduro. Estas infecciones quiescentes ocurrieron raramente en botones florales cerrados, pero cuando éstos abren las estructuras florales aparecen colonizadas. La alta frecuencia de infecciones quiescentes en frutos en desarrollo y frutos maduros es atribuible a infecciones tempranas en estructuras florales. Inoculaciones hechas con conidias de B. cinerea marcadas con calcofluor produjeron infecciones en todos los estados fenológicos; la germinación de conidias en los seis estados fenológicos se inició a las 10 horas después de

  7. LA RIQUEZA DE LAS PLANTAS CON FLORES DE COLOMBIA

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    J. ORLANDO RANGEL-CH.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en los inventarios florísticos a nivel regional que se adelantan desde 1991 se documentaron los patrones de riqueza (distribución, concentración a nivel de familia de las plantas con flores en Colombia y en sus regiones naturales extra-andinas. En Colombia están representadas 238 de las 414 familias de plantas con flores reconocidas a nivel global, lo cual significa el 57.7% de esta riqueza. De las regiones naturales incluidas en este estudio, la Amazonia es la más rica en número de especies y la de mayor superficie y en el Caribe se alcanzó el mayor número de familias (201. El índice de riqueza a nivel de familia fue mayor en el Caribe (15.6 x 10-4 y el de especies fue mayor en el Chocó (3.4x10-2 y menor en la Orinoquia (1.7x 10-2.. En la Orinoquia están ausentes 65 familias, en la Amazonia 49, en el Chocó 59 y en el Caribe 35 respectivamente. En cuanto a distintividad taxonómica a nivel de familias, en el Caribe se encuentran 19 familias con distribución restringida, en Amazonia cinco, en el Chocó y en la Orinoquia una en cada caso. No se comprobó una relación directa entre superficie del área de la región natural y las expresiones de la riqueza y de la distintividad taxonómica. Se confirma el patrón alto de riqueza en un número reducido de familias, en las 50 familias más ricas en todas las regiones naturales se concentran los valores de riqueza específica por encima del 82%. Entre las familias con mayor concentración de especies en Colombia, en comparación con la situación a nivel del mundo cabe destacar a Metteniusaceae, grupo que presenta siete de las nueve especies registradas en el mundo e igualmente a Brunelliaceae, Siparunaceae, Cyclanthaceae, Heliconiaceae, Myristicaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Gunneraceae, Humiriaceae, Rapateaceae y Tropaeolaceae. Una comparación de los patrones de riqueza a nivel de familia en los países megadiversos de Suramérica, muestra que en Brasil 41 familias tienen mayor n

  8. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  9. Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: An extreme case to preserve Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleóptera: Tenebrionidae: Un caso extremo a conservar

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    JAIME PIZARRO-ARAYA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Choros Archipelago includes three islands: Choros, Damas and Gaviota and it is part of The Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve. These insular ecosystems are within the Chilean transitional coastal (25°-32° S. Prior researches in the archipelago reported a species of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera endemic to Choros island (29°15' S, 71°32' W described as Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerability of this species in the archipelago through Conservation Priority Index (CPI, Environmental Ministery of Chile (MMA and Red List of IUCN. We concluded that G. granulipennis is Endangered by CPI index, and Vulnerable by MMA of Chile. Additionally, this species can be classiffied with Deficient Data (DD by IUCN because many of data are impossible or difficult to obtain for insects and can overestimate or underestimate the risk of extinction of this species. We consider important to monitoring the continuity of this species and the protection of habitat, for which we propose not allow access the tourists and eradication of European rabbit.El archipiélago de Los Choros, conformado por las islas Choros, Damas y Gaviota forma parte de la Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt y está situado dentro del desierto costero transicional de Chile (25°-32° S. Estudios recientes realizados en el archipiélago dan cuenta de una especie endémica de Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera de la isla Choros (29°15' S, 71°32' O descripta como Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la prioridad de conservación de esta especie en el archipiélago mediante el análisis del Índice de Prioridad de Conservación (CPI, clasificación del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (MMA de Chile y lista roja de la IUCN. Nuestros resultados sostienen que esta especie puede ser catalogada en categoría En peligro por el índice CPI y Vulnerable según el MMA. Según criterios

  10. Raja Servus of Larantuka, Flores, Eastern Indonesia Le raja Servus de Larantuka, à Flores, en Indonésie orientale

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    Robert H. Barnes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch deposed Raja Lorenzo II of Larantuka, Flores, in 1904 and exiled him to Java. After his son Servus reached maturity, they appointed him Raja. By then the office had largely been reduced to a principally administrative function at the bottom of the colonial bureaucracy, although the Dutch called the rajas in the Dutch East Indies “self-governors”.Servus seems to have been demoralized by an attack on his life which he survived only after six hours of swimming in the sea. Eventually both the Dutch officials and the local Catholic missionaries became dissatisfied with him and he was forced to resign. Later the Dutch were forced to leave and the Indonesian state completed the job of bureaucratizing local administration by abolishing the office of raja.Les Hollandais ont déposé le raja Lorenzo II de Larantuka en 1904 et l’ont exilé à Java. Lorsque son fils Servus a atteint sa maturité, ils l’ont nommé raja. Alors, le poste avait été largement réduit à une fonction surtout administrative au bas de la bureaucratie coloniale, même si les Hollandais appelaient les rajas des Indes orientales Hollandaises « gouverneurs autonomes ». Servus semble avoir perdu le moral après une agression à laquelle il ne survécut qu’après une nage de six heures dans la mer. Au final, il déçut à la fois les fonctionnaires hollandais et les missionnaires catholiques locaux qui l’obligèrent à démissionner. Par la suite, les Hollandais furent contraints au départ et l’état indonésien termina le travail de bureaucratisation de l’administration locale en mettant fin à la fonction de raja.

  11. PRODUCCIÓN DE FLORES EN LA AGRICULTURA URBANA DE SAN JOSÉ DE LAS LAJAS, CUBA

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    Ania Yong Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El creciente aumento en el consumo de flores en el municipio San José de las Lajas ha provocado que se incluyan nuevas especies de flores de corte en los sistemas agrícolas, y con ello nuevas tecnologías de manejo. La capacitación in situ de los agricultores, facilitada por investigadores y por productores con mayor experiencia en este renglón productivo, fue llevada a cabo a través de talleres participativos y visitas de intercambio. Se consiguió incrementar la diversidad en tres especies (clavel chino, rosa y nardo y se identificaron seis experimentos diseñados y conducidos por los productores y relacionados con la introducción de especies de flores, asociaciones y rotaciones, arreglos espaciales y conservación de semilla.

  12. The origins and persistence of Homo floresiensis on Flores: biogeographical and ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin W.; Louys, Julien; O'Regan, Hannah J.; Wilkinson, David M.

    2014-07-01

    The finding of archaeological evidence predating 1 Ma and a small hominin species (Homo floresiensis) on Flores, Indonesia, has stimulated much research on its origins and ancestry. Here we take a different approach and examine two key questions - 1) how did the ancestors of H. floresiensis reach Flores and 2) what are the possibilities for estimating the likelihood of hominin persistence for over 1 million years on a small island? With regard to the first question, on the basis of the biogeography we conclude that the mammalian, avian, and reptilian fauna on Flores arrived from a number of sources including Java, Sulawesi and Sahul. Many of the terrestrial taxa were able to float or swim (e.g. stegodons, giant tortoises and the Komodo dragon), while the rodents and hominins probably accidentally rafted from Sulawesi, following the prevailing currents. The precise route by which hominins arrived on Flores cannot at present be determined, although a route from South Asia through Indochina, Sulawesi and hence Flores is tentatively supported on the basis of zoogeography. With regards to the second question, we find the archaeological record equivocal. A basic energetics model shows that a greater number of small-bodied hominins could persist on Flores than larger-bodied hominins (whether H. floresiensis is a dwarfed species or a descendent of an early small-bodied ancestor is immaterial here), which may in part explain their apparent long-term success. Yet the frequent tsunamis and volcanic eruptions in the region would certainly have affected all the taxa on the island, and at least one turnover event is recorded, when Stegodon sondaari became extinct. The question of the likelihood of persistence may be unanswerable until we know much more about the biology of H. floresiensis.

  13. Genómica Funcional de Plantas: Estudio del Desarrollo de Flores y Frutos Genómica Funcional de Plantas: Estudio del Desarrollo de Flores y Frutos

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    Octavio Rubén Salazar Moya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La última fase del desarrollo floral es la fertilización de los óvulos y la formación de los frutos,que son muy importantes tanto biológica como económicamente. Notoriamente, más del 80% de los alimentos que son consumidos por el ser humano proviene de flores y frutos.La obtención de conocimientos acerca de las bases moleculares del desarrollo de frutos en especies modelo es de gran interés científico, y un paso indispensable para poder facilitar investigaciones y de ser factible, aplicaciones en frutos de consumo humano. Especialmente en un país como México, con tal riqueza en la diversidad de frutos, este tipo de estudios es necesario y científicamente muy interesante, y tiene repercusiones económicas potenciales importantes. La meta del laboratorio es descubrir genes nuevos involucrados en el desarrollo de frutos, empleando los recursos que brindan plantas modelo como Arabidopsisthaliana. Se hace un enfoque especial en genes que afectan la identidad celular, morfología y que causan partenocarpia (frutos carentes de semillas, para más tarde estudiarlos enotras especies y hacer ensayos para conocer sus alcances en dichas especies.The last stages of fl oral development are ovule fertilization and fruit formation. Fruits are very important both biologically and economically. Notably, more than 80% of human food is obtained from flowers and fruits. Gathering basic knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of fruit development from model species is of great scientific interest, and is an essential step to facilitate research and, when feasible, applications in fruits consumed by humans. Especially in countries like Mexico, which has such a great diversity of fruits, this kind of research is both necessary and scientifically interesting, and has potentially important economic repercussions. The goal of the lab is to discover new genes that are involved inflower development, making use of the resources provided by model plants like

  14. Características de flores, néctar y visitantes de Kerianthera preclara (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES-SOUZA,Antonio Carlos; Absy, María Lúcia; Miranda, Ires Pauta de A; Küchmeister, Heike E C

    2016-01-01

    Se observó el crecimiento del tubo corolar, la producción de néctar y los visitantes en las flores de Keriant hera preclara Kirkibride (Rubiaceae). Se constató que el desárrollo del tubo de la corola duró de siete a ocho semanas hasta su apenura. Los principales visitantes en las flores fueron abejas sin aguijón (Apidae: Meliponinae), colibries (Trochilidae), avispas (Vespidae), hormigas (Formicidae) y algunos curculiónidos (Curculionidae). La abeja Trigona willana fue la única que además del...

  15. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana

    Full Text Available Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of

  16. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978-2014-From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Fuehrer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis, ocular (D. repens, and subcutaneous (D. repens dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria.Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens-six ocular and 24 subcutaneous and dogs (approximately 50 cases-both D. immitis and D. repens were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs. The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future.The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present.

  17. Endemicity and phylogeny of the human T cell lymphotropic virus type II subtype A from the Kayapo Indians of Brazil: evidence for limited regional dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, W M; Black, F L; Pieniazek, D; Biggar, R J; Lal, R B; Heneine, W

    1996-05-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) from 17 seropositive Kayapo Indians from Brazil showed that all 17 samples contained a unique HTLV-IIa subtype (A-II). Additional RFLP screening demonstrated the presence of this subtype in two of three Brazilian blood donors and a Mexican prostitute and her child. In contrast, 129 samples from blood donors and intravenous drug users (IDUs) from the United States, two Pueblo Indian samples, five samples from Norwegian IDUs, and two samples from blood donors from Denmark were all found to be a different HTLV-IIa subtype (A-III). Phylogenetic analysis of two Kayapo and one Mexican LTR sequences showed that they cluster with a subtype A-II sequence from a Brazilian blood donor and with sequences from two prostitutes from Ghana and Cameroon. These results demonstrate that infection with the A-II subtype is endemic among the Kayapo Amerindians, has disseminated to non-Indian populations in Brazil, and is also present in Mexico. Furthermore, the A-II subtype does not appear to represent an origin for the HTLV-IIa infection in urban areas of the United States and Europe. This study provides evidence that HTLV-IIa may be a Paleo-Indian subtype as previously suggested for HTLV-IIb.

  18. Bioaccumulation of DDT Residues in Human Serum: an Historical Use of DDT Indoor Residual Spraying in Malaria Endemic Regions of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punthip Teeyapant

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, DDT indoor residual spraying (IRS was used to interrupt malaria transmission until it was phased out between 1995 and 1999. However, contamination by DDT and its primary metabolite, p,p'-DDE remains a serious environmental and human health concern. We investigated serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT in Southern Thai residents living in malaria-endemic areas where IRS with DDT was applied. Levels of p,p-DDE and p,p'-DDT were measured in plasma serum of 346 participants (205 females, 141 males from Southern provinces of Thailand and from Bangkok. Serum concentrations of measured compounds were significantly higher in Southern Thai residents than general population (in Bangkok (P < 0.001. The highest geometric mean value of p,p'-DDE was 6,531 (95% CI=4,083-8,979 and 5,053 (95% CI=2,909-7,197 ng/g lipids in female and male subjects, respectively. Even though, DDT ultimately is banned for all uses, the concentration of the daughter compound p,p'-DDE was much higher in Southern subjects than in the general population. A high ratio of p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT indicates that the exposure is due to past rather than recent use of DDT.

  19. Epidemiology of Emergent Madariaga Encephalitis in a Region with Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis: Initial Host Studies and Human Cross-Sectional Study in Darien, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Y Vittor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurotropic arboviral infections are an important cause of encephalitis. A zoonotic, vector-borne alphavirus, Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus, caused its first documented human outbreak in 2010 in Darien, Panama, where the genetically similar Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is endemic. We report the results of a seroprevalence survey of animals and humans, illustrating contrasting features of MADV and VEEV ecology and epidemiology.Small mammals were trapped in 42 sites in Darien, Panama, using Sherman traps, Tomahawk traps, and mist nets for bats. Blood was tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV. In addition, bird sera collected in 2007 in Chagres, Panama, were tested for MADV and VEEV neutralizing antibodies. Viremia was ascertained by RT-PCR. Human exposure to these two viruses was determined by IgG ELISA, followed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. To identify relevant risk factors for MADV or VEEV exposure, logistic regression analysis was performed, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the Akaike information criterion.The animal survey yielded 32 bats (16 species, 556 rodents (12 species, and 20 opossums (4 species. The short-tailed cane mouse (Zygodontomys brevicauda found abundantly in pasture and farms, had the highest MADV seroprevalence (8.3%. For VEEV, the shrub and forest-dwelling long-whiskered rice rat (Transandinomys bolivaris had the highest seroprevalence (19.0%. Viremia was detected in one animal (Z. brevicauda. Of the 159 bird sera (50 species tested, none were positive for either virus. In humans (n = 770, neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV were present in 4.8% and 31.5%, respectively. MADV seropositivity was positively associated with cattle ranching, farming, and fishing. Having VEEV antibodies and shrubs near the house diminished risk. Age, forest work, farming and fishing were risk factors for

  20. Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Hannah R; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Blaszak, Kate; Keokamphe, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Phongmany, Anousone; Durr, Peter A; Graham, Kerryne; Allen, John; Donnelly, Blánaid; Blacksell, Stuart D; Unger, Fred; Grace, Delia; Alonso, Silvia; Gilbert, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic pigs are kept in close contact with families. Human risk of infection with pig zoonoses arises from direct contact and consumption of unsafe pig products. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Luang Prabang (north) and Savannakhet (central-south) Provinces. A total of 59 villages, 895 humans and 647 pigs were sampled and serologically tested for zoonotic pathogens including: hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Trichinella spiralis; In addition, human sera were tested for Taenia spp. and cysticercosis. Seroprevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans was high for HEV (Luang Prabang: 48.6%, Savannakhet: 77.7%) and T. spiralis (Luang Prabang: 59.0%, Savannakhet: 40.5%), and lower for JEV (around 5%), Taenia spp. (around 3%) and cysticercosis (Luang Prabang: 6.1, Savannakhet 1.5%). Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering of principal components was performed on descriptive data of human hygiene practices, contact with pigs and consumption of pork products. Three clusters were identified: Cluster 1 had low pig contact and good hygiene practices, but had higher risk of T. spiralis. Most people in cluster 2 were involved in pig slaughter (83.7%), handled raw meat or offal (99.4%) and consumed raw pigs' blood (76.4%). Compared to cluster 1, cluster 2 had increased odds of testing seropositive for HEV and JEV. Cluster 3 had the lowest sanitation access and had the highest risk of HEV, cysticercosis and Taenia spp. Farmers which kept their pigs tethered (as opposed to penned) and disposed of manure in water sources had 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.91) and 2.39 (95% CI: 1.07 to 5.34) times the odds of having pigs test seropositive for HEV, respectively. The results have been used to identify entry-points for intervention and management strategies to reduce disease exposure in humans and pigs, informing control activities in a cysticercosis hyper-endemic village.

  1. Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Holt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Lao People's Democratic Republic pigs are kept in close contact with families. Human risk of infection with pig zoonoses arises from direct contact and consumption of unsafe pig products. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Luang Prabang (north and Savannakhet (central-south Provinces. A total of 59 villages, 895 humans and 647 pigs were sampled and serologically tested for zoonotic pathogens including: hepatitis E virus (HEV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and Trichinella spiralis; In addition, human sera were tested for Taenia spp. and cysticercosis. Seroprevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans was high for HEV (Luang Prabang: 48.6%, Savannakhet: 77.7% and T. spiralis (Luang Prabang: 59.0%, Savannakhet: 40.5%, and lower for JEV (around 5%, Taenia spp. (around 3% and cysticercosis (Luang Prabang: 6.1, Savannakhet 1.5%. Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering of principal components was performed on descriptive data of human hygiene practices, contact with pigs and consumption of pork products. Three clusters were identified: Cluster 1 had low pig contact and good hygiene practices, but had higher risk of T. spiralis. Most people in cluster 2 were involved in pig slaughter (83.7%, handled raw meat or offal (99.4% and consumed raw pigs' blood (76.4%. Compared to cluster 1, cluster 2 had increased odds of testing seropositive for HEV and JEV. Cluster 3 had the lowest sanitation access and had the highest risk of HEV, cysticercosis and Taenia spp. Farmers which kept their pigs tethered (as opposed to penned and disposed of manure in water sources had 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.91 and 2.39 (95% CI: 1.07 to 5.34 times the odds of having pigs test seropositive for HEV, respectively. The results have been used to identify entry-points for intervention and management strategies to reduce disease exposure in humans and pigs, informing control activities in a cysticercosis hyper-endemic village.

  2. Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. I. Identification of risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, M; Borja-Aburto, V H; Ramírez, A L; Ponce, M; Rosas, M; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico, a biochemical and epidemiological study was carried out in 1992. Results from the analysis of fluoride sources showed that 61% of tap water samples had fluoride levels above the optimal level of 0.7-1.2 ppm. The levels were higher after boiling. In bottled water, fluoride levels ranged from 0.33 to 6.97 ppm. These sources are important since in SLP 82% of the children drink tap water, 31% also drink bottled water, 92% prepare their food with tap water, 44% boiled all the drinking water, and 91% used infant formula reconstituted with boiled water. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in children (11-13 years old) increased as the concentration of water fluoride increased. At levels of fluoride in water lower than 0.7 ppm a prevalence of 69% was found for total dental fluorosis, whereas at levels of fluoride in water higher than 2.0 ppm a prevalence of 98% was found. In the same children, fluoride levels in urine were quantified. The levels increased as the concentration of water fluoride increased. Regressional analysis showed an increment of 0.54 ppm (P < 0.0001) of fluoride in urine for each ppm of fluoride in water. Fluoride urinary levels were higher in samples collected during the afternoon (1800) when compared with sample collected during the morning (1100). Taking together all these results, three risk factors for human exposure to fluoride in SLP can be identified: ambient temperature, boiled water, and food preparation with boiled water. These factors explain the prevalence of dental fluorosis in SLP.

  3. Antibody responses to Rhoptry-Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Kurtzhals, J A; Riley, E M

    1997-01-01

    Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein, Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (rRAP-1) were measured by ELISA in individuals from Sudan, Indonesia, Kenya and The Gambia living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to rRAP-1...... increased with malaria endemicity. IgG reactivities were associated with spleen rates in Indonesia with high malaria endemicity while IgM reactivities were associated with spleen rates in Kenya with low malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to rRAP-1 increased during acute episodes of P. falciparum...... malaria in Sudanese adults and IgG reactivities remained high one month after treatment in all adults tested. Antibody reactivities to rRAP-1 in Gambian children in the dry season were higher in children with parasitaemia than in children without detectable parasitaemia. Antibody reactivities were...

  4. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificia...

  5. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  6. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated under HB2064. The…

  7. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  8. "Keeping up the Good Fight": The Said and Unsaid in "Flores v. Arizona"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melinda Hollis; Aletheiani, Dinny Risri; Carlson, David Lee; Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2014-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this article is to interrogate the mediated and political discourses that emerged alongside the "Flores v. Arizona" case. The authors endeavor to offer another voice, framework and approach that may help sustain a continuous, paramount conversation concerning the educational rights of English language…

  9. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  10. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low.

  11. San José de Flores: parada obligada desde y hacia Buenos Aires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Camino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The project Prehistoric and colonial period early in the origin of San Jose Flores, examines how these people (by the side of Camino Real, near Buenos Aires city joined the Global System. Here is presented the first data on the archaeological work and a historical synthesis of this Buenos Aires neighborhood, made so far.

  12. Helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia : associations with communicable and non-communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, Aprilianto Eddy

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we reported our investigations of the relationship between soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and a number of outcomes, in particular malaria, insulin resistance (a marker for type-2 diabetes (T2D)) and atherosclerosis (a marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)) on Flores island, Indon

  13. Highly endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection in a Venezuelan Guahibo Amerindian group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Ponte, M; Noya, O; Bianco, N; Echeverría de Perez, G

    1996-11-01

    Sera from 166 Guahibo Indians (55% of the population) living in southwest Venezuela were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassay for antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) I and II. Positive samples were confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Forty-one Guahibos (24.8%) were found to be seropositive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of proviral DNA in mononuclear cell lysates revealed the virus to be HTLV-II. Prevalence increased with age, and sexual contact with HTLV-II-seropositive partners was identified as a risk factor for infection. PCR amplification of a region of the pol gene, utilizing the primer pair SK110/SK111, with subsequent digestion of the 140-base-pair amplification products with HinfI and MseI restriction enzymes, showed an HTLV-II subtype-b restriction pattern in all cases. These data suggest that the substrain infecting this Guahibo community belongs to the b subtype, the most frequent among Paleo-Amerindian populations.

  14. Dinâmica floral e abortamento de flores em híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Battisti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica floral e determinar o índice de abortamento de flores de híbridos de canola (Brassica napus e de mostarda castanha (Brassica juncea, bem como determinar suas relações com as condições meteorológicas do Sul do Brasil. Durante a floração, dez híbridos de canola e dois de mostarda foram avaliados a cada três dias quanto ao número de flores abertas, de síliquas e de flores abortadas. O número acumulado e relativo de flores foi usado para avaliação da dinâmica floral. A relação desses números com a soma térmica acumulada durante a floração foi determinada por meio de modelo logístico. A partir dos coeficientes desse modelo, identificaram-se grupos de genótipos com diferentes taxas de emissão de flores. O abortamento de flores entre híbridos variou de 10,53 a 45,96% e correlacionou-se com a temperatura e a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. Genótipos com maiores tempos térmicos entre o período de máxima emissão de flores e o final da floração geralmente apresentam maiores percentagens de abortamento de flores. O ajuste dos dados de emissão de flores aos de soma térmica do período da floração, por meio de modelo logístico, permite simular a dinâmica floral de híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from human, vector, and animal reservoir in the same endemic region in Mexico and typed as T. cruzi I, discrete typing unit 1 exhibit considerable biological diversity

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this study, three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated at the same time and in the same endemic region in Mexico from a human patient with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (RyC-H); vector (Triatoma barberi) (RyC-V); and rodent reservoir (Peromyscus peromyscus) (RyC-R). The three strains were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and by pathological profiles in experimental animals (biodemes). Based on the analysis of genetic markers the ...

  16. CD103+ Conventional Dendritic Cells Are Critical for TLR7/9-Dependent Host Defense against Histoplasma capsulatum, an Endemic Fungal Pathogen of Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Van Prooyen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune cells shape the host response to microbial pathogens. Here we elucidate critical differences in the molecular response of macrophages vs. dendritic cells (DCs to Histoplasma capsulatum, an intracellular fungal pathogen of humans. It has long been known that macrophages are permissive for Histoplasma growth and succumb to infection, whereas DCs restrict fungal growth and survive infection. We used murine macrophages and DCs to identify host pathways that influence fungal proliferation and host-cell viability. Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed that DCs produced a strong Type I interferon (IFN-I response to infection with Histoplasma yeasts. Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 (TLR7/9, which recognize nucleic acids, were required for IFN-I production and restriction of fungal growth in DCs, but mutation of TLR7/9 had no effect on the outcome of macrophage infection. Moreover, TLR7/9 were essential for the ability of infected DCs to elicit production of the critical cytokine IFNγ from primed CD4+ T cells in vitro, indicating the role of this pathway in T cell activation. In a mouse model of infection, TLR7/9 were required for optimal production of IFN-I and IFNγ, host survival, and restriction of cerebral fungal burden. These data demonstrate the critical role of this pathway in eliciting an appropriate adaptive immune response in the host. Finally, although other fungal pathogens have been shown to elicit IFN-I in mouse models, the specific host cell responsible for producing IFN-I has not been elucidated. We found that CD103+ conventional DCs were the major producer of IFN-I in the lungs of wild-type mice infected with Histoplasma. Mice deficient in this DC subtype displayed reduced IFN-I production in vivo. These data reveal a previously unknown role for CD103+ conventional DCs and uncover the pivotal function of these cells in modulating the host immune response to endemic fungi.

  17. No difference in the incidence of malaria in human-landing mosquito catch collectors and non-collectors in a Senegalese village with endemic malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélé N Wotodjo

    Full Text Available The human landing catches is the gold standard method used to study the vectors of malaria and to estimate their aggressiveness. However, this method has raised safety concerns due to a possible increased risk of malaria or other mosquito-borne diseases among the mosquito collectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of malaria attacks among mosquito collectors and to compare these results with those of non-collectors in a Senegalese village.From July 1990 to December 2011, a longitudinal malaria study involving mosquito collectors and non-collectors was performed in Dielmo village, Senegal. During the study period, 4 drugs were successively used to treat clinical malaria, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were offered to all villagers in July 2008. No malaria chemoprophylaxis was given to mosquito collectors. Incidence of uncomplicated clinical malaria and asymptomatic malaria infection were analyzed among these two groups while controlling for confounding factors associated with malaria risk in random effects negative binomial and logistic regression models, respectively.A total of 3,812 person-trimester observations of 199 adults at least 15 years of age were analyzed. Clinical malaria attacks accounted for 6.3% both in collectors and non-collectors, and asymptomatic malaria infections accounted for 21% and 20% in collectors and non-collectors, respectively. A non-significant lower risk of malaria was observed in the collector group in comparison with the non-collector group after adjusting for other risk factors of malaria and endemicity level (Clinical malaria: adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval = 0.65-1.22; p= 0.47.Being a mosquito collector in Dielmo was not significantly associated with an increased risk of malaria both under holoendemic, mesoendemic and hypoendemic conditions of malaria epidemiology. This result supports the view that HLC, the most accurate method for evaluating

  18. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  19. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  20. Evolved developmental homeostasis disturbed in LB1 from Flores, Indonesia, denotes Down syndrome and not diagnostic traits of the invalid species Homo floresiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Maciej; Eckhardt, Robert B.; Chavanaves, Sakdapong; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-08-01

    Human skeletons from Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia, are coeval with only Homo sapiens populations worldwide and no other previously known hominins. We report here for the first time to our knowledge the occipitofrontal circumference of specimen LB1. This datum makes it possible to link the 430-mL endocranial volume of LB1 reported by us previously, later confirmed independently by other investigators, not only with other human skeletal samples past and present but also with a large body of clinical data routinely collected on patients with developmental disorders. Our analyses show that the brain size of LB1 is in the range predicted for an individual with Down syndrome (DS) in a normal small-bodied population from the geographic region that includes Flores. Among additional diagnostic signs of DS and other skeletal dysplasiae are abnormally short femora combined with disproportionate flat feet. Liang Bua Cave femora, known only for LB1, match interlimb proportions for DS. Predictions based on corrected LB1 femur lengths show a stature normal for other H. sapiens populations in the region.

  1. Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic aquatic sites in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Williamson

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is an emerging environmental bacterium in Australia and West Africa. The primary risk factor associated with Buruli ulcer is proximity to slow moving water. Environmental constraints for disease are shown by the absence of infection in arid regions of infected countries. A particularly mysterious aspect of Buruli ulcer is the fact that endemic and non-endemic villages may be only a few kilometers apart within the same watershed. Recent studies suggest that aquatic invertebrate species may serve as reservoirs for M. ulcerans, although transmission pathways remain unknown. Systematic studies of the distribution of M. ulcerans in the environment using standard ecological methods have not been reported. Here we present results from the first study based on random sampling of endemic and non-endemic sites. In this study PCR-based methods, along with biofilm collections, have been used to map the presence of M. ulcerans within 26 aquatic sites in Ghana. Results suggest that M. ulcerans is present in both endemic and non-endemic sites and that variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profiling can be used to follow chains of transmission from the environment to humans. Our results suggesting that the distribution of M. ulcerans is far broader than the distribution of human disease is characteristic of environmental pathogens. These findings imply that focal demography, along with patterns of human water contact, may play a major role in transmission of Buruli ulcer.

  2. The Flores speleothem carbon isotope record: vegetation, volcanism and the demise of Homo floresiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroxton, N.; Gagan, M. K.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Hantoro, W. S.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Zhao, J. X.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Scott-Gagan, H.; Cowley, J. A.; Rifai, H.

    2015-12-01

    The last surviving non-human member of the Homo genus: Homo floresiensis, disappeared from the stratigraphic record in Liang Bua cave, Flores, Indonesia, between 17 and 10 kyr BP (Roberts et al. 2009, J. Hum. Evol.). The cause of the disappearance (e.g. climate change, volcanic catastrophe or human competition) has not been established. Here, we present a new 92,000-year long speleothem δ13C record for Liang Luar cave, 800m South of Liang Bua. Our record acts as a proxy for local environmental and vegetation health throughout H. floresiensis' occupation of the area. The Liang Luar speleothem δ13C record is primarily a record of vegetation productivity and soil respiration rates, highlighting local ecological responses to changing regional and global climate forcings such as temperature, atmospheric pCO2 and precipitation amount. Changes in speleothem δ13C can largely be considered an environmental response to climate change. Events that caused significant harm to the local environment and H. floresiensis are likely to be outside the natural range of variability: being quick enough or extreme enough that adaptation to new conditions is not possible. We identify disturbances to the vegetation system using two indicators in the speleothem record. 1) Abrupt positive δ13C excursions which indicate periods of reduced vegetative activity. 2) A loss of correlation between the δ13C and δ18O records, indicating that precipitation is no longer a dominant control on vegetation productivity. The largest (8‰) and longest (7 kyr) abrupt positive excursion, the 68 kyr event, sees positive speleothem δ13C values, due to increased bedrock contribution and/or C4 vegetation at this time. Crucially a H. floresiensis occupation interval dates to this period. The largest abrupt deterioration in vegetation (positive δ13C excursion) between 17 and 10 kyr BP is a 1 in 5kyr occurrence - An event of a magnitude that was likely encountered and survived by H. floresiensis multiple

  3. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  4. Biologia floral e fragrâncias das flores de Passiflora L

    OpenAIRE

    Villamil Montero, Daniel Antonio [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    As flores das espécies do gênero Passiflora têm recebido especial atenção por sua extraordinária beleza e complexidade da corola além de suas intensas fragrâncias. A presença de tecidos secretores de compostos voláteis (CVS) nas flores de Passiflora é muito variável, têm grande importância ecológica e prospecção econômica. Atualmente, só se tem registro dos CVs das fragrâncias florais de algumas poucas espécies, obtidos por meio de diferentes metodologias, com resultados variáveis. Durante os...

  5. Biologia floral e fragrâncias das flores de Passiflora L

    OpenAIRE

    Villamil Montero, Daniel Antonio

    2013-01-01

    As flores das espécies do gênero Passiflora têm recebido especial atenção por sua extraordinária beleza e complexidade da corola além de suas intensas fragrâncias. A presença de tecidos secretores de compostos voláteis (CVS) nas flores de Passiflora é muito variável, têm grande importância ecológica e prospecção econômica. Atualmente, só se tem registro dos CVs das fragrâncias florais de algumas poucas espécies, obtidos por meio de diferentes metodologias, com resultados variáveis. Durante os...

  6. Implication de la flore intestinale dans le métabolisme énergétique

    OpenAIRE

    Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D.

    2008-01-01

    La flore intestinale est aujourd’hui considérée comme un organe à part entière, qui joue un rôle clé dans le métabolisme énergétique. La flore peut en effet augmenter la rentabilité énergétique des aliments ingérés qui ont échappé à la digestion dans la partie haute de l’intestin, via leur fermentation. Par ailleurs, le flux des acides gras et leur stockage adipocytaire sont contrôlés - notamment via le facteur FIAF (fastinginduced adipocyte factor), dont l’expression est tributaire de la pré...

  7. Modelling of historical tsunami in Eastern Indonesia: 1674 Ambon and 1992 Flores case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Cummins, Phil; Griffin, Jonathan; Davies, Gareth; Latief, Hamzah

    2017-07-01

    In order to reliably assess tsunami hazard in eastern Indonesia, we need to understand how historical events were generated. Here we consider two such events: the 1674 Ambon and the 1992 Flores tsunamis. Firstly, Ambon Island suffered a devastating earthquake that generated a tsunami with 100 m run-up height on the north coast of the island in 1674. However, there is no known active fault around the island capable of generating such a gigantic wave. Rumphius' report describes that the initial wave was coming from three villages that collapsed immediately after the earthquake with width as far as a musket shot. Moreover, a very high tsunami was only observed locally. We suspect that a submarine landslide was the main cause of the gigantic tsunami on the north side of Ambon Island. Unfortunately, there is no data available to confirm if landslide have occurred in this region. Secondly, several tsunami source models for the 1992 Flores event have been suggested. However, the fault strike is quite different compare to the existing Flores back-arc thrust and has not been well validated against a tide gauge waveform at Palopo, Sulawesi. We considered a tsunami model based on Griffin, et al., 2015, extended with high resolution bathymetry laround Palopo, in order to validate the latest tsunami source model available. In general, the model produces a good agreement with tsunami waveforms, but arrives 10 minutes late compared to observed data. In addition, the source overestimates the tsunami inundation west of Maumere, and does not account for the presumed landslide tsunami on the east side of Flores Island.

  8. Very broadband seismic analysis of the 1992 Flores, Indonesia, earthquake (Mw = 7.9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Jos; Lay, Thorne

    1995-09-01

    The December 12, 1992, Flores Island earthquake (Mw = 7.9), which caused a destructive tsunami, is located in the back arc of the transition zone between the Sunda and Banda arcs, a region in active collision with the Australian continental margin. We study the earthquake using four seismological techniques spanning a period range of 1-1000 s and infer that the Flores event may be characterized as a shallow back arc thrust with fault plane strike 70°±30°, dip 28°±10° and rake 80° to 140° (linear trade-off with strike), a rupture consisting of three discrete pulses with a total duration of 70 s (centroid time 26.3 s) and an estimated moment release between 7.5×1020 and 8.0×1020 N m. From the slip vector we infer that compressional forces play an important role in the deformation mechanism of the back arc north of Flores Island. Body waves constrain the hypocentral depth to be 16 km with rupture mainly propagating updip to shallow depth and bilaterally along strike with most subevents located toward the northeast. Evidence for rupture directivity from surface wave deconvolutions is inconclusive, but the overall source function is consistent with body wave results. Our body wave finite fault model is in rough agreement with two models proposed to explain tsunami run-up observations. Normal mode modeling of W phase observations at periods longer than 70 s shows that slow slip is negligible. From this and the slip distribution determined from the body wave analysis we infer that the seismic source is an unlikely candidate to explain anomalously high tsunami run-ups measured on northeastern Flores Island.

  9. Marine algae of the island of Flores, Azores : ecology and floristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tittley, Ian; Neto, Ana I.; Farnham, William F.

    1998-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium of Fauna & Flora of the Atlantic Islands, Las Palmas, Fevereiro 1996. Preliminary results of an extensive field survey of the marine algal flora of Flores are presented. Intertidal and subtidal algal zonation and community structure were investigated by sampling quadrats along transect lines. Intertidal areas were characterised by successive zones of barnacles, algal turf (Gelidium spp., Centroceras clavulatum, Laurencia spp. and other algae), and Corallina...

  10. Homo floresiensis-like fossils from the early Middle Pleistocene of Flores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Kaifu, Yousuke; Kurniawan, Iwan; Kono, Reiko T; Brumm, Adam; Setiyabudi, Erick; Aziz, Fachroel; Morwood, Michael J

    2016-06-09

    The evolutionary origin of Homo floresiensis, a diminutive hominin species previously known only by skeletal remains from Liang Bua in western Flores, Indonesia, has been intensively debated. It is a matter of controversy whether this primitive form, dated to the Late Pleistocene, evolved from early Asian Homo erectus and represents a unique and striking case of evolutionary reversal in hominin body and brain size within an insular environment. The alternative hypothesis is that H. floresiensis derived from an older, smaller-brained member of our genus, such as Homo habilis, or perhaps even late Australopithecus, signalling a hitherto undocumented dispersal of hominins from Africa into eastern Asia by two million years ago (2 Ma). Here we describe hominin fossils excavated in 2014 from an early Middle Pleistocene site (Mata Menge) in the So'a Basin of central Flores. These specimens comprise a mandible fragment and six isolated teeth belonging to at least three small-jawed and small-toothed individuals. Dating to ~0.7 Ma, these fossils now constitute the oldest hominin remains from Flores. The Mata Menge mandible and teeth are similar in dimensions and morphological characteristics to those of H. floresiensis from Liang Bua. The exception is the mandibular first molar, which retains a more primitive condition. Notably, the Mata Menge mandible and molar are even smaller in size than those of the two existing H. floresiensis individuals from Liang Bua. The Mata Menge fossils are derived compared with Australopithecus and H. habilis, and so tend to support the view that H. floresiensis is a dwarfed descendent of early Asian H. erectus. Our findings suggest that hominins on Flores had acquired extremely small body size and other morphological traits specific to H. floresiensis at an unexpectedly early time.

  11. Longevidade pós-colheita de pseudobulbos com flores de Dendrobium nobile (Orchidaceae.

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    Adriane Marinho De Assis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available As orquídeas são consideradas plantas ornamentais de grande destaque na floricultura, sendo utilizadas como plantas de vaso e flores de corte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a longevidade pós-colheita de pseudobulbos com flores de Dendrobium nobile, pelo uso de soluções conservantes, contendo diferentes concentrações de sacarose. Os tratamentos realizados foram: T1 água destilada; T2 sem água; T3 10gL-1 de sacarose; T4 20gL-1 de sacarose; T5 30gL-1 de sacarose; T6 40gL-1 de sacarose; T7 80gL-1 de sacarose. A longevidade foi avaliada empregando-se o critério de notas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições.As flores apresentaram longevidade de dez dias, a qual não foi influenciada pela utilização de soluções conservantes contendo sacarose.

  12. Prevalence of human retroviral infection in Quillabamba and Cuzco, Peru: a new endemic area for human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, S; Costa, C; Watts, D; Indacochea, S; Campos, P; Sanchez, J; Gotuzzo, E

    1997-05-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among people of Qucchua origin in Cuzco and Quillabamba, Peru. The study volunteers included individuals at low and at high risk for retroviral infections. Each volunteer was interviewed to obtain clinical and epidemiologic data, and to identify risk behaviors for infection. The serum was tested for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent and Western blot assays. Among a total of 370 volunteers enrolled in the study, 276 were women and 94 were men whose ages ranged between 15 and 49 years. Infection with HTLV-1 was demonstrated in 5.1% (19 of 370), and one of these, a homosexual, was also positive for HIV-1; none had HTLV-2. Overall, the rate of HTLV-1 infection was 5.3% (5 of 94) for males and 5% (14 of 276) for females. Among the low risk group of 211 healthy pregnant women, five (2.3%) were positive for HTLV-1. The rate of HTLV-1 infection in this group was significantly correlated with a history of dental surgery, as well as other surgical procedures, and a history of jaundice. Among the volunteers who practiced risk behavior(s) for retroviral infections, the positive rates for HTLV-1 were 13.7% (7 of 51) for female sex workers, 6.2% (3 of 48) for homosexuals and/or bisexuals, 8.5% (4 of 47) for patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and 0.0% (0 of 13) for promiscuous heterosexual males. In female sex workers. HTLV-1 infection was found to be significantly associated with age, a history of STDs or genital ulcers, sexual intercourse during menses, and vaginal douching (P < 0.05). A low prevalence of HIV-1 infection indicates that the virus has not yet spread significantly in these areas.

  13. USAHA PENANGGULANGAN VEKTOR MALARIA DAN FILARIASIS MELALUI PENYULUHAN KESEHATAN DI SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN WULANGGITANG, KABUPATEN FLORES TIMUR NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suskamdani Suskamdani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effectiveness of school health education for mosquito borne diseases vector control program was conducted in East Flores Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The method of study include education program for the teachers and 4th through 6th grade students from 2 primary schools and another school in the area was chosen as control. The evaluation was made through responses obtained from the questionaires given before and after the education program for malaria and filariasis regarding their sign, symptoms, the vector and prevention. The results show that there are 3,82% and 4,10% increase in knowledge about malaria and filaria respectively after the education program. This means the education material was well accepted. Although there was an overall increase in knowledge about malaria, no similar response was noted for filariasis. Thus the education material for filariasis should be improved. The result of the study suggest that a continous education program for malaria and filariasis should be incorporated into the regular School Health Education curicullum in the endemic areas.

  14. The antiphasic regulatory module comprising CDF5 and its antisense RNA FLORE links the circadian clock to photoperiodic flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rossana; Wang, Huan; Liu, Jun; Boix, Marc; Huang, Li-Fang; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2017-07-31

    Circadian rhythms of gene expression are generated by the combinatorial action of transcriptional and translational feedback loops as well as chromatin remodelling events. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are natural antisense transcripts (NATs) to transcripts encoding central oscillator components were proposed as modulators of core clock function in mammals (Per) and fungi (frq/qrf). Although oscillating lncRNAs exist in plants, their functional characterization is at an initial stage. By screening an Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNA custom-made array we identified CDF5 LONG NONCODING RNA (FLORE), a circadian-regulated lncRNA that is a NAT of CDF5. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the circadian regulation of FLORE, whereas GUS-staining and flowering time evaluation were used to determine its biological function. FLORE and CDF5 antiphasic expression reflects mutual inhibition in a similar way to frq/qrf. Moreover, whereas the CDF5 protein delays flowering by directly repressing FT transcription, FLORE promotes it by repressing several CDFs (CDF1, CDF3, CDF5) and increasing FT transcript levels, indicating both cis and trans function. We propose that the CDF5/FLORE NAT pair constitutes an additional circadian regulatory module with conserved (mutual inhibition) and unique (function in trans) features, able to fine-tune its own circadian oscillation, and consequently, adjust the onset of flowering to favourable environmental conditions. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Exploration of Ulumbu geothermal field, Flores-east nusa tenggara, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulasdi, Didi

    1996-01-26

    This paper describes the progress made in developing geothermal resources at Ulumbu Flores, Indonesia for utilization mini geothermal power generation. Two deep exploratory wells drilling drilled by PLN confirmed the existence of the resources. The well measurement carried out during drilling and after completion of the well indicated that the major permeable zone at around 680 m depth and that this zone is a steam cap zone, which is likely to produce high enthalpy steam. The above information indicates that well ULB-01 will produce a mass flow at least 40 tonnes per hour, which will ensure a 3 MW (E) Ulumbu mini geothermal power plant.

  16. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®. PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

  17. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Teiliane Rodrigues; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; de Oliveira, Sara Menezes; Peralta, José Mauro; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas. PMID:24402156

  18. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  19. Fasciolosis humana y animal en el Perú: impacto en la economía de las zonas endémicas Human and animal fascioliasis in Peru: impact in the economy of endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Espinoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica es el agente etiológico de la fasciolosis en el Perú. La fasciolosis es un problema de salud pública por la alta prevalencia de la infección humana, especialmente niños y un problema veterinario de importancia por las altas tasas de infección del ganado en la mayoría de regiones del País. La fasciolosis es endémica en la sierra y la costa, y esporádica en la región amazónica. La infección humana se reporta en 18 regiones y la animal en 21 de las 24 regiones del Perú. La transmisión humana ocurre en poblaciones andinas rurales dedicadas a la agricultura, pero hay un creciente número de casos en ciudades. Diferentes situaciones epidemiológicas de la infección humana se presentan: i Regiones con casos no autóctonos, donde la infección es por consumo de vegetales contaminados traídos de zonas endémicas; ii Regiones con poblados hipo- y mesoendémicos, transmisión local y prevalencia Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in Peru; the disease is an important public health problem by the high prevalence of the human infection affecting mainly children and a major veterinary problem by the high rates of infected livestock. The human disease is endemic in the Sierra and the Coast but sporadic in the Amazonia, and reported in 18 Departments, while the animal infection in 21 of 24 Departments of Peru. Transmission occurs in Andean rural populations engaged in agriculture, but recently an increasing number of people became infected in the cities. The epidemiological situation in Peru includes i Departments with non-autochtonous cases, where infection occurs by consumption of contaminated vegetables brought from endemic areas or infection is acquired by visit to endemic areas; ii Departments with hypoendemic and mesoendemic villages, where transmission occurs by ingest of contaminated vegetables and prevalence ≤10%; and iii Departments with hyper-endemic villages with human prevalence >10 %, with

  20. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis.

  1. Aplicabilidade do termo antocrono para representar a velocidade de abertura de flores em inflorescência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Teixeira Schwab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor um termo para representar o intervalo de tempo de abertura entre flores sucessivas em inflorescências, e verificar a aplicabilidade deste termo a gladíolo de corte. O termo foi construído pela junção dos radicais gregos anto- (antos = flor e crono- (cronos = tempo, para corresponder ao tempo necessário para a abertura de flores sucessivas em ramos florais (inflorescências, tendo-se como unidade o tempo por flor. Para testar o conceito e a aplicabilidade do termo, dados do número acumulado de floretes abertos em espigas de gladíolo foram coletados em dois experimentos de campo, em Santa Maria, RS, de agosto de 2011 a novembro de 2013. Para cada parcela de seis plantas, realizou-se uma regressão linear simples entre o número acumulado de floretes abertos na haste floral e os dias após a emergência das plantas. O termo foi denominado "antocrono" e, em gladíolo, foi estimado como sendo o inverso do coeficiente angular da regressão linear, com a unidade dias por florete. O antocrono em gladíolo depende da cultivar e decresce com o aumento da temperatura do ar, durante o período de florescimento da espiga.

  2. Late Pleistocene songbirds of Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia; the first fossil passerine fauna described from Wallacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Passerines (Aves: Passeriformes dominate modern terrestrial bird communities yet their fossil record is limited. Liang Bua is a large cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that preserves Late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits (∼190 ka to present day. Birds are the most diverse faunal group at Liang Bua and are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence. Methods We examined avian remains from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Sector XII, a 2 × 2 m area excavated to about 8.5 m depth. Although postcranial passerine remains are typically challenging to identify, we found several humeral characters particularly useful in discriminating between groups, and identified 89 skeletal elements of passerines. Results At least eight species from eight families are represented, including the Large-billed Crow (Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, the Australasian Bushlark (Mirafra javanica, a friarbird (Philemon sp., and the Pechora Pipit (Anthus cf. gustavi. Discussion These remains constitute the first sample of fossil passerines described in Wallacea. Two of the taxa no longer occur on Flores today; a large sturnid (cf. Acridotheres and a grassbird (Megalurus sp.. Palaeoecologically, the songbird assemblage suggests open grassland and tall forests, which is consistent with conditions inferred from the non-passerine fauna at the site. Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, found in the Homo floresiensis-bearing layers, was likely part of a scavenging guild that fed on carcasses of Stegodon florensis insularis alongside vultures (Trigonoceps sp., giant storks (Leptoptilos robustus, komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis, and probably H. floresiensis as well.

  3. El progresismo ecuatoriano en el siglo XIX. La reforma del presidente Antonio Flores (1888-1892

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa Cristina C\\u00E1rdenas Reyes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La corriente política denominada progresismo en el siglo XIX ecuatoriano, una suerte de “tercera vía” distante de liberales y conservadores, se origina a mediados de siglo como proyecto republicano opuesto al autocratismo de Gabriel García Moreno. Luego del asesinato del mandatario, obtiene a fines de siglo un amplio reconocimiento en la esfera pública, movilizando un ideario reformador en que la categoría de progreso aparece como ideología, proceso y finalidad social. Alcanza su punto culminante con la presidencia de Antonio Flores en 1888, un católico liberal de formación europea apoyado desde Roma por el papa León XIII. Las reformas secularizantes de Flores originan su rechazo frontal por los depositarios del legado garciano, encabezados por la Iglesia ecuatoriana, y no llegan a concretarse en transformaciones institucionalizadas. La revolución liberal de 1895 en el país será en buena medida deudora de los avances impulsados por la corriente progresista

  4. The 1992 Flores Earthquake Revisited: From Earthquake Source to Tsunami Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, H.; Cummins, P. R.; Griffin, J.; Hossen, J.; Horspool, N.; Maher, N.; Fountain, L.; Hanung, R.; Rojali, A.; Kongko, W.

    2012-12-01

    The 1992 Flores earthquake (Mw=7.8) occurred on a back arc thrust near the island of Flores, Indonesia, causing widespread coastal uplift and subsidence, and generating a local tsunami with maximum runup height of over 25 meters that killed over 2,000 people. The event has been the subject of numerous publications on its various aspects, including the earthquake source mechanism determined from seismic data, and modelling of inundaiotn and tide gauge study data to study generation of the tsunami. To date, however, no studies have quantitatively assessed the constraints placed on the source mechanism by all the different types of data - seismic, geodetic and tsunami tide gauge waveforms and inundation. The opportunity to greatly improve the latter has presented itself recently through the availability of a high-resolution LiDAR data set for the topography along coastal strip near the earthquake. In this study we have undertaken a joint inversion of seismic and geodetic data available from this earthquake, and compared the results obtained to tsunami inundation and tide gauge data. We will present an assessment of what constraints the different data types place on the source mechanism, and how well these are compatible with the observed tsunami inundation results. Preliminary results suggest that the roughly 2 m inundation near Maumere is well explained, but the extreme tsunami run-up at Riang Kroko is not

  5. Two New Species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Flores, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Halim, Muhammad Rasul Abdullah; Low, Van Lun; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Abdullah, Nurul Ashikin; Suana, I Wayan

    2017-05-01

    Two new species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) sunapii and S. (G.) rangatense, are described based on adults, pupae, and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. Simulium (G.) sunapii sp. nov. is placed in the S. asakoae species-group, representing the easternmost geographical record for the group in this archipelago. It is characterized by a small number of male upper-eye large facets in eight or nine vertical columns and 12 horizontal rows. Simulium (G.) rangatense sp. nov. is placed in the S. ceylonicum species-group and is characterized by the pupal gill with six filaments. This new species, together with two related species of the S. ceylonicum species-group in Flores, suggests the species radiation of this species-group might have been accompanied by a reduction of the number of pupal gill filaments from eight to four through six. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish these two new species from related species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online December 14, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  6. The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Siegel, Erika H.; Quigley, Karen S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    For the last century, there has been a continuing debate about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011) reported a meta-analysis of emotion induction research and claimed support for the natural kind hypothesis that discrete emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, anger, and…

  7. Review of Winograd and Flores'"Understanding Computers and Cognition": A Favorable Interpretation. ONR Technical Report #21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    Artificial Intelligence researchers and cognitive scientists commonly believe that thinking involves manipulating representations. Thinking involves search, inference, and making choices. This is how we model reasoning and what goes on in the brain is similar. Winograd and Flores present a radically different view, claiming that our knowledge is…

  8. Description of a new member of the Monarcha trivirgatа-group from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands (Aves, Monarchinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1973-01-01

    Amongst material from the island of Flores forwarded by the Rev. Fr. J. A. J. Verheijen SVD and the Rev. Fr. E. Schmutz SVD is a monarchine flycatcher which appears to represent an undescribed species. It may be known and diagnosed as follows. Monarcha sacerdotum species nova Type and unique specime

  9. Descripción del uso y manejo de plaguicidas en las empresas de flores afiliadas a Asocolflores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela E. Varona; Jorge E. Tolosa; Omayda Cárdenas; Carlos H. Torres; Darío Pardo; Gabriel Carrasquilla; Howard Frumkin

    2005-01-01

    ... pública debido al incremento de la demanda; esto ha ocasionado impacto en la salud de la población y en el ambiente. Objetivo. Describir los plaguicidas empleados y determinar su uso y manejo en las empresas de flores en la sabana...

  10. Melhoramento genético da mamona visando incremento de flores femininas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bertozzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar métodos de seleção visando ao aumento de flores femininas na população FCA-UNESP-PB de mamona (Ricinus communis L.. A seleção foi realizada no município de Botucatu (SP, na safrinha de 2007. Por meio de seleção massal, foram selecionadas plantas com racemo primário estritamente feminino. Destas plantas, as que tinham reversão sexual foram autofecundadas. As avaliações foram realizadas na safrinha de 2008 em Botucatu e São Manuel (SP, onde foram comparados os tratamentos: método de seleção massal; método de seleção massal com autofecundação e testemunha (racemos de plantas colhidos ao acaso, sem seleção. Foram avaliados: porcentagem de flores femininas do racemo primário (%, produtividade de grãos (kg ha-1 e teor de óleo das sementes (%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com 30 repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância individual para cada local e conjuntamente para os dois locais, pelo teste F a 1% de probabilidade. Mediante os resultados conclui- se que o método de seleção massal com autofecundação foi aquele que proporcionou maiores valores de porcentagem de flores femininas no racemo primário, com ganho fenotípico realizado de 18% em Botucatu e 29% em São Manuel (SP. Por meio dos métodos de seleção, notou-se comportamento diferencial em relação aos locais para a característica produtividade de grãos, e o método seleção massal com autofecundação proporcionou a menor produtividade. No teor de óleo não houve diferenças significativas entre os métodos e os locais avaliados.

  11. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  12. Value of routine dengue diagnosis in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Nnukwu, Samuel Ekpesu; Mesumbe, Henry Nzike; Fobisong, Cajetang Nkong

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans and it is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is thought to account for 400 million cases annually among approximately 3.97 billion people at risk of infection in 128 endemic countries. Despite the global prevalence of the disease, the availability of a vaccine is limited in most countries in the endemic areas. Most endemic countries in South America, South East Asia and Africa serve as attractive touristic sites for people from non-endemic countries who become infected and export the virus to dengue-free regions. Dengue fever typically resembles malaria and in endemic countries most cases of dengue are treated as presumptive malaria. Consequently, routine dengue diagnosis among persons with fever will offer early treatment and reduce the burden of the disease. Also, routine testing among travellers from endemic countries will reduce importation and prevent the geographical expansion of dengue. In this essay, we seek to highlight the usefulness of routine dengue testing in endemic countries. PMID:28239567

  13. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa...

  14. Entomofauna asociada a flores de berenjena y su papel en la producción de los frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne MILLÉO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El papel de los insectos polinizadores despierta interés, principalmente, en la reproducción de plantas tales como la berenjena. Este trabajo de recolección de la entomofauna asociada a las flores de Solanum melongena tuvo como objetivos identificar posibles agentes polinizadores locales y analizar el beneficio de los insectos antófilos a esta planta. Las observaciones y la colecta de los insectos visitantes de las flores fueron realizadas en febrero de 2008, entre las 7:00 y 17:15 horas, cada 45 minutos y en un área de 27 m2. El experimento para el análisis y la comparación entre autofecundación espontánea y polinización por medio de agentes bióticos fue realizado en el mismo sitio, de febrero a marzo de 2009. Fueron colectados 631 insectos que visitaban las flores de berenjena, se destacaron los coleópteros de los géneros Colaspis Fabricius, Astylus Laporte, Harmonia Mulsant, Epitrix Foudras y Diabrotica Chevrolat; y los himenópteros del género Bombus Latreille. El pico de visitación en Solanum melongena ocurrió entre las 9:00 y 11:00 horas y corresponde al 36% del muestreo. De las flores sometidas al test de autofecundación espontánea, el 39% formaron frutos, mientras que apenas el 11% de las flores emasculadas y expuestas al proceso de acción por medio de agentes bióticos fructificaron.

  15. Flore algale du Rhin canalisé : données récentes

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    La communauté algale de trois stations du Rhin canalisé (Grand canal d'Alsace), au niveau du Centre de Production Nucléaire de Fessenheim, fait l'objet d'un suivi depuis 1977. Les présents résultats concernent la période 1988-1995. Ils mettent en évidence une stabilité de la flore algale au niveau de la diversité spécifique et de la répartition des espèces dominantes. L'inventaire diatomique s'enrichit d'une trentaine de taxons inédits pour ces stations. Ces données récentes confirment, au ni...

  16. Flore algale du Rhin canalisé : données récentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIERRE J. F.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available La communauté algale de trois stations du Rhin canalisé (Grand canal d'Alsace, au niveau du Centre de Production Nucléaire de Fessenheim, fait l'objet d'un suivi depuis 1977. Les présents résultats concernent la période 1988-1995. Ils mettent en évidence une stabilité de la flore algale au niveau de la diversité spécifique et de la répartition des espèces dominantes. L'inventaire diatomique s'enrichit d'une trentaine de taxons inédits pour ces stations. Ces données récentes confirment, au niveau de la communauté algale, l'absence d'impact visible du C R N . de Fessenheim.

  17. Diagnostico-Plan Regulador Cantón de Flores: Tomo 1

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Este documento presenta datos, información y análisis propios de un diagnóstico que se elabora para diseñar un plan regulador cantonal de Flores, Costa Rica. También presenta los retos inmediatos y estratégicos que enfrentan los pobladores de la isla individual y colectivamente. Incluye múltiples partes: un diagnóstico biofísico que incluye mapas de uso del suelo. Una evaluación de los recursos biológicos, amenazas naturales, la orografía y topografía, la geología, capacidad de uso del suelo ...

  18. Gastronomía y cultura en la Ruta de Las Flores

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura Santos, Salomé Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Como resultado de una investigación socio territorial, este artículo contiene aspectos relevantes relacionados con la gastronomía y la cultura salvadoreña en particular de la Ruta de las Flores, ubicada en la zona occidental del país. Se realizó un recorrido y visitas de campo por los municipios que conforman esta ruta: Nahuizalco, Salcoatitán, Juayúa, Apaneca y Concepción de Ataco. Se conoció la riqueza gastronómica y cultural que posee esta región, donde por cierto aún se habla el idioma ná...

  19. Another Race between Islam and Christianity: The Case of Flores, Southeast Indonesia, 1900-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Steenbrink

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Christianity arrived in the south-eastern islands of the Indonesian archipelago in two waves. The first wave started in about 1480 with the arrival of Arab and Indian (Gujerati traders in the spice islands of the Northern Moluccas: particularly in Ternate and Tidore. They arrived through the island of Flores, and probably very quickly moved across to the island of Timor as well, to engage in trade in sandalwood, horses and slaves. In south-east Indonesia, as in most regions of the archipelago, the arrival of Islam occurred somewhat earlier than the coming of the first Christians. At that time, the two main centers of trade in south-east Indonesia, which also became centers for the new religions, were the islands of Solor and Ende.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v9i1.674

  20. Age and context of the oldest known hominin fossils from Flores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brumm, Adam; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Storey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent excavations at the early Middle Pleistocene site of Mata Menge in the So'a Basin of central Flores, Indonesia, have yielded hominin fossils attributed to a population ancestral to Late Pleistocene Homo floresiensis. Here we describe the age and context of the Mata Menge hominin specimens...... and associated archaeological findings. The fluvial sandstone layer from which the in situ fossils were excavated in 2014 was deposited in a small valley stream around 700 thousand years ago, as indicated by 40Ar/39 Ar and fission track dates on stratigraphically bracketing volcanic ash and pyroclastic density...... current deposits, in combination with coupled uranium-series and electron spin resonance dating of fossil teeth. Palaeoenvironmental data indicate a relatively dry climate in the So'a Basin during the early Middle Pleistocene, while various lines of evidence suggest the hominins inhabited a savannah...

  1. Estructura, ontogenia y vascularización de las flores e inflorescencias de Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Marquínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drimys granadensis es una especie de amplia distribución en los bosques montanos de Sur y Centro América. En esta investigación se estudiaron, mediante microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido, la estructura, ontogenia, filotaxis y vascularización de sus flores e inflorescencias, y fueron comparadas con las de Drimys winteri, especie distribuida en Chile y Argentina. Adicionalmente, se buscó evidencia para determinar la identidad bracteal o calicina de la caliptra de sus flores. Se confirmó la condición monotélica proliferante de la inflorescencia, descartando explicaciones alternativas de identidad de la flor terminal. Las uniflorescencias presentan un desarrollo acrópeto, hasta que el meristemo terminal se transforma en flor terminal, entonces esta flor se desarrolla rápidamente dando lugar a una uniflorescencia determinada. La vascularización es pseudosifonostélica para pedúnculos y pedicelos. Se encontró evidencia en la vascularización y estructura anatómica para considerar la caliptra como el producto de fusión de varias estructuras y, por tanto, de origen calicino. La caliptra presentó una filotaxis verticilada, pero los pétalos, estambres y carpelos presentaron una filotaxis espiralada; el cambio se explicó por el tiempo prolongado entre la iniciación de cáliz y corola. Las inflorescencias de D. granadensis y D. winteri son muy similares; siendo diferente el tiempo de inicio de la proliferación y la frecuente presencia de nomófilos en las inflorescencias de D. granadensis, en contraste con la presencia de brácteas y bracteolas reducidas en D. winteri.

  2. Danko Brncic and the flower-flies Danko Brncic y las moscas de las flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMPTON L. CARSON

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a personal essay commemorating Brncic as a keen naturalist/evolutionist in the best Darwinian sense. His innate curiosity, so important in a scientist, led him to the discovery of cenain unique drosophilid flies in Chile. The life cycle of one species of flower-fly (Drosophila flavopilosa is of special interest. Females oviposit in fresh flowers of a solanaceous plant that is widespread in Chilean valleys. Twenty years of combined ecological and genetic work, carried out on this species, pioneers the use of a highly specialized Drosophila species in the study of population genetics and evolution. Many eco-genetic features are revealed that are important supplements to observations made on the widely-studied generalist species of the genusEs este un ensayo de naturaleza personal, celebrando a Danko Brncic como un natualista y evolucionista de la mejor calidad en la verdadera tradición darwiniana. Su curiosidad inata tan importante para el científico, lo Ilevó a descubrir algunos drosofilideos chilenos con propiedades únicas. Especial interés tiene el ciclo vital de Drosophila flavopilosa, especie adaptada a flores: la hembra deposita sus huevos en las flores de una solanacea ampliamente distribuida en los valles de Chile. Veinte años de investigación geno-ecológica sobre esta especie resultaron en datos pioneros, con el uso de especies altamente especializadas para aclarar cuestiones generales de genética y evolución de poblaciones. Muchos hechos importantes fueron revelados, distintos de aquellos observados en las especies generalistas y ampliamente distribuidas

  3. Epidemiology of Plasmodium infections in Flores Island, Indonesia using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Maria M M; Supali, Taniawati; Wiria, Aprilianto E; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J; Sartono, Erliyani; Luty, Adrian J F; Brienen, Eric A T; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J

    2013-05-24

    DNA-based diagnostic methods have been shown to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of malaria. An 18S-rRNA-based, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium infections on Flores Island, Indonesia. Microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the detection of Plasmodium species was performed on blood samples collected in a population-based study in Nangapanda Flores Island, Indonesia. A total 1,509 blood samples were analysed. Real-time PCR revealed prevalence for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae to be 14.5%, 13.2%, and 1.9% respectively. Sub-microscopic parasitaemia were found in more than 80% of all positive cases. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was significantly higher in subjects younger than 20 years (p ≤ 0.01). In the present study, among non-symptomatic healthy individuals, anaemia was strongly correlated with the prevalence and load of P. falciparum infections (p ≤ 0.01; p = 0.02) and with the load of P. vivax infections (p = 0.01) as detected with real-time PCR. Subjects with AB blood group tend to have a higher risk of being infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax when compared to other blood groups. The present study has shown that real-time PCR provides more insight in the epidemiology of Plasmodium infections and can be used as a monitoring tool in the battle against malaria. The unsurpassed sensitivity of real-time PCR reveals that sub microscopic infections are common in this area, which are likely to play an important role in transmission and control. Trials number ISRCTN83830814.

  4. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.

  5. Peñas arriba y flores en Otoño: el acceso al conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sršen

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Después de unas diez páginas leídas de Peñas arriba de José María de Pereda se me ocurrió la idea de compararla con la novela Flores en otoño de Ivan Tavčar. Ni las obras nisus autores poseen relación alguna pero se pueden encontrar algunos puntos de contacto, que son interesantes, a pesar de que los planteamientos sean tan diferentes. Cuanto más profundizaba en ambas obras y buscaba sus cualidades y conexiones entre sí; así como los puntos de discordancia, mas me interesaba el asunto. Aparte la comparación de las dos novelas, surgían también algunas semejanzas en las vidas de ambos autores o en sus héroes literarios, pues en ambas hay datos autobiográficos indudables (sobre todo en Tavčar, con su abogado. Me pareció interesante el dato de que ambos autores escribieran sus novelas casi a la misma edad (Tavčar a los 65 años y Pereda a los 62 años de edad. A pesar de la diferencia de más de 20 años entre Peñas arriba y Flores en otoño y de Ia lejania en lo geográfico, que supone también distintos ambientes y diversas atmósferas sociales, no hay que olvidar el hecho (mencionado arriba de la edad de los autores al escribir las novelas respectivas.

  6. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  7. In vitro proliferation and production of cytokine and IgG by human PBMCs stimulated with polysaccharide extract from plants endemic to Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengome, Line Edwige; Voxeur, Aline; Akue, Jean Paul; Lerouge, Patrice

    2014-11-13

    Polysaccharides were extracted from seven plants endemic to Gabon to study their potential immunological activities. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) (5×10⁵ cells/mL) proliferation, cytokine and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays were performed after stimulation with different concentrations of polysaccharide fractions compared with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA) from healthy volunteers. The culture supernatants were used for cytokine and IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that pectin and hemicellulose extracts from Uvaria klainei, Petersianthus macrocarpus, Trichoscypha addonii, Aphanocalyx microphyllus, Librevillea klaineana, Neochevalierodendron stephanii and Scorodophloeus zenkeri induced production levels that were variable from one individual to another for IL-12 (3-40 pg/mL), IL-10 (6-443 pg/mL), IL-6 (7-370 pg/mL), GM-CSF (3-170 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (5-80 pg/mL). Only hemicelluloses from Aphanocalyx microphyllus produce a small amount of IgG (OD=0.034), while the proliferation of cells stimulated with these polysaccharides increased up to 318% above the proliferation of unstimulated cells. However, this proliferation of PBMCs was abolished when the pectin of some of these plants was treated with endopolygalacturonase (p<0.05), but the trend of cytokine synthesis remained the same, both before and after enzymatic treatment or saponification. This study suggests that these polysaccharides stimulate cells in a structure-dependent manner. The rhamnogalacturonan-I (RGI) fragment alone was not able to induce the proliferation of PBMC.

  8. In Vitro Proliferation and Production of Cytokine and IgG by Human PBMCs Stimulated with Polysaccharide Extract from Plants Endemic to Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Edwige Mengome

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides were extracted from seven plants endemic to Gabon to study their potential immunological activities. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC (5 × 105 cells/mL proliferation, cytokine and immunoglobulin G (IgG assays were performed after stimulation with different concentrations of polysaccharide fractions compared with lipopolysaccharides (LPS and concanavalin A (ConA from healthy volunteers. The culture supernatants were used for cytokine and IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results show that pectin and hemicellulose extracts from Uvaria klainei, Petersianthus macrocarpus, Trichoscypha addonii, Aphanocalyx microphyllus, Librevillea klaineana, Neochevalierodendron stephanii and Scorodophloeus zenkeri induced production levels that were variable from one individual to another for IL-12 (3–40 pg/mL, IL-10 (6–443 pg/mL, IL-6 (7–370 pg/mL, GM-CSF (3–170 pg/mL and IFN-γ (5–80 pg/mL. Only hemicelluloses from Aphanocalyx microphyllus produce a small amount of IgG (OD = 0.034, while the proliferation of cells stimulated with these polysaccharides increased up to 318% above the proliferation of unstimulated cells. However, this proliferation of PBMCs was abolished when the pectin of some of these plants was treated with endopolygalacturonase (p < 0.05, but the trend of cytokine synthesis remained the same, both before and after enzymatic treatment or saponification. This study suggests that these polysaccharides stimulate cells in a structure-dependent manner. The rhamnogalacturonan-I (RGI fragment alone was not able to induce the proliferation of PBMC.

  9. Regulatory T cells in human lymphatic filariasis: stronger functional activity in microfilaremics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Wammes

    Full Text Available Infection with filarial parasites is associated with T cell hyporesponsiveness, which is thought to be partly mediated by their ability to induce regulatory T cells (Tregs during human infections. This study investigates the functional capacity of Tregs from different groups of filarial patients to suppress filaria-specific immune responses during human filariasis. Microfilaremic (MF, chronic pathology (CP and uninfected endemic normal (EN individuals were selected in an area endemic for Brugia timori in Flores island, Indonesia. PBMC were isolated, CD4CD25(hi cells were magnetically depleted and in vitro cytokine production and proliferation in response to B. malayi adult worm antigen (BmA were determined in total and Treg-depleted PBMC. In MF subjects BmA-specific T and B lymphocyte proliferation as well as IFN-gamma, IL-13 and IL-17 responses were lower compared to EN and CP groups. Depletion of Tregs restored T cell as well as B cell proliferation in MF-positives, while proliferative responses in the other groups were not enhanced. BmA-induced IL-13 production was increased after Treg removal in MF-positives only. Thus, filaria-associated Tregs were demonstrated to be functional in suppressing proliferation and possibly Th2 cytokine responses to BmA. These suppressive effects were only observed in the MF group and not in EN or CP. These findings may be important when considering strategies for filarial treatment and the targeted prevention of filaria-induced lymphedema.

  10. Caractérisation de flores microbiennes intestinale humaine et fromagère par méthode de métagénomique quantative

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    La flore microbienne est un ensemble de micro-organismes comme les bactéries, archées, eucaryotes inférieurs et virus, jouant un rôle important dans l’équilibre d’un écosystème. Cette flore reste encore mal définie car en 2012, seules ~30% des micro-organismes de la flore intestinale humaine étaient caractérisés, et moins de 50% des micro-organismes de la flore fromagère traditionnelle étaient caractérisés au niveau fonctionnel. Depuis 2006, les séquenceurs à ADN de seconde génération permett...

  11. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  12. Richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Contreras-MacBeath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico, was carried out in order to identify hotspots and inform conservation efforts. This was done by mapping and overlaying individual species distributions by means of geographical information systems based on museum data. The study was able to confirm several previously proposed centres of freshwater fish richness (Southeastern Mexico, the Mesa Central, the Bravo-Conchos river system and the Panuco and Tuxpan-Nautla rivers. Seven areas with high ‘Corrected Weighted Endemism’ Index values were identified, with the valley of Cuatrociénegas recognized as a true centre. An alarming result was the identification of a “Ghost” centre of endemism (Llanos El Salado in southwestern Nuevo León, where six endemic cyprinodont species are all ‘extinct’ or ‘extinct in the wild’. Forty-nine single site endemics that are distributed all over Mexico were identified. The Chichancanab lagoon in the border between Yucatan and Quintana Roo, where a flock composed of six endemic cyprinodonts is present needs special mention. Three hotspots of richness plus endemism were found in Mexico, the most important of which is the Mesa Central where impacts by human activities have had a detrimental effect on fish populations.

  13. LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Excavations in the late Pleistocene deposits at Liang Bua cave, Flores, have uncovered the skeletal remains of several small-bodied and small-brained hominins in association with stone artefacts and the bones of Stegodon. Due to their combination of plesiomorphic, unique and derived traits, they were ascribed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, which, along with Stegodon, appears to have become extinct ∼17 ka (thousand years ago). However, recently it has been argued that several characteristics of H. floresiensis were consistent with dwarfism and evidence of delayed development in modern human (Homo sapiens) myxoedematous endemic (ME) cretins. This research compares the skeletal and dental morphology in H. floresiensis with the clinical and osteological indicators of cretinism, and the traits that have been argued to be associated with ME cretinism in LB1 and LB6. Contrary to published claims, morphological and statistical comparisons did not identify the distinctive skeletal and dental indicators of cretinism in LB1 or LB6 H. floresiensis. Brain mass, skeletal proportions, epiphyseal union, orofacial morphology, dental development, size of the pituitary fossa and development of the paranasal sinuses, vault bone thickness and dimensions of the hands and feet all distinguish H. floresiensis from modern humans with ME cretinism. The research team responsible for the diagnosis of ME cretinism had not examined the original H. floresiensis skeletal materials, and perhaps, as a result, their research confused taphonomic damage with evidence of disease, and thus contained critical errors of fact and interpretation. Behavioural scenarios attempting to explain the presence of cretinous H. sapiens in the Liang Bua Pleistocene deposits, but not unaffected H. sapiens, are both unnecessary and not supported by the available archaeological and geochronological evidence from Flores. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analyse de la flore, de la végétation ligneuse et des fonctions des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zone péri-urbaine post-conflit (Ziguinchor, Sénégal). Maurice ... Mots clés : Vallées, végétation, flore, ménage, production agricole. Analysis of the flora, the ..... points d'eaux. La ... usées et d'un camp de la marine dans la vallée de Cobitène.

  15. The subsurface three-dimensional modeling of volcano arc of Flores island based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titi, Yopiter Lukas Alexander; Minarto, Eko

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation and three-dimensional modeling of the subsurface structure of the volcano arc of the Flores island based on the gravity data analysis have been done. This research is aimed for modeling subsurface structure utilized a secondary data of complete Bouguer anomaly gravity data obtained from Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) using Grablox and Bloxer software. The modeling construction was performed by inversion technique applying the method of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Occam inversion. The result indicates that Subsurface structure of the volcano area of the Flores island consists of sandstone, breccia and andesite have density value ranging from 2,42 g/cm3 to 2,62 g/cm3 and basaltic and lava have density values ranging from 2,65 g/cm3 to 3,24 g/cm3. The most dominating rocks in the study area are basaltic rocks have 2.73 g/cm3 point of average density. The existence of magma chamber in the volcanic arc of Flores island was estimated at a depth of 6 km.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from human, vector, and animal reservoir in the same endemic region in Mexico and typed as T. cruzi I, discrete typing unit 1 exhibit considerable biological diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated at the same time and in the same endemic region in Mexico from a human patient with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (RyC-H; vector (Triatoma barberi (RyC-V; and rodent reservoir (Peromyscus peromyscus (RyC-R. The three strains were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and by pathological profiles in experimental animals (biodemes. Based on the analysis of genetic markers the three parasite strains were typed as belonging to T. cruzi I major group, discrete typing unit 1. The pathological profile of RyC-H and RyC-V strains indicated medium virulence and low mortality and, accordingly, the strains should be considered as belonging to biodeme Type III. On the other hand, the parasites from RyC-R strain induced more severe inflammatory processes and high mortality (> 40% and were considered as belonging to biodeme Type II. The relationship between genotypes and biological characteristics in T. cruzi strains is still debated and not clearly understood. An expert committee recommended in 1999 that Biodeme Type III would correspond to T. cruzi I group, whereas Biodeme Type II, to T. cruzi II group. Our findings suggest that, at least for Mexican isolates, this correlation does not stand and that biological characteristics such as pathogenicity and virulence could be determined by factors different from those identified in the genotypic characterization

  17. Flores, Fernández y Oliva: tres azulejeros para las obras reales de Felipe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleguezuelo, Alfonso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Que las obras de arquitectura promocionadas por Felipe II eran acabadas frecuentemente con revestimientos de azulejos es una idea conocida desde hace tiempo. El ejemplo más frecuentemente aducido es el de los aposentos del mismo rey en el Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial aunque podrían ser citados muchos más casos conservados y otros conocidos a través de la documentación. Este rasgo de la arquitectura filipina y el personal interés del rey por el asunto debió ser un importante acicate para el desarrollo de la azulejería española en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI. Tres artistas han sido citados desde hace años como autores de los azulejos para Felipe II. Por un lado, el flamenco Juan Flores, del que tan sólo se tenían unas pocas noticias literarias sobre su vida y su obra y que recientemente he tenido la oportunidad de revisar a luz de nuevos documentos y obras.…

  18. Characteristic of geothermal fluid at East Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mochamad; Herdianita, Niniek Rina; Risdianto, Dikdik

    2016-09-01

    The research area is located in East Manggarai and its surrounding area, Flores. In the study area there are two geothermal systems, i.e. Mapos geothermal system which is associated with Anak Ranakah volcano and Rana Masak geothermal systems which is associated with Watuweri volcano. The difference within these systems is shown by the relative content of conservative elements of Cl, Li and B. Geothermal surface manifestations in Mapos include 4 hot springs having temperatures of 34,3-51,4°C and bicarbonate and sulphate-bicarbonate waters; the discharge area in Rana Masak consist of 3 hot springs with temperatures of 38-46,6°C and chloride and chloride-bicarbonate water. Stable isotopes δ18O and δD analyses showed that the geothermal fluid derived from meteoric water. The Mapos geothermal system is a high temperature system having reservoir temperature of 250-270°C with natural heat loss of 230 kW. The Rana Masak geothermal system is a low temperature system having reservoir temperature of 120-140°C with natural heat loss of 120 kW.

  19. Estado gel do corpo ficcional em 'Rosa canina' e "Flores", de Mario Bellatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Jasinski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bellatin cria um espaço de sentido peculiar na ficção, relacionado à expressão visual e performática da linguagem. Assim, escrever se apresenta como linguagem do corpo em seu projeto literário, um território de significância constantemente desterritorializado por sensações conectadas ao jogo narrativo, com imagens e símbolos, nas ações literárias. Um sentido de destruição criativa constitui o paradoxo expresso pela ficção como corpo e pelo corpo como ficção, naquilo que consideramos a “escrita nômade” de Bellatin, por meio da anormalidade dos personagens, da sua sexualidade e sua religiosidade, como se pode comprovar em Flores (2000, especialmente em “Rosa canina”, publicado online pela Cosac Naify em 2009. A posição adotada pelo protagonista nessa obra parece indicar um “regime de significação” específico, como entende Josefina Ludmer, segundo o qual arte e realidade, ficção e biografia apagam suas fronteiras num “estado gel do intercâmbio”.

  20. Age and context of the oldest known hominin fossils from Flores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Storey, Michael; Kurniawan, Iwan; Alloway, Brent V; Setiawan, Ruly; Setiyabudi, Erick; Grün, Rainer; Moore, Mark W; Yurnaldi, Dida; Puspaningrum, Mika R; Wibowo, Unggul P; Insani, Halmi; Sutisna, Indra; Westgate, John A; Pearce, Nick J G; Duval, Mathieu; Meijer, Hanneke J M; Aziz, Fachroel; Sutikna, Thomas; van der Kaars, Sander; Flude, Stephanie; Morwood, Michael J

    2016-06-09

    Recent excavations at the early Middle Pleistocene site of Mata Menge in the So'a Basin of central Flores, Indonesia, have yielded hominin fossils attributed to a population ancestral to Late Pleistocene Homo floresiensis. Here we describe the age and context of the Mata Menge hominin specimens and associated archaeological findings. The fluvial sandstone layer from which the in situ fossils were excavated in 2014 was deposited in a small valley stream around 700 thousand years ago, as indicated by (40)Ar/(39)Ar and fission track dates on stratigraphically bracketing volcanic ash and pyroclastic density current deposits, in combination with coupled uranium-series and electron spin resonance dating of fossil teeth. Palaeoenvironmental data indicate a relatively dry climate in the So'a Basin during the early Middle Pleistocene, while various lines of evidence suggest the hominins inhabited a savannah-like open grassland habitat with a wetland component. The hominin fossils occur alongside the remains of an insular fauna and a simple stone technology that is markedly similar to that associated with Late Pleistocene H. floresiensis.

  1. ASPECTOS DA PRODUÇÃO E CONSUMO DE FLORES E PLANTAS ORNAMENTAIS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTO AKI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo uma análise sobre a constituição do mercado de flores e plantas ornamentais no Brasil, aspectos de marketing envolvidos nessa evolução e a sistematização de informações sobre produção e consumo. Inicialmente, é apresentada a evolução desse mercado, elaborada a partir de estudos de técnicos e consultores da área. Segue-se a apresentação de dados e informações de estudos e pesquisas elaborados sobre a evolução da produção. A maioria das informações apresentada consta da pesquisa de campo “Prospecção de Produtos e Mercados: Cadeia Produtiva Nacional”, levada a efeito pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Floricultura (IBRAFLOR com o apoio da Agência de Promoção de Exportações (APEX, e publicada no início de 2003. Com base na estruturação do mercado, produção e consumo, são sugeridas ações visando à maior eficiência da cadeia.

  2. Fractal Analysis on the Correlation of Coastal Line Geometry and Tsunami Impact in Maumere, Flores, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARI BAHAGIARTI KUSUMAYUDHA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all of the Indonesian territories are high potential of geologic disaster, such as earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruptions and landslides, because the country belongs to tectonically active areas of the world. There are three big lithosperic plates interacting one with one another and influencing the tectonic setting of Indonesia. The plates are Indo-Australia plate, Eurasia plate and Pacific plate. Indo-Australia plate moves relatively northward by about 9 cm/year, Eurasia plate creeps south eastward with approximately 7 cm/year speed, and Pacific plate moves to the west with around 11 cm/year velocity. In the meeting line of the plates, about 300 km to the south of Indonesian islands, there is the subduction zone that become places, where earthquake focuses are generated. Earthquakes from submarine source with more than 6.5 magnitude have the potential to generate tsunami. Areas situated along the south coast of Indonesia islands are vulnerable to tsunami, because directly facing the boundary lines between Eurasia plate and Indo-Australia plate. This study verified that there is positive correlation between coastal line geometry and the tsunami impact, based on fractal analysis. The case study is Maumere, Flores island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Result of the study is expected to be used for predicting the tsunami impact intensiveness at other areas.

  3. Identifikasi longsoran bawah laut berdasarkan penafsiran seismik pantul di perairan Flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20092Submarine sliding frequently cause tsunami or a high velocity big wave around the submarine slid- ing area which enable to reach a long distance. This sliding is not always as a causal factor for hazard and even associate with storm and earthquake. Some of them occur in a narrow area and it’s just formed due to gravitational movement. Different with mechanism of landslide, which is commonly due to water saturated soil, the submarine sliding is a more complex event. The submarine sliding is an important natural process which causes a big volume of sediment mass moves from a shallow area to a much deeper area of seafloor. There are many types and causal factors of seafloor instability, but the sliding terminology is predominantly used for the phenomena. A variety of seafloor materials, environments and sediment masses are some extreme influential factors in creat- ing the types of submarine sliding. The reflector of seismics is usefull to interpret the indications of the occurrence of geological structure and sub-marine slumping In case of the Flores Sea, earthquake is a major causal factor for creating submarine sliding. The bigger magnitude of earthquake, the greater the dimension of submarine sliding. Eventually, it may affect to the more possible occurrence of a potential hazardous tsunami.  

  4. Identifikasi longsoran bawah laut berdasarkan penafsiran seismik pantul di perairan Flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20092Submarine sliding frequently cause tsunami or a high velocity big wave around the submarine slid- ing area which enable to reach a long distance. This sliding is not always as a causal factor for hazard and even associate with storm and earthquake. Some of them occur in a narrow area and it’s just formed due to gravitational movement. Different with mechanism of landslide, which is commonly due to water saturated soil, the submarine sliding is a more complex event. The submarine sliding is an important natural process which causes a big volume of sediment mass moves from a shallow area to a much deeper area of seafloor. There are many types and causal factors of seafloor instability, but the sliding terminology is predominantly used for the phenomena. A variety of seafloor materials, environments and sediment masses are some extreme influential factors in creat- ing the types of submarine sliding. The reflector of seismics is usefull to interpret the indications of the occurrence of geological structure and sub-marine slumping In case of the Flores Sea, earthquake is a major causal factor for creating submarine sliding. The bigger magnitude of earthquake, the greater the dimension of submarine sliding. Eventually, it may affect to the more possible occurrence of a potential hazardous tsunami.  

  5. Population viability of the narrow endemic Helianthemum juliae (CISTACEAE) in relation to climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrero-Gomez, M.V.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Carque-Alamo, E.; Banares-Baudet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Narrow endemic plants are highly vulnerable to extinction as a result of human disturbance and climate change. We investigated the factors affecting the population viability of Helianthemum juliae, a perennial plant endemic to the Teide National Park on Tenerife, Canary Islands. One population was

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae in human beings and dogs from and endemic area of mediterranean spotted fever in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Porta, F; Diestre-Ortin, G; Ortuño-Romero, A; Sanfeliu-Sala, I; Font-Creus, B; Muñoz-Espin, T; de Antonio, E M; Casal-Fábrega, J

    1998-06-01

    We assessed the prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae in human beings and dogs by indirect immunofluorescence in the region of 'Vallés Occidental', Barcelona (Spain). In the group of 150 serum samples from patients without former history of Mediterranean spotted fever, 12 had antibodies to Rickettsia conori. The overall seroprevalence was 8% (95% confidence interval, 4.6% to 13.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the mean ages of patients with positive and negative antibodies to R. conorii. However, seropositivity was significantly more common among patients living in semi-rural areas. In the group of 138 dog serum samples, 36 (26.1%) sera had antibodies to R. conorii. When the present results were compared with those obtained in a previous seroepidemiological survey carried out in the same geographical region in 1987, no significant differences were found. Therefore, although the epidemiological markers have dropped, this does not absolutely confirm the decrease of the presence of R. conorii in this area.

  7. A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. Methods and Findings A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2−10 ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2−10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2−10 ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the

  8. Follajes comercializados en dos mercados de flores del Altiplano Central Mexicano

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    Graciela Noemi Grenón-Cascales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Los tradicionales mercados de flores Xochiquetzal del municipio de Tenancingo, Estado de México y Jamaica en el Distrito Federal, son importantes en la comercialización de especies de follajes, de los cuales se desconoce su filiación taxonómica, por lo que resulta relevante realizar su inventario. Para ello, se visitaron ambos mercados para la adquisición de las especies, y su posterior herborización e identifi cación taxonómica en el herbario de la facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Adicionalmente se obtuvo información complementaria de cada una de ellas a través de encuestas aplicadas. Con los datos obtenidos se realizó el inventario y el catálogo de follajes de ambos mercados.Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el número de especies comercializadas en los dos mercados es de 87 especies, las cuales pertenecen a 57 géneros y 38 familias. El mayor número de especies de follajes se comercializan en forma de manojo (43% y el menor número corresponde a racimos de frutos (3%; el mayor número de especies de follajes se comercializan en el mercado de Jamaica (71% y sólo el 13% en el mercado de Tenancingo. La familia Araceae muestra un mayor número de especies de follajes (10%. Estos datos se deben a que sus especies tienen inflorescencias muy llamativas y que tienen una larga vida en florero. La información recopilada en el catálogo servirá de difusión y apoyo para establecer estrategias de conservación y uso sustentable de las especies comercializadas en los mercados, objeto de estudio.

  9. RELACIONES GENOMICAS ENTRE CUATRO ESPECIES DIPLOIDES DE TURNERA CON FLORES AMARILLAS (SERIE CANALIGERAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Mercedes Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Los rasgos morfológicos y citogenéticos de los híbridos artificiales entre cuatro especies diploides (2n = 10: T.concinna, T.Krapovickasii, T.scabra y T.subulata han sido estudiados. Los híbridos fueron intermedios en varios caracteres, como el color de las flores, la longitud, la anchura y forma de las semillas, en algunos rasgos se parecían a uno o al otro padre.
    Todos los híbridos interespecíficos mostraron un alto porcentaje de PMC con cinco bivalentes. La meiosis de T.subulata x T.scabra fue regular (5 II. En los otros híbridos fue grabada una baja frecuencia de trivalentes o cuadrivalentes; estos trivalentes y cuadrivalentes son evidencia de translocaciones recíprocas. Puentes y fragmentos en anafase I y II muestran la presencia de inversiones paracéntricas.
    Los análisis morfológicos y citogenéticos de los híbridos indican una estrecha relación entre T.scabra y T.subulata y entre T.concinna y T.Krapovickasii respectivamente. Esta última especie tiene un par de cromosomas con satélites grandes. T.scabra y T.concinna están más alejadas.
    El estudio citogenético de todos los híbridos entre estas especies confirmaría que son taxones independientes. Ellos tienen el mismo genoma básico, que designamos Asu Asu de T. subulata, Asc Asc para T.scabra, Ak Ak para T. Krapovickasii y Ac Ac para T.concinna.

  10. Esencia Floral a partir de Residuos Orgánicos (pétalos de flores

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    Amelia Vidales Olivo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La perfumería es el arte de producir aromas mediante la combinación de sustancias odoríficas, esto se puede llevar a cabo cuando se recicla por separado los deshechos de pétalos frescos y secos, aplicando el proceso de extracción, para obtener los aromas (fragancias, agradables y característicos de las flores. Proceso aplicado a los diferentes pétalos recolectados, como materia prima; se conoció el rendimiento del producto obtenido. Las técnicas o métodos aplicados son a nivel laboratorio realizados en el área de química cualitativa basadas en microtécnicas de extracción de destilación, maceración en grasa y absorción en alcohol; efectuando el correspondiente estudio financiero para conocer los costos. Todo esto fue verificado bajo los más estrictos controles de calidad que establece la norma oficial mexicana que rigen a la perfumería. Las esencias concentradas, obtenidas fueron los volúmenes de (4, 8, 250 y 300 mililitros. Mismos que se probo su efectividad con los estudiantes seleccionados del instituto tecnológico; aplicándose de inmediato una encuesta, para saber si se tenían reacciones alérgicas con el producto y si el aroma fue del agrado, encontrando muy buena aceptación y comentarios positivos como la duración prolongada del aroma, con calificativos como: ésta muestra es olor dulce, fresca, agradable, con olor a rosas; se adiciona otro calificativo más de parte del equipo investigador, de ser muy económico.

  11. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  12. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

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    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  13. CARPATHIANS ENDEMIC TAXA IN ARGEŞ COUNTY

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    Valeriu Alexiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic plant species are the biogeographic elements why use the delimitation of biogeographical regions. Their presence explains, in the context of identifying phyto-historical factors, distribution of species and certain distribution patterns. Endemic areas, with pronounced as the basic unit of biogeography, indicates those particular geographic region, both in the growth areas and the evolutionary biological processes of speciation.In this study we proposed the following objectives: knowing the list Carpathian endemic species and endemic centers present in Argeş, also, areas of endemism in the Carpathians Mountains of the Argeş County.

  14. Influence of storage temperature on Epidendrum ibaguense flowers = Influência da temperatura de armazenamento em flores de Epidendrum ibaguense.

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    Ana Maria Mapeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to evaluate the influence oftemperature and wet-versus-dry storage on longevity, respiration and ethylene production during storage of E. ibaguense flowers. The inflorescences were harvested and stored at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40oC, in water or dry, until complete senescence. Respiration increased when inflorescences were treated with wet or dry storage. The Q10 factor for this flower, at temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C, was similar to most fresh horticultural products, varying between 1.2 and 3.31 depending on storage temperature. Production of ethylene by the inflorescence was maximal at 20ºC for flowers maintained in water, and at 35°C for those flowers kept dry, followedby a sharp drop in both treatments. A maximal shelf life for cut flowers was obtained when the inflorescences were stored wet at 10°C. Symptoms of chilling were observed in flowers stored in water after six to seven days at 5°C, showing petal wilting and necrosis of the labellum. At 40°C, flowers stored dry showed severe petal wilting anddarkening of bud petals less than one day after harvest.O presente trabalho avaliou a influência da temperatura e armazenamento úmido e seco sobre a longevidade, respiração e produção de etileno de flores de Epidendrum ibaguense. As hastes foram colhidas, colocadas em vaso e armazenadas em temperatura de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40oC, em água ou a seco, até completa senescência das flores. A respiração aumentou quando as inflorescências foram tratadas com armazenamento úmido ou seco. O fator Q10 para estas flores, na faixa de temperatura de 5 a 40ºC, foi similar a da maioria dos produtos hortícolas, variando de 1,2 a 3,3, dependendo da temperatura de armazenamento. A produção de etileno foi máxima a 20ºC, para as flores mantidas em água, e a 35ºC para aquelasmantidas a seco, e a partir destas temperaturas houve redução em ambos os tratamentos. A longevidade foi m

  15. Flores Celestes (1807: O livro secreto de José da Silva Lisboa, o visconde de Cairú

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    Iglesias Magalhães, Pablo Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates the origins of a mysterious little book intitled Flores celestes colhidas entre os espinhos da sagrada coroa da augusta, veneravel e soberana cabeça do divino e immortal rei dos seculos Jesus Christo, of authorship of the enigmatic bahiense poet Jose Cortez Sol Posto, also known as Cigano da Bahia. The inquiry demonstrates that, under the layer of merciful poetries, the confessions of one of the most representative personages of the History of Brazil in century XIX are hidden.En este artículo se investiga el origen de un misterioso y pequeño libro titulado Flores celestes colhidas entre os espinhos da sagrada coroa da augusta, veneravel e soberana cabeça do divino e immortal rei dos seculos Jesus Christo, escrito por el enigmático poeta bahiense José Cortez Sol Posto, también conocido como Cigano da Bahia. La investigación muestra que, bajo el pretexto de la poesía piadosa, se esconden las confesiones de uno de los personajes más importantes de la historia de Brasil en el siglo XIX. [pt] O presente artigo investiga as origens de um livrinho misterioso intitulado Flores celestes colhidas entre os espinhos da sagrada coroa da augusta, veneravel e soberana cabeça do divino e immortal rei dos seculos Jesus Christo, de autoria do enigmático poeta bahiense José Cortez Sol Posto, também conhecido como Cigano da Bahia. A investigação demonstra que, sob a capa de poesias piedosas, escondem-se as confissões de um dos mais representativos personagens da História do Brasil no século XIX.

  16. Flores comestíveis: múltiplas utilizações do mais belo da natureza

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As flores comestíveis têm vindo a tornar-se cada vez mais populares, o que se torna claramente evidente pelo aumento de livros de receitas, artigos de revistas e sites sobre o tema, para além do crescimento da investigação científica relacionada com o seu potencial nutricional. O foco principal é a alta gastronomia, atraindo a atenção de gourmets e chefs. Projecto bilateral FCT – CNPq, Portugal/Brazil 2014-2016

  17. Flores Celestes: o livro secreto de José da Silva Lisboa, o visconde de Cairú?

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    Pablo Antonio Iglesias Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo investiga as origens de um livrinho misterioso intitulado Flores celestes colhidas entre os espinhos da sagrada coroa da augusta, veneravel e soberana cabeça do divino e immortal rei dos seculos Jesus Christo, de autoria do enigmático poeta bahiense José Cortez Sol Posto, também conhecido como Cigano da Bahia. A investigação demonstra que, sob a capa de poesias piedosas, escondem-se as confissões de um dos mais representativos personagens da História do Brasil no século XIX.

  18. Studies on bilharziasis endemicity in the vicinity of Basra, Iraq*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, H. H.; de Araoz, J.; Klimt, C. R.; al Ani, K.; Azzawi, J.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations into the distribution of snail genera and possible limiting environmental factors in the endemic and non-endemic areas of human bilharziasis in and near Basra, carried out in 1958 by the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project staff in Iraq. These investigations confirmed the existence of an abrupt line of demarcation between these areas immediately south of Basra. During June and October 1958, the known intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, was not found in canals bordering on areas of either infected or non-infected human populations. From these findings and the evidence of previous investigations it is concluded that in southern Iraq, and particularly in Basra, B. truncatus has been demonstrated with difficulty, if at all. Nevertheless, transmission has continued to take place. Explanations of this apparent phenomenon are discussed and it is concluded that populations of B. truncatus may be completely absent for several years and that other snail genera may play a role in transmitting the disease. A study of environmental factors indicates that water velocities, salinity, turbidity, and pH in the endemic and non-endemic areas showed no significant differences, but that the continuous change in water flow may be a factor limiting B. truncatus colonization. It is also concluded that the salinity in the Shatt al Arab River originates from Lake Hammar and is not introduced from the Persian Gulf by tidal wave, as has been previously believed. PMID:14478047

  19. Rickettsial infection in animals and Brazilian spotted fever endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangioni, Luis A; Horta, Maurício C; Vianna, Manoella C B; Gennari, Solange M; Soares, Rodrigo M; Galvão, Márcio A M; Schumaker, Teresinha T S; Ferreira, Fernando; Vidotto, Odilon; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2005-02-01

    We compared the rickettsial infection status of Amblyomma cajennense ticks, humans, dogs, and horses in both Brazilian spotted fever (BSF)-endemic and -nonendemic areas in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Most of the horses and few dogs from BSF-endemic areas had serologic titers against Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. In contrast, no dogs or horses from BSF-nonendemic areas had serologic titers against R. rickettsii antigens, although they were continually exposed to A. cajennense ticks. All human serum samples and ticks from both areas were negative by serologic assay and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our results indicate that surveys of horse serum are a useful method of BSF surveillance in areas where humans are exposed to A. cajennense ticks. In addition, we successfully performed experimental infection of A. cajennense ticks with R. parkeri.

  20. Dengue fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus synthetic peptides, with motifs to fit HLA class I haplotypes prevalent in human populations in endemic regions, can be used for application to skin Langerhans cells to prime antiviral CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs)--a novel approach to the protection of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Y

    1994-09-01

    Flaviviruses were reported to induce CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in infected individuals, indicating that nonapeptides, proteolytic cleavage products of the viral precursor protein, enter the endoplasmic reticulum in infected cells and interact with HLA class I molecules. The assembled HLA class I molecules are transported to the plasma membrane and prime CD8+ T cells. Current knowledge of the interaction of viral peptides with HLA molecules is reviewed. Based on this review, an idea is presented to use synthetic flavivirus peptides with an amino acid motif to fit with the HLA class I peptide binding group of HLA haplotypes prevalent in a given population in an endemic area. These synthetic viral peptides may be introduced into the human skin using a lotion containing the peptides ("Peplotion") together with substances capable of enhancing the penetration of these peptides into the skin to reach Langerhans cells. The peptide-treated Langerhans cells, professional antigen-presenting cells, may bind the synthetic viral peptides by their HLA class I peptide-binding grooves. Antigens carrying Langerhans cells are able to migrate and induce the cellular immune response in the lymph nodes. This approach to the priming of antiviral CD8+ cytotoxic T cells may provide cellular immune protection from flavivirus infection without inducing the humoral immune response, which can lead to the shock syndrome in Dengue fever patients. To be able to develop anti-Dengue virus synthetic peptides for populations with different HLA class I haplotypes, it is necessary to develop computational studies to design HLA class I Dengue virus synthetic peptides with motifs to fit the HLA haplotypes of the population living in an endemic region for Dengue fever. Experiments to study Dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis peptides vaccines and their effectiveness in protection against Dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis are needed. The development of human antiviral vaccines for application of viral

  1. Sobre el debate Habermas/Flores D’arcais en torno al papel de la religión en la esfera pública

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    José María Panea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El filósofo P. Flores D’Arcais ha escrito, como si fuera Marx contra Feuerbach, once tesis contra Habermas. Sin embargo, el propio Habermas ha mostrado su perplejidad por tales críticas. En el presente trabajo analizamos ambas posiciones filosóficas. Tratamos de hacer justicia al pensamiento de Habermas en materia de religión y esfera pública, a la vez que señalamos las inconsistencias de la interpretación y de las propuestas de P. Flores en el contexto del patriotrismo constitucional.

  2. Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae) e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae) and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Baza Mendonça; Luiz dos Anjos

    2005-01-01

    A assembléia de flores visitadas por beija-flores e a partilha de recursos entre estas aves foram estudadas em uma área urbana do sul do Brasil. Vinte e duas espécies de plantas, em sua maioria exóticas e/ou não-ornitófilas, receberam visitas dos beija-flores. As espécies de beija-flores registradas apresentaram diferentes combinações de características morfológicas (massa, comprimento do bico, comprimento da asa e relação bico/asa), que refletiram no conjunto de flores exploradas e no papel ...

  3. Importancia de los estudios fisiológicos en los cultivos de flores de exportación

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    Orozco de Amézquita Martha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available La Fisiologla Vegetal estudia el funcionamiento de las plantas y los procesos vitales que regulan su crecimiento, desarrollo y producción. En últimas, las respuestas de los vegetales dependen de lo que ocurre a nivel molecular, de organelos subcelulares, de células, de tejidos y órganos y de las
    interrelaciones entre ellos, todo ésto modulado por
    las condiciones ambientales. De la anterior definición, se deduce la importancia que tiene la investigación de los procesos fisiológicos en el desarrollo de la floricultura. En la actualidad, el manejo de plantas productoras de flores bajo
    invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá está basado en el interés de los floricultores por mejorar y aumentar
    la calidad de la producción, lo cual ha originado un importante conocimiento emplrico, acompañado del empleo de técnicas recomendadas por expertos internacionales, que han suplido
    los requerimientos necesarios para la producción. Por lo anterior, Arbeláez (1985 opina que un aspecto de vital importancia en el desarrollo futuro de la industria de flores será el poder contar con investigación suficiente que genere la tecnologla adecuada a las necesidades y condiciones colombianas.

  4. Extreme tsunami runup simulation at Babi Island due to 1992 Flores tsunami and Okushiri due to 1993 Hokkido tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chule Kim, Dong; Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2014-05-01

    This study is based on a series of three dimensional numerical modeling experiments to understand the tsunami run-up and inundation process at the circular shape Babi Island in the Indonesia caused by 1992 Flores earthquake tsunami and at Monai valley in Okushiri Island, west part of East (Japan) Sea caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. The wave field in the coastal area is modeled within the framework of fully nonlinear dispersive Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations solved using the FLOW3D code. Boundary conditions for this model were extracted from computed wave characteristics obtained from the 2D tsunami propagation model based on the shallow water equations. This model has shown it effectivity to explain extreme runup characteristics during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami (Kim et al, 2013). In case of the 1992 Flores Island tsunami the results of numerical simulation run-up results are compared with field measured run-up heights. It has good agreement with measurement and computational run-up heights. The particle velocity distribution is also computed. In the case of 1993 Okushiri tsunami the numerical simulation reproduces extreme run-up at the Monai valley (31.7 m).

  5. Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

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    Ljubinka Jankovic-Velickovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of aristolochic acid in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN and associated upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC has been recently confirmed. The aim of this study was to determine apoptosis-related marker(s specific for BEN-associated UTUC. Present investigation included 105 patients with UTUC, 44 from BEN region and 61 control tumors. Altered expression of Survivin was more often present in BEN UTUC with high grade and solid growth (P<0.005; P<0.05 than in control tumors. Significantly lower expression of proapoptotic marker Bax was found in BEN tumors with high grade, high stage, necrosis, and without metaplastic change (P<0.05; 0.05; 0.05; 0.05 compared to control tumors with the same features. Group (BEN-related/control, stage, growth pattern, and caspase 3 activity were significantly associated with the expression of Bax (P=0.002, 0.034, 0.047, 0.028, resp.,. This investigation identifies Bax as specific marker of BEN-associated UTUC. Decrease of pro-apoptotic protein Bax together with alteration of Survivin may be indicative for specific disturbances of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in UTUC arising in endemic areas.

  6. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  7. Fungos e nematóides fitopatogênicos associados ao cultivo de flores tropicais em São Luís - MA

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    Diogo Herison Silva Sardinha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância do cultivo de flores tropicais no contexto nacional e internacional, buscou-se realizar um levantamento da ocorrência de fungos e nematóides associados às mesmas, em áreas de cultivos de flores tropicais em São Luís - MA. Foram realizadas visitas periódicas, em intervalos bimestrais, nos locais onde a principal atividade era o cultivo de flores tropicais, para o monitoramento e coleta de plantas ou partes de plantas das espécies: Heliconia spp., Alpinia purpurata e Etlingera elatior com sintomatologia típica de doenças. Realizou-se, ainda, o teste de patogenicidade dos principais fungos detectados como agentes causais das manchas foliares. Os resultados obtidos confirmaram a existência de fungos associados aos cultivos de flores tropicais em São Luís, com destaque para Curvularia eragrostides (78 %, Pestalotiopsis sp. (68 % e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (47 % como agentes causais de manchas foliares em espécies da família Heliconiaceae, e Curvularia eragrostides (75 %, Pestalotiopsis sp. (37 % em espécies da família Zingiberaceae. Foram registrados oito gêneros de nematóides, tanto na família Heliconiaceae, quanto na Zingiberaceae, destacando-se o gênero Meloidogyne.

  8. Evolution des flores et de la végétation Tertiaires en Afrique, au nord de PEquateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boureau

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available La repartition de la flore Tertiaire en Afrique, três différente de l’actuelle, se comprend si on tient compte de deux facteurs essentiels: la regression des mers épicontinentales vers le nord et la dérive du continent africain. II en résulte qu’á l'Eocêne inférieur, l’équateur se trouvait á environ 1 000 km au nord de sa position actuelle. Ces modifications aboutissent á des transformations importantes de l’environnement climatique et par consequent de la repartition des flores. Cela explique notamment la presence d’une mangrove en Libye avec Sonneratioxylon aubrevillei et en Egypte avec Nipa burtinii.La forêt dense est présente dans le Paléocêne du Tinrhert avec Entandrophragmoxylon normandii (comparable á l’actuel  Entandrophragma angolense. Les formations de foret dense, développées á l’Eocêne, surtout sur le rivage, sont suivies plus au sud, d’une savane qui s’étend davantage á I’Oligocêne et qui peut atteindre la mer. Cependant, on trouve encore en bordure de mer á l’Oligocêne, des espêces de forêt dense comme Entandrophragmoxylon magnieri (comparable á  Entandrophragma candollei espêce qui avoisine des dépóts deltaiques avec de grands troncs qui indiquent une flore plus sêche (Detarioxylon aegyptiacum, Combretoxylon bussonii et Pterocarpoxylon tibestiense (rapproché du Pterocarpus erinaceus de savane, mais parfois accompagnée de troncs de forêt-galerie (Atherospermoxylon aegyptiacum, Monimiacée. Au Miocene, l’assechement continue et la savane progresse. Les Palmiers apparaissent et des galeries forestieres subsistent, mais même á proximité de la mer, le biotope est sec au Miocene inférieur dans le Nord de l’Afrique. Ce n’est que vers le sud que la végétation hygrophile apparait au niveau du Tibesti avec Myristicoxylon vincentii. Ainsi. prês de la position présente de l’Equateur, la mangrove se retrouve au Sénégal dans le Paléogêne du Cap-Vert avec des pollens

  9. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Background: For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago...

  10. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sigales de Vasconcelos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento foi realizado no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2010, no campo experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em blocos ao acaso, utilizando-se 22 acessos, com dez plantas por parcela. Para a caracterização morfológica das flores, foram avaliadas cinco flores de cada planta, de dez plantas por acesso. Foram utilizados 15 descritores, sendo cinco quantitativos e dez qualitativos multicategóricos. Foram realizadas análises de comparação de médias, utilizando-se agrupamento pelos métodos UPGMA e de Tocher, para os dados quantitativos, e agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, para os dados qualitativos. Os acessos estudados apresentam ampla diversidade genética em relação a descritores de flores, existindo grande variabilidade entre os acessos avaliados, o que recomenda seu uso em programas de melhoramento genético. O uso de descritores multicategóricos de flores é eficiente para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense.

  11. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  12. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  13. Climate vs. topography – spatial patterns of plant species diversity and endemism on a high-elevation island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin David Howard; Harter, David E. V.; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    the independent contribution of climatic and topographic variables to spatial diversity patterns. We constructed a presence/absence matrix of perennial endemic and native vascular plant species (including subspecies) in 890 plots on the environmentally very heterogeneous island of La Palma, Canary Islands...... (micro-refugia, in situ speciation, pre-adaptation to rupicolous conditions, dispersal limitations) to human-induced influences (introduced herbivores, fire, land use) that possibly shape the endemic richness pattern of La Palma. In contrast, climate mainly drives endemicity, which is connected...... to ecological speciation and specialization to local conditions. We highlight the importance of incorporating climatic variability into future studies of plant species diversity and endemism. The spatial incongruence in hot spots of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity emphasizes the need...

  14. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México

    OpenAIRE

    Partida Lara, Ruth; Enríquez, Paula L.; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Lara, Carlos; Martínez Ico, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral) en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México ...

  15. CLASTS OF UPPERMOST ALBIAN (VRACONIAN LIMESTONE IN THE EOCENE CUCCURU 'E FLORES CONGLOMERATE OF THE M. ALBO MASSIF (EASTERN SARDINIA

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    IGINIO DIENI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare clasts of richly fossiliferous uppermost Albian (Vraconian auctt. glauconitic and phosphatic, ammonite-bearing limestone have been found in the Eocene Cuccuru ’e Flores Conglomerate in the area of M. Albo massif (eastern Sardinia. The limestone is wholly comparable in facies and fossil assemblage to the classical outcrop known in the Orosei area. The fossil content includes also brachiopods and abundant planktonic foraminifers of the Thalmanninella (formerly Rotalipora appenninica Zone. In the palaeontological part the brachiopods Orbirhynchia parkinsoni and Capillithyris capillata are described and discussed. Vraconian highly condensed deposits, characterized by basal erosional gaps of variable importance, have particular relevance, being known to be widely distributed in the northern Tethyan margin with common characteristics, such as authigenic glauconite, phosphatic nodules and a rich outer-shelf fauna. 

  16. Mercados públicos y competitividad: El Palmar y Las Flores de Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl

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    Laura Elena Garza-Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de modernizar los mercados públicos, el gobierno del Estado de México en alianza con el Colegio de Postgraduados estableció un programa de formación de recursos humanos. La metodología consistió en incorporar a los locatarios de los mercados El Palmar y Las Flores de Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl a un proceso de reflexión sobre las ventajas competitivas que ellos consideran poseer y las que señala su clientela. Estas últimas se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta. El artículo presenta los resultados de la reflexión y de la encuesta, así como de las acciones acordadas a partir de la confrontación de ambos resultados.

  17. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Partida Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México de enero a agosto 2010. Cuatro especies de colibríes (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami y Eugenes fulgens se registraron y sus abundancias variaron entre ambientes (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001. Siete especies de plantas fueron visitadas por los colibríes, y presentaron una mayor floración formando parches durante la temporada de secas. En el matorral se concentró el mayor número de especies de plantas con flores. Fuchsia paniculata presentó el mayor periodo de floración aunque solo fue visitada por H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea fue la única especie visitada por las cuatro especies de colibríes. La única asociación positiva fue la abundancia de E. fulgens con la floración de P. membranacea (rS=0.93, p=0.02. Las fluctuaciones de las abundancias de colibríes en este estudio están en cierta forma determinadas por las interacciones del recurso floral y su distribución en el ambiente

  18. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

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    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência em várias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas orgânico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribuídos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avaliações de incidência de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantificação de frutos caídos com ou sem sintomas da doença foi a cada 15 dias, durante o período de crescimento de frutos até a colheita, relacionada com a produção total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e também após incubação no laboratório. Infecção latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias após a floração. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii é capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em pós-colheita após a incubação.

  19. Organización de la comunidad de colibríes ermitaños (Trochilidae phaethorninae) y sus flores en bosques de tierra firme del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu (Amazonas, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Flores Claudia Isabel; Stiles Frank Gary

    2004-01-01

    Se determinó la organización de la comunidad de colibríes ermitaños y sus recursos en bosques de tierra firme de la Amazonia colombiana, a partir de observaciones directas a las flores, cargas de polen de los ermitaños, medidas morfológicas de colibríes y flores, y conteo de flores
    en cinco sitios diferentes. La comunidad la conformaron siete especies de ermitaños (Phaethornis malaris, P. hispidus, P. bourcieri, P. atrimentalis, P. ruber, Glaucis hirsuta y Threnetes leucurus), y 44...

  20. [Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K

    2004-02-01

    Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a

  1. Traits influencing range contraction in New Zealand's endemic forest birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato, Elizabeth H; Armstrong, Doug P; Innes, John G

    2015-10-01

    Understanding vulnerability of endemic taxa to predation is clearly important for conservation management. In New Zealand, predation by introduced mammals such as rats and mustelids is widely recognized as the primary factor responsible for declines of indigenous fauna. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vulnerability of New Zealand's surviving endemic forest bird species to impacts of introduced mammalian predators, and identify key life history attributes underlying this vulnerability. We measured range contraction following the introduction of exotic mammalian predators for 23 endemic forest bird species using information on both pre-human and current distributions. We used Bayesian modeling techniques to analyze whether variation in range contraction was associated with life history traits potentially influencing species' predation vulnerability, while accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our results showed that the extent of range contraction varied greatly among species, with some species remaining in available forest habitat throughout most of their pre-human range, and others having disappeared completely from the main islands. Cavity nesting was the key trait associated with more extensive range decline, suggesting that cavity-nesting species are more vulnerable to predation than species that nest in more open sites.

  2. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  3. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  4. Repartição de nutrientes nas flores, folhas e ramos da laranjeira cultivar Natal Repartition of nutrients in citrus flowers, leaves and branches

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    Eurípedes Malavolta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas cítricas produzem elevado número de flores, porém pequena porcentagem chega a fruto maduro. A fixação é influenciada por diversos fatores, com destaque para os nutricionais orgânicos e minerais. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a repartição de macro e micronutrientes nas flores, folhas e ramos de laranjeira e a contribuição nutricional das flores para os demais órgãos. Plantas de Citrus sinensis L., cultivar Natal sobre porta-enxerto de limoeiro cravo de 10 anos de idade, provenientes de pomar comercial, foram amostradas por ocasião do fluxo primaveril e separadas em flores, folhas e ramos. As flores representam dreno tanto para compostos orgânicos quanto para macro e micronutrientes. Sua massa seca na antese se iguala às das folhas e é maior que a dos ramos. A maior proporção de Ca, Mg e de Ni das três partes encontram-se nas flores de onde, possivelmente, passam em parte para o fruto em desenvolvimento. Sugere-se que aplicações foliares de cálcio, magnésio e níquel, em condições de deficiência, poderiam aumentar a produção através do seu efeito no florescimento.Citrus plants produce a number of flowers, but just a few of them however, become mature fruits. Many factors, as well as organic and inorganic nutrients, influence prebloom and flowers setting. The objective of this work was to evaluate the repartition of macro and micronutrients in citrus flowers, leaves and branches. Branches of "Natal" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. grafted on Rangpur lime rootstock were collected and separated in flowers, leaves and wood during anthesis. Orange flowers represent a drain for organic compounds and macro and micronutrients as well. Their dry matter on anthesis is equal to that of leaves and higher than that of the branches. The highest proportion of Ca, Mg and Ni of the three parts is found in the flowers where possibly migrate in part, into the developing fruits. It is thought that leaf sprays of

  5. Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David T; Voice, Thomas C

    2007-06-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A or aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur.

  6. Búsqueda y reconocimiento de los enemigos naturales y hospedantes alternos de las principales plagas en flores bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briceño Jorge A.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las plagas que atacan cultivos de flores bajo invernadero son cada vez más importantes por la gravedad de su daño y por la alta densidad con que suelen presentarse. Para su control se ha acudido principalrnente a la utilización de productos químicos, lo cual conduce a un aumento en los costos de producción, a contaminar el medio ambiente, a afectar la salud humana y a crear resistencia de los insectos a los insecticidas. Debido a esto, es necesario incluir dentro de los programas de control a los reguladores naturales de las plagas: parasitoides, depredadores y microorganismos entornogenos. En el presente trabajo se registran los enemigos naturales más importantes de las principales plagas en flores bajo invernadero (crisantemo, rosa y clavel.

  7. Piscadelas de caveiras: a escatologia do Jardim das Flores Skull winks: the eschatology of the Garden of Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Dawsey

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available No Jardim das Flores, na periferia de uma cidade do interior paulista, moradores interpretam o seu mundo por meio de histórias sobre o céu e o inferno, e a destruição e recriação do mundo. Como interpretar essas interpretações? A partir dessa questão a antropologia de Geertz propõe-se a fazer uma "descrição densa" em que seja possível distinguir um piscar de olhos de uma piscadela marota. As histórias que se contam no Jardim das Flores, porém, não são meras interpretações. Nelas se alojam vontades de interromper o próprio curso do mundo. Ao dizerem algo sobre o mundo, elas irrompem como provocações capazes de suscitar um abrir e fechar dos olhos, com efeitos de despertar. Por meio de imagens carregadas de tensões, uma descrição densa também adquire as qualidades de uma descrição tensa, um assombro. Não seriam as elipses, incoerências e emendas suspeitas - onde um texto parece desmanchar - os sinais do "baixo corporal" do texto que chamamos cultura? Talvez nesses lugares, como as histórias do Jardim das Flores revelam, encontrem-se os subsolos mais férteis de um texto, ou, ainda, o seu fundo escatológico.In the Garden of Flowers, a peripheral district of a city of the interior of São Paulo, people interpret their world, among other ways, by telling stories about heaven and earth, and the destruction and recreation of the world. How should one interpret these interpretations? As a way for dealing with this question, Geertz developed the notion of 'thick description,' by which one may distinguish a twitch from a wink. The stories told in the Garden of Flowers are not mere interpretations, however. They emerge from the will to interrupt the very course of the world. As they say something about the world, they also erupt as provocations, with awakening effects, causing one's eyes to close and reopen. By means of tension-filled images, 'thick description' may also acquire the qualities of tense description, provoking

  8. [Cost-effectiveness evaluation on comprehensive control measures carrying out in schistosomiasis endemic areas with regard to different layers of administrative villages stratified by infection situation of human and domestic animals. I. Cost-effectiveness study in inner embankment of marshland and lake regions from 2006 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-ming; Yu, Qing; Zhang, Xia; Coa, Chun-li; Li, Shi-zhu; Zhu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the comprehensive control measures carrying out in schistosomiasis endemic inner embankment of marshland and lake regions from 2006 to 2010, so as to provide the reference for further rational allocation of limited health resources and ultimately speeding up the procedure of schistosomiasis elimination. With reference to the requirements of the national schistosomiasis transmission control and phase goals for schistosomiasis control in Hubei Province, Jiangling County, one schistosomiasis control pilot of Hubei Province combined with the National Health and Family Planning Commission and Ministry of Agriculture, was selected for the study. A definition of the infection rates of human and domestic animals was used for endemic villages stratified by different layers (i.e., the village with the infection rates of human and domestic animals ≥ 3% belonged to the first layer, ≥ 1% belonged to the second layer; management, the coverage rates of harm less sanitary latrines were 27.45% in 2009 and 48.74% in 2010 respectively in the second layer villages, whereas there were no harmless sanitary latrines in the first and third layer villages. In the 5 years, the input of comprehensive control measures was 10 266 3900 Yuan, much higher than the human and buffalo examinations and treatments, Oncomelania hupensis snail investigation and elimination (4 183 000 Yuan) and other labor inputs (2 239 500 Yuan). In the ratio of cost-effectiveness, the annual ratio of unit cost (1% reduction of human and buffalo infection and 1 hm2 reduction of snail areas) increased yearly. In addition, the semi-logarithmic stability trend analysis of health inputs and cost showed that there was a stable balance between inputs and cost in the different layers (logarithmic values of any two layers of pair-wise comparison were management should be further strengthened. In the resource allocation, in the field of health, the annual distribution of key inputs and

  9. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

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    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  10. Fenologia do florescimento e características do perfume das flores de Passiflora quadrangularis l. (maracujá-melão

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    Daniel Antonio Villamil Montero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora quadrangularis L. é uma espécie originária do neotrópico, conhecida no Brasil como maracujá-melão devido ao tamanho e formato dos seus frutos. Tem sido amplamente disseminada nas regiões tropicais do mundo onde é produzida em pequena escala para comercialização dos frutos, o que ocorre bem próximo às regiões de cultivo, em função da dificuldade de conservação pós-colheita. As plantas são trepadeiras bastante vigorosas, com flores abundantes, grandes e perfumadas, o que amplia o seu valor e a torna particularmente interessante para caramanchões e cercas-vivas. O uso efetivo de passifloras no mercado de plantas ornamentais depende de estudos da fenologia floral. Neste trabalho foram estudadas algumas características da fenologia floral e o perfume das flores de P. quadrangularis, sob cultivo protegido. São apresentados os dados relativos ao período de floração, picos de florescimento e intensidade relativa das flores, bem como algumas características do perfume floral. Conclui-se que a espécie representa uma nova alternativa de cultivo para fins ornamentais, por apresentar múltiplas flores em antese simultânea, abundantes, grandes, fragrantes e coloridas, com longo período de floração no ano, além de frutos comestíveis, folhas exuberantes e medicinais que oferecem amplo sombreamento para áreas externas de lazer e/ou outras plantas cultivadas.

  11. Análise de amostras de flores de Calêndula (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae comercializadas na grande Curitiba

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    Lais Mondadori Otramario Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Calendula officinalis L. é uma planta herbácea pertencente à família Asteraceae, suas flores apresentam propriedades antimicrobianas, emolientes, antiinflamatórias e tonificantes da pele. Os flavonoides são utilizados como marcadores para avaliar a qualidade da droga vegetal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a identidade e qualidade de seis amostras de flores de C. officinalis L. comercializadas na Grande Curitiba (PR. Foram realizados os ensaios de identificação macroscópica e de pureza, determinação de flavonoides, perfil do extrato etanólico em cromatografia em camada delgada, avaliação das atividades antioxidante e atividade antibacteriana sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Todas as seis amostras analisadas foram identificadas como C. officinalis L. e foram aprovadas no perfil cromatográfico, porém não atenderam aos requisitos farmacopeicos de pureza e teor de flavonoides, fatores que contribuíram para a diminuição da atividade antioxidante e antibacteriana. A má qualidade de plantas medicinais, decorrente de processos produtivos inadequados, pode ocasionar ausência ou diminuição do efeito terapêutico esperado, além de possíveis efeitos tóxicos.Palavras chaves: Calendula officinalis L. Flavonoides. Controle da Qualidade. Cromatografia em camada delgada. Atividade Antioxidante. Atividade Antibacteriana. ABSTRACT Calendula officinalis L., is an herbaceous plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, its flowers have antimicrobial, emollient, anti-inflammatory and toning of the skin properties. Flavonoids are used as chemical markers to evaluate the quality of plant drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the identity and quality of six samples of C. officinalis L. flowers commercialized in Curitiba City and Metropolitan Area (State of Paraná, Brazil. Tests of macroscopic identification, purity, determination of flavonoids were performed, in addition to the profile of the ethanolic

  12. Descripción del uso y manejo de plaguicidas en las empresas de flores afiliadas a Asocolflores.

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    Marcela E. Varona

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En Colombia, la exposición a plaguicidas se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública debido al incremento de la demanda; esto ha ocasionado impacto en la salud de la población y en el ambiente. Objetivo. Describir los plaguicidas empleados y determinar su uso y manejo en las empresas de flores en la sabana de Bogotá y Rionegro (Antioquia afiliadas a la Asociación Colombiana de Exportadores de Flores, Asocolflores. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 84 empresas estratificadas por ubicación geográfica y por tamaño. Se recolectó información de la empresa y del trabajador, y se realizó una observación detallada del proceso de fumigación y utilización de los plaguicidas. Se llevó a cabo un análisis univariado, bivariado y la exploración de posibles asociaciones. Resultados. El 39,4% de los trabajadores de las empresas incluidas en el estudio pertenecían al sexo masculino y el 60,6% al femenino. Respecto a la categoría toxicológica, el 14,3% de los plaguicidas pertenecía a la categoría I, el 14,4% a la II, el 52,0% a la categoría III y el restante, 19,2%, a la categoría IV. Los plaguicidas más utilizados fueron los ditiocarbamatos con 11,7%. Los equipos más empleados para la aplicación de los plaguicidas eran la bomba móvil (92,8% y la lanza (92,9%. El seguimiento de la exposición a plaguicidas por pruebas de laboratorio, se realizaba por medio de la colinesterasa mediante la técnica de Michel-Aldrige en el 85,9% de las empresas. Conclusión. Este estudio describe la forma como se utilizan los plaguicidas en la industria floricultora en Colombia. Se hacen recomendaciones para mejorar su manejo y se proponen medidas para reducir la exposición de los trabajadores.

  13. El extracto etanólico de las flores de Laccopetalum giganteum (pacra-pacra aumenta la fertilidad en ratas

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    Jorge Arroyo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar si la administración por vía oral del extracto etanólico de flores de Laccopetalum giganteum (Pacra-pacra en ratas normales aumenta la fertilidad. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Facultad de Medicina y Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Ratas. Intervenciones: Cuarentiocho animales fueron divididos aleatoriamente en 2 grandes grupos, de 24 cada uno. El primero fue control, con solución salina fisiológica (SSF 5 mL/kg y el segundo con extracto vía oral, 300 mg/kg, durante 15 días. Cada grupo consideró 6 hembras y 6 machos juntos, y 6 hembras y 6 machos separados. Los animales que estuvieron juntos fueron sacrificados, para observar la presencia de fetos en el útero; y a los animales que estuvieron separados, se les extrajo muestra de sangre, para conocer el nivel de testosterona en machos y LH, FSH, estrógenos y progesterona en hembras, expresándose en µg/dL; el dosaje hormonal se realizó por el método de electroquimioluminiscencia. Asimismo, se determinó GOT, GPT, urea y creatinina, según las técnicas utilizadas en el laboratorio clínico. Principales medidas de resultados: Gravidez, FSH, LH, estrógenos y progesterona en ratas hembras; testosterona en ratas machos. Resultados: Los flavonoides, compuestos fenólicos y taninos estuvieron en mayor cantidad en el extracto etanólico. El 100% de ratas que recibió el extracto etanólico de la planta y estuvo junto a los machos resultó grávida; y, las separadas que recibieron el mismo extracto, presentaron incremento de FSH en las hembras y testosterona en los machos, comparativamente a los controles respectivos. Los niveles de GOT, GPT, urea y creatinina se encontraron dentro de los límites aceptados. Conclusiones: En condiciones experimentales, el extracto etanólico de las flores de Laccopetalum giganteum (pacra-pacra incrementó la fertilidad en ratas normales.

  14. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

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    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  15. Training for Future Esp Trainers: Evaluating the Training of Trainers (TOT Program in Labuan Bajo, Manggarai Barat, Flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Rifai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By cooperating with Yayasan Komodo Kita and Mandiri Bank, English department of Binus University was chiefly in charge of a 15 day Training Of Trainers (TOT program for 24 participants prepared for teaching English in Labuan Bajo, Flores. The training was aimed to prepare already fluent- in – English- teachers, tour guides, and university graduates with the right tools and method in teaching English. To assess the program, a set of evaluation questionnaire was given to the participants to know their responses on the training material, the trainers, and the program by using Likert’s scale type questions. An observational record was also used as a tool to measure participants’ achievement. The questionnaire reveals that the participants respond positively to the program and the material and favor the approaches made by the trainers during the training. However, the training shows various results in participants’ performance. It is assumed that the non teaching background of the majority of participants and the level of English as two key factors influencing their performance.  

  16. Jenis dan Status Konservasi Ikan Hiu yang Tertangkap di Tempat Pelelangan Ikan (TPI Labuan Bajo, Manggarai Barat, Flores

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    Ismail Syakurachman Alaydrus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the types of sharks are caught, sold and conservation status in the fish auction place (TPI Labuan Bajo, West Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara have been conducted in February and March 2014 in Labuan Bajo. The research method was the survey method and used Market Survey sampling techniques and identification by Rapid Assessment method. Descriptively analyzed data, displayed in the form of narration and a table. Based on the results of the study, found 114 individual sharks, 55 individual males, 59 females were classified into three orders, namely Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes; 4 families that Carcharhinidae, Odontaspididae, Rhynchobatidae, and Ginglymostomatidae; 5 genera namely Carcharhinus, Triaenodon, Rhyncobatus, Prionace, and Rhizoprionodon and 9 types of sharks that Carcharhinus melanopterus, Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus taurus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Rhynchobatus australiae, Prionace glauca, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Nebrius ferrugineus. Based on the state of conservation, shark found in Labuan Bajo TPI classified Vulnerable and Near Threatened, the dominant type of shark found is Carcharhinus melanopterus (91 fishes while the least was found is Rhynchobatus australiae, Prionace glauca, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Nebrius ferrugineus (each 1 individual.

  17. UJI COBA PENEBARAN JASAD HAYATI NEMATODA ROMANOMERMIS IYENGARI DI PERINDUKAN VEKTOR MALARIA DAN FILARIASIS DI FLORES TIMUR

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    Widiarti Widiarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of R. iyengari, a parasitic nematod as a biological agent of vector control toward mosquito larvae in the sandpool, an ideal breeding places for malaria and fdariasis vectors, was conducted in East Flores. The aim of the present study was to determine : (1. The adaptability and recycling ability of post parasites stage of the nematode in the sandpool. (2. The ability of pre parasites (infective stage to parasitize Cx. quinquefasciatus (laboratory larvae in centinel cage and An. barbirostris (natural larvae/sandpool. The distribution of R. iyengari post parasites at a dosage of500 nematodes/m2 revealed that the nematodes mature to adults, mated and layed eggs (adapted, however recycling could not be observed yet. The infection rate of Cx. quinquefasciatus sentinel cages after release through dissections was observed in 70.55%, 48.68% and 3.64% respectively after 1 month, 2 months and 3 months. The mean monthly infection level for An. barbirostris was 28.24%, 16.66% and 31.25% for 1 month, 2 months and 3 months post release dissections respectively.

  18. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooch, S. S.; Deo, M. G.; Karmarkar, M. G.; Kochupillai, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 μg per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt. PMID:4546523

  19. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooch, S S; Deo, M G; Karmarkar, M G; Kochupillai, N; Ramachandran, K; Ramalingaswami, V

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 mug per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt.

  20. Picramnia tumbesina: una nueva Picramniaceae, endémica del bosque seco tropical al occidente de Ecuador Picramnia tumbesina: a new Picramniaceae, endemic to the tropical dry forest in western Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Cornejo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Picramnia tumbesina, una nueva especie de árbol dioico, endémico del bosque seco tropical, al occidente del Ecuador. Esta es similar a P. sellowii Planch. subsp. sellowii, pero se distingue por presentar inflorescencias ramifloras, ramas fistulosas, hojas que alcanzan mayor dimensión, con grandes foliolos y pedicelos más largos en las flores pistiladas y frutos.Picramnia tumbesina a new dioecious tree, endemic to tropical dry forest in western Ecuador is described. It is similar to P. sellowii Planch. subsp. sellowii, but differs by having ramiflorous inflorescences, fistulose branches, larger leaflets and leaves, and longer pedicels on the pistillate flowers and fruits.

  1. SOIL PROPERTIES OF THE EASTERN TOPOSEQUENCE OF MOUNT KELIMUTU, FLORES ISLAND, EAST NUSA TENGGARA AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURAL USE

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    Hikmatullah Hikmatullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelimutu stratovolcano is one of the young volcanoes extensively found in Flores island. Studies on volcanic soil properties and their suitability for agricultural development in the whole island are lacking. The research was conducted to evaluate the relationship of elevation and soil properties,  and suitability for agricultural development. Five representative pedons at elevation of 550, 1,000, 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 m above sea level (asl, respectively, were studied in the field, and 22 soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory. The results indicated that elevation significantly affected soil properties and degree of soil weathering. With decreasing elevation, sand content, amorphous material content, and phosphate retention decreased. Concomitantly, clay content, H2O-pH, exchangeable Ca and Mg, base saturation, and soil-CEC increased. A highly positive correlation was shown between P retention and NaFpH, Al, and (Al+0.5 Fe contents extracted by acid ammonium oxalate. Soil-CEC also showed significant positive correlation with clay and silt contents, organic carbon, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Degree of weathering increased with decreasing elevation as reflected by decreasing silt/clay ratio. Soils developed from Entisols (Lithic Udorthents at 1,600 m asl, to Andisols (Typic Hapludands at 1,000-1,400 m asl, and Mollisols (Typic Hapludolls at lower elevation down to 550 m asl. Soils at 1,400-1,600 m asl are unsuitable for  agriculture. Soils at 1,000-1,200 m are moderately suitable for food crops, horticulture, and estate crops. Dominant limiting factors are steep slopes and P retention. Soils at 550 m asl are suitable for food and estate crops, and also lowland horticulture.

  2. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Inge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infections might either exacerbate or reduce the severity of malaria attacks. The same discrepancies have been reported for parasitemia. Methods/Design To determine the effect of geohelminth infections and their treatment on malaria infection and disease outcome, as well as on immunological parameters, the area of Nangapanda on Flores Island, Indonesia, where malaria and helminth parasites are co-endemic was selected for a longitudinal study. Here a Double-blind randomized trial will be performed, incorporating repeated treatment with albendazole (400 mg or placebo at three monthly intervals. Household characteristic data, anthropometry, the presence of intestinal helminth and Plasmodium spp infections, and the incidence of malaria episodes are recorded. In vitro cultures of whole blood, stimulated with a number of antigens, mitogens and toll like receptor ligands provide relevant immunological parameters at baseline and following 1 and 2 years of treatment rounds. The primary outcome of the study is the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection. The secondary outcome will be incidence and severity of malaria episodes detected via both passive and active follow-up. The tertiary outcome is the inflammatory cytokine profile in response to parasite antigens. The project also facilitates the transfer of state of the art methodologies and technologies, molecular diagnosis of parasitic diseases, immunology and epidemiology from Europe to Indonesia. Discussion The study will provide data on the effect of helminth infections on malaria. It will also give information on anthelminthic treatment efficacy and effectiveness and could help

  3. Novel Reassortant Human-Like H3N2 and H3N1 Influenza A Viruses Detected in Pigs Are Virulent and Antigenically Distinct from Swine Viruses Endemic to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajão, Daniela S; Gauger, Phillip C; Anderson, Tavis K; Lewis, Nicola S; Abente, Eugenio J; Killian, Mary Lea; Perez, Daniel R; Sutton, Troy C; Zhang, Jianqiang; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-11-01

    Human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) were detected by the USDA surveillance system. We characterized two novel swine human-like H3N2 and H3N1 viruses with hemagglutinin (HA) genes similar to those in human seasonal H3 strains and internal genes closely related to those of 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. The H3N2 neuraminidase (NA) was of the contemporary human N2 lineage, while the H3N1 NA was of the classical swine N1 lineage. Both viruses were antigenically distant from swine H3 viruses that circulate in the United States and from swine vaccine strains and also showed antigenic drift from human seasonal H3N2 viruses. Their pathogenicity and transmission in pigs were compared to those of a human H3N2 virus with a common HA ancestry. Both swine human-like H3 viruses efficiently infected pigs and were transmitted to indirect contacts, whereas the human H3N2 virus did so much less efficiently. To evaluate the role of genes from the swine isolates in their pathogenesis, reverse genetics-generated reassortants between the swine human-like H3N1 virus and the seasonal human H3N2 virus were tested in pigs. The contribution of the gene segments to virulence was complex, with the swine HA and internal genes showing effects in vivo. The experimental infections indicate that these novel H3 viruses are virulent and can sustain onward transmission in pigs, and the naturally occurring mutations in the HA were associated with antigenic divergence from H3 IAV from humans and swine. Consequently, these viruses could have a significant impact on the swine industry if they were to cause more widespread outbreaks, and the potential risk of these emerging swine IAV to humans should be considered. Pigs are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAV). Human-to-swine transmissions of IAV have resulted in the circulation of reassortant viruses containing human-origin genes in pigs, greatly contributing to the diversity of IAV in swine worldwide. New human-like H3N2

  4. Geographic patterns of endemic seed plant genera diversity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shengbin Chen; Zhiyun Ouyang; Yu Fang; Zhenji Li

    2011-01-01

    Endemism describes the phenomenon that the distribution of individual species/taxa is critically restricted to a specific region. Seed plant genera endemic to China (endemic genera) are those with their main geographic distribution range within the borders of China. The geographic patterns of endemic genera can not only guide conservation planning, but these organisms are also important biological resources. We gath-ered data of 173 localities on environmental and spatial factors, and regiona...

  5. Clinical disease, immunity and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in populations living in endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L

    1998-01-01

    and mortality in an endemic setting (malaria is regularly found) is concentrated in children below the age of five years, and the increasing resistance to infection and disease with age is conventionally thought to reflect a slow and gradual acquisition of protective immunity. Many recent and comprehensive...... reviews of malarial immunity exist; rather than attempting to add another, this review summarises some of the recent evidence on how protective immunity is acquired in humans and what precipitates clinical disease, specifically as it relates to populations living in areas where the disease is endemic...

  6. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento f...

  7. Efeito da desfolha de ramos sobre a indução de brotos e flores em atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito do desfolhamento de ramos na produção de brotos e flores em plantas adultas de atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L.) var. Gefner. O experimento foi realizado em plantio comercial no município de Maceió - AL. Foram utilizadas 24 plantas podadas com altura de 1.5 m e espaçadas de 4 x 2 m. Os ramos maduros tiveram seus ápices removidos na altura da 4ª folha, sendo depois submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos de desfolha manual: 1) desfolha total dos ramos; 2) re...

  8. PurificaÃÃo e caracterizaÃÃo de um inibidor de tripsina das flores de Cassia fistula Linn. com atividade antimicrobiana

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Pinheiro Dias

    2012-01-01

    As plantas sintetizam proteÃnas que possuem propriedades antimicrobianas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituiÃÃo aos defensivos quÃmicos no campo e como fonte de novas drogas para o controle de infecÃÃes bacterianas em humanos. Dentre as diversas estruturas vegetais, ÃrgÃos reprodutivos como as flores parecem ser uma fonte promissora de tais molÃculas ativas contra patÃgenos, particularmente se considerado o seu relevante papel fisiolÃgico, o qual deve ser preservado. Nesse contexto, a prese...

  9. PurificaÃÃo e caracterizaÃÃo de um inibidor de tripsina das flores de Cassia fistula Linn. com atividade antimicrobiana

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Pinheiro Dias

    2012-01-01

    As plantas sintetizam proteÃnas que possuem propriedades antimicrobianas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituiÃÃo aos defensivos quÃmicos no campo e como fonte de novas drogas para o controle de infecÃÃes bacterianas em humanos. Dentre as diversas estruturas vegetais, ÃrgÃos reprodutivos como as flores parecem ser uma fonte promissora de tais molÃculas ativas contra patÃgenos, particularmente se considerado o seu relevante papel fisiolÃgico, o qual deve ser preservado. Nesse contexto, a prese...

  10. Uso medicinal de las plantas por los otomíes del municipio de Nicolás Flores, Hidalgo, México

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sánchez-González; D. Granados-Sánchez; R. Simón-Nabor

    2008-01-01

    El conocimiento de las plantas medicinales por los otomíes (hñähñü) de Nicolás Flores, Hidalgo se ha mantenido a través de las generaciones. La influencia de la medicina alópata está restringida principalmente a la prevención de enfermedades como poliomielitis, sarampión, viruela y paludismo. La medicina tradicional es más viable ante las condiciones socioeconómicas, fisiográficas y culturales en esta región. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las especies de plantas que utilizan los...

  11. Presencia del elemento genético transponible dTdic1 en Dianthus caryophyllus con flores variegadas y no variegadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rocío López Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Presence of the transposable genetic element  dTdic1 in Dianthus caryophyllus with  variegated and no variegated flowers Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo era la búsqueda del  EGT (Elemento Genético Transponible dTdic1 que ha sido asociado con la variegación del color de las flores de clavel y su relación con dos genes que codifican para enzimas involucradas en la biosíntesis de antocianinas,  Chalcona isomerasa (CHI y Dihidroflavonol reductasa (DFR.  Su presencia y expresión se evaluó en siete genotipos con flores variegadas (líneas híbridas y en cuatro genotipos de flores no variegadas (una línea híbrida y tres cultivares comerciales.  Un alto número (indefinido de copias del elemento dTdic1 se detectó en todas las líneas variegadas y no variegadas.  En consecuencia, la sola presencia de este EGT no pudo asociarse directamente con la variegación de los pigmentos florales de flores de clavel.  Adicionalmente, dTdic1 se encontró interrumpiendo el gen CHI en cuatro genotipos variegados y uno no variegado. No se observó evidencia de inserción de dTdic1 en el gen DFR en ninguno de los genotipos. Palabras clave: Transposones; chalcona isomerasa; antocianinas Abstract: The objective of this work was to search for the EGT (Transposable Genetic Element dTdic1 that has been associated with color variegation of carnation flowers and its relationship with two genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, Chalcona isomerase (CHI and Dihidroflavonol reductase (DFR. Its presence and expression was evaluated in seven genotypes of variegated flowers and four no variegated flower genotypes (one hybrid line and three commercial cultivars. A high number of copies (undefined of copies of the dTdic1 element was detected in variegaated and no variegated lines. Therefore, the main presence of this EGT was not associated directly with variegation of floral pigments. Additionally, dTdic1 was

  12. Análisis de competitividad del sector de la producción y exportación de plantas y flores de orquídeas

    OpenAIRE

    Santacruz Quevedo, Genoveva

    2011-01-01

    El propósito principal de este trabajo es hacer un análisis de la competitividad en el sector de la producción y exportación de plantas y flores de orquídeas en el Ecuador. Para cumplir este propósito se realiza un estudioteórico de las cinco fuerzas de Porter y, a partir de una exploración e investigación del sector se logra un conocimiento claro sobre la realidad de las barreras contra la entrada y la salida delaindustria, datos que permitieron conocer que tan rentable y r...

  13. Diseño de un manual de procedimeintos contables para la Empresa Florícola Flores del Ecuador S.A..

    OpenAIRE

    Chillan Cusi, Miriam Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Toda empresa como resultado de sus operaciones genera información contable y financiera. Para que esta información sea veraz razonable y objetiva requiere de un desempeño y utilización eficiente de sus recursos humanos, materiales y financieros, sumado a esto un adecuado sistema de control interno para la detección de desviaciones. Por lo expuesto, el objetivo general de esta investigación es diseñar un manual de procedimientos contables para la empresa florícola Flores del Ecuador qu...

  14. Aspectos de la relación entre thalurania furcata colombica (aves trochilidae) y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala R., Ana Victoria

    2012-01-01

    El mayor nivel de coadaptación ave nectarívora-flor conocido hasta el momento, se ha logrado en los Trochilidae (VAN DER PIJL & DODSON,1969; FEINSINGER et al., 1979) ; tanto, que se ha hablado de flores adaptadas a la polinización por una especie particular de colibrí, y de colibríes que dependen para su alimentación de una sola clase de flor (SNOW & SNOW, 1980).Los factores principales que afectan la selección de alimento por parte de los colibríes están relacionados con: hábitat y e...

  15. Resistance of Biomphalaria occidentalis from Varzea das Flores dam, Minas Gerais, to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

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    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 from Varzea das Flores dam, MG, Brazil, was exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Individual infection was performed with 140 B. occidentalis and 100 B. glabrata snails using LE and SJ strains. Two groups of B. occidentalis were killed after seven day-miracidia exposure to detect S. mansoni DNA, through the low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR, and were negative. The infection rates were 69.2% (LE strain and 96.7% (SJ strain for B. glabrata and 0% for B. occidentalis. LS-PCR enabled early resistance diagnosis.

  16. Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hong HUANG; Jian-Hua CHEN; Jun-Sheng YING; Ke-Ping MA

    2011-01-01

    We compiled and identified a list of Chinese. endemic seed plant species based on a large number of published References and expert reviews. The characters of these seed plant species and their distribution patterns were described at length. China is rich in endemic seed plants, with a total of 14 939 species (accounting for 52.1%of its total seed plant species) belonging to 1584 genera and 191 families. Temperate families and genera have a significantly higher proportion of endemism than cosmopolitan and tropical ones. The most primitive and derived groups have significantly higher endemism than the other groups. The endemism of tree, shrub, and liana or vine is higher than that of total species; in contrast, the endemism of herb is lower than that of total species. Geographically,these Chinese endemic plants are mainly distributed in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, southwest China. Species richness and proportion of these endemic plants decrease with increased latitude and have a unimodal response to altitude. The peak value of proportion of endemism is at higher altitudes than that of total species and endemic species richness. The proportions of endemic shrub, liana or vine, and herb increase with altitude and have a clear unimodal curve. In contrast, the proportion of tree increases with altitude, with a sudden increase at~4000 m and has a completely different model. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive list of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their basic composition and distribution features.

  17. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation; Compostos bioativos em flores comestiveis processadas por radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  18. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

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    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  19. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006–2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985–2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2–10 year old PfPR data (PfPR2–10) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR2–10 endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. Results We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. Conclusion While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of

  20. Advances in the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses: yaws, bejel, and pinta.

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    Oriol Mitjà

    Full Text Available Improved understanding of the differential diagnosis of endemic treponematoses is needed to inform clinical practice and to ensure the best outcome for a new global initiative for the eradication of yaws, bejel, and pinta. Traditionally, the human treponematoses have been differentiated based upon their clinical manifestations and epidemiologic characteristics because the etiologic agents are indistinguishable in the laboratory. Serological tests are still considered standard laboratory methods for the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses and new rapid point-of-care treponemal tests have become available which are extremely useful in low-resource settings. In the past ten years, there has been an increasing effort to apply polymerase chain reaction to treponematoses and whole genome fingerprinting techniques have identified genetic signatures that can differentiate the existing treponemal strains; however, definitive diagnosis is also hampered by widespread unavailability of molecular diagnostics. We review the dilemmas in the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses, and advances in the discovery of new diagnostic tools.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of endemic and invasive mycoses: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Beatriz L

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of endemic and invasive fungal disease remains challenging. Molecular techniques for identification of fungi now play a significant and growing role in clinical mycology and offer distinct advantages as they are faster, more sensitive and more specific. The aim of this mini-review is to provide an overview of the state of the art of molecular diagnosis of endemic and invasive fungal diseases, and to emphasize the challenges and current need for standardization of the different methods. The European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has made significant progress in developing a standard for Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but recognizes that the process will not be finished until clinical utility has been established in formal and extensive clinical trials. Similar efforts should be implemented for the diagnosis of the other mycoses in order to fully validate the current methods or reinforce the need to design new ones. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  2. Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A assembléia de flores visitadas por beija-flores e a partilha de recursos entre estas aves foram estudadas em uma área urbana do sul do Brasil. Vinte e duas espécies de plantas, em sua maioria exóticas e/ou não-ornitófilas, receberam visitas dos beija-flores. As espécies de beija-flores registradas apresentaram diferentes combinações de características morfológicas (massa, comprimento do bico, comprimento da asa e relação bico/asa, que refletiram no conjunto de flores exploradas e no papel comunitário desempenhado por cada espécie. De um modo geral, beija-flores com nichos tróficos mais amplos foram também os mais freqüentes na área de estudo, indicando que o ambiente urbano pode ser mais favorável às espécies generalistas.The main purpose of this study was to identify the assemblage of flowers used by hummingbirds in an urban area of southern Brazil, as well as describe the patterns of resource partitioning among the hummingbird species. Twenty two plant species were recorded, which flowers are visited by ten hummingbird species. Most of these plants are exotics and regarded as non-ornithophilous. The hummingbirds displayed different combinations of morphological features (mass, bill length, wing length and relation bill/wing, which were reflected in the sets of flowers visited and the community role played by each species. In general, hummingbirds with largest niche breadths were also the most frequent ones, indicating that urban areas could be more suitable for generalist species.

  3. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

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    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  4. Floral Morphogenesis of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var.flore-minore Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) with Special Emphasis on Androecium Developmental Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li CHANG; Yi REN; An-Min LU

    2005-01-01

    The floral morphogenesis and androecium developmental sequence of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. flore-minore Maxim. were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM)and by means of histological methods in order to expand our knowledge of the morphogenesis and development of the floral organs of the Ranunculaceae. The initiation of the floral elements is a centripetal spiral and the direction of the spiral is clockwise or anti-clockwise. However, the development of the androecium is highly unusual: in a longitudinal series of four stamens, the second stamen develops first from the inner to outer, then the third one, the fourth one and the first one in turn. The microsporogenesis and anther maturation follows the same developmental sequence. The tepals are different from the bracts and the stamens in both shape and size in the early developmental stage, but there is no difference between the stamens and carpels in the early developmental stage. Therefore, we established a spatio-temporal process of the floral morphogenesis of4. rivularis var.flore-minore and offer another meaning of the floral diversity patterns attributed to the level of the genus.

  5. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Melazzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beija-flores. A floração foi longa, com início em Janeiro, em plena estação chuvosa, e término em Julho, no início da seca. O tubo floral formado pelo hipanto é calcarado na base, onde se acumula o néctar produzido por nectário localizado na base do ovário. As flores são marcadamente protândricas, mas flores em diferentes fases podem ser encontradas nos racemos. Os dados mostraram que a espécie é autocompatível e não apomítica, mas devido à dicogamia marcada, necessita polinização ativa para formar frutos. Phaethornis pretrei, Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania furcata, Eupetomena macroura e Chlorostilbon lucidus (fêmea foram as espécies de beija-flores observadas visitando e polinizando as flores de C. melvilla. Amazilia fimbriata e C. lucidus apresentaram ocasionalmente comportamento territorial, P. pretrei apresentou forrageamento em linhas de captura, e T. furcata e E. macroura apresentaram forrageamento do tipo oportunístico, visitando as populações estudadas esporadicamente. Amazilia fimbriata, C. lucidus e P. pretrei foram considerados os polinizadores mais importantes, dada a sua constância. As características morfológicas das flores de Cuphea melvilla relacionadas a adaptações aos beija-flores parecem ser derivadas no gênero, sendo que a polinização por beija-flores nas distintas seções indica adaptação convergente a este modo de polinização.Cuphea melvilla is a peculiar species of a mostly

  6. Effect of silicon on the quality of flowers of Dendrobium nobile (OrchidaceaeEfeito do silício na qualidade de flores de Dendrobium nobile (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reiners Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The orchid Dendrobium nobile Lindl is widely cultivated throughout the world as cut and potted flowers. Silicon (Si has demonstrated beneficial effects on various crops, increasing cell stiffness, giving protection to pathogens, increasing photosynthetic capacity and drought tolerance, promoting higher growth and longevity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of silicon on Dendrobium nobile orchid flowers. Treatments were performed with magnesium silicate (SiMg at the following concentrations: 0.0, 0.16; 0.32; 0.48 and 0.64 g L-1. The foliar applications were carried out fortnightly totaling four applications two months before flowering. The variables evaluated were: longevity of flowers, number of flowers per pot and number of shoots per plant. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and ten replications. The foliar applications of SiMg increased 59% flower production and shoots up to 66%, being more efficient with the increasing of concentrations. The increasing of longevity of the flowers in the dose 0.45 g L-1 was up to four days. A orquídea Dendrobium nobile Lindl é amplamente cultivada pelo mundo como flor de corte e em vasos. O silício (Si tem demonstrado efeito benéfico em diversas culturas, como por exemplo: aumentando a rigidez celular, conferindo proteção à fitopatógenos, aumento da capacidade fotossintética, tolerância à seca, promoção de maior crescimento e conservação pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silício em diferentes concentrações na qualidade de flores da orquídea Dendrobium nobile. Os tratamentos foram realizados com silicato de magnésio (SiMg nas seguintes concentrações: 0,0; 0,16; 0,32; 0,48 e 0,64g L-1. As aplicações foram realizadas quinzenalmente via foliar, totalizando quatro aplicações dois meses antes do florescimento. As variáveis avaliadas foram: longevidade das flores, número de

  7. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2012-03-01

    Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  8. Kenyan endemic bird species at home in novel ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Teucher, Mike; Rödder, Dennis; Bleicher, Marie-Therese; Dieckow, Claudia; Wiese, Anja; Fischer, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Riparian thickets of East Africa harbor a large number of endemic animal and plant species, but also provide important ecosystem services for the human being settling along streams. This creates a conflicting situation between nature conservation and land-use activities. Today, most of this former pristine vegetation is highly degraded and became replaced by the invasive exotic Lantana camara shrub species. In this study, we analyze the movement behavior and habitat use of a diverse range of riparian bird species and model the habitat availability of each of these species. We selected the following four riparian bird species: Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus, Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosus, Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Andropadus importunus insularis, and the Kenyan endemic Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei. We collected telemetric data of 14 individuals during a 2 months radio-tracking campaign along the Nzeeu River in southeast Kenya. We found that (1) all four species had similar home-range sizes, all geographically restricted and nearby the river; (2) all species mainly use dense thicket, in particular the invasive L. camara; (3) human settlements were avoided by the bird individuals observed; (4) the birds' movement, indicating foraging behavior, was comparatively slow within thickets, but significantly faster over open, agricultural areas; and (5) habitat suitability models underline the relevance of L. camara as suitable surrogate habitat for all understoreyed bird species, but also show that the clearance of thickets has led to a vanishing of large and interconnected thickets and thus might have negative effects on the population viability in the long run.

  9. Meet Rudy Flores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jane

    1980-01-01

    The problems and satisfactions of teaching deaf children are discussed in this interview with a teacher of the deaf. Uses of Ameslon and signed English, talking, and valuable teaching approaches are offered. (JD)

  10. Emergence of tick-borne encephalitis in new endemic areas in Austria: 42 years of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, F X; Stiasny, K; Holzmann, H; Kundi, M; Sixl, W; Wenk, M; Kainz, W; Essl, A; Kunz, C

    2015-04-02

    Human infections with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)virus are a public health concern in certain regions of Europe, central and eastern Asia. Expansions of endemic areas and increased incidences have been associated with different factors including ecological changes supporting tick reproduction, socioeconomic changes increasing human outdoor activities and climatic changes favouring virus circulation in natural foci. Austria is among the most strongly affected countries in Central Europe, but the annual number of cases has strongly declined due to vaccination. Here,we have analysed changes of the incidence of TBE in the unvaccinated population of all federal states of Austria over a period of 42 years. The overall incidence in Austria has remained constant, but new strongly affected endemic regions have emerged in alpine valleys in the west of Austria. In parallel, the incidence in low-land regions in the north-east of the country is decreasing. There is no evidence for a shift to higher altitudes of infection sites in the traditional TBE zones,but the average altitudes of some newly established endemic areas in the west are significantly higher. Our analyses underscore the focal nature of TBE endemic areas and the potential of TBE virus to emerge in previously unaffected regions.

  11. Amphibian diversity and endemism in the swamp forests of Agusan Marsh, Agusan del Sur, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlita L. Almeria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Agusan Marsh, an ecologically significant wetland in the Philippines, consists of an extensivefloodplain heavily dissected by numerous rivers and streams making it a very important source offreshwater, storing more than 15% of the nation’s freshwater resource in the form of swamp forests.Since amphibians are very good indicators of climate change and ecosystem health, species diversity andendemism were assessed in sago swamp, terminalia, mixed swamp, and peat swamp forests in AgusanMarsh using a combination of cruising, pitfall trap and quadrat methods. Seventeen species with 41%endemism were recorded. Of the seven endemic species, five are Mindanao endemic. The twoundescribed species of Oreophryne and one Philautus could be new species and were observed in theterminalia, sago, and mixed swamp forests but not in the peat swamp forest. The peat swamp forestwhere the invasive Rhinella marina was abundant, had the least species richness owing to habitatdisturbance brought about by human encroachment. The highest species richness and abundance wereobserved in the terminalia forest primarily due to the presence of suitable microhabitats. Four vulnerablespecies were recorded in the marsh. Most of the vulnerable and endemic species were documented in theterminalia and mixed swamp forests. High diversity and more or less even distribution were observed inall sites. Three amphibian species are considered socio-economically important and are hunted for foodand bait for fish. The presence of endemic and vulnerable species indicates that Agusan Marsh is a keyconservation site. Logging and widespread mining, discharging tons of mine tailings into the rivers whichfind their way into the swamp forests are just some of the threats to the amphibians in the marsh.Conservation action is necessary to protect the endemic and vulnerable species in the swamp forests andthe Agusan marsh in general.

  12. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  13. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Endemic Viruses and Lethal Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Sheila A; Atwood, Walter J

    2017-06-21

    In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers. We present an overview of the history of these viruses and the evolution of JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy over three different epochs.Wereview what is currently known about JC polyomavirus, what is suspected, and what remains to be done to understand the biology of how this mostly harmless endemic virus gives rise to lethal disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  14. Serosurvey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs and humans from an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Sorologia para Rickettsia spp. em cães e humanos de uma área endêmica para febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a rickettsial serosurvey in 25 dogs and 35 humans in an endemic area for Brazilian spotted fever in the State of São Paulo, where the tick Amblyomma aureolatum is the main vector. Testing canine and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence against four Rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis and R. bellii showed that 16 (64% of canine sera and 1 (2.8% of human sera reacted to at least one of these rickettsial antigens with titers ³ 64. Seven canine sera and the single reactive human serum showed titers to R. rickettsii at least four times those of any of the other three antigens. The antibody titers in these 7 animals and 1 human were attributed to stimulation by R. rickettsii infection. No positive canine or human serum was attributed to stimulation by R. parkeri, R. felis, or R. bellii. Our serological results showed that dogs are important sentinels for the presence of R. rickettsii in areas where the tick A. aureolatum is the main vector of Brazilian spotted fever.Este estudo avaliou a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Rickettsia em 25 cães e 35 humanos, em uma área endêmica para a febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo, onde o principal vetor é o carrapato Amblyomma aureolatum. Soros dos cães e humanos foram testados pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta contra quatro antígenos de riquétsias (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, R. bellii, mostrando que soros de 16 (64% cães e 1 (2,8% humano reagiram com títulos ³ 64 para pelo menos um dos antígenos de riquétsias. Sete soros caninos e o único soro humano reativo demonstraram títulos para R. rickettsii no mínimo quatro vezes maior do que aqueles para os outros antígenos de riquétsias. Os títulos de anticorpos nesses cães e um humano foram considerados homólogos a R. rickettsii, enquanto que nenhum soro de cão ou humano foi considerado reativamente homólogo para R. parkeri, R. felis ou R. bellii. Os

  15. Optimización del tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial horizontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica L. Jaramillo-Gallego

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: optimizar un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores, con el fin de mejorar la eficiencia en la remoción de los contaminantes, usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial-horizontal. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de tipo exploratorio experimental en dos etapas, en la primera se efectuó el acondicionamiento fisicoquímico y biológico del sistema de tratamiento, en la segunda, se llevó a cabo el seguimiento de la remoción de los contaminantes durante nueve meses, para lo cual se monitoreó la demanda química de oxígeno, demanda biológica de oxígeno, sólidos totales, sólidos suspendidos totales, pH y oxígeno disuelto. Resultados: Se logró mejorar la eficiencia del sistema de tratamiento en 7,1% para la Demanda biológica de oxígeno, 4,1% Demanda química de oxígeno, 56,9% sólidos totales y 117,2% solidos suspendidos totales. Conclusión: La concentración de DQO disminuyó con el tratamiento primario (Precipitación y oxidación química y favoreció la eficiencia del sistema de tratamiento secundario, dado que las aguas a tratar tenían valores muy altos de DQO que pueden saturar los humedales con contaminantes persistentes. Se podrían obtener mayores eficiencias, si se logra mejorar el sistema de tratamiento primario. Abstract Objective: to optimize the wastewater treatment system of flower crops in order to improve pollutant removal efficiency, using a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. Methodology: An exploratory experimental study was conducted in two stages; in the first stage the treatment system was conditioned physically, chemically and biologically. In the second stage pollutant removal was monitored for nine months. To achieve this, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total solids, total suspended solids, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored. Results: It was possible to improve the efficiency of the treatment system in 7.1% for

  16. Spatial segregation of the endemic versus non-endemic hummingbird on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Sonne, Jesper; Hodum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Competitive pressure from invasive species tends to have a particularly strong impact on remote islands, and knowledge of such phenomena can be crucial to the conservation of endemic biodiversity. Of the two hummingbird species inhabiting Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile...

  17. Produção de flores cortadas no estado de Minas Gerais Production of cut flowers in the state o Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Correa Landgraf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As flores de corte são importantes produtos da floricultura brasileira, as características da produção mineira são, no entanto, desconhecidas. Objetivou-se realizar um estudo da produção de flores de corte no estado de Minas Gerais, aplicou-se um questionário aos produtores do Estado , no período de 2003 a 2005. As visitas foram feitas in loco e os produtores foram identificados por meio de visitas nas áreas produtivas e os questionários foram respondidos por eles próprios. Analisando-se as respostas contidas nos questionários, identificou-se que a produção de flores de corte no estado de Minas Gerais é uma atividade realizada por 188 produtores, numa área plantada de aproximadamente 290,6836 ha As principais espécies cultivadas no Estado são: rosa (151,5710, sempre-vivas (57,26 ha, copo-de-leite (16,0255 ha, cravo (12,6290 ha e helicônia (11,7600 ha. A produção é vendida para o todo o Brasil e também exportada para países da Europa, Ásia e América do Norte. Os principais produtos exportados são: rosas de corte, orquídeas de corte e sempre-vivas.Cut flowers are important products of Brazilian floriculture. The characteristics of Minas Gerais production are, nevertheless, unknown. So, with the purpose of performing a study of the cut flower production in the state of Minas Gerais, a questionnaire was applied to flower growers of Minas Gerais state, in the period of 2003 to 2005. The visits were paid in loco and the growers were identified by means of visits to the flower-growing areas and the questionnaires were answered by them. By analyzing the answers contained in the questionnaires, it was identified that the cut flower production in the state of Minas Gerais is a business accomplished by 188 growers in a planted area of about 290.6836 ha. The main species grown in the state are: rose (151.5710 ha, sempre-vivas (57.26 ha, cala lilly flowers (16.0255 ha, carnation (12.6290 ha and heliconia (11.7600 ha. The

  18. The Stochastic Modelling of Endemic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susvitasari, Kurnia; Siswantining, Titin

    2017-01-01

    A study about epidemic has been conducted since a long time ago, but genuine progress was hardly forthcoming until the end of the 19th century (Bailey, 1975). Both deterministic and stochastic models were used to describe these. Then, from 1927 to 1939 Kermack and McKendrick introduced a generality of this model, including some variables to consider such as rate of infection and recovery. The purpose of this project is to investigate the behaviour of the models when we set the basic reproduction number, R0. This quantity is defined as the expected number of contacts made by a typical infective to susceptibles in the population. According to the epidemic threshold theory, when R0 ≤ 1, minor epidemic occurs with probability one in both approaches, but when R0 > 1, the deterministic and stochastic models have different interpretation. In the deterministic approach, major epidemic occurs with probability one when R0 > 1 and predicts that the disease will settle down to an endemic equilibrium. Stochastic models, on the other hand, identify that the minor epidemic can possibly occur. If it does, then the epidemic will die out quickly. Moreover, if we let the population size be large and the major epidemic occurs, then it will take off and then reach the endemic level and move randomly around the deterministic’s equilibrium.

  19. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

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    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  20. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993), Korovchinsky (2006) and Smirnov (2008) previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local clado...

  1. Endemic taxa of vascular plants in the Polish Carpathians

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    Halina Piękoś-Mirkowa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathians, particularly their highest massif, the Tatra Mountains, exhibit the greatest richness of endemics in Poland. The present paper is a critical recapitulation of existing knowledge of endemism among the vascular plants of the Polish part of the Carpathians. It comprises a list of all 110 taxa (49 species, 26 microspecies of the genus Alchemilla and 35 conspicuous subspecies that can be considered Carpathian endemics or subendemics. Their distribution, vertical ranges and habitats are characterized.

  2. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D; Briggs, Deborah J; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    ... of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework...

  3. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cultivo de flores com o uso de água residuária e suplementação mineral Flower cultivation using wasterwater and mineral supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão de S. Medeiros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada e potássica na produção de gérbera (Gerbera jamesonni, tipo comercial Rambo, utilizando-se de dois tipos de águas (residuária de origem urbana e de abastecimento para irrigação. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, de outubro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007, abrangendo um ciclo completo de produção. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, e os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 x 2, em que os fatores estudados foram: níveis crescente de nitrogênio (N1 = 100; N2 = 200 e N3 = 300 mg L-1 e potássio (K1 = 100; K2 = 200; K3 = 300 e K4 = 400 mg L-1 adicionados a uma solução contendo fósforo (P1 = 50 mg L-1; com a utilização de dois tipos de água (A1 = abastecimento, e A2 = residuária de origem urbana. As variáveis monitoradas foram: número de botões florais emitidos e intervalo de emissão; número de flores colhidas e intervalo entre colheitas; diâmetro das flores e comprimento das hastes. O incremento de nitrogênio, apesar de propiciar incremento no número de botões e reduzir o tempo de emissão de botões, ocasionou efeito negativo quanto à qualidade das flores produzidas; já o incremento de potássio foi benéfico. O uso de água residuária possibilitou melhoria significativa na produtividade e redução no tempo de colheita sem efeito significativo na qualidade das flores produzidas. Não foram observadas interações significativas entre os fatores estudados.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and potassium in production of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonni, commercial type Rambo, using two types of water (residual of urban origin and muncipality supply water for irrigation. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, from October 2006 to January 2007, covering a complete cycle

  5. A produÃÃo de flores no estado do Cearà em BaturitÃ, redenÃÃo e SÃo Benedito

    OpenAIRE

    Luzianny Borges Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Esta pesquisa analisa, em especial, o processo da produÃÃo de flores nos municÃpios de BaturitÃ, RedenÃÃo e SÃo Benedito, no Estado do CearÃ. A escolha destes, como objeto de anÃlise do ponto de vista geogrÃfico, deve-se ao destaque no espaÃo cearense, no que se refere Ãs metamorfoses na estrutura produtiva e espacial, que sÃo reflexos das polÃticas pÃblicas e privadas que criam as condiÃÃes favorÃveis para a reproduÃÃo ampliada do capital. Diante disso, questiona-se a respeito da expansÃo da...

  6. A produÃÃo de flores no estado do Cearà em BaturitÃ, redenÃÃo e SÃo Benedito

    OpenAIRE

    Luzianny Borges Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Esta pesquisa analisa, em especial, o processo da produÃÃo de flores nos municÃpios de BaturitÃ, RedenÃÃo e SÃo Benedito, no Estado do CearÃ. A escolha destes, como objeto de anÃlise do ponto de vista geogrÃfico, deve-se ao destaque no espaÃo cearense, no que se refere Ãs metamorfoses na estrutura produtiva e espacial, que sÃo reflexos das polÃticas pÃblicas e privadas que criam as condiÃÃes favorÃveis para a reproduÃÃo ampliada do capital. Diante disso, questiona-se a respeito da expansÃo da...

  7. Intérêt de l'étude de la flore des diatomées du lieu de submersion dans le diagnostic de noyade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDES B.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available La recherche de diatomées dans les tissus de la victime pour contribuer au diagnostic de noyade doit être accompagnée de l'analyse d'un échantillon d'eau prélevé sur les lieux de précipitation ou de découverte du corps. Cet échantillon permet d'établir un inventaire représentatif de la flore du lieu de découverte ou de submersion, et d'effectuer les comparaisons avec les taxons trouvés dans les tissus. De plus, la détermination de taxons dominants dans l'échantillon d'eau peut avoir une valeur indicative du lieu de découverte.

  8. Recombination drives genetic diversification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in a region of streptococcal endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, David J; Kaul, Santosh Y; Bramhachari, P V; Smeesters, Pierre R; Vu, Therese; Karmarkar, M G; Shaila, Melkote S; Sriprakash, Kadaba S

    2011-01-01

    Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs) predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m) events (11:1) and per site r/m ratio (41:1) in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential.

  9. Recombination drives genetic diversification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in a region of streptococcal endemicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J McMillan

    Full Text Available Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m events (11:1 and per site r/m ratio (41:1 in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential.

  10. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  11. Estado peronista y cooperativismo eléctrico: El caso de la Cooperativa Eléctrica de Las Flores entre 1946 y 1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodrigo La Scaleia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El rubro de la electricidad fue uno de los sectores más dinámicos para la transformación económica que experimentó la Argentina en la década del 40. Al mismo tiempo fue una de las ramas en las que se desarrolló más fuertemente el cooperativismo, que jugó un papel esencial en la provisión de energía eléctrica, fuera de los grandes centros urbanos. En este trabajo se estudia el desenvolvimiento de la Cooperativa Eléctrica de Las Flores destinada al suministro de energía del partido homónimo, en el interior de la Provincia de Buenos Aires entre 1946 y 1951. Finalmente el trabajo analiza la política energética primero en la Provincia de Buenos Aires durante al Gobierno de Domingo Mercante y segundo en el ámbito nacional, durante la primera presidencia de Juan Perón.The sector of electricity was one of the more dynamics for the economic transformation, which Argentine had experimented in the 40ies. At the same time, it was a brnch in which the cooperativism was strongly developed, being extremely important for the provision of electric energy, out of the huge urben centres. In this work it is studied the development of the electric cooperative of Las Flores destinated to the suministry of energy of the similar district, in the inner of the Buenos Aires Province between 1946 and 1951. Finally the study analyses the energetic politic, firstly in the Province of Buenos Aires during Domingo Mercante's government and secondly in the national circuit, during Juan Perón's presidency.

  12. Origin and differentiation of endemism in the flora of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhengyi; SUN Hang; ZHOU Zhekun; PENG Hua; LI Dezhu

    2007-01-01

    The present paper analyzed 239 endemic genera in 67 families in the flora of seed plants in China.The results showed that there are five families containing more than ten endemic genera,namely,Gesneriaceae (27),which hereafter refers to the number of endemic genera in China,Composite (20),Labiatae (12),Cruciferae (11),and Umbelliferae (10),15 families with two endemic genera,and another 30 families with only one endemic genus.Four monotypic families (Ginkgoaceae,Davidiaceae,Eucommiaceae and Acanthochlamydaceae)are the most ancient,relict and characteristic in the flora of seed plants in China.Based on integrative data of systematics,fossil history,and morphological and molecular evidence of these genera,their origin,evolution and relationships were discussed.In gymnosperms,all endemic genera are relicts of the Arctic-Tertiary flora,having earlier evolutionary history,and can be traced back to the Cretaceous or to the Jurassic and even earlier.In angiosperms,the endemic genera are mostly relicts,and are represented in all lineages in the"Eight-Class System ofClassification of Angiosperms",and endemism can be found in almost every evolutionary stage of extant angiosperms.The relict genera once occupied huge areas in the northern hemisphere in the Tertiary or the late Cretaceous,while neo-endemism mostly originated in the late Tertiary.They came from Arctic-Tertiary,Paleo-tropical-Tertiary and Tethys-Tertiary florisitic elements,and the blend of the three elements with many genera of autochthonous origin.The endemism was formed when some dispersal routes such as the North Atlantic Land Bridge,and the Bering Bridge became discontinuous during the Tertiary,as well as the climate change and glaciations in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary.Therefore,the late Tertiary is the starting point of extant endemism of the flora in China.

  13. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology.

  14. Cytotoxic compounds from endemic Arnebia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzbasioglu, Merve; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Simon, András; Tóth, Gabór; Harput, U Sebnem; Kazaz, Cavit; Bilgili, Bilgehan; Duman, Hayri; Saracoglu, Iclal; Demirezer, L Omur

    2015-04-01

    Phytochemical studies of the roots and aerial parts of endemic Arnebia purpurea S. Erik & H. Sumbul resulted in the isolation and characterization of four naphthoquinones [isovalerylalkannin (1), α-methyl-n-butanoyl alkannin (2), acetylalkannin (3), and alkannin (4)], a triterpene derivative [3-O-acetyl-oleanolic acid (5)], a steroid [β-sitosterol (6)], three flavonoid glycosides [isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside (9)] and a phenolic acid [rosmarinic acid (10)]. 3-O-Acetyl-oleanolic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-mrutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside are reported from an Arnebia species for the first time. Cytotoxic activities on L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell line of the isolated compounds were investigated using MTT assay. Naphthoquinones (1-4) showed intermediate cytotoxic activity in comparison with the standard, doxorubicin.

  15. Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are a significant burden on animal and human health, particularly in developing countries. Despite recognition of this fact, endemic zoonoses often remain undiagnosed in people, instead being mistaken for febrile diseases such as malaria. Here, as part of Veterinary Record's ongoing series of articles on One Health, a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Scotland, Tanzania and New Zealand argues that a One Health approach is needed to effectively combat these diseases

  16. Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jo E B; Allan, Kathryn J; Ekwem, Divine; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Crump, John A

    2015-02-28

    Zoonotic diseases are a significant burden on animal and human health, particularly in developing countries. Despite recognition of this fact, endemic zoonoses often remain undiagnosed in people, instead being mistaken for febrile diseases such as malaria. Here, as part of Veterinary Record's ongoing series of articles on One Health, a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Scotland, Tanzania and New Zealand argues that a One Health approach is needed to effectively combat these diseases.

  17. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  18. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emília de Carvalho Nunes; Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni; Daniel Leal Navarro; Felipe Campos de Melo Iani; Liliane Silva Durães; Erik Daemon; Carlos Augusto Gomes Soares; Gilberto Salles Gazeta

    2015-01-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF group Rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA, ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyo...

  19. Nutritional and functional characteristics of Erophaca baetica seeds, a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Giraldo, I.; Alaiz, M.; Girón-Calle, J.; Megías, C.; Vioque, J.

    2013-01-01

    Erophaca baetica is a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region. Although the fruits and seeds are large, the presence of the “locoism” which produces the alkaloid, swainsonine has prevented its use as animal feed or for human nutrition. Their protein content and chromatographic profile, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, and polyphenol contents have been determined in order to explore the potential of the E. baetica seeds as a source of dietary protein with functional component...

  20. Habitat use by endemic and introduced rodents along a gradient of forest disturbance in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, J.T.; Mustonen, O.; Ramiarinjanahary, H.; NiemelÀ, J.; Rita, H.

    2001-01-01

    We used logistic and Poisson regression models to determine factors of forest and landscape structure that influence the presence and abundance of rodent species in the rain forest of Ranomafana National Park in southeastern Madagascar. Rodents were collected using live-traps along a gradient of human disturbance. All five endemic rodent species (Nesomys rufus, N. audeberti, Eliurus tanala, E. minor and E. webbi) and the introduced rat Rattus rattus were captured in both secondary...

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of West Nile virus in horses in Israel (1997-2013--from endemic to epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Aharonson-Raz

    Full Text Available With the rapid global spread of West Nile virus (WNV and the endemic state it has acquired in new geographical areas, we hereby bring a thorough serological investigation of WNV in horses in a longstanding endemic region, such as Israel. This study evaluates the environmental and demographic risk factors for WNV infection in horses and suggests possible factors associated with the transition from endemic to epidemic state. West Nile virus seroprevalence in horses in Israel was determined throughout a period of more than a decade, before (1997 and after (2002 and 2013 the massive West Nile fever outbreak in humans and horses in 2000. An increase in seroprevalence was observed, from 39% (113/290 in 1997 to 66.1% (547/827 in 2002 and 85.5% (153/179 in 2013, with persistent significantly higher seroprevalence in horses situated along the Great Rift Valley (GRV area, the major birds' migration route in Israel. Demographic risk factors included age and breed of the horse. Significantly lower spring precipitation was observed during years with increased human incidence rate that occurred between 1997-2007. Hence, we suggest referring to Israel as two WNV distinct epidemiological regions; an endemic region along the birds' migration route (GRV and the rest of the country which perhaps suffers from cyclic epidemics. In addition, weather conditions, such as periods of spring drought, might be associated with the transition from endemic state to epidemic state of WNV.

  2. Dinâmica floral e abortamento de flores em híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha Floral dynamics and flower abortion in hybrids of canola and Indian mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Battisti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica floral e determinar o índice de abortamento de flores de híbridos de canola (Brassica napus e de mostarda castanha (Brassica juncea, bem como determinar suas relações com as condições meteorológicas do Sul do Brasil. Durante a floração, dez híbridos de canola e dois de mostarda foram avaliados a cada três dias quanto ao número de flores abertas, de síliquas e de flores abortadas. O número acumulado e relativo de flores foi usado para avaliação da dinâmica floral. A relação desses números com a soma térmica acumulada durante a floração foi determinada por meio de modelo logístico. A partir dos coeficientes desse modelo, identificaram-se grupos de genótipos com diferentes taxas de emissão de flores. O abortamento de flores entre híbridos variou de 10,53 a 45,96% e correlacionou-se com a temperatura e a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. Genótipos com maiores tempos térmicos entre o período de máxima emissão de flores e o final da floração geralmente apresentam maiores percentagens de abortamento de flores. O ajuste dos dados de emissão de flores aos de soma térmica do período da floração, por meio de modelo logístico, permite simular a dinâmica floral de híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral dynamics and to determine the index of flower abortion in canola (Brassica napus and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea hybrids, as well as to determine their relation with meteorological conditions of southern Brazil. During flowering, ten hybrids of canola and two of Indian mustard were evaluated every three days as to the number of open flowers, pods, and aborted flowers. The cumulative and the relative number of flowers were used to evaluate floral dynamics. The relation of these numbers with the accumulated thermal sum during flowering was determined with a logistic model. Groups of genotypes with different

  3. Brucellosis outbreak in a rural endemic region of Mexico - a comprehensive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garcia, Maria Rosario Morales-Garcia; Lopez-Mendez, Jaime; Pless, Reynaldo; Garcia-Morales, Emilio; Kosanke, Hannah; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Bedi, Jasbir; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Velazquez-Guadarram, Norma; Jimenez-Rojas, Leticia; Rontreras-Rodriguez, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Generally, humans can be infected by either the consumption of raw milk and fresh cheeses made from unpasteurised milk or by contact with infected animals, mainly in endemic regions. In this study, we investigated a brucellosis outbreak in State of Guanajuato, an endemic region of Mexico. Microbiological culture of human blood, raw milk from cows and goats, and fresh cheeses was performed to isolate Brucella. Identification of the bacteria was done by bacteriological procedures and by multiplex Bruce-ladder polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brucella melitensis was isolated from patients, infected goats, and fresh goat cheeses; while Brucella abortus was isolated from cows. All patients had eaten fresh cheese, but no occupational exposure to animals was reported. The results of molecular typing did not show any Brucella vaccine strains. The isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Brucella spp. in both human brucellosis cases and infected animals are very important to identify the source of infection and to take control measures in endemic regions.

  4. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosasih, H.; Mast, Q. de; Widjaja, S.; Sudjana, P.; Antonjaya, U.; Ma'roef, C.; Riswari, S.F.; Porter, K.R.; Burgess, T.H.; Alisjahbana, B.; Ven, A. van der; Williams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a pros

  5. Patrimony and production in the rural environments of Buenos Aires. San José de Flores, 1800-1875 Patrimonio y producción en los entornos rurales de Buenos Aires. San José de Flores, 1800-1875

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ciliberto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, I aim to reconstruct the productive characteristics of the crop and grain farms in San Jose de Flores district through the analysis of the information provided by wills and testaments and postmortem inventories. In addition, I approach the study of the investment schemes of the proprietors and/or tenants of these farms in order to outline a socioeconomic and political profile, focusing on those tenants that have obtained the legal property of the lands.En el presente artículo reconstruimos a partir de la información proporcionada por testamentos e inventarios post mortem las características productivas de los establecimientos frutihortícolas y cerealeros del partido de San José de Flores. Abordamos, además, el estudio de los esquemas de inversión de los propietarios y/o arrendatarios de estas unidades esbozando su perfil socioeconómico y político, deteniéndonos especialmente en aquellos que han accedido a la propiedad legal de los terrenos.

  6. [Endemic goiter in Nepal. Comparisons with endemic goiter in the Piedmont].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortara, M; Cenderelli, G; Reposi, G; Migiardi, M; Costa, A

    1976-11-10

    Comparison of certain features of endemic goitre in the Khumbu district of Nepal and Piedmont is reported. Cases in the younger generations were observed in both areas. In Khumbu, the incidence of goitre in schoolchildren was 75% and cases were even noted in children who had been receiving iodine prophylactic management (injections of iodised oil: 500-1000 mg/yr) for at least three years. The iodine content of drinking water and the most commonly eaten foods was determined. Values were very low and a daily intake of not more than 30 mug was calculated. The findings are in line with metabolic studies carried out by other workers in Upper Khumbu. While it is clear that ambiental iodine deficiency is much higher in Khumbu than in those areas of Piedmont where goitre is most markedly endemic, the inadequacy of preventive iodine administration measures, and environmental features common to both areas, suggest that iodine deficiency is a concomitant factor and not the prime cause of endemic goitre.

  7. Modeling Extinction Risk of Endemic Birds of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extinction risk of endemic birds of mainland China was modeled over evolutionary time. Results showed that extinction risk of endemic birds in mainland China always tended to be similar within subclades over the evolutionary time of species divergence, and the overall evolution of extinction risk of species presented a conservatism pattern, as evidenced by the disparity-through-time plot. A constant-rate evolutionary model was the best one to quantify the evolution of extinction risk of endemic birds of mainland China. Thus, there was no rate shifting pattern for the evolution of extinction risk of Chinese endemic birds over time. In a summary, extinction risk of endemic birds of mainland China is systematically quantified under the evolutionary framework in the present work.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections—Revelations from Endemic Mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela P. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs. Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp., Paracoccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatiditis, Sporothrix schenckii, Talaromyces (Penicillium marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. are geographically restricted to their respective habitats and cause endemic mycoses. Disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and T. marneffei infection are recognized as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining conditions, while the rest also cause high rate of morbidities and mortalities in patients with HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions. In the past decade, a growing number of monogenic immunodeficiency disorders causing increased susceptibility to fungal infections have been discovered. In particular, defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway and T-helper 17-mediated response are associated with increased susceptibility to endemic mycoses. In this review, we put together the various forms of endemic mycoses on the map and take a journey around the world to examine how cellular and molecular defects of the immune system predispose to invasive endemic fungal infections, including primary immunodeficiencies, individuals with autoantibodies against interferon-γ, and those receiving biologic response modifiers. Though rare, these conditions provide importance insights to host defense mechanisms against endemic fungi, which can only be appreciated in unique

  9. Can migrants from high-endemic countries cause new HIV outbreaks among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou; M. van der Veen; R. Coutinho; M. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how the sexual behaviour of migrants originating from HIV-endemic countries affects the spread of HIV among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries. Methods: A mathematical model is developed describing the transmission of HIV in heterosexual partnerships between African mi

  10. Strong inbreeding depression and individually variable mating system in the narrow endemic Erodium cazorlanum (Geraniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, Conchita

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperms evolved different systems to attract effective pollinators while reducing selfing in hermaphroditic flowers. Selfing ability can be advantageous when pollinators and/or mates are scarce, although inbreeding depression may largely reduce those advantages. Recent comparative analyses suggested endemic species tend to evolve self-compatibility but a better understanding of the associated reproductive and genetic tradeoffs is required. Experimental hand-pollinations under greenhouse conditions were conducted to investigate the selfing ability and estimate inbreeding depression up to the offspring’ first reproductive event in Ero dium cazorlanum, a narrow endemic species restricted to dolomite outcrops in SE Spanish mountains. We found autonomous selfing ineffective. Further, when experimentally applied, pollen of the same flower produced significantly fewer fruits and seeds compared to geitonogamous and cross pollinations. The number of seeds per fruit was significantly higher after cross pollinations and strong inbreeding depression accumulated through the life-cycle. Interestingly, individual plants exhibited broad variation in selfing ability with six out of 14 individuals producing no seed after geitonogamy. Understanding the consequences of individual variation in self compatibility deserves further investigation in the field now that we know that strong inbreeding depression may limit recruitment of selfed progeny.Las Angiospermas han desarrollado diversos sistemas para atraer polinizadores eficientes y al mismo tiempo reducir la posibilidad de autopolinización asociada al hermafroditismo. La capacidad de autopolinización puede ser ventajosa en situaciones de escasez de polinizadores y/o individuos reproductores, beneficios que pueden reducirse ampliamente a causa de la depresión por endogamia. Análisis filogenéticos recientes indicaron que las especies endémicas tienden a presentar sistemas de autocompatibilidad, por tanto

  11. Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo-) pathological and laboratory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTreponemal diseases important to mankind are sexually transmitted syphilis and the endemic nonvenereally transmitted treponematoses (yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis). Historically, the most important disease caused by treponemes is syphilis. During the last few decades, yaws, endemic s

  12. The impact of temperature and precipitation on blacklegged tick activity and Lyme disease incidence in endemic and emerging regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, James C; Sullivan, Patrick; Levi, Taal; Oggenfuss, Kelly; Fahey, Timothy J; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2016-11-25

    The incidence of Lyme disease shows high degrees of inter-annual variation in the northeastern United States, but the factors driving this variation are not well understood. Complicating matters, it is also possible that these driving factors may vary in regions with differing histories of Lyme disease endemism. We evaluated the effect of the number of hot (T > 25 °C), dry (precipitation = 0) days during the questing periods of the two immature Ixodes scapularis life stages (larval and nymphal) on inter-annual variation in Lyme disease incidence between 2000 and 2011 in long-term endemic versus recently endemic areas. We also evaluated the effect of summer weather on tick questing activity and the number of ticks found on small mammals between 1994 and 2012 on six sites in Millbrook, NY. The number of hot, dry days during the larval period of the previous year did not affect the human incidence of Lyme disease or the density of questing nymphs the following season. However, dry summer weather during the nymphal questing period had a significant negative effect on the incidence of Lyme disease in the long-term endemic areas, and on the density of questing nymphs. Summer weather conditions had a more pronounced effect on actively questing I. scapularis collected via dragging than on the number of ticks found feeding on small mammals. In recently endemic areas Lyme disease incidence increased significantly over time, but no trend was detected between disease incidence and dry summer weather. Recently endemic regions showed an increase in Lyme disease incidence over time, while incidence in long-term endemic regions appears to have stabilized. Only within the stabilized areas were we able to detect reduced Lyme disease incidence in years with hot, dry summer weather. These patterns were reflected in our field data, which showed that questing activity of nymphal I. scapularis was reduced by hot, dry summer weather.

  13. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  14. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Quiroz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama and Panama provinces (central Panama near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  15. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  16. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J.;

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading...... to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa......) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate...

  17. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  18. Note préliminaire sur quelques flores Stéphaniennes de la bordure nord des Léonides dans les montagnes Cantabriques. (Espagne du Nord-Ouest)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerom, van H.W.J.

    1965-01-01

    Dans le cadre des recherches géologiques effectuées dans le nord-ouest de l’Espagne par l’Institut géologique de Leiden, une collection de plantes carbonifères a été rassemblée au cours de l’été des années 1960, 1961, 1962 et 1963. Toutes les flores proviennent de quelques petits bassins

  19. Organización de la comunidad de colibríes ermitaños (Trochilidae phaethorninae y sus flores en bosques de tierra firme del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu (Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Flores Claudia Isabel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la organización de la comunidad de colibríes ermitaños y sus recursos en bosques de tierra firme de la Amazonia colombiana, a partir de observaciones directas a las flores, cargas de polen de los ermitaños, medidas morfológicas de colibríes y flores, y conteo de flores
    en cinco sitios diferentes. La comunidad la conformaron siete especies de ermitaños (Phaethornis malaris, P. hispidus, P. bourcieri, P. atrimentalis, P. ruber, Glaucis hirsuta y Threnetes leucurus, y 44 especies vegetales (Heliconiaceae, Gesneriaceae, Rubiaceae, Acanthaceae y Costaceae, fueron las familias con mayor número de especies. Los patrones de forrajeo de los colibríes permitieron separar la comunidad en cuatro grupos de ermitaños y plantas, donde el ajuste morfológico y la intensidad de uso del recurso aparecieron como factores explicativos de las agrupaciones: Phaethornis bourcieri, P. atrimentalis y P. ruber, junto con los recursos más intensamente visitados por estos, formó cada uno una asociación; mientras que Glaucis hirsuta, Threnetes leucurus,
    Phaethornis hispidus y P. malaris, junto a 33 recursos, conformaron un cuarto grupo. Los patrones de forrajeo de las especies estuvieron influenciados adicionalmente por la oferta del recurso (número de flores y las características del hábitat. Interacciones más fuertes entre grupos de
    colibríes con ciertos grupos de plantas apoyaron la hipótesis de la coevolución difusa como mecanismo modelador de las interacciones en esta comunidad.

  20. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  1. Post-harvest longevity of Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae flowers/ Longevidade pós-colheita de flores de Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium varicosum from the Orchidaceae family has been widely used as pot flower, and, most recently, as cut flower. The objective of this work was to evaluate the longevity of the Oncidium varicosum, due to its low post-harvest resistance, after being conditioned in preservation solutions with different concentrations of sucrose. Oncidium varicosum stems grown in Holambra (SP were transported to Londrina (PR in climatized trucks at 5-7oC. Pre-treatment with pulsing (15% sucrose for 24 hours followed by conditioning in maintenance solution (1, 2, 3, and 4% of sucrose as well as conditioning in maintenance solution without pre-treatment were evaluated. Flower stems were distributed in an entirely casualized design, with ten treatments and five replications. Flowers were evaluated daily, using a score system developed to compare and verify the conservation of visual aspects. No treatment was superior to the control in maintaining the longevity of the flowers.A orquídea Oncidium varicosum é bastante utilizada como flor de vaso e atualmente vem se destacando como flor de corte. Devido sua baixa resistência pós-colheita, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a longevidade de Oncidium varicosum após o acondicionamento em soluções conservantes com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As hastes de Oncidium varicosum, produzidas em Holambra (SP, foram transportadas para Londrina (PR em caminhão climatizado a 5-7°C. Foram avaliadas a utilização de prétratamento com “pulsing” (15% de sacarose por 24 horas seguido de acondicionamento em solução de manutenção (1, 2, 3 e 4% de sacarose e o acondicionamento em solução de manutenção sem prétratamento. As hastes florais foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e cinco repetições. As avaliações das flores foram diárias, sob critério de notas definido para comparar e verificar a conservação dos aspectos visuais. Nenhum dos tratamentos

  2. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats Atividade angiogênica das flores da Calendula officinalis L. em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Leal Parente

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Methods: Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in cutaneous wounds in rats. Results: The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. Conclusion: The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.Objetivo: Neste trabalho a atividade sobre a angiogênese do extrato etanólico (EEC e das frações diclorometano e hexânica das flores de Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae cultivada no Brasil foram avaliados, visto que propriedades medicinais têm sido atribuídas às flores da planta, destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Métodos: Modelos utilizando 36 ratos e 90 ovos embrionados foram usados para avaliar as atividades cicatrizante e angiogênica dos extratos e frações da planta, por meio da indução de feridas cutâneas e da membrana corioalantóide, respectivamente. O efeito proliferativo vascular foi também testado a partir do estudo imunoistoquímico, realizado para verificar a intensidade da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF na derme de ratos. Resultados: A atividade angiogênica do extrato e das frações foi

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD DE CULTIVOS CON VISTAS A LA ADOPCIÓN DE NUEVAS ESPECIES Y/O VARIEDADES DE FLORES DE CORTE EN DIFERENTES SISTEMAS PRODUCTIVOS DEL MUNICIPIO SAN JOSÉ DE LAS LAJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Yong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo de diagnóstico con el objetivo de caracterizar la diversidad de cultivos en huertos, parcelas y patios de los Consejos Norte, Sur y Jamaica de San José de las Lajas, con vistas a la selección participativa, adaptación o adopción de nuevas especies y variedades de flores de corte, en sistemas de producción de la agricultura urbana del municipio. Los principales cultivos establecidos en los diferentes sistemas productivos fueron las hortalizas, seguido por los frutales y las flores. De manera general, puede considerarse que los conocimientos acerca de las tecnologías de producción de flores aún son insuficientes, aunque se realiza un trabajo de capacitación con los productores, de acuerdo con sus necesidades y condiciones, fomentando el empleo de tecnologías adecuadas para el incremento de sus producciones. A través de las encuestas realizadas a los productores, también se pudo conocer que el 80 % sobrepasa los 60 años de edad, existen diferentes niveles de estudio y únicamente tres de ellos son del territorio.

  4. Assessing the risk of dengue virus transmission in a non-endemic city surrounded by endemic and hyperendemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Ho Kwan

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: The cumulative exposure of Hong Kong residents to dengue has so far been low. Coupled with the lack of a spatial relationship between exposed cases and vector intensities, a high risk of local transmission of DENV is not supported. The apparently higher exposure likelihood of females could be explained by past infection in workers from dengue endemic countries, while frequent travel could have exposed older adults to DENV. Continued surveillance, risk assessment, and intensive vector control remain essential to prevent the transformation of a non-endemic to an endemic city.

  5. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2014-11-01

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  6. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries. PMID:25410988

  7. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2014-10-21

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  8. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  9. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  10. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveda, Remigio M; Tallo, Veronica; Olveda, David U; Inobaya, Marianette T; Chau, Thao N; Ross, Allen G

    2016-04-01

    Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS) risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted.

  11. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio M. Olveda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is <1%, hence the disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40 mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted.

  12. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  13. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Crespo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841 and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island.

  14. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Plasmodium falcipanlm parasitaemia in child- ren younger than 5 ... an effective single treatment for febrile illness in young children in ... highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated ... parental consent. Children who ...

  15. [Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, A

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

  16. Some observations on endemic macroalgae of the Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    The paper summarises current level of knowledge on the endemic Antarctic macroalgae. The macroalgal adaptation to low temperature, response to different photoperiod during the season, animal-macroalgal interaction and reproductive strategies...

  17. Aristolochic Acid and the Etiology of Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur P. Grollman; Shinya Shibutani; Masaaki Moriya; Frederick Miller; Lin Wu; Ute Moll; Naomi Suzuki; Andrea Fernandes; Thomas Rosenquist; Zvonimir Medverec; Krunoslav Jakovina; Branko Brdar; Neda Slade; Robert J. Turesky; Angela K. Goodenough; Robert Rieger; Mato Vukelić; Bojan Jelaković

    2007-01-01

    Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression...

  18. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  19. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practi......, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test...

  20. Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R; Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Moritz, Craig

    2014-10-07

    Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond.

  1. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  2. Efeito da desfolha de ramos sobre a indução de brotos e flores em atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Eurico Eduardo Pinto de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do desfolhamento de ramos na produção de brotos e flores em plantas adultas de atemóia (Anonna cherimola Mill x Anonna squamosa L. var. Gefner. O experimento foi realizado em plantio comercial no município de Maceió - AL. Foram utilizadas 24 plantas podadas com altura de 1.5 m e espaçadas de 4 x 2 m. Os ramos maduros tiveram seus ápices removidos na altura da 4ª folha, sendo depois submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos de desfolha manual: 1 desfolha total dos ramos; 2 remoção das cinco primeiras folhas dos ramos a partir dos ápices podados; 3 remoção de cinco folhas compreendidas entre 6ª a 10ª gemas dos ramos; 4 controle = sem desfolha dos ramos. Os resultados coletados 30 dias após a desfolha mostraram que o número de brotações nos tratamentos com desfolha total e desfolha das cinco gemas superiores foi estatisticamente superior aos tratamentos sem desfolha e desfolha da 6ª à 10ª gema. O tratamento com desfolha das cinco gemas superiores apresentou o maior número de ramos florados (61%.

  3. Etnografías de la Muerte y las Culturas en América Latina (Juan Antonio Flores Martos y Luisa Abad González, Coord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mariano Juárez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Curiosamente, la muerte ha sido usualmente pensada y construida desde perspectivas y lógicas universalizadoras como uno de los escasos acontecimientos comunes a la humanidad, una visión estruendosa que ha dotado a la muerte de cierto carácter homogeneizador que en muchas ocasiones vela sentimientos y opaca la riqueza que atesoran matices y susurros particulares. Mucho tiempo ha transcurrido desde el trabajo pionero en antropología de Robert Hertz y la muerte se ha constituido en estas décadas como un campo temático clásico de la disciplina. Los coordinadores de este libro, Juan Antonio Flores Martos y Luisa Abad González –de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha- , hoy lo hacen presente, presentándonos una serie de trabajos encaminados hacia la ruptura de esa visión uniforme y gris de la muerte en el contexto general de la actual y convulsa América Latina.

  4. DIVERSIDAD DE LEVADURAS ASOCIADAS A INFLORESCENCIAS DE MANGO Y FLORES DE 'LULO ARBÓREO' DIVERSIDADE DE LEVEDURAS ASSOCIADAS A INFLORESCÊNCIAS DE MANGA E FLORES DE 'LULO ARBÓREO' YEAST DIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO INFLORESCENCES OF MANGO AND FLOWERS OF 'LULO ARBOREO'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACKELINE GAVIRIA V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el conocimiento de levaduras ha sido limitado a especies de interés clínico. El micro-hábitat aéreo de las flores, presenta un área de gran interés para el aislamiento de levaduras con importancia en el campo industrial, por su potencial uso como controlador biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la diversidad de levaduras asociadas a inflorescencia de Mango (Mangífera índica y flores de Lulo arbóreo (Solanum wrightii. Para dicha finalidad se trabajó con 96 aislados, a los cuales se les realizó caracterización fenotípica y posteriores pruebas de MSP-PCR Fingerprinting. Estas pruebas fueron complementadas con amplificación parcial y secuenciación del segmento 26S del ADNr para identificación a nivel de especie. El patrón de diversidad encontrado refleja una dominancia de la especie Candida leandrae en flores de lulo arbóreo, también se presentaron especies como Cryptococcus laurentii, Candida parazyma, Aeurobasidium pullulans y Pseudozyma tsukubaensis. Las inflorescencias de mango presentaron especies como Sydowia eucalypti, Cryptococcus flavescens, C. laurentii, C. nemorosus, C. heveanensis, Pichia kluyveri, Pseudozyma tsukubaensis y Candida asparagi. Se logró identificar hasta el nivel taxonómico de especie el total de los aislados encontrados, además se hallaron especies con potencial uso biotecnológico.Na Colômbia, o conhecimento das leveduras é limitado a espécies de interesse clinico. O micro-habitat aéreo das flores apresenta um interessante campo para o isolamento de leveduras com importância na indústria pelo seu potencial uso em controle biológico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a diversidade de leveduras associadas a inflorescências de Manga (Mangifera indica e flores de 'lulo' (Solanum wrightii. Para isso, foram analisados 96 isolados, que foram caracterizados com testes fenotípicos e MSP-PCR Fingerprinting complementadas com sequenciamento parcial da região 26S do r

  5. Bringing together emerging and endemic zoonoses surveillance: shared challenges and a common solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jo; Daborn, Chris; Auty, Harriet; Mtema, Zacharia; Lembo, Tiziana; Bronsvoort, Barend M Dec; Handel, Ian; Knobel, Darryn; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2012-10-19

    Early detection of disease outbreaks in human and animal populations is crucial to the effective surveillance of emerging infectious diseases. However, there are marked geographical disparities in capacity for early detection of outbreaks, which limit the effectiveness of global surveillance strategies. Linking surveillance approaches for emerging and neglected endemic zoonoses, with a renewed focus on existing disease problems in developing countries, has the potential to overcome several limitations and to achieve additional health benefits. Poor reporting is a major constraint to the surveillance of both emerging and endemic zoonoses, and several important barriers to reporting can be identified: (i) a lack of tangible benefits when reports are made; (ii) a lack of capacity to enforce regulations; (iii) poor communication among communities, institutions and sectors; and (iv) complexities of the international regulatory environment. Redirecting surveillance efforts to focus on endemic zoonoses in developing countries offers a pragmatic approach that overcomes some of these barriers and provides support in regions where surveillance capacity is currently weakest. In addition, this approach addresses immediate health and development problems, and provides an equitable and sustainable mechanism for building the culture of surveillance and the core capacities that are needed for all zoonotic pathogens, including emerging disease threats.

  6. Rare and Endemic Plants in the Southern Mountain Ecosystems of Albania, their Threats and Diversity

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    ERMELINDA MAHMUTAJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights flora and vegetation richness in the mountain ecosystems in Southern Albania, focusing mainly on Çika, Këndërvica, and Tomorri Mts. The data are collected in more than 100 relevés during field trips, carried out in periods of intensive vegetation. It shows the presence of 11 endemic taxa, 23 nearendemics and more than 60 Balkan endemics. Two new species for science are described recently (Gymnospermium maloi Kit Tan & Shuka and Campanula aureliana Bogdanović, Rešetnik, Brullo & Shuka and some others are confirmed about 100 years after (Sesleria albanica Ujhelyi and Stachys sericophylla Halacsy. Main threats, especially for the endemics and rare taxa of the southern region of Albania, are presented in this study, with recommendations for future steps. Some Natura2000 habitats are identified and a relevance of different habitat types like EUNIS, and Syntaxonomic classifications are linked together. The main aim of this study was the identification and presentation of floristic and vegetation values of this wide natural ecosystem and putting them into the function of science. The results indicate the area as the richest in the country, due to the insignificant influence of human factor and diversity of climate and terrestrial elements.

  7. Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue-A. aegypti and new Rèunion strain of chikungunya-A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease. PMID:24801860

  8. Therapy of endemic goitre; Therapie der Jodmangelstruma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisner, B. [Allg. Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1995-12-01

    1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 {mu}g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl ({proportional_to}200 {mu}g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 {mu}g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 {mu}g) und Jugendlichen (150 {mu}g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 {mu}g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente

  9. Testament's ability in Balkan endemic nephropathy

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    Novaković Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Testament is a solemn, authentic instrument in writing, by which a person declares his or her will as to disposal of his or her estate, and it has a psychopathological, lawful and ethical importance to a person, family and society. The aim of the study was to assess if the ability to make a testament was more damaged in patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN than in patients with other diseases that resulted in Chronic Renal Failure in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from the 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2006. Material and methods The 753 respondents were divided into two groups in the study: BEN group (n=150 and control group made of patients with other diseases resulting in CRF (n=150. In a multicentric longitudinal study we used: adapted questionnaire from the Renal Register of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Descriptive analysis, discriminative function and regression model have been done statistically. Results In BEN group, heirs are mostly mentioned - 84.0% (t=14.391; P=0.001, and in control group: heirs - 66.6%, relatives - 43.3% (t=7.751; P=0.003, carers - 44.0% (t= 6.678 P=0.032, and institutions 10.0% (t=5.147, P=0.061. The discriminative function shows differences between BEN and control group: canonical correlation (rc =0.827, Wilkinson lambda (lnj =0.871, Chi-square test =141.575 and significance (P=0.001. The regression course of the analysis can be used for prediction of the ability to make testament for the patients on dialysis: [y=-0.95x + 15.715, and OR = 0.785, (95% for CI = -0.997 - -0.375; Can Fanc r2=0.861; Significance is P=0.002]. Conclusion The ability to make a testament is more damaged in patients from the nephropathy group than in the patients from the control group who are on dialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This has been confirmed by socio-demographic and psychological parameters, and it is very important for preservation

  10. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  11. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and intestinal helminth infection (IHI affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of

  12. High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: A serious hidden toxin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Xiao, T.F.; Wang, S.J.; Lei, J.L.; Zhang, M.Z.; Gong, Y.Y.; Li, H.J.; Ning, Z.P.; He, L.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Institute of Geochemistry

    2009-07-15

    Environmental contamination with cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) and the associated health impacts on humans have raised significant concerns in the literature, but the additional health risks created by Cd have not been investigated in areas with endemic fluorine intoxication (fluorosis). Here, we report for the first time that naturally occurring Cd in areas where endemic fluorosis is related to coal combustion is a serious hidden toxin. The high Cd levels in rocks and soils of these areas may increase health risks to epidemiological level, irrespective of fluorine levels. We implemented a pilot study in a fluorosis-affected rural area within China's Three Gorges region, and revealed enrichment of Cd in local bedrock (4.48-187 mg kg{sup -1}), coal (11.5-53.4 mg kg{sup -1}), and arable soils (1.01-59.7 mg kg{sup -1}). Cadmium was also observed to concentrate in local food crops (0.58-14.9 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the urine of local residents (1.7-13.4 {mu} g L{sup -1}). A routine epidemiological investigation revealed that the two major Cd exposure pathways were through crop consumption and inhalation of emissions from coal combustion. Therefore, the naturally occurring Cd in areas with endemic fluorosis related to coal combustion represents a previously unrecognized toxin that must be addressed as part of efforts to control the endemic problem. The biogeochemical processes of Cd and the associated environmental effects will require additional in-depth study.

  13. Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Programa e estratégia da revolução mexicana em Ricardo Flores Magón

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    Fabio Santos

    2010-12-01

    ="Subtle Emphasis" />

    No decênio anterior a explosão da Revolução Mexicana (1910, Ricardo Flores Magón (1874-1922 liderou o Partido Liberal Mexicano em uma trajetória de radicalização política e ideológica, evoluindo da denúncia de cunho jurídico dos abusos da ditadura até afirmar-se como oposição revolucionária ao Porfiriato. Constrangido ao exílio nos Estados Unidos, Ricardo planejou duas

  15. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

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    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  16. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  17. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  18. Environmental renal disease: Lead, cadmium and Balkan endemic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedeen, R.P. (VA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The similarity of lead and cadmium nephropathy to Balkan endemic nephropathy warrants careful reevaluation of the possibility that these nephrotoxic metals contribute to the production of the endemic renal disease. Low-level environmental exposure may result in a relationship between the concentration of the metals in tissue storage sites and biological fluids that differs from that encountered after occupational exposure. Urine and blood concentrations may therefore be inadequate measures of exposure. Lead is accumulated in the skeleton and cadmium in the liver and kidneys with biological half lives approximating a decade. Non-invasive in vivo x-ray fluorescence or neutron activation analysis can therefore be used to measure cumulative tissue stores. Multiple regression analysis of epidemiologic data could reveal the relative contribution of causal factors, including lead and cadmium, and help to distinguish Balkan endemic nephropathy from other renal diseases using rigorous diagnostic criteria. As long as Balkan endemic nephropathy remains a diagnosis of exclusion, the accuracy of the diagnosis of other renal disease determines the reliability of identification of the endemic disease.31 references.

  19. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Danillo de Souza Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600, and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (S7(rBiogene. RESULTS: Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600 presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  20. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Emília de Carvalho; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Navarro, Daniel Leal; Iani, Felipe Campos de Melo; Durães, Liliane Silva; Daemon, Erik; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles

    2015-12-01

    The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF) disease. In the present study, a SF group Rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the species R. amblyommii.

  1. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (SF disease. In the present study, a SF groupRickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense species complex tick from a Brazilian SF endemic site in southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. Genetic analysis based on genes ompA,ompB and htrA showed that the detected strain, named R. amblyommii str. JF, is related to the speciesR. amblyommii.

  2. Survey for Cyclospora cayetanensis in domestic animals in an endemic area in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, M L; Nace, E K; Freeman, A R

    1999-06-01

    From January 1997 through July 1998, we examined stool samples from 327 domestic animals, including pigs, cattle, horses, goats, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, chicken, ducks, turkeys, and pigeons in Leogane, Haiti, for the presence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection. No coccidian oocysts morphologically compatible with C. cayetanensis were detected in any of the animal samples, despite their living in, or near, households with infected individuals. These results suggest that domestic animals are not reservoir hosts for C. cayetanensis and that in this endemic area, humans are the only natural host for this parasite.

  3. Endemic malaria: an 'indoor' disease in northern Europe. Historical data analysed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliövaara Kari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endemic northern malaria reached 68°N latitude in Europe during the 19th century, where the summer mean temperature only irregularly exceeded 16°C, the lower limit needed for sporogony of Plasmodium vivax. Because of the available historical material and little use of quinine, Finland was suitable for an analysis of endemic malaria and temperature. Methods Annual malaria death frequencies during 1800–1870 extracted from parish records were analysed against long-term temperature records in Finland, Russia and Sweden. Supporting data from 1750–1799 were used in the interpretation of the results. The life cycle and behaviour of the anopheline mosquitoes were interpreted according to the literature. Results Malaria frequencies correlated strongly with the mean temperature of June and July of the preceding summer, corresponding to larval development of the vector. Hatching of imagoes peaks in the middle of August, when the temperature most years is too low for the sporogony of Plasmodium. After mating some of the females hibernate in human dwellings. If the female gets gametocytes from infective humans, the development of Plasmodium can only continue indoors, in heated buildings. Conclusion Northern malaria existed in a cold climate by means of summer dormancy of hypnozoites in humans and indoor transmission of sporozoites throughout the winter by semiactive hibernating mosquitoes. Variable climatic conditions did not affect this relationship. The epidemics, however, were regulated by the population size of the mosquitoes which, in turn, ultimately was controlled by the temperatures of the preceding summer.

  4. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

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    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  5. Morphology and anatomy of flowers and seeds of Lippia alba Morfología y anatomía de las flores y semillas de pronto alivio

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    Sánchez Manuel Salvador

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available For description three accesions of L. alba from Llanos Orientales and Valle (Colombia and Costa Rica (Central America were used. The inflorescences are simples and racemoses. The flowers are small, sessiles, lilac color, disposed trought of the rachis, localizated in the axillas, coupled and apposited. The flowers in primary, secondary and tertiary branches present two white sepals, pubescents with 1.5 mm of length. There is a green bract covering the sepals with a length between 3.0 and 5.0 mm. An openned flower measures up to 7.0 mm and between 3.0 and 4.0 mm of wide. They are gamopetalous, zygomorphic, pubescents, tubulars, bilabiates, with four petals, hypogynous, syncarpic gynaeceum with two carpels, upper ovary, white-green style, yellow - greenish stigma. The anthers measure 0.2 mm of length. The fruit is a diachene, with two small seeds, its fruit size is around 2.0 mm of length and 1.8 mm of wide; white, hard and dry coffee pericarp, pubescent and hard epicarp. The seed had a triangular form which measure between 0,8 mm in length and 0,3 mm wide. Keywords: Lippia alba, Verbenaceae, floral biology, seeds.En la descripción se utilizaron tres accesiones de Lippia alba provenientes de Llanos Orientales y Valle (Colombia y Costa Rica (Centro América. Las inflorescencias son espigas racemosas simples, de flores sésiles, color lila pálido y dispuestas a lo largo del raquis, localizadas en las axilas, en pares y opuestas. Las flores dispuestas en ramas principales, secundarias y terciarias presentan dos sépalos blancos, pubescentes y miden 1.5 mm de longitud. Cubriendo cada par de sépalos hay una bráctea verde, ovada y posee una longitud entre 3 y 5 mm. Una flor abierta mide hasta 7.0 mm y entre 3 y 4 mm de ancho. Son gamopétalas, zigomorfas, pubescentes, tubulares, de color lila, bilabiadas, con cuatro pétalos, hipóginas, gineceo sincárpico y bicarpelar, ovario súpero, verde blanquecino, estilo blanquecino y estigma amarillo

  6. EFEITO DO ESTÁGIO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DAS FLORES E DA APLICAÇÃO DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DA PODRIDÃO FLORAL DOS CITROS

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    ROBERTO SÉRGIO RUFFO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar os melhores estágios do desenvolvimento das flores de laranja-doce para o controle da Podridão Floral dos Citros (PFC, avaliando-se diversas épocas de aplicação e doses de fungicidas. Os estudos foram realizados em pomares de laranjas-'Natal' e 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck, onde foram marcados aleatoriamente ramos florais pertencentes à florada temporã (janeiro de 1994, caracterizando as fases de desenvolvimento de cada botão floral. Em um primeiro ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações manuais, onde foram aplicados os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 1 L: a testemunha; b benomyl 0,5 g, no dia de marcação dos ramos (aplicação normal; c benomyl 0,5 g, 3 a 4 dias depois da marcação (aplicação tardia; e d benomyl 0,5 g em 2 aplicações, uma na marcação dos botões e outra uma semana depois. As aplicações foram feitas com pulverizadores manuais, molhando-se apenas os ramos com flores marcados. Em um segundo ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações tratorizadas. Na laranja-'Natal', estudaram-se os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 2.000 L: a testemunha; b benomyl 1 kg em 4/jan; c benomyl 1 kg em 4 e 11/jan; e d benomyl 1 kg em 8/jan. Na laranja-'Pêra', os seguintes tratamentos foram aplicados (doses por 2.000 L: a testemunha; b benomyl 1 kg, 4/jan; c benomyl 1 kg, 4 e 10/jan; d benomyl 1 kg + captan 3,5 kg, 4/jan; e benomyl 0,75 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; f benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; g benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan + benomyl 1 kg, 10/jan; h benomyl 1,5 kg, 4/jan; e i benomyl 1,5 kg, 4 e 10/jan. Avaliaram-se, em intervalos de dois dias, a freqüência e a época de ocorrência das lesões nas pétalas dos botões florais, a porcentagem de pegamento e o índice de cálices retidos de cada parcela. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que o benomyl é eficiente no controle da PFC em doses de 0,5-0,75 g

  7. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

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    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  8. The Eco-Geo-Clim model: explaining Madagascar’s endemism

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    Jean-Luc Mercier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene paleoclimatic oscillations have had a major influence on the hydrological balance in Madagascar, from the scale of individual sites to watersheds. Water availability is one of the major factor influencing plant and animal life. An Eco-Geo-Clim model is considered here that encompasses ecological and geomorphological features in the context of changing climate to identify areas where water remained available during the driest periods, but also how water availability increased again when climatic conditions become warmer and wetter. This model is applied to a portion of western Madagascar encompassing the Tsiribihina and Mangoky watersheds and the Central Menabe center of endemism to describe the mechanism leading to landscape-level evolution and especially the distribution patterns observed today in some of the island’s endemic animal species, comparing narrowly vs. broadly endemic taxa.RésuméLes oscillations paléoclimatiques au cours du Pléistocène ont influencé tous les termes du bilan d'énergie stationnel (rayonnements, flux de chaleur latente, flux de chaleur dans le sol et flux de chaleur sensible. Associées aux précipitations, ces fluctuations ont contrôlé les bilans hydriques stationnels. Les bilans hydrologiques des bassins versants sont l'intégration spatiale et temporelle de ces bilans hydriques. La végétation et plus généralement la biomasse végétale sont dépendantes de ces deux types de bilans. L'interface entre l'atmosphère et la végétation est occupée par les sols et les formations superficielles, celles-ci sont le résultat de la dégradation des roches et de l'érosion des versants. Lorsqu'ils existent, ces sols ou géosols sont hérités de périodes humides antérieures.La disponibilité en eau est l'élément majeur de la vie végétale et animale, or celle-ci a fluctué au cours du Pléistocène ; lors de périodes sèches, les bilans sont déficitaires, la biomasse diminue, l

  9. Aplicación de compost de residuos de flores en suelos ácidos cultivados con maíz (Zea mays

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    Martha Constanza Daza Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos ácidos tropicales se caracterizan por su baja fertilidad y presencia de minerales fijadores que limitan la disponibilidad de nutrientes. El presente estudio fue llevado a cabo con el propósito de estudiar la aplicación de compost de residuos de flores en propiedades químicas de un Oxisol proveniente de los Llanos Orientales colombianos y en variables agronómicas de maíz (Zea mays. El experimento consistió en siete tratamientos: testigo, compost, cal, fertilizante inorgánico, compost + cal, compost + fertilizante inorgánico y compost + fertilizante inorgánico + cal con tres repeticiones en un diseño de bloques completos al azar donde las propiedades químicas del suelo evaluadas fueron pH, acidez intercambiable, materia orgánica, fósforo disponible y las relaciones C/N y C/P al inicio, a la quinta y décima semana después de la siembra. También algunas propiedades agronómicas del cultivo fueron evaluadas como altura de planta, peso de masa seca y contenido foliar de nutrientes. Los resultados mostraron que al combinar el compost con el fertilizante inorgánico se obtuvieron mejores condiciones en el suelo para el desarrollo del maíz aunque a las diez semanas el suelo tendió a su estado inicial, indicando la necesidad de aplicaciones periódicas de enmiendas para sostener su productividad.

  10. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos das flores de Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae

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    A.K. MATTE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a triagem fitoquímica e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das flores de Sambucus nigraL. Os extratos; aquoso (10 %, etanólico (5 % e Acetato de etila (5 % foram submetidos a testes colorimétricos para triagem fitoquímica e a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada pelo método de disco-difusão em ágar. Os resultados mostraram que nas concentrações de 6 e 12 mg o extrato aquoso apresentou halos significativos de inibição para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém, quando comparado aos medicamentos usados como referência a atividade não foi satisfatória, e, ainda, evidenciou a ausência de inibição para todas as cepas testadas com o aumento da concentração para 18 e 24 mg. A análise da triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de flavonoides com intensa reação de cor no extrato aquoso e etanólico, e de fraca intensidade no extrato acetato de etila. Nos mesmos extratos, pelos testes realizados, não foram detectados taninos, saponinas, antraquinonas e alcaloides. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso apresentou melhor efeito inibitório para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém insuficiente para promover a inativação eficiente quando comparado aos controles.

  11. Alteraciones citogenéticas en trabajadoras con riesgo ocupacional de exposición a plaguicidas en cultivos de flores en Bogotá.

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    Marcela Varona

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la frecuencia de alteraciones citogenéticas (micronúcleos y aberraciones cromosómicas, deficiencias en la reparación del ADN y actividad de la acetilcolinesterasa como biomarcadores de exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos en trabajadoras de cultivos de flores en Bogotá. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 31 trabajadoras con riesgo ocupacional de exposición a plaguicidas y 30 sin riesgo; la información se obtuvo por medio de una entrevista. Se emplearon como pruebas citogenéticas estándar la frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas y de micronúcleos; la prueba de reto (challenge assay se utilizó para determinar la respuesta a los rayos gamma y como indicador de deficiencias en la reparación del ADN. Los datos se analizaron por porcentaje de células aberrantes, frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas y rompimiento cromatídico en 100 células en metafase analizadas en cada trabajadora. En los ensayos citogenéticos, se encontró que el grupo expuesto presentó frecuencias mayores de células con aberraciones cromosómicas y micronúcleos que el grupo no expuesto, con diferencias significativas (p=0,02; sin embargo, con la prueba de reto, la diferencia no fue significativa (p>0,1. Estos hallazgos requieren ser confirmados por estudios de tipo analítico que involucren exámenes clínicos; además, es necesario un mayor número de biomarcadores para la monitorización de trabajadores expuestos a plaguicidas en cualquier situación.

  12. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos etanólico e de ciclohexano a partir das flores de camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.

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    A.F. Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crescente seleção de microrganismos resistentes aos antimicrobianos atuais, tem-se valorizado a busca por alternativas naturais. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a atividade antibacteriana de extratos etanólico e de ciclohexano de flores de camomila, espécie vegetal de uso antigo pela medicina tradicional, frente às bactérias ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli e Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorovar Typhimurium pelas técnicas de difusão em ágar e diluição em caldo. Foi observada inibição do crescimento de P. aeruginosa frente ao extrato etanólico bruto (1g/mL na técnica de diluição em caldo, e confirmada pela técnica de difusão em ágar (halo de inibição de 10 mm de diâmetro. Para as demais bactérias testadas, os extratos e suas diluições não apresentaram efeito bacteriostático em nenhuma das técnicas. Pode-se concluir que o extrato etanólico bruto da camomila apresentou atividade antibacteriana frente à P. aeruginosa, porém não foi eficaz frente à S. aureus, E. coli e Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorovar Typhimurium. Portanto, são necessários novos estudos com diferentes linhagens de microrganismos, com o intuito de corroborar e assegurar os resultados apresentados, para definir o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato da camomila.

  13. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

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    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  14. Asociación entre la incidencia de leishmaniosis cutánea y el índice de desarrollo humano y sus componentes en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela Association between cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the human development index and its components in four endemic states of Venezuela

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    Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar las posibles asociaciones entre el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH y sus componentes, y la incidencia de Leishmaniosis cutánea (LC en cuatro estados endémicos de Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara y Sucre en el período 1994 al 2003. Materiales y métodos. La data socioeconómica (clasificada de acuerdo al Banco Mundial se obtuvo del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y la epidemiológica del Ministerio de Salud, ambos de Venezuela. Para este estudio ecológico se evaluó la variación anual de las variables y se realizó modelos de regresión. Resultados. El IDH varió en el período, de 0,6746 en 1994 a 0,8144 en 2003 (p=0,90, asimismo, se observó un aumento de la incidencia acumulada de Leishmaniosis, en especial del año 1998 (7,3 casos/100 000 hab a 1999 (11,3 casos/100 000 hab. Al analizar con los modelos de regresión lineal, se observó que la relación entre las variables epidemiológicas y sociales era diferente a nivel de los Estados evaluados. Para Mérida y Trujillo se observó un descenso significativo de la incidencia de LC con relación al aumento del porcentaje de alfabetización (pObjectives. Assess potential relationships between the Human Development Index (HDI and its components and the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in four endemic States of Venezuela (Mérida, Trujillo, Lara and Sucre in the period 1994-2003. Material and methods. Socioeconomical data (classified according the World Bank was obtained from the National Institute of Statistics, and the epidemiological data from the Ministry of Health, both from Venezuela. For this ecological study the annual variation of the variables was assessed and also regression models were done. Results. The HDI varied in the period from 0.6746 in 1994 to 0.8144 in 2003 (p=0.90. During this time an increase in the cumulative incidence of Leishmaniasis was observed, particularly from 1998 (7.3 cases/100,000 pop to 1999 (11.3 cases/100,000 pop. Analyzing

  15. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae: Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation

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    Pei-Luen Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis, endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon’s index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested.

  16. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Rosemary; van der Meer, Martin; Walker, Emily; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-09-01

    Globally, marine species are under increasing pressure from human activities, including ocean warming, acidification, pollution, and overfishing. Species most vulnerable to these pressures tend to be ecological specialists that have low abundance and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after local extinction events. This study examined connectivity in the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus, a habitat specialist with low abundance at most locations. Evolutionary and contemporary migration, genetic diversity, and self-replenishment among the four main locations (Sunshine Coast, North Solitary Island, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island) that comprise the entire A. latezonatus geographic range were assessed using mtDNA and microsatellite markers. Though historical gene flow inferred from mtDNA appeared high, population genetic differentiation was evident and contemporary gene flow inferred from microsatellites was limited, alongside very high (≥89 %) self-replenishment at all locations. Together, these data suggest prolonged recovery times following severe population decline (or extirpation) and indicate a need to protect this species at all locations, particularly Norfolk Island and Sunshine Coast where marine protected areas are lacking.

  17. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberg, Rosemary

    2016-02-19

    Globally, marine species are under increasing pressure from human activities, including ocean warming, acidification, pollution, and overfishing. Species most vulnerable to these pressures tend to be ecological specialists that have low abundance and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after local extinction events. This study examined connectivity in the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus, a habitat specialist with low abundance at most locations. Evolutionary and contemporary migration, genetic diversity, and self-replenishment among the four main locations (Sunshine Coast, North Solitary Island, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island) that comprise the entire A. latezonatus geographic range were assessed using mtDNA and microsatellite markers. Though historical gene flow inferred from mtDNA appeared high, population genetic differentiation was evident and contemporary gene flow inferred from microsatellites was limited, alongside very high (≥89 %) self-replenishment at all locations. Together, these data suggest prolonged recovery times following severe population decline (or extirpation) and indicate a need to protect this species at all locations, particularly Norfolk Island and Sunshine Coast where marine protected areas are lacking.

  18. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga

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    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists – e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit – just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). “Data deficient” is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of

  19. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists - e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit - just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). "Data deficient" is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of the Cerrado and

  20. Chronic methyl mercury poisoning may trigger endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    In endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) or "fogo selvagem" the epidemiological evidence shows that all the described outbreaks occur on the banks of rivers where there is mercury contamination from alluvium gold mining and deforestation. Pathophysiological evidence shows a similarity to pemphigus induced by sulphydryl (SH-) drugs that act by denaturing cadherins at the desmosomal level, which are the pemphigus antigens. The sulfhydryl radical (SH-) call also thiol or mercaptans from the SH-drugs, act at the level of SH-groups of cystein as would the methyl mercury from the contaminated animals and fish in the diet of humans from endemic areas of pemphigus foliaceus. The methyl mercury would join the SH-groups from the cysteines amino acids from cadherin proteins in the skin. The autoimmune disease would only be triggered in genetically susceptible individuals with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB 1 haplotypes, just as Brown-Norway (BN) rats which are susceptible to develop Th2-dependent autoimmunity induced by metals. Immunological evidence from all the seroepidemiological studies could also be explained by binding mechanism of the methyl mercury to the SH-groups from the cysteines in the desmosomal cadherins proteins. The conclusion is that chronic methyl mercury poisoning is the most likely trigger of endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem". To reduce the contamination of methyl mercury in the animals of the polluted rivers is pertinent to the design of campaigns and education programs with the population. Implement reforestation and biological control measures like phytoremediation technologies using decontaminant plants to decrease the methylation, and the process of biomagnifications of the methyl mercury in the Latin-America EPF foci.

  1. Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Feldmeier, Hermann; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Sentongo, Elizabeth; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda. Methods and Findings To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0–64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (panimal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, panimals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, pAnimal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3–11.4, pAnimal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals. PMID:26473360

  2. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Van Damme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993, Korovchinsky (2006 and Smirnov (2008 previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains; ii endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands; iii South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006, yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae, is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in

  3. Dendrobium 'Brazilian Fire 101' - New option of color of flowers for the orchid market Dendrobium 'Brazilian Fire 101' - Nova opção de coloração de flores para o mercado de orquídeas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C Cardoso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of germplasm banks of ornamental species, together with breeding programs is fundamental for the growth of competitive cultivars of flowers that are the same or better quality than those developed in other countries. Around 100 progenies from a crossing between the cultivars Dendrobium 'Tong Chai Gold' and Dendrobium 'Black Jack' were obtained, from 50 plants which were selected and grown in pots in greenhouse conditions to evaluate the blooming stage and to select the progenies. Selection of vigorous growing plants and without disease symptoms were made in the period of cultivation. Also, there were evaluated the growing characteristics, rooting, early blooming, as well as the color, number and size of flowers in the first and second blooming. Six progenies with superior characteristics were chosen, from which Dendrobium 'Brazilian Fire 101' was obtained. This cultivar shows fast growth, good rooting, early flowering and high quality flowers, with predominantly yellow color, showing the ribs, the center of flowers and lip with red color. The durability of the flowers was 45-60 days after anthesis.O estabelecimento de bancos de germoplasma de espécies ornamentais, consorciado a programas de melhoramento genético é fundamental para a produção de cultivares de flores competitivas em meio àquelas desenvolvidas no exterior. Foram obtidas 100 progênies provenientes de um cruzamento entre as cultivares Dendrobium 'Tong Chai Gold' e Dendrobium 'Black Jack', das quais 50 foram selecionadas e cultivadas em vaso e condições de estufa até o momento da floração e seleção de progênies. As seleções de plantas com crescimento vigoroso e sem sintomas de doenças foram realizadas ao longo do tempo de cultivo. Nessas, também foram avaliadas as características de crescimento, enraizamento, floração precoce, além de coloração, número e tamanho de flores na primeira e segunda floração. Foram escolhidas seis progênies com

  4. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district.

  5. A mass treatment model for endemic reduction of filaria disease with pre-testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuady, A. M.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.; Tasman, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2012-05-01

    In 2000 WHO had issued a Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis by 2020. Lymphatic Filariasis is an infectious disease that may cause permanent disability to the infected human. This disease is caused by parasitic worms and transmitted by mosquitoes. In the acute cases, the infected persons will undergo swelling in parts of their body. One of the treatment which has been successfully implemented in some countries is the Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) mass treatment. This treatment, which was implemented every year for the period of few years in some endemic region, is able to kill microfilaria within human body and partially kills the macro filaria. In this paper, a host-vector model for transmission of filariasis is constructed, in which all non-chronic individuals are separated in different compartments. Stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium and the existence of the endemic equilibria are shown. Numerical analysis and simulation will be conducted to estimate the effectiveness of treatment and to asses the long-term dynamic effect after treatment.

  6. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  7. Late endemic syphilis: case report of bejel with gummatous laryngitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    An elderly Bedouin woman originally thought, on clinical and histological grounds, to have tuberculosis of the larynx was found to have gummatous laryngitis due to late endemic syphilis (bejel). This disease is highly prevalent in the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East. Doctors dealing with Arab patients, either in the Middle East or elsewhere, should be aware of this possibility.

  8. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  9. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-03-22

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions.

  10. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a lec

  11. Pathology and the Surgical Management of Goitre in an Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goitre in the West African sub-region is caused by iodine deficiency and ... In areas where iodine deficiency have been corrected the histological ... Near total thyroidectomy is recommended as the minimum surgery to avert the need for ... Key words: Goitre, iodine deficiency, iodated salt, Endemic goitre, Thyroidectomy.

  12. Ecological predictors of extinction risks of endemic mammals of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-Hua

    2014-07-01

    In this brief report, we analyzed ecological correlates of risk of extinction for mammals endemic to China using phylogenetic eigenvector methods to control for the effect of phylogenetic inertia. Extinction risks were based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and ecological explanatory attributes that include range size and climatic variables. When the effect of phylogenetic inertia were controlled, climate became the best predictor for quantifying and evaluating extinction risks of endemic mammals in China, accounting for 13% of the total variation. Range size seems to play a trivial role, explaining ~1% of total variation; however, when non-phylogenetic variation partitioning analysis was done, the role of range size then explained 7.4% of total variation. Consequently, phylogenetic inertia plays a substantial role in increasing the explanatory power of range size on the extinction risks of mammals endemic to China. Limitations of the present study are discussed, with a focus on under-represented sampling of endemic mammalian species.

  13. The endemic species of Podocarpus in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de David J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the more than a dozen species of Podocarpus sensu stricto known to occur on the island of New Guinea inch New Britain, five are not known elsewhere. Unlike most of the non-endemic species, these five are widely distributed on the island in their appropriate ecological zones. Only one of the fi

  14. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a lec

  15. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S.F.T. Merckx; K.P. Hendriks; K.K. Beentjes; C.B. Mennes; L.E. Becking; K.T.C.A. Peijnenburg; A. Afendy; N. Arumugam; H. de Boer; A. Biun; M.M. Buang; P.P. Chen; A.Y.C. Chung; R.. Dow; F.A.A. Feijen; H. Feijen; C. Feijen-van Soest; J. Geml; R. Geurts; B. Gravendeel; P. Hovenkamp; P. Imbun; I. Ipor; S.B. Janssens; M. Jocqué; H. Kappes; E. Khoo; P. Koomen; F. Lens; R.J. Majapun; L.N. Morgado; S. Neupane; N. Nieser; J.T. Pereira; H. Rahman; S. Sabran; A. Sawang; R.M. Schwallier; P.S. Shim; H. Smit; N. Sol; M. Spait; M. Stech; F. Stokvis; J.B. Sugau; M. Suleiman; S. Sumail; D.C. Thomas; J. van Tol; F.Y.Y. Tuh; B.E. Yahya; J. Nais; R. Repin; M. Lakim; M. Schilthuizen

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of th

  16. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these comm

  17. Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Robert B.; Henneberg, Maciej; Weller, Alex S.; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-08-01

    The original centrally defining features of "Homo floresiensis" are based on bones represented only in the single specimen LB1. Initial published values of 380-mL endocranial volume and 1.06-m stature are markedly lower than later attempts to confirm them, and facial asymmetry originally unreported, then denied, has been established by our group and later confirmed independently. Of nearly 200 syndromes in which microcephaly is one sign, more than half include asymmetry as another sign and more than one-fourth also explicitly include short stature. The original diagnosis of the putative new species noted and dismissed just three developmental abnormalities. Subsequent independent attempts at diagnosis (Laron Syndrome, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, cretinism) have been hampered a priori by selectively restricted access to specimens, and disparaged a posteriori using data previously unpublished, without acknowledging that all of the independent diagnoses corroborate the patent abnormal singularity of LB1. In this report we establish in detail that even in the absence of a particular syndromic diagnosis, the originally defining features of LB1 do not establish either the uniqueness or normality necessary to meet the formal criteria for a type specimen of a new species. In a companion paper we present a new syndromic diagnosis for LB1.

  18. Detection of new genetic variants of Betacoronaviruses in Endemic Frugivorous Bats of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanajatovo, Norosoa H; Nomenjanahary, Lalaina A; Wilkinson, David A; Razafimanahaka, Julie H; Goodman, Steven M; Jenkins, Richard K; Jones, Julia P G; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-12

    Bats are amongst the natural reservoirs of many coronaviruses (CoVs) of which some can lead to severe infection in human. African bats are known to harbor a range of pathogens (e.g., Ebola and Marburg viruses) that can infect humans and cause disease outbreaks. A recent study in South Africa isolated a genetic variant closely related to MERS-CoV from an insectivorous bat. Though Madagascar is home to 44 bat species (41 insectivorous and 3 frugivorous) of which 34 are endemic, no data exists concerning the circulation of CoVs in the island's chiropteran fauna. Certain Malagasy bats can be frequently found in close contact with humans and frugivorous bats feed in the same trees where people collect and consume fruits and are hunted and consumed as bush meat. The purpose of our study is to detect and identify CoVs from frugivorous bats in Madagascar to evaluate the risk of human infection from infected bats. Frugivorous bats belonging to three species were captured in four different regions of Madagascar. We analyzed fecal and throat swabs to detect the presence of virus through amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, which is highly conserved in all known coronaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from positive specimens. From 351 frugivorous bats, we detected 14 coronaviruses from two endemic bats species, of which 13 viruses were identified from Pteropus rufus and one from Eidolon dupreanum, giving an overall prevalence of 4.5%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Malagasy strains belong to the genus Betacoronavirus but form three distinct clusters, which seem to represent previously undescribed genetic lineages. Our findings suggest that CoVs circulate in frugivorous bats of Madagascar, demonstrating the needs to evaluate spillover risk to human populations especially for individuals that hunt and consume infected bats. Possible dispersal mechanisms as to how coronaviruses arrived on Madagascar are discussed.

  19. Assessing the risk of dengue virus transmission in a non-endemic city surrounded by endemic and hyperendemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Ho; Lee, Shui Shan; Chan, Denise Pui Chung; Cheung, Manton; Kam, Kai Man

    2017-02-01

    To assess the potential risk of dengue transmission in a non-endemic city using a spatial epidemiological approach. Past dengue exposure of the general population was examined by dengue virus (DENV) IgG testing of archived samples from voluntary blood donors. Vector intensities were determined by local ovitrap index (OI). Analyses were made in the context of population statistics at both the district and sub-district level. The overall prevalence of DENV IgG was low at 2.25%. Positive donors were more likely to be older, non-Chinese, and female. Neither the OI nor the location of residence was associated with DENV serology. The sub-district level OI was clustered, but no correlation could be confirmed with the location of residence of positive blood donors. The cumulative exposure of Hong Kong residents to dengue has so far been low. Coupled with the lack of a spatial relationship between exposed cases and vector intensities, a high risk of local transmission of DENV is not supported. The apparently higher exposure likelihood of females could be explained by past infection in workers from dengue endemic countries, while frequent travel could have exposed older adults to DENV. Continued surveillance, risk assessment, and intensive vector control remain essential to prevent the transformation of a non-endemic to an endemic city. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinación de razas fisiológicas de Fusariumoxysporumf.sp. Dianthien suelos cultivados y en variedades de clavel en la finca "flores las palmas".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Joaquín L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    EI problema fitosanitario más Limitante del cultivo del clavel en Colombia es el marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi con pérdidas económicas muy importantes. EI objetivo del trabajo fue la determinación de las razas fisiológicas del patógeno en la línea "Flores Las Palmas·, localizada en el Municipio de Tocancipá, Cundinamarca, a partir de muestras de plantas de clavel afectadas y de suelo. La investigación consistió en la obtención de 50 aislamientos del hongo a partir de plantas afectadas por la enfermedad y de 50 alistamientos de suelo, los cuales se inocularon en las variedades diferenciales de clavel lbiza, Taiga, Raggio di Sole, Pink Calypso, Niki y San Remo. Los resultados mostraron que 41

    (82% de los 50 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de plantas enfermas de clavel estándar se clasificaron como raza 2 del patógeno, cinco aislamientos (10% se caracterizaron como de baja patogenicidad, por l0 cual no fue posible determinar la raza a la cual pertenecen y cuatro aislamientos (8% se caracterizaron por no ser patogénicos en plantas de clavel. De los 50 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos a partir de muestras de suelo, solamente uno de ellos (2% Jue patogénico en plantas de clavel y se clasifico como raza 2, siendo los demás aislamientos no patogénicos en plantas de clavel.

  1. Manejo da queima das flores e da podridão-parda do pessegueiro cultivado em sistema orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genuino Negri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de fosfitos, iodo, calda sulfocálcica e Trichothecium roseum no manejo da Queima das flores e da Podridão-Parda do pessegueiro, doenças causadas por Monilinia fructicola, nas cultivares Granada e Chimarrita, em cultivo orgânico. Os tratamentos foram: 1 calda sulfocálcica + iodo (aplicada na floração e na pré-colheita; 2 alternância entre calda sulfocálcica + iodo, fosfito de CaB e T. roseum (aplicados na floração e Fosfito de K e T. roseum (aplicados na pré-colheita; 3 T. roseum (aplicado na floração e na pré-colheita; 4 testemunha. Os tratamentos foram paralisados uma semana antes do início da colheita. A doença foi quantificada pela incidência da doença nas fases de floração, de frutos verdes, de colheita e de pós-colheita. A incidência da doença na testemunha, na fase de floração, variou de 22 a 72%; nos frutos verdes, de 19 a 30%, e na colheita, de 18 a 61%. Todos os tratamentos reduziram a doença nas fases de floração e de frutos verdes, em ambas as cultivares, na ordem de 49 a 73% na floração e de 57 a 84% na fase de frutos verdes em relação à testemunha. Resultados significativos foram obtidos também em pós-colheita, na cultivar Granada, com reduções da doença em 54% no tratamento 1, e 30% no tratamento 2. Nenhum dos tratamentos foi eficiente na redução da incidência da doença na colheita.

  2. Insular endemism in Recent Southern Ocean benthic Ostracoda from Marion Island: palaeozoogeographical and evolutionary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dingle, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    benthic ostracods, subantarctic, endemism, insularity, Marion Island, Southern Ocean, colonisation, quaternary, eyes, ocular-rejuvenation, dormant genes, evolution......benthic ostracods, subantarctic, endemism, insularity, Marion Island, Southern Ocean, colonisation, quaternary, eyes, ocular-rejuvenation, dormant genes, evolution...

  3. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the Te

  4. Bees visitors of three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in Central Amazonia Abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiacea na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Kaminski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on bees visitors to three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in the Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were made during three two-week periods. The three species of Clusia, namely C. grandiflora, C. panapanari and C. insignis, presented variations regarding the species of bee visitors. A total of 23 bee species visited the three species of Clusia. The Euglossini and Meliponinae bees were the most frequent visitors of the Clusia flowers. Bee collecting behavior of floral resources is described.Durante seis semanas foram realizadas observações das abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiaceae, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, em Manaus. As três espécies de Clusia: C. grandiflora Splitg., C. panapanari (Aubl. e C. insignis Mart. apresentaram diferenças com relação às visitas de espécies de abelhas, tendo sido visitadas por 23 espécies. Abelhas Euglossini e Meliponinae foram os visitantes mais freqüentes em flores de Clusia. O comportamento de coleta de recursos florais é descrito.

  5. [Study on distribution of endemic arsenism in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinlong; Liang, Chaoke; He, Gongli; Cao, Jingxiang

    2003-11-01

    Drinking water and burning coal endemic arsenism as a severe disease is confirmed by National Ministry of Health in China in 1992. It is not uniform survey of the disease for the whole country from its report in 1980 in xijiang. Therefore National Ministry of Scientific and Technology in China supports to study on distribution of endemic arsenism in 21 provinces in China, so that it can know the basic distribution of endemic arsenism in China, and the data results will be a guide for the disease prevention and control. The project used environmental epidemiology study including retrospective epidemiology, present situation survey of the disease in severe areas and sampling investigation in unknown areas, collecting data of exposure population and arsenism cases. At the same time, the data of arsenic level in environment were collected, and environment samples were analyzed by standard chemical method. The both data were statistical analysis by access database and SAS procedure in computer. Through the study, it achieves the expected aim that grasps spreading distribution of drinking water arsenism and burning coal arsenism, including arsenic level in water, coal, food and air, as well as patient's condition of the disease at macroscopic. Drinking water endemic arsenism distributed in 8 provinces, 40 counties, affecting 2,343,238 peoples, among 522566 peoples expositing to the drinking water arsenic higher than 0.05 mg/L, and 7821 arsenism patients were diagnosed. Burning coal endemic arsenism spreads in 2 provinces, 8 counties, affecting 333905 peoples, 48438 peoples exposing to high arsenic of burning coal pollution, and 2402 peoples causing chronic arsenic poising by coal burning. Drinking water endemic arsenism: Nemeng, Shanxi is a severe drinking water endemic region also. Wusu city in Xinjiang is old arsenism area, which reformed drinking water to decrease arsenic, so chronic arsenic poisoning condition decreasing. Reforming drinking water measures to decreees

  6. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority's administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the

  7. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. Materials and methods We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Results Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Conclusions Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority’s administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally

  8. Entomofauna asociada a flores de berenjena y su papel en la producción de los frutos Insects associated with eggplant flowers and their role in fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El papel de los insectos polinizadores despierta interés, principalmente, en la reproducción de plantas tales como la berenjena. Este trabajo de recolección de la entomofauna asociada a las flores de Solanum melongena tuvo como objetivos identificar posibles agentes polinizadores locales y analizar el beneficio de los insectos antófilos a esta planta. Las observaciones y la colecta de los insectos visitantes de las flores fueron realizadas en febrero de 2008, entre las 7:00 y 17:15 horas, cada 45 minutos y en un área de 27 m². El experimento para el análisis y la comparación entre autofecundación espontánea y polinización por medio de agentes bióticos fue realizado en el mismo sitio, de febrero a marzo de 2009. Fueron colectados 631 insectos que visitaban las flores de berenjena, se destacaron los coleópteros de los géneros Colaspis Fabricius, Astylus Laporte, Harmonia Mulsant, Epitrix Foudras y Diabrotica Chevrolat; y los himenópteros del género Bombus Latreille. El pico de visitación en Solanum melongena ocurrió entre las 9:00 y 11:00 horas y corresponde al 36% del muestreo. De las flores sometidas al test de autofecundación espontánea, el 39% formaron frutos, mientras que apenas el 11% de las flores emasculadas y expuestas al proceso de acción por medio de agentes bióticos fructificaron.The interest in the role of insect pollination is growing, mainly in the reproduction of plants of economic interest, such as the eggplant. This study about the entomofauna associated with flowers of Solanum melongena has as objectives to identify possible pollinators' agents and to analyze the benefit of the anthophile insects to this plant. The observations and the survey of the flower visitors' insects were made in February 2008, between 7:00 am and 5:15 pm, every 45 minutes, in an area of 27 m². The experiment for analysis and comparison between spontaneous self pollination and by biological agents was made at the same place, from

  9. Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae Interações entre abelhas carpinteiras e abelhas das orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae em flores de Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fernando dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition between two species of bees for the same type of floral resource may generate antagonistic behavior between them, especially in cultivated areas where food resources are limited, seasonally and locally. In this study, was tested the hypothesis of antagonism between two solitary bee species of the family Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini and Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini, visiting the Brazil nut flowers (Bertholletia excelsa: Lecythidaceae in a central Amazonia agricultural area. The visitation time was analyzed to detect the possible temporal overlap in the foraging of these bees. Furthermore, was analyzed their interspecific interactions for manipulating flower species visited by an opponent species, as well as attempts to attack this opponent. The individuals of Xylocopa frontalis visited the Brazil nut flowers before Eulaema mocsaryi, although the peak visitation of both did not presented significant differences. Neither of the species manipulated flowers recently visited by opponent species, and there were practically no antagonistic interactions between them. Thus, X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi shared the same food source in the flowers of B. excelsa due to differences in their time of visits and non-aggressive way of interacting with the opponent. This result has important implications for pollinating the Brazil nut, and a possible management of X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi, since these two were the most abundant pollinators in the studied locality.A competição entre duas espécies de abelhas por um mesmo tipo de recurso floral pode gerar comportamentos antagônicos entre elas, principalmente, dentro de áreas cultivadas, onde o recurso alimentar é limitado sazonalmente e localmente. No presente trabalho, foi testada a hipótese de antagonismo entre duas espécies de abelhas solitárias da família Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini e Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini em flores da castanheira do Brasil (Bertholletia

  10. First detection of human dirofilariasis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnee Moodley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are occasionally inadvertently infected with dirofilariae, the zoonotic nematodes. We report two cases of human dirofilariasis in South Africa, an area apparently non-endemic for this infection. Dirofilariasis is frequently misdiagnosed, so increased awareness of this entity in areas that are non-endemic is essential for prevention of inappropriate investigations and invasive therapy.

  11. Lassa fever in West Africa: evidence for an expanded region of endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogoba, N; Feldmann, H; Safronetz, D

    2012-09-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia (known as the Mano River region) and Nigeria and Lassa fever cases from these countries are being reported annually. Recent investigations have found evidence for an expanded endemicity zone between the two known Lassa endemic regions indicating that LASV is more widely distributed throughout the Tropical Wooded Savanna ecozone in West Africa.

  12. Host preferences of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis at an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Tesh, R B

    1993-07-01

    Blood meals from 579 Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae), collected in an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia, were identified by precipitin test. Sand fly collections were made during a 16-month period from the inside walls of two houses, a pigpen, and rock crevices in a small community (El Callejon) within the endemic area. Feeding patterns of the sand flies varied with locality and date of collection. Overall, bovine feedings predominated, but feedings were also recorded on pigs, equines, humans, dogs, opossums, birds, and reptiles. Calculation of the forage ratios for each host species indicated that cows and pigs were the preferred hosts of Lu. longipalpis in El Callejon. Results of this study suggest that Lu. longipalpis is an opportunistic feeder and is not highly anthropophilic nor strongly attracted to dogs.

  13. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Kuo-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae, an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit.

  14. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  15. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in the Americas: hidden under the dengue umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ferro, Cristina; Haddow, Andrew D; Weaver, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging infectious disease in Latin America. Outbreaks have been recorded for decades in countries with enzootic circulation, and the recent implementation of surveillance systems has allowed the detection of additional human cases in countries and areas with previously unknown VEE activity. Clinically, VEE is indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases and confirmatory diagnosis requires the use of specialized laboratory tests that are difficult to afford in resource-limited regions. Thus, the disease burden of endemic VEE in developing countries remains largely unknown, but recent surveillance suggests that it may represent up to 10% of the dengue burden in neotropical cities, or tens-of-thousands of cases per year throughout Latin America. The potential emergence of epizootic viruses from enzootic progenitors further highlights the need to strengthen surveillance activities, identify mosquito vectors and reservoirs and develop effective strategies to control the disease. In this article, we provide an overview of the current status of endemic VEE that results from spillover of the enzootic cycles, and we discuss public health measures for disease control as well as future avenues for VEE research. PMID:21765860

  16. Small mammal distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area in West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralaizafisoloarivony, Njaka A; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Mulungu, Loth S; Leirs, Herwig; Msanya, Balthazar M; Deckers, Jozef A; Gulinck, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague endemic area in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. Landsat images and field surveys were used to select trapping locations in different landscapes. Three landscapes with different habitats were selected for trapping of small mammals. Three types of trap were used in order to maximise the number of species captured. In total, 188 animals and thirteen species were captured in 4,905 trap nights. Praomys delectorum and Mastomys natalensis both reported as plague hosts comprised 50% of all the animals trapped. Trap success increased with altitude. Species diversity was higher in plantation forest followed by shrub, compared to other habitats, regardless of landscape type. It would therefore seem that chances of plague transmission from small mammals to humans are much higher under shrub, natural and plantation forest habitats.

  17. [The evaluation of endemic onchocerciasis in the Amou prefecture (Togo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogba, P K; Komi, B T

    1994-01-01

    We have evaluated the endemicity of the onchocerciasis in two villages of the district of Amou in Togo, Okpahoué et Onglo. We have studied 294 subjects including 136 males and 158 females representing the quarter of the population of the two villages (clinical investigation and exsanguine cutaneous biopsy): 111 persons are parasited by Onchocerca volvulus that means a prevalence rate of 37.7%. We can therefore say that the villages are in a state of "meso-endemicity". We have been able to find nodules by 20 persons among the 111 that give a percentage of 6.8 of the examined persons. Among children of 3 to 9 years old, the prevalence and the average microfilaremia are respectively 8.86 and 3.54%. Among the persons of 50 or older than 50, we found a prevalence rate of 65.95% and an average microfilaremia of 28.37.

  18. Scena propylea (Druce) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) an endemic species of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Baz, F; Coates, R; Teston, J A; González, J M

    2013-06-01

    A revision of the bibliography, as well as an analysis on the data from the specimen labels of Scena propylea (Druce) (Erebidae: Arctiinae: Euchromiina) deposited in different scientific collections, was carried out and included information from 1894 to 2010. Its geographical distribution is restricted to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt which determines this species as endemic. Data are provided on the biogeography, ecology and biology for this species. Its food plant is Thenardia floribunda (Apocynaceae) which is also endemic to Mexico. From this analysis, we propose the inclusion of both species in the document known as the Norma Oficial Mexicana 059 which encompasses the environmental protection of wild flora and fauna species native to Mexico and their risk categories, as well as the specifications for their inclusion, exclusion or change and a list of all species at risk.

  19. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    exist? Who should be involved and informed, and how should the programme be organised? Where should the programme be implemented? What measures should be used to monitor progress? When can we conclude that control and eradication have been achieved? The key elements are illustrated primarily using three......"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice......, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test...

  20. Predator-prey oscillations can shift when diseases become endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Andrew M; Hilker, Frank M

    2013-01-07

    In epidemiology, knowing when a disease is endemic is important. This is usually done by finding the basic reproductive number, R(0), using equilibrium-based calculations. However, oscillatory dynamics are common in nature. Here, we model a disease with density dependent transmission in an oscillating predator-prey system. The condition for disease persistence in predator-prey cycles is based on the time-average density of the host and not the equilibrium density. Consequently, the time-averaged basic reproductive number R(0)¯ is what determines whether a disease is endemic, and not on the equilibrium-based basic reproductive number R(0)(*). These findings undermine any R(0) analysis based solely on steady states when predator-prey oscillations exist for density dependent diseases.

  1. Centers of endemism and diversity patterns for typhlocybine leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Huang, Min; Wang, Xiu-Shuang; Ji, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-08-01

    This study identifies 'centers of endemism' for typhlocybine leafhoppers in China, revealing diversity patterns and congruence of patterns between total species richness and endemism. Distribution patterns of 774 Typhlocybinae (607 described and 167 undescribed species) were mapped on a 1.5° × 1.5° latitude/longitude grid. Total species richness, endemic species richness and weighted endemism richness were calculated for each grid cell. Grid cells within the top 5% highest values of weighted endemism richness were considered as 'centers of endemism'. Diversity patterns by latitude and altitude were obtained through calculating the gradient richness. A congruence of diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism was confirmed using correlation analysis. To investigate the bioclimatic factors (19 variables) contributing to the congruence between total species richness and endemism, we compared the factor's difference between non-endemic and endemic species using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Eleven centers of endemism, roughly delineated by mountain ranges, were identified in central and southern China, including the south Yunnan, Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Hainan Island, Taiwan Island and six mountain areas located in western Sichuan, northwest Fujian, southeast Guizhou, southeast Hunan, central and western Guangdong, and north Zhejiang. Total species richness and endemic species richness decreased with increased latitude and had a consistent unimodal response to altitude. The proportions of endemism decreased with increased latitude and increased with rising altitude. Diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism were highly consistent, and 'Precipitation of Coldest Period' and 'Temperature of Coldest Period' may contribute to the congruence of pattern. Migration ability may play a role in the relationship of endemism and species richness; climate, environment factors and important geologic isolation events can also play

  2. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  3. A molecular systematic study of the African endemic cycads

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Sc. Africa's cycads (66 species and 2 subspecies in two endemic genera: Encephalartos and Stangeria) are extremely endangered with four species extinct in the wild and 80% threatened (CR, EN, or VU) with all included in CITES Appendix 1. Although South Africa has some of the world’s strictest cycad legislation, these plants are still under threat from illegal collection for horticulture and medicine especially where they are seized in an unidentifiable condition. Currently developed legi...

  4. Dengue Virus Seroconversion in Travelers to Dengue-Endemic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Rosemary M; Hamer, Davidson H; MacLeod, William B; Benoit, Christine M; Sanchez-Vegas, Carolina; Jentes, Emily S; Chen, Lin H; Wilson, Mary E; Marano, Nina; Yanni, Emad A; Ooi, Winnie W; Karchmer, Adolf W; Kogelman, Laura; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-11-02

    We conducted a prospective study to measure dengue virus (DENV) antibody seroconversion in travelers to dengue-endemic areas. Travelers seen in the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network planning to visit dengue-endemic countries for ≥ 2 weeks were enrolled from 2009 to 2010. Pre- and post-travel blood samples and questionnaires were collected. Post-travel sera were tested for anti-DENV IgG by indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and anti-DENV IgM by capture IgM ELISA. Participants with positive post-travel anti-DENV IgG or IgM were tested for pre-travel anti-DENV IgG and IgM; they were excluded from the seroconversion calculation if either pre-travel anti-DENV IgG or IgM were positive. Paired sera and questionnaires were collected for 62% (589/955) of enrolled travelers. Most participants were 19-64 years of age, female, and white. The most common purposes of travel were tourism and visiting friends and relatives; most trips were to Asia or Africa. Median length of travel was 21 days. DENV antibody seroconversion by either anti-DENV IgM or IgG ELISA was 2.9-6.8%; lower range percent excluded potential false-positive anti-DENV IgG due to receipt of yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis vaccines at enrollment; upper range percent excluded proven false-positive anti-DENV IgM. Eighteen percent of those with seroconversion reported dengue-like symptoms. Seroconversion was documented for travel to Africa as well as countries and regions known to be highly dengue endemic (India, Brazil, southeast Asia). Given widespread risk of dengue, travel medicine counseling should include information on risk of dengue in endemic areas and advice on preventing insect bites and seeking prompt medical attention for febrile illness.

  5. Nuclear DNA Contents of Some Endemic Hedysarum L. Species

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear DNA contents and nuclear areas of some endemic Hedysarum L. species were investigated. A significant variation in the DNA content of Hedysarum species was established. The 2C nuclear DNA amount in the Hedysarum species (x = 8) ranged from approximately 4 to 6 picograms. It was found that the variation in the 2C nuclear DNA content was not related to chromosome numbers. However, there was a very high positive linear relationship between nuclear DNA content and nuclear area.

  6. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  7. Prevalence of haemosporidians in a Neotropical endemic bird area

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    Catalina Gonzalez-Quevedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemosporidians are vector-transmitted intracellular parasites that occur in many bird species worldwide and may have important implications for wild bird populations. Surveys of haemosporidians have traditionally focused on Europe and North America, and only recently have they been carried out in the Neotropics, where the prevalence and impacts of the disease have been less studied and are not well understood. In this study we carried out a survey in the endemic bird area of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM, an isolated coastal massif in northern Colombia that contains a large number of biomes and that is experiencing high rates of habitat loss. We sampled birds from 25 species at 2 different altitudes (1640 and 2100 m asl and determined avian haemosporidian infection by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b (cyt b gene of the parasite. From the sampled birds, 32.1% were infected by at least 1 of 12 unique cyt b lineages of haemosporidian genera: Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and subgenus Parahaemoproteus. We found a higher prevalence of avian haemosporidians at low altitudes (1640 m asl. All endemic bird species we sampled had at least one individual infected with avian haemosporidians. We also found evidence of higher overall prevalence among endemic rather than nonendemic birds, suggesting higher susceptibility in endemic birds. Overall, our findings suggest a high haemosporidian species richness in the bird community of the SNSM. Considering the rate of habitat loss that this area is experiencing, it is important to understand how avian haemosporidians affect bird populations; furthermore, more exhaustive sampling is required to fully comprehend the extent of avian haemosporidian infection in the area.

  8. [Endemic situation and control progress of taeniasis in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chang-Ping; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Tiao-Ying; Fu, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Xiao, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Taeniasis, caused by Taenia species, is one of the common zoonoses in China, particularly in the western region of China. Up to now, not enough attention has been given in the high prevalence and high burden of the diseases. In order to study the endemic patterns and control strategies of taeniasis, a series of epidemiological investigations, molecular researches and pilot control activities have been conducted in recent years. This paper reviews the relevant publications in taeniasis research over the last 10 years.

  9. Prevalence Of Goitre In A Non Endemic Area Of Gujarat

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    Kumar P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional, prevalence-based study comprising a community (22.486 and school survey (19.589 in rural Mehsana, North Gujarat (population: 20,37,367 revealed the goiter prevalence as 3.5% and 7.3% respectively. Grading of goiter by Stanbury’s classification showed 90% -93% of swelling as mid (ob. Application of Stanbury’s criteria over the findings of this study proved the area non-endemic. Prevalence was higher in the school than the age at which prevalence increased in the study area, was delayed to 10 years. Similar to endemic areas, prevalence was higher in females than males in all age groups (except pre-school and the sex difference was most marked in 15-44 years. A marker (ratio of grade I to ob goiter grade has also been suggested for long term, intervention-oriented monitoring of non- endemic areas.

  10. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  11. Rescue of endemic states in interconnected networks with adaptive coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, F; Miguel, M San

    2015-01-01

    We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of epidemic spreading on two layers of networks interconnected by adaptive links, which are rewired at random to avoid contacts between infected and susceptible nodes at the interlayer. We find that the rewiring reduces the effective connectivity for the transmission of the disease between layers, and may even totally decouple the networks. Weak endemic states, in which the epidemics spreads only if the two layers are interconnected, show a transition from the endemic to the healthy phase when the rewiring overcomes a threshold value that depends on the infection rate, the strength of the coupling and the mean connectivity of the networks. In the strong endemic scenario, in which the epidemics is able to spread on each separate network, the prevalence in each layer decreases when increasing the rewiring, arriving to single network values only in the limit of infinitely fast rewiring. We also find that finite-size effects are amplified by the rewiring, as the...

  12. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samways, Michael J; Sharratt, Norma J

    2010-02-01

    Because dragonflies are very sensitive to alien trees, we assessed their response to large-scale restoration of riparian corridors. We compared three types of disturbance regime--alien invaded, cleared of alien vegetation, and natural vegetation (control)--and recorded data on 22 environmental variables. The most significant variables in determining dragonfly assemblages were percentage of bank cover and tree canopy cover, which indicates the importance of vegetation architecture for these dragonflies. This finding suggests that it is important to restore appropriate marginal vegetation and sunlight conditions. Recovery of dragonfly assemblages after the clearing of alien trees was substantial. Species richness and abundance at restored sites matched those at control sites. Dragonfly assemblage patterns reflected vegetation succession. Thus, initially eurytopic, widespread species were the main beneficiaries of the removal of alien trees, and stenotopic, endemic species appeared after indigenous vegetation recovered over time. Important indicator species were the two national endemics (Allocnemis leucosticta and Pseudagrion furcigerum), which, along with vegetation type, can be used to monitor return of overall integrity of riparian ecology and to make management decisions. Endemic species as a whole responded positively to restoration, which suggests that indigenous vegetation recovery has major benefits for irreplaceable and widespread generalist species.

  13. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  14. Comparison of antibody responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv0679c in tuberculosis patients from the endemic and non-endemic regions of the Beijing genotype: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingge; Matsuba, Takashi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Leano, Susan; Nakajima, Chie; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Telan, Elizabeth Freda; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio

    2017-05-15

    Strains of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are reportedly associated with the virulence of tuberculosis (TB) infection, unfavorable outcomes of anti-TB treatment, and the global TB pandemic. Rv0679c, a hypothetical membrane protein related to host cell invasion, has a Beijing genotype-specific mutation at residue 142 (Asn142Lys). Antigenicity differences between Rv0679c-Asn142 (N-type) and Rv0679c-Lys142 (K-type) have been previously observed in mice antigen-antibody responses. However, the immune response to Rv0679c in humans remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the anti-Rv0679c immune response in TB patients from the endemic and non-endemic regions of the Beijing MTB genotype. We analyzed the Rv0679c-specific antibody responses in 84 subjects from the endemic region of the Beijing genotype MTB in China, including 45 pulmonary TB patients (C-PTB) and 39 healthy controls (C-HC), and 81 subjects from the Philippines (the endemic region of the non-Beijing genotype), including 51 pulmonary TB patients (P-PTB) and 30 healthy controls (P-HC). Anti-tuberculous-glycolipid (TBGL) antigen was used as the control antibody. TBGL IgG titers were higher in both C-PTB and P-PTB than those in their corresponding HC (C-PTB median 4.2, P-PTB median 11.2; C-PTB vs. P-PTB, p > 0.05), suggesting immune response comparability in PTB from two different countries. C-PTB showed a higher response compared to C-HC for anti-K-type IgG (53.3%) than anti-N-type IgG (6.67%); this response was not observed in P-PTB (both N-type and K-type 9.80%). Dimorphic antigen Rv0679c was found to be associated with distinct immune response patterns, indicating the role of Beijing/non-Beijing genotype of MTB in stimulating specific responses in TB patients from the endemic region of Beijing MTB. Meanwhile, reactions to Rv0679c in patients and HC from non-endemic regions of the Beijing MTB may be caused by the response to the common epitope of Rv0679c N/K-type.

  15. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a Brazilian dengue-endemic risk city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Juliana M T; Araújo, Raphaela G P; Melo, Fabrício F; Gonçalves, Caroline M; Chaves, Bárbara A; Silva, Breno M; Silva, Luciana D; Brandão, Silvana T; Secundino, Nágila F C; Norris, Douglas E; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-12-01

    Brazil reported the majority of the dengue cases in Americas during the last two decades, where the occurrence of human dengue cases is exclusively attributed to the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus). Nowadays, other recognized Dengue virus (DENV) vector in Asian countries, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), has been detected in more than half of the 5565 Brazilian municipalities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of, and determine the Ae. albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a dengue-endemic risk city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State's capital. Aedes albopictus were collected across four consecutive DENV transmission seasons from 2010 to 2014. These mosquitoes were caught in three selected districts, which had been reported in the previous ten years as having high mosquito densities and an elevated concentration of human dengue cases during epidemic seasons. All field-caught Ae. albopictus was individually processed by real-time RT-PCR, to research the DENV presence. The third season (pdengue cases. Our study demonstrated that the number of field-caught DENV-infected Ae. albopictus was inversed correlated with the number of human dengue cases. Our study raises the possibility that the DENV circulating in mosquitoes Ae. albopictus is happening in non-epidemic periods, showing that this species may be keeping only the presence of the virus in nature. Further long-term studies are necessary to better understand the role of Ae. albopictus in DENV transmission and or its vectorial competence in Belo Horizonte and in other endemic cities in Brazil and in the New World countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in non endemic countries: the role of international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A Schmunis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection with the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi extends through North, Central, and South America, affecting 21 countries. Most human infections in the Western Hemisphere occur through contact with infected bloodsucking insects of the triatomine species. As T. cruzi can be detected in the blood of untreated infected individuals, decades after infection took place; the infection can be also transmitted through blood transfusion and organ transplant, which is considered the second most common mode of transmission for T. cruzi. The third mode of transmission is congenital infection. Economic hardship, political problems, or both, have spurred migration from Chagas endemic countries to developed countries. The main destination of this immigration is Australia, Canada, Spain, and the United States. In fact, human infection through blood or organ transplantation, as well as confirmed or potential cases of congenital infections has been described in Spain and in the United States. Estimates reported here indicates that in Australia in 2005-2006, 1067 of the 65,255 Latin American immigrants (16 per 1000 may be infected with T. cruzi, and in Canada, in 2001, 1218 of the 131,135 immigrants (9 per 1000 whose country of origin was identified may have been also infected. In Spain, a magnet for Latin American immigrants since the 2000, 5125 of 241,866 legal immigrants in 2003 (25 per 1000, could be infected. In the United States, 56,028 to 357,205 of the 7,20 million, legal immigrants (8 to 50 per 1000, depending on the scenario, from the period 1981-2005 may be infected with T. cruzi. On the other hand, 33,193 to 336,097 of the estimated 5,6 million undocumented immigrants in 2000 (6 to 59 per 1000 could be infected. Non endemic countries receiving immigrants from the endemic ones should develop policies to protect organ recipients from T. cruzi infection, prevent tainting the blood supply with T. cruzi, and implement secondary prevention of congenital

  17. Aspectos de la relación entre Thalurania Furcata Colombica (Aves Trochilidae y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino Aspectos de la relación entre Thalurania Furcata Colombica (Aves Trochilidae y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala R. Ana Victoria

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available El mayor nivel de coadaptación ave nectarívora-flor conocido hasta el momento, se ha logrado en los Trochilidae (VAN DER PIJL & DODSON,1969; FEINSINGER et al., 1979 ; tanto, que se ha hablado de flores adaptadas a la polinización por una especie particular de colibrí, y de colibríes que dependen para su alimentación de una sola clase de flor (SNOW & SNOW, 1980.Los factores principales que afectan la selección de alimento por parte de los colibríes están relacionados con: hábitat y estratificación de la vegetación (STILES & VVOLF,1970; FEINSINGER & CoLWELL, 1978, distribución espacial y características de las flores (FEINSINGER & COLYVELL,1978; FEINSINGER et al., 1979, distribución temporal del alimento (WOLF et al., 1976, morfología del pico del ave (FEINSINGER & COLWELL, 1978; STILES, 1978 a; FEINSINGER et al., 1979, tamaño del cuerpo (VVOLF et al., 1976, "disco de sustentación del ala" (wing disc loading y, finalmente, la energía que el colibrí requiere para sustentarse en el aire (EPTING & CASEY, 1973; WOLF et al., 1976. Colombia está incluida en el área central de evolución de los Trochilidae (SNOW & SNOW,- 1980 y posee numerosas especies así como riqueza de hábitats ocupados por ellos. Al igual que trabajos anteriores (SNOW & SNOW, 1980; MURCIA, 1983, el presente aporta al conocimiento de la ecología de los colibríes en este país; especificamente, trata algunos aspectos de la interacción Thalurania furcata colombica-flor proveedora de alimento en un Bosque Subandino. Between April and September 1983 observations were made on the relations between Thalurcnia furcata colombica and flowers in the laguna de Pedro Palo area (Cundinamarca, Colombia. The hummingbird was seen visiting 15 species of plants (beloging to 13 families situated mainly on the edge of forest, among which the following species showed a high degree of ornithophily: Besleria solanoides (Gesneriaceae, Bomarea racemose (Amaryllidaceae

  18. Composição físico-química do vinho Bordô de Flores da Cunha, RS, elaborado com uvas maturadas em condições de baixa precipitação Physicochemical composition of Bordô wines from Flores da Cunha, RS, made with grapes matured in low rain conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Maria Tecchio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O Bordô é, depois do Isabel, o vinho de mesa de maior importância econômica na Serra Gaúcha, pois existe um considerável segmento de mercado que o aprecia, especialmente por seu sabor frutado e por sua cor intensa e matiz violeta. Devido a isso e às condições de estiagem que ocorreram no verão de 2005, quando as chuvas corresponderam a 38% da normal climatológica, analisaram-se vinhos Bordô do município de Flores da Cunha, RS, um dos mais importantes produtores da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos analisados eram varietalmente puros e elaborados segundo a tecnologia de cada vinícola. Avaliaram-se 39 variáveis, das quais os resultados mais expressivos foram os seguintes: álcool 10,58% v/v; acidez total 91meq L-1; acidez volátil 7,3meq L-1; pH 3,21; extrato seco 24,24g L-1; açúcares redutores 2,90g L-1; extrato seco reduzido 22,34g L-1; cinzas 2,09g L-1; ácido tartárico 5,35g L-1; DO 420 0,480; DO 520 1,296; DO 620 0,184; taninos 1,41g L-1; antocianinas 778,8mg L-1; etanal 14,9mg L-1; acetato de etila 59,3mg L-1; metanol 290,9mg L-1; 1-propanol 24,9mg L-1; 2-metiL-1-propanol 40,6mg L-1; 2-metiL-1-butanol 45,9mg L-1; 3-metiL-1-butanol 149,1mg L-1; soma dos álcoois superiores 260,5mg L-1; e K 953mg L-1.The Bordô, after Isabel, is the table wine presenting the greater economic importance in the Serra Gaúcha region, because there is a segment of the market that likes its characteristics, specially its fruity flavor, color intensity, and violet hue. Due to these aspects and to the very dry climatic conditions in the 2005 summer, where rain represented 38% of the climatological normal, Bordô wines were analyzed from the commune of Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, one of the most important producers of the Serra Gaúcha region. Analyzed wines were varietal ones and made according to the technology of each winery. Thirty nine variables were evaluated and the average parameters of the most expressive ones were the following: alcohol 10.58% v

  19. Reproductive biology of a highly endemic species: Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi (Cactaceae Biologia reprodutiva de uma espécie altamente endêmica: Cipocereus laniflorus Taylor & Zappi (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ordones Rego

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi is an endemic species from the Serra do Caraça, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to propose conservation strategies for this species, its reproductive strategies were investigated, including reproductive phenology, floral biology, floral visitors and breeding system. The flowering and fruiting period extends from May to October. Few flowers per plant open each night, producing up to 0.4 ml nectar, but 30% of them are nectarless. Probably pollen is also offered as a resource. Fruiting efficiency of C. laniflorus (47% is close to that found in other Cactaceae species. Pollen of this species was detected in Anoura geoffroy, Soricina glossophaga and Pygoderma bilabiatum bats. Amongst the characteristics related to bat-pollination syndrome found in C. laniflorus, the cream-white colouring of the internal part of the flower, the numerous stamens and the nocturnal anthesis of short duration can be highlighted. Flowers of C. laniflorus are also visited by Nitidulidae beetles, Trigona fulviventris bees and hummingbirds, however bats are the main pollinators of this species. Finally, as a self-sterile species, C. laniflorus needs a pollinator and is more susceptible to the risk of extinction if local disturbances affect its pollination system.Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi é uma espécie endêmica da Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A fim de se propor estratégias de conservação para esta espécie, estudos sobre sua biologia reprodutiva foram realizados, incluindo fenologia reprodutiva, biologia floral, visitantes florais e o sistema reprodutivo. O período de floração e frutificação ocorre de maio a outubro. Poucas flores abrem-se por planta a cada noite, podendo produzir até 0.4 ml de néctar, poré 30% destas não apresentam néctar. Cipocereus laniflorus provavelmente oferece também pólen como recurso. A eficiência de frutificação sob condições naturais de poliniza

  20. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

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    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los insectos visitantes en flores de nueve especies de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Oriental, durante 1993 (marzo a junio, en primavera y 1994 (enero a marzo, final del invierno y comienzo de la primavera. Se contabilizaron unas 50 horas de recolecta en tres horarios diferentes (0900-0930 hr en 1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr y 1500-1530 hr en 1994. Se identificaron más de 140 especies y por lo menos 37 familias; Hymenoptera fue el orden mejor representado (con más de la mitad de los individuos rerecolectados, seguido de Diptera, Coleoptera y Lepidoptera. Dentro de Hymenoptera las abejas (Apoidea fueron mayoritarias, especialmente Apis mellifera L.; seguidas de avispas (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae e icneumónidos (Ichneumonidae; los microhimenópteros no se recolectaron. Se comparó la himenopterofauna en cuanto a diversidad, similitud, especies dominantes y subdominantes, preferencia de horarios, eficiencia de los muestreos, etc. Cada especie de planta sustentó una fauna característica. Casi un tercio de los himenópteros visitantes fueron controles biológicos de plagas agrícolas, y la mayoría pueden considerarse polinizadores. Especies afines filogenéticamente presentaron patrones de actividad diaria semejante. El horario 0900 -0930 hr fue el de mayor biodiversidad en cuanto a número de especies visitantes. Al analizar el número de especies con relación al número de especímenes rerecolectados, así como el total de especies y número de muestreos realizados, las funciones de mejor ajuste fueron polinomiales de segundo grado (r² = 0.9734 y r² = 0.9573 respectivamente, p The insect visitors of flowers in nine weeds species were studied in the Botanical Garden of Santiago de Cuba, Eastern Cuba, during 1993 (March - June, spring season and 1994 (January - March, end of winter and beginning of spring season. About 50 hours of collecting efforts were made at three times (0900-0930 hr in

  1. Glomerular filtration rate in examined population of Bosnian Posavina - region of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecković, Mirna; Mesić, Enisa; Trnacević, Senaid; Stipancić, Zelimir; Hamidović, Damir; Hasanović, Evlijana

    2010-04-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is chronic tubulointersticial nephritis of unknown aetiology characterized by an insidious onset and gradual progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Endemic regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina are Posavina and Semberija, sited at basin of Sava River. In BEN, just like in other chronic renal diseases (CKD), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is assumed a marker of overall renal function. The aim of this study was to compare GFR in examinees of endemic and non-endemic region for BEN, and between examinees with and without risk factors for BEN within endemic region. Study included 603 inhabitants of Bosnian Posavina, out of whom 386 (65%) from endemic (Domaljevac) and 217 (36%) from non-endemic (Svilaj) village, and it was performed in two phases. The first phase encompassed obtaining anamnestic data (demographic, personal and family history), measurement of arterial blood pressure, and urine dipstick testing (specific gravity, pH, proteins, leukocytes, glucose, ketones, and microalbuminuria). In the second phase, besides repeated urine dipstick test, laboratory blood testing and abdominal ultrasound, with special attention to urinary tract, was also performed. We have compared GFR between examinees of endemic and non-endemic regions for BEN, and between examinees with and without family burden for BEN within endemic region, using MDRD formula for calculating GFR, with cut-off value (5th percentile) based on result of studies performed in European Caucasians in screening for CKD and for establishing stages of CKD in BEN. Medical was used for statistical testing. Out of total number of examined inhabitants (603), 145 examinees were included in the second phase. After exclusion of 17 diabetic patients, 94 (73%) examinees from endemic and 34 (27%) examinees from non-endemic region remained. In the endemic region there were 46 (49%) examinees with and 48 (51%) without family burden for BEN. Overall GFR in examined groups was within

  2. When hummingbirds are the thieves: visitation effect on the reproduction of Neotropical snowbell Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae Quando os beija-flores são os ladrões: efeito da visitação na reprodução de uma planta Neotropical Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae

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    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of floral visitors associated with a particular plant is frequently larger than predicted by the traditional concept of floral syndromes and the role that unpredicted visitors play in plant reproduction deserves attention. Hummingbirds are frequently recorded visiting flowers with distinct floral syndromes, especially in some hummingbird flower poor ecosystem such as the Cerrado. In this study we investigated the effect of frequent hummingbird visits on the reproduction of melittophilous Styrax ferrugineus. The flowers were visited by many different insect groups and visits by hummingbirds were frequent, especially early in the morning when nectar availability was higher. Nectar parameters varied considerably during the flower life span, and was probably affected by the temperature variation during the day. Hummingbird exclusion experiments showed no effect in the fruit-set of the plant. The inability of hummingbirds to deplete all of the nectar produced in this mass-flowering plant, and the existence of another resource (pollen for the primary pollinator (large bees, are possible reasons why there was no perceptible hindrance of plant reproduction by the hummingbirds. Although no effect in the fruit-set was observed, the use of non-ornithophilous flowers must be important for hummingbirds, which are specialized nectar consumers.O espectro de visitantes florais associados a uma planta é frequentemente maior que o esperado pelo conceito tradicional de síndromes florais e o papel desses visitantes inesperados tem recebido mais atenção. Os beija-flores freqüentemente visitam flores com síndromes florais distintas, especialmente em alguns ecossistemas pobre em flores ornitófilas como o Cerrado. Investigamos aqui o efeito das visitas de beija-flores na reprodução de Styrax ferrugineus, uma espécie melitófila. As flores foram visitadas por diferentes grupos de insetos e as visitas por beija-flores foram frequentes

  3. Electrocardiographic findings in Mexican chagasic subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

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    Francisca Sosa-Jurado

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In México the first human chronic chagasic case was recognized in 1940. In spite of an increasing number of cases detected since that time, Chagas disease in México has been poorly documented. In the present work we studied 617 volunteers subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with seroprevalence of 22% and 4% respectively. Hemoculture performed in those seropositive subjects failed to demonstrate circulating parasites, however polymerase chain reaction identified up to 60% of them as positives. A higher level of anti-T. cruzi antibodies was observed in seropositive residents in high endemic region, in spite of similar parasite persistence (p < 0.05. On standard 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG 20% to 22% seropositive individuals from either region showed right bundle branch block or ventricular extrasystoles which were more prevalent in seropositive than in seronegative individuals (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the frequency or type of ECG abnormality was influenced by serologic status but not by endemicity or parasite persistence. Furthermore, Mexican indeterminate patients have a similar ECG pattern to those reported in South America.

  4. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in horses from endemic areas in the north-central mesoregion of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovello Filho, D; Jorge, F A; Lonardoni, M V C; Teodoro, U; Silveira, T G V

    2008-04-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease in the north-west of Paraná state, Brazil, where it occurs in humans and dogs. Few studies have been undertaken on the occurrence of the disease in other domestic animals and horses. In this study we investigated the infection of horses by Leishmania in ACL-endemic rural areas. Direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed. Fifty-five horses from rural areas in the municipalities of Doutor Camargo, Ourizona, São Jorge do Ivaí, Ivatuba and Santa Fé (Agua do O) were analysed. DAT-detected antibody titres varied from 10 to 640, and 42 (76.3%) animals presented titres > or =20. PCR analyses led to the detection of Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in the blood samples of three (7.1%) of 42 animals. The presence of anti-L. (V.) braziliensis antibodies and Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in horses from endemic areas suggests their participation in the ACL transmission cycle.

  5. Genotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii as agents of endemic cryptococcosis in Teresina, Piauí (northeastern Brazil

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    Liline Maria Soares Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Brazil, Cryptococcus neoformans is the cause of cryptococcosis, whereas Cryptococcus gattii is endemic to the northern and northeastern states. In this study, the molecular types of 63 cryptococcal isolates recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid of meningitis patients diagnosed between 2008-2010 in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, were analysed. Out of the 63 patients, 37 (58.7% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive and 26 (41.3% were HIV-negative. URA5-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis identified 37/63 (58.7% isolates as the C. neoformans VNI genotype, predominantly in HIV-positive patients (32/37, 86.5%, and 24/63 (38.1% as the C. gattii VGII genotype, mostly in HIV-negative patients (21/26, 80.8%. The occurrence of C. gattii VGII in six apparently healthy children and in seven adolescents/young adults in this region reaffirms the endemic occurrence of C. gattii VGII-induced primary cryptococcosis and early cryptococcal infection. Lethality occurred in 18/37 (48.6% of the HIV-positive subjects and in 13/26 (50% of the HIV-negative patients. Our results provide new information on the molecular epidemiology of C. neoformans and C. gattii in Brazilian endemic areas.

  6. Seasonal abundance of vectors at outdoor environments in endemic and nonendemic districts of dengue in Kaohsiung, South Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Lu, Yi-Ling

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the seasonal variation in abundance of dengue vectors at open spaces, empty houses, parks, and markets in endemic and nonendemic districts of dengue. Ovitraps were placed in these sites from March 2003 to January 2004 in Kaohsiung Area (Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County), South Taiwan. The index peaked in May, June, and September in the endemic districts and in May and October in nonendemic districts. The egg production of the vectors increased from April on and peaked in September. Aedes albopictus had a significant higher proportion than A. aegypti throughout the study period and in both districts. Although ovitrap indices at open spaces, empty houses, and parks were significantly higher than those in nearby households, no significant difference was found between markets and households. Moreover, the outdoor ovitrap index was significantly higher than the indoor one. No significant difference was found between the endemic and nonendemic districts in egg production, vector maturation, vector abundance at the outdoor environments, or nearby households. These findings indicate the importance of the environmental conditions surrounding the human dwelling sites in the transmission of dengue. Measures applied to remove dengue vectors should include these sites but also outdoor environments as well.

  7. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion

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    Charlene Clarke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC cause tuberculosis (TB in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion – that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus – are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.Keywords: dassie bacillus; ecology; evolution; host jump; Mycobacterium mungi; Mycobacterium suricattae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; phylogeny

  8. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charlene; Van Helden, Paul; Miller, Michele; Parsons, Sven

    2016-04-26

    Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  10. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro

    2008-07-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate an early Pleistocene expansion of A. salina in the Mediterranean Basin. Subsequent population isolation in a mosaic of Pleistocene refugia is suggested, with two or three refugia located in the Iberian Peninsula. Two instances of long-distance colonization were also observed. Surprisingly, given its strong phylogeographical structure, A. salina showed a signature of correlation between geographical and genetic distance. Owing to strong 'priority effects', extensive population differentiation is retained, despite dispersal via migrant birds and human management of saltpans. The foreseeable expansion of A. franciscana is likely to be followed by substantial loss of genetic diversity in Mediterranean A. salina. Large genetic divergences between Mediterranean and South African A. salina suggest that the latter deserves species status.

  11. Microsatellite Genotyping of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Pregnant Women in Four Malaria Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Michela; Bardají, Azucena; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Mueller, Ivo; Betuela, Inoni; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Kochar, Swati; Kochar, Sanjay K.; Jaju, Puneet; Hans, Dhiraj; Chitnis, Chetan; Padilla, Norma; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Ortiz, Lucía; Sanz, Sergi; Piqueras, Mireia; Desai, Meghna; Mayor, Alfredo; del Portillo, Hernando; Menéndez, Clara; Severini, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human parasite and the main cause of human malaria outside the African continent. However, the knowledge about the genetic variability of P. vivax is limited when compared to the information available for P. falciparum. We present the results of a study aimed at characterizing the genetic structure of P. vivax populations obtained from pregnant women from different malaria endemic settings. Between June 2008 and October 2011 nearly 2000 pregnant women were recruited during routine antenatal care at each site and followed up until delivery. A capillary blood sample from the study participants was collected for genotyping at different time points. Seven P. vivax microsatellite markers were used for genotypic characterization on a total of 229 P. vivax isolates obtained from Brazil, Colombia, India and Papua New Guinea. In each population, the number of alleles per locus, the expected heterozygosity and the levels of multilocus linkage disequilibrium were assessed. The extent of genetic differentiation among populations was also estimated. Six microsatellite loci on 137 P. falciparum isolates from three countries were screened for comparison. The mean value of expected heterozygosity per country ranged from 0.839 to 0.874 for P. vivax and from 0.578 to 0.758 for P. falciparum. P. vivax populations were more diverse than those of P. falciparum. In some of the studied countries, the diversity of P. vivax population was very high compared to the respective level of endemicity. The level of inter-population differentiation was moderate to high in all P. vivax and P. falciparum populations studied. PMID:27011010

  12. Dogs Entering the United States from Rabies-Endemic Countries, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J R; Washburn, F; Fox, S; Lankau, E W

    2015-08-01

    International dog imports pose a risk because of the potential movement of disease agents, including the canine rabies virus variant which has been eliminated from the United States since 2007. US regulations require a rabies vaccination certificate for dogs arriving from rabies-endemic countries, but permit the importation of dogs that have not been adequately immunized against rabies, provided that the dogs are confined under conditions that restrict their contact with humans and other animals until they have been immunized. CDC Form 75.37, 'Notice to Owners and Importers of Dogs', explains the confinement requirements and serves as a binding confinement agreement with the importer. In this evaluation, we describe the characteristics of unimmunized dogs imported into the United States over a 1-year period based upon dog confinement agreements recorded at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) quarantine stations. Confinement agreements were issued for nearly 2800 unimmunized dogs that entered the United States during 1 June 2011-31 May 2012, the majority of which travelled to the United States by air and without any seasonal pattern in import volume. Over 60% of these animals were puppies dogs arrived from 81 countries, with the majority arriving from North America or Europe. Dogs placed on confinement agreements had final destinations in 49 states. California, New York, Texas, Washington and Florida received the largest number of dogs on confinement agreements. These results (which do not reflect human travel or US dog ownership data) suggest that a large portion of unimmunized dogs arrive from rabies-endemic countries for commercial, shelter and rescue purposes. Further evaluation and key stakeholder involvement are needed to assess whether the current dog importation regulations are an adequate compromise between the benefits and risks of dog importation.

  13. Construcciones sociales del espacio turístico recreativo. Un estudio interpretativo sobre las prácticas recreativas en el Parque Nacional Molino de Flores Nezahualcóyotl, México

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    Rafael Hernández Espinosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Como cualquier otro espacio, los espacios turístico-recreativos se construyen socialmente, y dichas construcciones se generan en función de los significados, las prácticas e interacciones de quienes los visitan, principalmente. Desde esta premisa, este trabajo tiene como objetivo conocer las construcciones sociales, turísticas y recreativas de un destino en particular mediante la observación y el análisis de la experiencia, las prácticas y las interacciones sociales de sus visitantes. Los hallazgos se discuten a partir de un caso de estudio en el Parque Nacional Molino de Flores Nezahualcóyotl, México. A partir de las interacciones con el lugar y con los otros, el lugar es construido por los visitantes como un espacio de recreación familiar y de observación cultural, principalmente.

  14. Cianamida hidrogenada no raleio químico de flores e frutos de pessegueiros (Prunus persica, L. Batsch cv. Eldorado Hydrogen cyanamide on chemical thinning of peach-tree (Prunus persica, L. Batsch Flowers and fruits of Eldorado cultivar

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    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cianamida hidrogenada (CH2N2 no raleio de flores e frutos de pessegueiros do cultivar Eldorado. Utilizaram-se plantas com idade de 6 anos, conduzidas sob a forma de vaso e espaçamento de 6,0 x 4,0m, localizadas no Centro Agropecuário da Palma - UFPel. Os tratamentos (0; 0,15; 0,3; 0,45 e 0,6% de CH2N2 foram pulverizados em cobertura sobre ramos selecionados aleatoriamente, até o início de gotejamento, quando 100% das flores encontravam-se totalmente abertas. O produto comercial utilizado foi o Dormex (52% de CH2N2. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentual de flores raleadas 36 dias após a aplicação do produto e percentual de frutos raleados, peso médio, coloração, diâmetro, firmeza da polpa e sólidos solúveis totais por ocasião da colheita. A maior intensidade de raleio de flores (50,96% foi obtida com utilização de 0,5% de CH2N2. Na percentagem de frutos raleados, observou-se valor máximo de 9,53%, utilizando-se CH2N2 a 0,6%. O peso dos frutos aumentou com o raleio químico, porém, este não interferiu nos sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza de polpa e índice de cor dos frutos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen cyanamide (CH2N2 on the chemical thinning of peach-tree flowers and fruits of Eldorado cultivar. Six-year plants localized at Agricultural Center of Palma - UFPel were used and conducted in vase with spacing of 6.0 x 4.0m. Treatments with 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6% of CH2N2 were sprayed on randomly selected shoots until drip point, when 100% of the flowers were totally blown. Dormex (52% of hydrogen cyanamide was the commercial chemical used. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with three replications. Percentage of flowers thinned 36 days after chemical application and percentage of thinned fruits, mean fruit weight

  15. Estudo de algumas caracteristicas bioquimicas de levedura isoladas de bebidas alcoolicas andinas e brasileiras e de amostras de flores, frutas, melaço e mosto de usinas de açucar e alcool

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Josefina Contreras Castillo

    1990-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar leveduras componentes da microbiota de bebidas alcoólicas, melaço e mosto de usinas de açúcar e álcool, frutas e flores e sua provável utilização em processos de fermentação. Foi estudado com especial ênfase as bebidas alcoólicas andinas provenientes da região montanhosa dos Andes situada em países como Peru, Chile, Bolívia e Colômbia que são até hoje elaboradas artesanalmentee. Foram isoladas 511 cepas de leveduras, sendo 132 provenientes de 45 a...

  16. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Partida Lara; Enríquez, Paula L.; José Luis Rangel-Salazar; Carlos Lara; Miguel Martínez Ico

    2012-01-01

    La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral) en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México ...

  17. Spatio-temporal Evolution on Geographic Boundaries of HFRS Endemic Areas in Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan Xun; WANG Zhi Qiang; GUO Jing; TANG Fang; SUN Xiu Bin; XUE Fu Zhong; KANG Dian Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. Methods The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. Results The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. Conclusion The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled.

  18. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

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    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics

  19. Cysticercosis/taeniasis endemicity in Southeast Asia: Current status and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Wei; Ito, Akira; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Acosta, Luz P; Lee Willingham Iii, Arve

    2017-01-01

    The parasitic zoonoses cysticercosis/taeniasis is among the 17 major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) identified by the WHO as a focus for research and control. It is caused by a larval stage (cysticercus) infection of Taenia solium tapeworm in both humans and pigs. Cysticercosis occurs in many resource-poor countries, especially those with warm and mild climates in the regions of Latin America (LA), Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The prevalence of human cysticercosis is marked in those areas where individuals are traditionally keen to consume raw or insufficiently cooked pork and/or where the husbandry of pigs is improper. The worldwide burden of cysticercosis is unclear and notably, large-scale control initiatives are lacking in all regions. This review focuses on the current endemic status of cysticercosis caused by T. solium infection in both humans and pigs living in 13 Southeast Asian countries. We will also emphasize epidemiological data as well as prevention and control of human neurocysticercosis.

  20. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

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    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  1. [Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Stanisław; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers.

  2. Feline Leishmania infection in a canine leishmaniasis endemic region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, C; Gomes, J; Cristóvão, J; Nunes, M; Martins, A; Rebêlo, E; Campino, L

    2010-12-15

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a serious zoonotic public health and veterinary problem in the Mediterranean basin. Leishmania infection in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) has been reported in several countries where this zoonosis is endemic, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Israel, Palestine and Brazil. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the role played by cats in Leishmania epidemiology, in an endemic focus of zoonotic leishmaniasis, the Lisbon metropolitan area, Portugal. L. infantum DNA was detected in peripheral blood of 28 out of 138 cats (20.3%). The result of PCR in blood of cats was not closely associated with the level of specific circulating antibodies in their sera. Positive serology was observed only in one cat out of 76. In the same geographic region and time period the indirect immunofluorescent test revealed 20.4% (31/152) of dogs with antibodies and PCR detected Leismania DNA on 34.9% (53/152) animals. Despite the fact that specific antibodies have been validated for diagnosis of CanL, their detection does not seem to be sensitive enough to predict Leishmania infection in cats. On the other hand, the presence of parasite DNA in cat's peripheral blood during the transmission season and out of the season suggests that these animals living in endemic areas are frequently exposed or infected with the parasite. Although dogs have been universally regarded as the major domestic/peridomestic reservoir hosts, the present data allow us to hypothesize that cats can act as an alternative reservoir host of L. infantum, rather than an accidental host. However, in order to evaluate the existence of a transmission cycle with cats sustaining and spreading zoonotic leishmaniasis is necessary to prove that these animals can transmit the parasite to the vector in nature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  4. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    M. Regina F. Toledo; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Sonia R.T.S. RAMOS; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various ente...

  5. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  6. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  7. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

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    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  8. Parsimony analysis of endemicity of enchodontoid fishes from the Cenomanian

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Hilda,; GALLO,VALÉRIA

    2007-01-01

    8 pages; International audience; Parsimony analysis of endemicity was applied to analyze the distribution of enchodontoid fishes occurring strictly in the Cenomanian. The analysis was carried out using the computer program PAUP* 4.0b10, based on a data matrix built with 17 taxa and 12 areas. The rooting was made on an hypothetical all-zero outgroup. Applying the exact algorithm branch and bound, 47 trees were obtained with 26 steps, a consistency index of 0.73, and a retention index of 0.50. ...

  9. Syzygiumpyneei (Myrtaceae), a new critically endangered endemic species from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byng, James W; Florens, F B Vincent; Baider, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Syzygium Gaertn. (Myrtaceae), Syzygiumpyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider, is described from Mondrain Reserve on the island of Mauritius. This species is endemic to the island and differs from any other species by its combination of cauliflory, relatively large flowers, light green to cream hypanthium, light pink stamens, short thick petioles, coriaceous leaves and round, cuneate or sub-cordate to cordate leaf bases. Syzygiumpyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider is known from only two individuals from the type locality and merits the conservation status of Critically Endangered (CR C2a(i,ii); D).

  10. Relationship between intra thyroid calcifications and thyroglobulin in endemic goiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccheroni, V.; Iagulli, M.P.; Vescini, F.; Bianchi, G.P.; Menini, S.; Vacirca, A.; Vallese, M.; Lodi, A. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di medicina interna, cardioangiologia e epatologia

    1999-06-01

    The authors have been looking for the presence of parameters associated with thyroid calcifications in patients affected by simple or nodular goiter, either sporadic or endemic. A multistep discriminant analysis taking the presence-absence of calcifications as dependent variant was applied and a new variable (TG1) was created to differentiate normal from supra physiologic concentrations of hTG. In conclusion, as far as a follicular hyperstimulation can be assumed, especially if long-lasting, the presence intra thyroid calcifications should rise clinical suspect toward an old goiter rather than a neoplastic lesion.

  11. Dynamic generalized linear models for monitoring endemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Jensen, Dan Børge; Halasa, T.

    The objective was to use a Dynamic Generalized Linear Model (DGLM) based on abinomial distribution with a linear trend, for monitoring the PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome sero-prevalence in Danish swine herds. The DGLM was described and its performance for monitoring control...... in sero-prevalence. Based on this, it was possible to detect variations in the growth model component. This study is a proof-of-concept, demonstrating the use of DGLMs for monitoring endemic diseases. In addition, the principles stated might be useful in general research on monitoring and surveillance...

  12. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Jennifer J; Young, Bruce E; Beck, Stephan; Comer, Pat; Córdova, Jesús H; Dyson, Jessica; Embert, Dirk; Encarnación, Filomeno; Ferreira, Wanderley; Franke, Irma; Grossman, Dennis; Hernandez, Pilar; Herzog, Sebastian K; Josse, Carmen; Navarro, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Víctor; Stein, Bruce A; Timaná, Martín; Tovar, Antonio; Tovar, Carolina; Vargas, Julieta; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M

    2012-01-27

    The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely ( 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions

  13. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swenson Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a

  14. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely ( 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have

  15. Prevention of canine leishmaniosis in a hyper-endemic area using a combination of 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Otranto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dogs are the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum, the agent of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis. This study investigated the efficacy of a polymer matrix collar containing a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin as a novel prophylactic measure to prevent L. infantum infections in young dogs from a hyper-endemic area of southern Italy, with a view towards enhancing current control strategies against both human and canine leishmaniosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out on 124 young dogs, of which 63 were collared (Group A while 61 were left untreated (Group B, from March-April 2011 until March 2012. Blood and skin samples were collected at baseline (April 2011 and at the first, second, third and fourth follow-up time points (July, September 2011 and November 2011, and March 2012, respectively. Bone marrow and conjunctiva were sampled at baseline and at the fourth follow-up. Serological, cytological and molecular tests were performed to detect the presence of L. infantum in the different tissues collected. At the end of the trial, no dog from Group A proved positive for L. infantum at any follow-up, whereas 22 dogs from Group B were infected (incidence density rate = 45.1%; therefore, the combination of 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was 100% efficacious for the prevention of L. infantum infection in young dogs prior to their first exposure to the parasite in a hyper-endemic area for CanL. CONCLUSIONS: The use of collars containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin conferred long-term protection against infection by L. infantum to dogs located in a hyper-endemic area, thus representing a reliable and sustainable strategy to decrease the frequency and spread of this disease among the canine population which will ultimately result in the reduction of associated risks to human health.

  16. Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh

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    Bashar Kabirul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. Methods Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs, pyrethrum spray (PS, and human bait (HB from a malaria-endemic village (Kumari, Bandarban, Bangladesh during the peak months of malaria transmission (August-September. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify the host blood meals of Anopheles mosquitoes. Results In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71% was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67% and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%. All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094, 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784, whereas, six by PS (n = 549 and four species by HB (n = 29. Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (χ2 test, P Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%, followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64% and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%. Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63 and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24 showed strong relative preferences (Bi for humans among all hosts (human, bovine, goats/sheep, and others. Anopheles annularis, An. maculatus s.l. Theobald, and An. pallidus Theobald exhibited opportunistic blood-feeding behavior, in that they fed on either humans or animals, depending on whichever was

  17. Endemic systemic mycoses: coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María

    2011-09-01

    Endemic deep or systemic mycoses are common in specific geographical areas of the world. Coccidioidomycosis is present in semi-desert areas, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis in tropical regions and blastomycosis belongs to temperate climates. The two former are widely distributed in the American continent and some tropical regions of the world; the third is limited to Central and South America, and the last to North America and Central and East Africa. These mycoses all have a similar pathogenesis, as the inoculum enters the host through the respiratory tract. Cutaneous manifestations are secondary to lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination. These deep mycoses are exceptional in Europe. Most cases are observed in returning travelers from endemic areas, aid workers, archaeologists, speleologist and immigrants. However, there have been some autochthonous cases of histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum reported in European countries such as Italy and Germany. In this article, we provide up-to-date epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data on the four most important imported systemic mycoses in Europe.

  18. Consanguineous marriages and endemic malaria: can inbreeding increase population fitness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelkerke Nicolas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of consanguineous marriages is widespread in countries with endemic malaria. In these regions, consanguinity increases the prevalence of α+-thalassemia, which is protective against malaria. However, it also causes an excessive mortality amongst the offspring due to an increase in homozygosis of recessive lethal alleles. The aim of this study was to explore the overall effects of inbreeding on the fitness of a population infested with malaria. Methods In a stochastic computer model of population growth, the sizes of inbred and outbred populations were compared. The model has been previously validated producing results for inbred populations that have agreed with analytical predictions. Survival likelihoods for different α+-thalassemia genotypes were obtained from the odds of severe forms of disease from a field study. Survivals were further estimated for different values of mortality from malaria. Results Inbreeding increases the frequency of α+-thalassemia allele and the loss of life due to homozygosis of recessive lethal alleles; both are proportional to the coefficient of inbreeding and the frequency of alleles in population. Inbreeding-mediated decrease in mortality from malaria (produced via enhanced α+-thalassemia frequency mitigates inbreeding-related increases in fatality (produced via increased homozygosity of recessive lethals. When the death rate due to malaria is high, the net effect of inbreeding is a reduction in the overall mortality of the population. Conclusion Consanguineous marriages may increase the overall fitness of populations with endemic malaria.

  19. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Toncheva, D.; Atanasova, S.; Polenakovic, M. [Inst. of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Nish (Serbia Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a familial chronic tubulointerstitial disease with insidious onset and slow progression to terminal renal failure. Evidence has accumulated that BEN is an environmentally induced disease. There are three actual theories attempting to explain the environmental cause of this disease: (1) the aristolochic acid hypothesis, which considers that the disease is produced by chronic intoxication with Aristolochia, (2) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A, and (3) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low-rank coals in the vicinity to the endemic settlements. Moreover, it was suggested that BEN risk is influenced by inherited susceptibility. Therefore, it has been expected that molecular biological investigations will discover genetic markers of BEN and associated urothelial cancer, permitting early identification of susceptible individuals who may be at risk of exposure to the environmental agents. Since kidney pathophysiology is complex, gene expression analysis and highly throughput proteomic technology can identify candidate genes, proteins and molecule networks that eventually could play a role in BEN development. Investigation of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions could be the content of further studies determining the precise risk for BEN.

  20. Hemoglobin E prevalence in malaria-endemic villages in Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win,Ne

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The population of Myanmar comprises 8 major indigenous races (Bamar, Kayin, Kachin, Shan, Rakhine, Mon, Chin, and Kayah. The Bamar reside in the 7 central divisions of the country, and the others reside in the 7 peripheral states that border neighboring countries, including China, Laos, and Thailand in the east and India and Bangladesh in the west. Both malaria and HbE are endemic in Myanmar, although the actual prevalence of the latter in the different indigenous races is not yet known. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed in 4 malaria-endemic villages, each having a different predominating indigenous race. The overall prevalence of HbE was 11.4% (52/456 villagers, ranging from 2-6% in the Kayin-predominant villages to 13.1-24.4% in the Bamar-predominant villages. Although the overall HbE prevalence in the villages studied was not significantly different from that of the general Myanmar population, this study strongly documented the influence of racial differences on the prevalence of HbE in Myanmar. To prevent and control severe thalassemia syndromes in Myanmar, extensive prevalence studies of the country?s indigenous races are suggested.

  1. Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. An endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Coêlho, T D; Coêlho, M D

    1996-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, procedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraiba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

  2. Endemic Babesiosis in Another Eastern State: New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Paul C.; Gerwel, Michal P.; Easton, Rachael M.; MacGregor, Rob Roy

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, most reported cases of babesiosis have been caused by Babesia microti and acquired in the northeast. Although three cases of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey were recently described by others, babesiosis has not been widely known to be endemic in New Jersey. We describe a case of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey in 1999 in an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who developed life-threatening disease. We also provide composite data on 40 cases of babesiosis acquired from 1993 through 2001 in New Jersey. The 40 cases include the one we describe, the three cases previously described, and 36 other cases reported to public health agencies. The 40 cases were acquired in eight (38.1%) of the 21 counties in the state. Babesiosis, a potentially serious zoonosis, is endemic in New Jersey and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and hemolytic anemia, particularly in the spring, summer, and early fall. PMID:12603988

  3. Clinical features of endemic community-acquired psittacosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Branley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a large outbreak of community-acquired psittacosis in 2002 in residents of the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia, we reviewed new cases in this area over a 7-year period from 2003 to 2009. Using the 2010 criteria from the Centers for Disease Control National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, 85 patients with possible psittacosis were identified, of which 48 were identified as definite or probable infection. Clinical features of these cases are summarized. In addition to Chlamydia-specific serology, specimens, where available, underwent nucleic acid testing for chlamydial DNA using real-time PCR. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was detected in samples from 23 patients. Four of 18 specimens were culture positive. This is the first description of endemic psittacosis, and is characterized in this location by community-acquired psittacosis resulting from inadvertent exposure to birds. The disease is likely to be under-diagnosed, and may often be mistaken for gastroenteritis or meningitis given the frequency of non-respiratory symptoms, particularly without a history of contact with birds. Clinical characteristics of endemic and outbreak-associated cases were similar. The nature of exposure, risk factors and reasons for the occurrence of outbreaks of psittacosis require further investigation.

  4. Contrasting biogeography of endemic and alien terrestrial species in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Endemics and alien organisms can be considered two faces of the same coin, since management of both groups of taxa have strongly interrelated conservation implications. Islands are rich in endemic species and are also very vulnerable to biological invasions. We analysed the biogeography and taxonomy of endemic and alien terrestrial species in the Canary Islands including fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, arthropods, molluscs, annelids and vertebrates. By using the plant dataset we ...

  5. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teeyapant Punthip; Srijantr Pongsant; Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Wongvilairattana Jintana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North E...

  6. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of...

  7. Leishmaniasis and textbook: how are endemic diseases addressed in public education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Batista Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis, considered a public health problem in Brazil, because of their magnitude, geographic expansion and lethality. The disease is the etiologic agent trypanosamatid Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis, an insect of the order Diptera that has hematophagous habits. Typically considered rural, the disease emerged in the urban scene in Teresina, Piauí state, in the 80´s, reaching the other urban producing several epidemiological outbreaks. Control of the disease, based on the slaughter of seropositive dogs, chemical vector control and treatment of human patients as strategies recommended by the Ministry of Health, do not have satisfactory results, it is imperative to integrate these strategies to the actions of health education. Considering the role of the school in the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of health education actions and, above all, the importance of the textbook as an important educational tool for the teaching-learning process, this study aimed to analyze the books as they are atopted by public schools of the city of Floriano, Piauí state, address endemic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis. Physical criteria, as aspects of the brochure and binding aspects and the contents were used in the analyzes. The selection of books was made by teachers and managers of schools based on the National Textbook Program (PNLD tab and then were approved in the pedagogical evaluation of the Ministry of Education. Copies of each level of education (primary