WorldWideScience

Sample records for flood hazard mitigation

  1. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  2. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  3. A toolbox to visualise benefits resulting from flood hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha

    2017-04-01

    In order to visualize the benefits resulting from technical mitigation, a toolbox was developed within an open-source environment that allows for an assessment of gains and losses for buildings exposed to flood hazards. Starting with different scenarios showing the changes in flood magnitude with respect to the considered management options, the computation was based on the amount and value of buildings exposed as well as their vulnerability, following the general concept of risk assessment. As a result, beneficiaries of risk reduction may be identified and - more general - also different mitigation options may be strategically evaluated with respect to the height of risk reduction for different elements exposed. As such, multiple management options can be ranked according to their costs and benefits, and in order of priority. A relational database composed from different modules was created in order to mirror the requirements of an open source application and to allow for future dynamics in the data availability as well as the spatiotemporal dynamics of this data (Fuchs et al. 2013). An economic module was used to compute the monetary value of buildings exposed using (a) the building footprint, (b) the information of the building cadaster such as building type, number of storeys and utilisation, and (c) regionally averaged construction costs. An exposition module was applied to connect the spatial GIS information (X and Y coordinates) of elements at risk to the hazard information in order to achieve information on exposure. An impact module linked this information to vulnerability functions (Totschnig and Fuchs 2013; Papathoma-Köhle et al. 2015) in order to achieve the monetary level of risk for every building exposed. These values were finally computed before and after the implementation of mitigation measure in order to show gains and losses, and visualised. The results can be exported in terms of spread sheets for further computation. References Fuchs S

  4. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Calil

    Full Text Available Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S.Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as "repetitive loss." During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds.

  5. Coupling Radar Rainfall Estimation and Hydrological Modelling For Flash-flood Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, M.; Creutin, J. D.

    Flood risk mitigation is accomplished through managing either or both the hazard and vulnerability. Flood hazard may be reduced through structural measures which alter the frequency of flood levels in the area. The vulnerability of a community to flood loss can be mitigated through changing or regulating land use and through flood warning and effective emergency response. When dealing with flash-flood hazard, it is gener- ally accepted that the most effective way (and in many instances the only affordable in a sustainable perspective) to mitigate the risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the involved communities, in particular by implementing flood warning systems and community self-help programs. However, both the inherent characteristics of the at- mospheric and hydrologic processes involved in flash-flooding and the changing soci- etal needs provide a tremendous challenge to traditional flood forecasting and warning concepts. In fact, the targets of these systems are traditionally localised like urbanised sectors or hydraulic structures. Given the small spatial scale that characterises flash floods and the development of dispersed urbanisation, transportation, green tourism and water sports, human lives and property are exposed to flash flood risk in a scat- tered manner. This must be taken into consideration in flash flood warning strategies and the investigated region should be considered as a whole and every section of the drainage network as a potential target for hydrological warnings. Radar technology offers the potential to provide information describing rain intensities almost contin- uously in time and space. Recent research results indicate that coupling radar infor- mation to distributed hydrologic modelling can provide hydrologic forecasts at all potentially flooded points of a region. Nevertheless, very few flood warning services use radar data more than on a qualitative basis. After a short review of current under- standing in this area, two

  6. A framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure in mitigating urban flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jochen E.; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Sanders, Brett F.

    2017-10-01

    This research outlines a framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure (GI) performance in mitigating flood hazard in small urban catchments. The urban hydrologic modeling tool (MUSIC) is coupled with a fine resolution 2D hydrodynamic model (BreZo) to test to what extent retrofitting an urban watershed with GI, rainwater tanks and infiltration trenches in particular, can propagate flood management benefits downstream and support intuitive flood hazard maps useful for communicating and planning with communities. The hydrologic and hydraulic models are calibrated based on current catchment conditions, then modified to represent alternative GI scenarios including a complete lack of GI versus a full implementation of GI. Flow in the hydrologic/hydraulic models is forced using a range of synthetic rainfall events with annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) between 1-63% and durations from 10 min to 24 h. Flood hazard benefits mapped by the framework include maximum flood depths and extents, flow intensity (m2/s), flood duration, and critical storm duration leading to maximum flood conditions. Application of the system to the Little Stringybark Creek (LSC) catchment shows that across the range of AEPs tested and for storm durations equal or less than 3 h, presently implemented GI reduces downstream flooded area on average by 29%, while a full implementation of GI would reduce downstream flooded area on average by 91%. A full implementation of GI could also lower maximum flow intensities by 83% on average, reducing the drowning hazard posed by urban streams and improving the potential for access by emergency responders. For storm durations longer than 3 h, a full implementation of GI lacks the capacity to retain the resulting rainfall depths and only reduces flooded area by 8% and flow intensity by 5.5%.

  7. Flood hazard mitigation by actions in the hillslopes: does the context change the assessment of efficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmamar Saâdia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable and integrated flood management, small actions in the hillslopes and non-structural measures appear interesting, either to diminish the need for large flood mitigation infrastructures (whether sewerage networks or hydraulic structures in the river – which may have severe impact on the river ecosystems, or as complementary to these structures. However, the effect on flood mitigation of land-use modification and small storage or runoff control facilities is still debated in scientific literature. The effect of various structures spread over the catchment is difficult to assess, and hazardous to generalize from one studied catchment to another, which explains why the debate is still open. This study contributes to identify context features that could also explain constrasting results. Focusing on a West-Mediterranean Northern and Southern countries literature, we compare first traditionnal and modern hillslope actions against runoff in both countries. Then, we search in the physical contexts differences that might explain why actions in the hillslopes are more studied in Europe than in Maghreb. But the priorities of national or regional policies also explain differences in the perception of efficiency: the interest of hillslope actions is different if the aim is to limit erosion and pollutant transfer and/or to mitigate large floods. Pollution and how ecological status is taken into account in flood mitigation project assessment are also crucial points.

  8. RIO SOLIETTE (HAITI: AN INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVE FOR FLOOD-HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gandolfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic, one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach, and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique. This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM’s of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk.

  9. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also

  10. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  11. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  12. Societal transformation and adaptation necessary to manage dynamics in flood hazard and risk mitigation (TRANS-ADAPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Bonnefond, Mathieu; Clarke, Darren; Driessen, Peter; Hegger, Dries; Gatien-Tournat, Amandine; Gralepois, Mathilde; Fournier, Marie; Mees, Heleen; Murphy, Conor; Servain-Courant, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this project aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. This proposal assesses societal transformations from the perspective of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. Yet each risk mitigation measure is built on a narrative of exchanges and relations between people and therefore may condition the outputs. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this project will focus on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. The policy dimension of adaptation, predominantly decisions on the societal admissible level of vulnerability and risk, will be evaluated by a human-environment interaction approach using multiple methods and the assessment of social capacities of stakeholders across scales. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. In addressing the relationship between these dimensions of adaptation on different temporal and spatial scales, this

  13. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all...

  14. 防洪减灾GIS常用功能需求浅议%Analysis on GIS Functions for Flood Hazard Mitigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌志; 姜晓明

    2013-01-01

    According to the map construction , flood simulation , flood risk assessment and flood control management , this paper analy-zes the GIS functions for flood hazard mitigation and the attainment of common GIS software for these functions .Finally, it looks pros-pect of GIS functions and flood hazard mitigation .%从图件绘制、洪水模拟、洪水风险评价、防洪管理等方面分析了防洪减灾对地理信息系统( GIS )的功能需求;进而分析了现有常见GIS软件对这些功能的实现程度;最后,展望了GIS功能研发与防洪减灾的前景。

  15. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, G.; Bossi, G.; Rivelli, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2012-06-01

    For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis. In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works. The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

  18. Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marcato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis.

    In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works.

    The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

  19. Natural hazards and motivation for mitigation behavior: people cannot predict the affect evoked by a severe flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Gutscher, Heinz

    2008-06-01

    Past research indicates that personal flood experience is an important factor in motivating mitigation behavior. It is not fully clear, however, why such experience is so important. This study tested the hypothesis that people without flooding experience underestimate the negative affect evoked by such an event. People who were affected by a severe recent flood disaster were compared with people who were not affected, but who also lived in flood-prone areas. Face-to-face interviews with open and closed questions were conducted (n= 201). Results suggest that people without flood experience envisaged the consequences of a flood differently from people who had actually experienced severe losses due to a flood. People who were not affected strongly underestimated the negative affect associated with a flood. Based on the results, it can be concluded that risk communication must not focus solely on technical aspects; in order to trigger motivation for mitigation behavior, successful communication must also help people to envisage the negative emotional consequences of natural disasters.

  20. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  1. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  3. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly.

  4. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  5. BEYOND FLOOD HAZARD MAPS: DETAILED FLOOD CHARACTERIZATION WITH REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND 2D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  6. Interdisciplinary approach to hydrological hazard mitigation and disaster response and effects of climate change on the occurrence of flood severity in central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.; Bhatt, U. S.; Lindsey, S. D.; Plumb, E. W.; Thoman, R. L.

    2015-06-01

    In May 2013, a massive ice jam on the Yukon River caused flooding that destroyed much of the infrastructure in the Interior Alaska village of Galena and forced the long-term evacuation of nearly 70% of its residents. This case study compares the communication efforts of the out-of-state emergency response agents with those of the Alaska River Watch program, a state-operated flood preparedness and community outreach initiative. For over 50 years, the River Watch program has been fostering long-lasting, open, and reciprocal communication with flood prone communities, as well as local emergency management and tribal officials. By taking into account cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic features of rural Alaskan communities, the River Watch program was able to establish and maintain a sense of partnership and reliable communication patterns with communities at risk. As a result, officials and residents in these communities are open to information and guidance from the River Watch during the time of a flood, and thus are poised to take prompt actions. By informing communities of existing ice conditions and flood threats on a regular basis, the River Watch provides effective mitigation efforts in terms of ice jam flood effects reduction. Although other ice jam mitigation attempts had been made throughout US and Alaskan history, the majority proved to be futile and/or cost-ineffective. Galena, along with other rural riverine Alaskan communities, has to rely primarily on disaster response and recovery strategies to withstand the shock of disasters. Significant government funds are spent on these challenging efforts and these expenses might be reduced through an improved understanding of both the physical and climatological principals behind river ice breakup and risk mitigation. This study finds that long term dialogue is critical for effective disaster response and recovery during extreme hydrological events connected to changing climate, timing of river ice breakup, and

  7. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  8. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  9. Estancia Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  10. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  11. Sierra County Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  12. Flood hazard and management: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Howard S

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses whether flood hazard in the UK is increasing and considers issues of flood risk management. Urban development is known to increase fluvial flood frequency, hence design measures are routinely implemented to minimize the impact. Studies suggest that historical effects, while potentially large at small scale, are not significant for large river basins. Storm water flooding within the urban environment is an area where flood hazard is inadequately defined; new methods are needed to assess and manage flood risk. Development on flood plains has led to major capital expenditure on flood protection, but government is attempting to strengthen the planning role of the environmental regulator to prevent this. Rural land use management has intensified significantly over the past 30 years, leading to concerns that flood risk has increased, at least at local scale; the implications for catchment-scale flooding are unclear. New research is addressing this issue, and more broadly, the role of land management in reducing flood risk. Climate change impacts on flooding and current guidelines for UK practice are reviewed. Large uncertainties remain, not least for the occurrence of extreme precipitation, but precautionary guidance is in place. Finally, current levels of flood protection are discussed. Reassessment of flood hazard has led to targets for increased flood protection, but despite important developments to communicate flood risk to the public, much remains to be done to increase public awareness of flood hazard.

  13. Land Use Scenario Modeling for Flood Risk Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Barredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that flood risk has been increasing in Europe in the last decades. Accordingly, it becomes a priority to better understand its drivers and mechanisms. Flood risk is evaluated on the basis of three factors: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. If one of these factors increases, then so does the risk. Land use change models used for ex-ante assessment of spatial trends provide planners with powerful tools for territorial decision making. However, until recently this type of model has been largely neglected in strategic planning for flood risk mitigation. Thus, ex-ante assessment of flood risk is an innovative application of land use change models. The aim of this paper is to propose a flood risk mitigation approach using exposure scenarios. The methodology is applied in the Pordenone province in northern Italy. In the past 50 years Pordenone has suffered several heavy floods, the disastrous consequences of which demonstrated the vulnerability of the area. Results of this study confirm that the main driving force of increased flood risk is found in new urban developments in flood-prone areas.

  14. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1996-09-11

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.

  17. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... 77662. City of Pinehurst Pinehurst City Hall, 2497 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Orange, TX 77630. City... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous...

  18. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  19. Flood Hazard and Risk Analysis in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Jia; Hsu, Ming-hsi; Teng, Wei-Hsien; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons always induce heavy rainfall during summer and autumn seasons in Taiwan. Extreme weather in recent years often causes severe flooding which result in serious losses of life and property. With the rapid industrial and commercial development, people care about not only the quality of life, but also the safety of life and property. So the impact of life and property due to disaster is the most serious problem concerned by the residents. For the mitigation of the disaster impact, the flood hazard and risk analysis play an important role for the disaster prevention and mitigation. In this study, the vulnerability of Kaohsiung city was evaluated by statistics of social development factor. The hazard factors of Kaohsiung city was calculated by simulated flood depth of six different return periods and four typhoon events which result in serious flooding in Kaohsiung city. The flood risk can be obtained by means of the flood hazard and social vulnerability. The analysis results provide authority to strengthen disaster preparedness and to set up more resources in high risk areas.

  20. NIR LIDAR for Hazard Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have investigated the feasibility of employing a hazard detection and mitigation system based upon a polarization discriminating range-gated Lidar system. This...

  1. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program - Property Acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HMGP provides grants to states and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The HMGP is one of three...

  2. Flooding hazards from sea extremes and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Vognsen, Karsten; Broge, Niels

    2015-01-01

    If we do not understand the effects of climate change and sea level rise (SLR) we cannot live in low-lying coastal areas in the future. Permanent inundation may become a prevalent issue but more often floods related to extreme events have the largest damage potential, and the management of flooding...... hazards needs to integrate the water loading from various sources. Furthermore, local subsidence must be accounted for in order to evaluate current and future flooding hazards and management options. We present the methodology (Figure) and preliminary results from the research project “Coastal Flooding...... Hazards due to Storm Surges and Subsidence” (2014-2017) with the objective to develop and test a practice oriented methodology for combining extreme water level statistics and land movement in coastal flooding hazard mapping and in climate change adaptation schemes in Denmark. From extreme value analysis...

  3. The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E. N.

    2004-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is a state/Federal partnership that was created to reduce the impacts of tsunamis to U.S. Coastal areas. It is a coordinated effort between the states of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington and four Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). NOAA has led the effort to forge a solid partnership between the states and the Federal agencies because of it's responsibility to provide tsunami warning services to the nation. The successful partnership has established a mitigation program in each state that is developing tsunami resilient coastal communities. Inundation maps are now available for many of the coastal communities of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. These maps are used to develop evacuation plans and, in the case of Oregon, for land use management. The NTHMP mapping technology is now being applied to FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). The NTHMP has successfully upgraded the warning capability in NOAA so that earthquakes can be detected within 5 minutes and tsunamis can be detected in the open ocean in real time. Deep ocean reporting of tsunamis has already averted one unnecessary evacuation of Hawaii and demonstrated that real-time tsunami forecasting is now possible. NSF's new Network for Earthquake Engineering (NEES) program has agreed to work with the NTHMP to focus tsunami research on national needs. An overview of the NTHMP will be given including a discussion of accomplishments and a progress report on NEES and FIRM activities.

  4. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  5. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  6. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  7. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  8. Playing against nature: improving earthquake hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Stein, J.

    2012-12-01

    The great 2011 Tohoku earthquake dramatically demonstrated the need to improve earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation policies. The earthquake was much larger than predicted by hazard models, and the resulting tsunami overtopped coastal defenses, causing more than 15,000 deaths and $210 billion damage. Hence if and how such defenses should be rebuilt is a challenging question, because the defences fared poorly and building ones to withstand tsunamis as large as March's is too expensive,. A similar issue arises along the Nankai Trough to the south, where new estimates warning of tsunamis 2-5 times higher than in previous models raise the question of what to do, given that the timescale on which such events may occur is unknown. Thus in the words of economist H. Hori, "What should we do in face of uncertainty? Some say we should spend our resources on present problems instead of wasting them on things whose results are uncertain. Others say we should prepare for future unknown disasters precisely because they are uncertain". Thus society needs strategies to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards that make economic and societal sense, given that our ability to assess these hazards is poor, as illustrated by highly destructive earthquakes that often occur in areas predicted by hazard maps to be relatively safe. Conceptually, we are playing a game against nature "of which we still don't know all the rules" (Lomnitz, 1989). Nature chooses tsunami heights or ground shaking, and society selects the strategy to minimize the total costs of damage plus mitigation costs. As in any game of chance, we maximize our expectation value by selecting the best strategy, given our limited ability to estimate the occurrence and effects of future events. We thus outline a framework to find the optimal level of mitigation by balancing its cost against the expected damages, recognizing the uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This framework illustrates the role of the

  9. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  10. Flood Mitigation of Nyando River Using Duflow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joleha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duflow surface water hydrodynamic model has been applied using a case study from Nyando catchment in the western part of Kenya in Africa to simulate various extreme flood behaviours and their retardation levels by using selected structural measures as flood mitigation techniques. The objective of this case study was to establish a design flood recommendable for mitigation, and to identify the most cost effective flood mitigation structure. Various design flows are simulated against the different proposed structures hence, the optimal structure can be recommended when economical, social and environmental constraints are considered in the decision making process. The proposed four flood mitigation structures flood plain extension, embankment (dykes, channel by-pass, and green-storage were simulated for 20-year recurrence interval flood to determine their individual responses in storing excess water. The result shows that building a green-storage is the best and optimal structure for flood mitigation.

  11. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf [University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf (Germany); Serrhini, Kamal [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Genie des Systemes Urbains, France, and Universite Francois Rabelais, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Tours (France); Fuchs, Sven [Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: karl.spachinger@fhd.edu

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  12. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  13. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the

  14. Evaluation of low impact development approach for mitigating flood inundation at a watershed scale in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maochuan; Sayama, Takahiro; Zhang, Xingqi; Tanaka, Kenji; Takara, Kaoru; Yang, Hong

    2017-05-15

    Low impact development (LID) has attracted growing attention as an important approach for urban flood mitigation. Most studies evaluating LID performance for mitigating floods focus on the changes of peak flow and runoff volume. This paper assessed the performance of LID practices for mitigating flood inundation hazards as retrofitting technologies in an urbanized watershed in Nanjing, China. The findings indicate that LID practices are effective for flood inundation mitigation at the watershed scale, and especially for reducing inundated areas with a high flood hazard risk. Various scenarios of LID implementation levels can reduce total inundated areas by 2%-17% and areas with a high flood hazard level by 6%-80%. Permeable pavement shows better performance than rainwater harvesting against mitigating urban waterlogging. The most efficient scenario is combined rainwater harvesting on rooftops with a cistern capacity of 78.5 mm and permeable pavement installed on 75% of non-busy roads and other impervious surfaces. Inundation modeling is an effective approach to obtaining the information necessary to guide decision-making for designing LID practices at watershed scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flood hazard zoning in Yasooj region, Iran, using GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rahmati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flood is considered to be the most common natural disaster worldwide during the last decades. Flood hazard potential mapping is required for management and mitigation of flood. The present research was aimed to assess the efficiency of analytical hierarchical process (AHP to identify potential flood hazard zones by comparing with the results of a hydraulic model. Initially, four parameters via distance to river, land use, elevation and land slope were used in some part of the Yasooj River, Iran. In order to determine the weight of each effective factor, questionnaires of comparison ratings on the Saaty's scale were prepared and distributed to eight experts. The normalized weights of criteria/parameters were determined based on Saaty's nine-point scale and its importance in specifying flood hazard potential zones using the AHP and eigenvector methods. The set of criteria were integrated by weighted linear combination method using ArcGIS 10.2 software to generate flood hazard prediction map. The inundation simulation (extent and depth of flood was conducted using hydrodynamic program HEC-RAS for 50- and 100-year interval floods. The validation of the flood hazard prediction map was conducted based on flood extent and depth maps. The results showed that the AHP technique is promising of making accurate and reliable prediction for flood extent. Therefore, the AHP and geographic information system (GIS techniques are suggested for assessment of the flood hazard potential, specifically in no-data regions.

  16. Accumulation risk assessment for the flooding hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Rudari, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    One of the main consequences of the demographic and economic development and of markets and trades globalization is represented by risks cumulus. In most cases, the cumulus of risks intuitively arises from the geographic concentration of a number of vulnerable elements in a single place. For natural events, risks cumulus can be associated, in addition to intensity, also to event's extension. In this case, the magnitude can be such that large areas, that may include many regions or even large portions of different countries, are stroked by single, catastrophic, events. Among natural risks, the impact of the flooding hazard cannot be understated. To cope with, a variety of mitigation actions can be put in place: from the improvement of monitoring and alert systems to the development of hydraulic structures, throughout land use restrictions, civil protection, financial and insurance plans. All of those viable options present social and economic impacts, either positive or negative, whose proper estimate should rely on the assumption of appropriate - present and future - flood risk scenarios. It is therefore necessary to identify proper statistical methodologies, able to describe the multivariate aspects of the involved physical processes and their spatial dependence. In hydrology and meteorology, but also in finance and insurance practice, it has early been recognized that classical statistical theory distributions (e.g., the normal and gamma families) are of restricted use for modeling multivariate spatial data. Recent research efforts have been therefore directed towards developing statistical models capable of describing the forms of asymmetry manifest in data sets. This, in particular, for the quite frequent case of phenomena whose empirical outcome behaves in a non-normal fashion, but still maintains some broad similarity with the multivariate normal distribution. Fruitful approaches were recognized in the use of flexible models, which include the normal

  17. Truth or Consequences Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  18. Coproduction of flood hazard assessment with public participation geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, W. H.; Houston, D.; Schubert, J.; Basolo, V.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Karlin, B.; Goodrich, K.; Contreras, S.; Reyes, A.; Serrano, K.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    While advances in computing have enabled the development of more precise and accurate flood models, there is growing interest in the role of crowdsourced local knowledge in flood modeling and flood hazard assessment. In an effort to incorporate the "wisdom of the crowd" in the identification and mitigation of flood hazard, this public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) study leveraged tablet computers and cloud computing to collect mental maps of flooding from 166 households in Newport Beach, California. The mental maps were analyzed using GIS techniques and compared with professional hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding. The results revealed varying levels of agreement between residents' mental maps and professional model of flood risk in regions with different personal and contextual characteristics. The quantification of agreement using composite indices can help validate professional models, and can also alert planners and decisionmakers of the need to increase flood awareness among specific populations.

  19. Rethinking flood hazard at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew M.; Sampson, Christopher C.; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2016-10-01

    Flooding is governed by the amount and timing of water spilling out of channels and moving across adjacent land, often with little warning. At global scales, flood hazard is typically inferred from streamflow, precipitation or from satellite images, yielding a largely incomplete picture. Thus, at present, the floodplain inundation variables, which define hazard, cannot be accurately predicted nor can they be measured at large scales. Here we present, for the first time, a complete continuous long-term simulation of floodplain water depths at continental scale. Simulations of floodplain inundation were performed with a hydrodynamic model based on gauged streamflow for the Australian continent from 1973 to 2012. We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain storage to differ significantly from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge. These discrepancies have implications for characterizing flood hazard at the global scale from precipitation and streamflow records alone, suggesting that simulations and observations of inundation are also needed.

  20. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  1. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  2. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  3. A proposal for mitigation of floods in main colombian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado, L. D.; Bravo, E.; Ortiz, R. O.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are naturally produced by rainfall and are a worldwide threat, which cannot be controlled. The effects of the floods are not proportional to the magnitude of the events in different parts of the world. It is due to the local risk management and the reduction of the vulnerability. This research looks for the reduction of the effects of the heavy rainfall in the Magdalena River. Two main effects are detected: intensity of the rainfall and residence time of the flow in the river. Several factors were detected to increase the vulnerability of the Magdalena Valley. Those are the increase of sediment load caused by deforestation, mining and the lack of sustainable urban drainage systems. Unfortunately, the majority of the Colombian actions have been aimed to the construction of public works for "controlling" the effects of the floods and reducing the territory vulnerability without any technical reason but private interests. All the investments are done with no planning or management. In a continue review of all the dikes and walls to avoid river floods, we appreciate that the failure of this elements increased the territory vulnerability, generating false expectation of security. We propose some non-structural solutions in combination of structural ones for reducing costs of investments and emergency attention. The main conclusion of this work is based on the fact that natural hazards are unavoidable but they can be mitigated reducing the residence time of the water on the channels with the reactivation of old natural channels and constructing cutoff channels in the meandering valley.

  4. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-11-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  5. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  6. Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Morgan, Thomas H.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Yeomans, Donald K.

    2011-03-01

    Preface; 1. Recent progress in interpreting the nature of the near-Earth object population W. Bottke, A. Morbidelli and R. Jedicke; 2. Earth impactors: orbital characteristics and warning times S. R. Chesley and T. B. Spahr; 3. The role of radar in predicting and preventing asteroid and comet collisions with Earth S. J. Ostro and J. D. Giorgini; 4. Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei E. Asphaug; 5. What we know and don't know about surfaces of potentially hazardous small bodies C. R. Chapman; 6. About deflecting asteroids and comets K. A. Holsapple; 7. Scientific requirements for understanding the near-Earth asteroid population A. W. Harris; 8. Physical properties of comets and asteroids inferred from fireball observations M. D. Martino and A. Cellino; 9. Mitigation technologies and their requirements C. Gritzner and R. Kahle; 10. Peering inside near-Earth objects with radio tomography W. Kofman and A. Safaeinili; 11. Seismological imvestigation of asteroid and comet interiors J. D. Walker and W. F. Huebner; 12. Lander and penetrator science for near-Earth object mitigation studies A. J. Ball, P. Lognonne, K. Seiferlin, M. Patzold and T. Spohn; 13. Optimal interpretation and deflection of Earth-approaching asteroids using low-thrust electric propulsion B. A. Conway; 14. Close proximity operations at small bodies: orbiting, hovering, and hopping D. J. Scheeres; 15. Mission operations in low gravity regolith and dust D. Sears, M. Franzen, S. Moore, S. Nichols, M. Kareev and P. Benoit; 16. Impacts and the public: communicating the nature of the impact hazard D. Morrison, C. R. Chapman, D. Steel and R. P. Binzel; 17. Towards a program to remove the threat of hazardous NEOs M. J. S. Belton.

  7. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  8. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vojtek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to minimizing flood damage, there are measures of different character each of which has its justification and plays an important role in flood protection. Implementation of traditional flood protection measures is still very important; however, an increasing role should be played particularly by flood prevention and flood risk management. The paper presents a case study on flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale using geographic information systems, remote sensing, and hydraulic modelling. As for determining flood hazard in the model area, which has 3.23 km2, the estimation of maximum flood discharges and hydraulic modelling were important steps. The results of one-dimensional hydraulic modelling, which are water depth and flow velocity rasters, were the basis for determining flood hazard and flood risk. In order to define flood risk, the following steps were applied: determining flood intensity on the basis of water depth and flow velocity rasters, determining flood hazard using three categories (low, medium, and high based on flood intensity, defining vulnerability for the classes of functional areas using three categories of acceptable risk (low, medium, and high, and lastly determination of flood risk which represents a synthesis of flood hazard and vulnerability of the model area.

  9. MITIGATION OF SEDIMENTATION HAZARDS DOWNSTREAM FROM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen WOHL; Sara RATHBURN

    2003-01-01

    Many reservoirs currently in operation trap most or all of the sediment entering the reservoir,creating sediment-depleted conditions downstream. This may cause channel adjustment in the form of bank erosion, bed erosion, substrate coarsening, and channel planform change. Channel adjustment may also result from episodic sediment releases during reservoir operation, or from sediment evacuation following dam removal. Channel adjustment to increased sediment influx depends on the magnitude, frequency, duration and grain-size distribution of the sediment releases, and on the downstream channel characteristics. Channel adjustment may occur as a change in substrate sizedistribution, filling of pools, general bed aggradation, lateral instability, change in channel planform,and/or floodplain aggradation. The increased sediment availability may alter aquatic and riparian habitat, reduce water quality, distribute adsorbed contaminants along the river corridor, and provide germination sites for exotic vegetation. Mitigation of these sedimentation hazards requires: (1)mapping grain-size distribution within the reservoir and estimating the grain-size distributions of sediment that will be mobilized through time; (2) mapping shear stress and sediment transport capacity as a function of discharge on the basis of channel units for the length of the river likely to be affected; (3) mapping potential depositional zones, and aquatic habitat and "acceptable losses," along the downstream channel, and comparing these volumes to the total sediment volume stored in the reservoir as a means of estimating total transport capacity required to mobilize reservoir sediment delivered to the channel; (4) designing discharge and sediment release regime (magnitude, frequency,duration) to minimize adverse downstream impacts; and (5) developing plans to remove, treat, contain,or track contaminants, and to restrict establishment of exotic vegetation. The North Fork Poudre River in Colorado is used to

  10. Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise J.; Bliss Singer, Michael; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a major threat to lives and infrastructure, yet trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. The capacity of river channels to convey flood flows is typically assumed to be stationary, so changes in flood frequency are thought to be driven primarily by trends in streamflow. However, changes in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. We developed new methods for separately quantifying how trends in both streamflow and channel capacity have affected flood frequency at gauging sites across the United States. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect overbank flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity and/or the frequency of high flows. Flood frequency is generally nonstationary across these 401 U.S. rivers, with increasing flood hazard at a statistically significant majority of sites. Changes in flood hazard driven by channel capacity are smaller, but more numerous, than those driven by streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Our results demonstrate that accurately quantifying changes in flood hazard requires accounting separately for trends in both streamflow and channel capacity, or using water levels directly. They also show that channel capacity trends may have unforeseen consequences for flood management and for estimating flood insurance costs. Slater, L. J., M. B. Singer, and J. W. Kirchner (2015), Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 370-376, doi:10.1002/2014GL062482.

  11. Long-term development and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures: an analysis for the German part of the river Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private flood mitigation measures, knowledge on the long-term development of such measures, which indicates changes in vulnerability over time, and their effectiveness, is still scarce. To gain further insights into the long-term development, current implementation level and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures, empirical data from 752 flood-prone households along the German part of the Rhine are presented. It is found that four types of flood mitigation measures developed gradually over time among flood-prone households, with severe floods being important triggers for an accelerated implementation. At present, still a large share of respondents has not implemented a single flood mitigation measure, despite the high exposure of the surveyed households to floods. The records of household's flood damage to contents and structure during two consecutive flood events with similar hazard characteristics in 1993 and 1995 show that an improved preparedness of the population led to substantially reduced damage during the latter event. Regarding the efficiency of contemporary integrated flood risk management, it is concluded that additional policies are required in order to further increase the level of preparedness of the flood-prone population. This especially concerns households in areas that are less frequently affected by flood events.

  12. The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Thieken, A. H.

    2013-10-01

    Due to limited public budgets and the need to economize, the analysis of costs of hazard mitigation and emergency management of natural hazards becomes increasingly important for public natural hazard and risk management. In recent years there has been a growing body of literature on the estimation of losses which supported to help to determine benefits of measures in terms of prevented losses. On the contrary, the costs of mitigation are hardly addressed. This paper thus aims to shed some light on expenses for mitigation and emergency services. For this, we analysed the annual costs of mitigation efforts in four regions/countries of the Alpine Arc: Bavaria (Germany), Tyrol (Austria), South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. On the basis of PPP values (purchasing power parities), annual expenses on public safety ranged from EUR 44 per capita in the Free State of Bavaria to EUR 216 in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol. To analyse the (variable) costs for emergency services in case of an event, we used detailed data from the 2005 floods in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria) as well as aggregated data from the 2002 floods in Germany. The analysis revealed that multi-hazards, the occurrence and intermixture of different natural hazard processes, contribute to increasing emergency costs. Based on these findings, research gaps and recommendations for costing Alpine natural hazards are discussed.

  13. The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pfurtscheller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited public budgets and the need to economize, the analysis of costs of hazard mitigation and emergency management of natural hazards becomes increasingly important for public natural hazard and risk management. In recent years there has been a growing body of literature on the estimation of losses which supported to help to determine benefits of measures in terms of prevented losses. On the contrary, the costs of mitigation are hardly addressed. This paper thus aims to shed some light on expenses for mitigation and emergency services. For this, we analysed the annual costs of mitigation efforts in four regions/countries of the Alpine Arc: Bavaria (Germany, Tyrol (Austria, South Tyrol (Italy and Switzerland. On the basis of PPP values (purchasing power parities, annual expenses on public safety ranged from EUR 44 per capita in the Free State of Bavaria to EUR 216 in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol. To analyse the (variable costs for emergency services in case of an event, we used detailed data from the 2005 floods in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria as well as aggregated data from the 2002 floods in Germany. The analysis revealed that multi-hazards, the occurrence and intermixture of different natural hazard processes, contribute to increasing emergency costs. Based on these findings, research gaps and recommendations for costing Alpine natural hazards are discussed.

  14. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  15. Societal and economic impacts of flood hazards in Turkey – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koç Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has been severely affected by many natural hazards, in particular earthquakes and floods. Although there is a large body of literature on earthquake hazards and risks in Turkey, comparatively little is known about flood hazards and risks. Therefore, with this study it is aimed to investigate flood patterns, societal and economic impacts of flood hazards in Turkey, as well as providing a comparative overview of the temporal and spatial distribution of flood losses by analysing EM-DAT (Emergency Events Database and TABB (Turkey Disaster Data Base databases on disaster losses throughout Turkey for the years 1960-2014. The comparison of these two databases reveals big mismatches of the flood data, e.g. the reported number of events, number of affected people and economic loss, differ dramatically. With this paper, it has been explored reasons for mismatches. Biases and fallacies for loss data in the two databases has been discussed as well. Since loss data collection is gaining more and more attention, e.g. in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR, the study could offer a base-work for developing guidelines and procedures on how to standardize loss databases and implement across the other hazard events, as well as substantial insights for flood risk mitigation and adaptation studies in Turkey and will offer valuable insights for other (European countries.

  16. Flood Hazards in Metro Manila: Recognizing Commonalities, Differences, and Courses of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracie B. Zoleta-Nantes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the vulnerability to flood hazards of different urban groups in Metro Manila, the Philippines. It contextualizes and finds similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic and institutional manifestations of severe flood hazards to three groups of people in the mega-city. They are the street children and residents of wealthy neighborhoods and urban poor settlements. It explicates a set of issues that needs to be confronted and a list of appropriate actions that can be taken to initiate a pro-active stance in dealing with the causes and consequences of flood hazards at the local scale. This is necessary for future development planning and hazard mitigation purposes.

  17. 76 FR 37893 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards. OMB Number: 1550-0088....

  18. Coastal Flood Hazard Composite Layer for the Coastal Flood Exposure Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a map service for the Coastal Flood Hazard Composite dataset. This dataset was created by combining hazard zones from the following datasets: FEMA V zones,...

  19. Land Use Scenario Modeling for Flood Risk Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that flood risk has been increasing in Europe in the last decades. Accordingly it becomes a priority to better understand its drivers and mechanisms. Flood risk is evaluated on the basis of three factors: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. If one of these factors increases, then so does risk. Urban expansion and associated land use dynamics are recognised as one of the main causes of increased flood risk in Europe. Land use change models used for ex-ante assessment o...

  20. Understanding and Identifying Natural Hazard for Bandung City Preparedness and Mitigation against Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharjo Paulus P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Natural Hazard is an important aspect for the City Planning and Implementation of Policy and Development. The Local Government of Bandung City is developing a map of Hazard and Disasters based on the Natural Condition, Geography and Existing Condition. This paper discuss the scenario of the natural and main emphasis on geological hazard in the City of Bandung related to the Mitigation and Disaster Management as an input that should be adopted by the Local Government. The City is surrounded by active volcanoes and a number of faults that might cause natural disasters including earthquakes, volcano eruptions, flood and landslides. on the other hand the city developement can be directed towards the mitigation and risk reduction against these hazards.

  1. Isla Hispaniola: A trans-boundary flood risk mitigation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Brath, Armando; Castellarin, Attilio; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di

    It is sadly known that over the past decades Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been exposed to the devastating passage of several hurricanes and tropical storms. Territories that are economically weak and extremely poor in terms of natural resources have been shaken by severe flood events that caused the loss of thousands of human lives, displacement of people and damage to the environment. On May 24th 2004, the flooding of the trans-boundary river Soliette killed over 1000 Haitian and Dominican people, wiping out villages and leaving behind desolation and poverty. After this catastrophic flood event, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded through the Istituto Italo-Latino Americano (IILA, www.iila.org) an international cooperation initiative (ICI), coordinated and directed by the University of Bologna. The ICI involved Haitian and Dominican institutions and was twofold: (a) institutional capacity building on flood risk management and mitigation measures and policies; (b) hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures.

  2. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  3. Strategies for Mitigation of Flood Risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for Mitigation of Flood Risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... the Niger Delta, there is need for establishment of coastal management zone authority, land-use ... building codes, flood forecasting and warning systems, flood insurance and ...

  4. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., etc.) and provide both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood elevations... both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood hazards (as shown in a Flood... published in the Federal Register on or after December 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: The docket for this notice...

  5. Deriving global flood hazard maps of fluvial floods through a physical model cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Pappenberger, F.; E. Dutra; Wetterhall, F.; Cloke, H

    2012-01-01

    Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (re)insurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model is coupled to ERA-Interim reanalysis meteoro...

  6. An assessment of flood mitigation measures - "room for the river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komma, J.; Blöschl, G.; Habereder, C.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we analyse the relative effect of different flood mitigation measures for the example of the Kamp catchment in Austria. The main idea is to decrease flood peaks through (a) retaining water in the landscape and (b) providing additional inundation areas along the main stream (room for the river). To increase the retention of excess rainfall in the landscape we introduced two different measures. One measure is the increase of water storage capacity in the study catchment through the change of land use from agriculture to forest. The second measure is the installation of many small sized retention basins without an outlet (micro ponds). The micro ponds are situated at the hill slopes to intercept surface runoff. In case of the room for the river scenario the additional retention volume is gained due to the installation of retention basins along the Kamp river and its tributary Zwettl. Three flood retention basins with culverts at each river are envisaged. The geometry of the bottom outlets is defined for design discharges in a way to gain the greatest flood peak reduction for large flood events (above a 100 yr flood). The study catchment at the Kamp river with a size of 622 km² is located in north-eastern Austria. For the simulation of the different scenarios (retaining water in the landscape) a well calibrated continuous hydrologic model is available. The hydrological model consists of a spatially distributed soil moisture accounting scheme and a flood routing component. To analyse the effect of the room for the river scenario with retention basins along the river reaches a linked 1D/2D hydrodynamic model (TUFLOW) is used. In the river channels a one dimensional simulation is carried out. The flow conditions in the flood plains are represented by two dimensional model elements. The model domain incorporates 18 km of the Kamp and 12 km of the Zwettl river valley. For the assessment of the land use change scenario the hydrologic model parameters for

  7. 78 FR 14571 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard... effect in order to remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP... Docket No.: B- Town of Camp Verde The Honorable Bob Town Clerk's Office, December 31, 2012 040131...

  8. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302 Section 3285.302 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood...

  9. 77 FR 56669 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  10. 77 FR 39721 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... support of the appeal resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology,...

  11. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... support of the appeal resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology,...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  13. 78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Georgetown......... Georgetown Township Office, 1515 Baldwin Street, Jenison, MI 49428. Charter Township of... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting Deputy Associate...

  14. 78 FR 78995 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth... Beverly Shores Town Hall, 500 South Broadway, Beverly Shores, IN 46301. Town of Burns Harbor Building Department, 1240 North Boo Road, Burns Harbor, IN 46304. Town of Chesterton Building Department, 726 Broadway...

  15. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  16. 78 FR 14577 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance ] and Mitigation Administration, FEMA... Road, Minot, ME 04258. Town of Poland Town Office, 1231 Maine Street, Poland, ME 04274. Town...

  17. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  18. Mitigating the hazards of Mount Rainier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Don; Malone, Steve; Casadevall, Tom

    Mount Rainier volcano is an ever-present reminder to the more than three million inhabitants of the Puget Sound Lowland of the potentially hazardous geologic setting of the Pacific Northwest. Increased public awareness resulting from the recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Nevado del Ruiz, and Mount Pinatubo, among others, and the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI)'s designation of Mount Rainier as a Decade Volcano [Swanson et al., 1992] afford an opportunity to improve our knowledge about Mount Rainier with the goal of reducing these hazards. A workshop to discuss research needs and strategies, cosponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Washington, was held at the University of Washington in Seattle from September 18 to 20, 1992. About seventy-five Earth scientists, social scientists, and representatives of several companies and government agencies attended.

  19. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1994-06-01

    This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

  20. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Chau and Chau Doc. The MK test statistic results (Z) for these stations are -0.23, -1.39 and -0.84 respectively. In contrary, significant increasing trend (at α = 1%) of annual flood peak at Can Tho and My Thuan is calculated, with the Z value are 5.20 and 4.28. A Monte Carlo experiment by adding assumed observation errors of 5%, 10% and 15% results in similar trend for these stations. After the trend analysis, a set of scenarios are generated based on various hydrological boundaries, infrastructure developments and climate change scenarios. The scenarios are simulated with the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model for the Mekong Delta (Dung, 2011; Manh, 2014) in order to separate and quantify the impacts of flood protection measures to the flood regime in the lower part of the delta in a spatially explicit manner, with a special focus on the urban and economic centers Can Tho and My Thuan. Based on these scenarios the change in flood hazard caused by the infrastructure development that has to be expected is described and possible mitigation actions are proposed.

  1. Next-Generation GPS Station for Hazards Mitigation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. The same technology developed under NASA funding can be applied to enhance monitoring of large engineering structures such as bridges, hospitals and other critical infrastructure. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS/GNSS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS/GNSS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can then provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. We have developed a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a strong-motion accelerometer module, and a meteorological sensor package, for deployment at existing continuous GPS stations in southern California; fifteen stations have already been upgraded. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. New on-the-fly data products are estimated with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional seismogeodetic displacements for earthquake, tsunami and structural monitoring and precipitable water for forecasting extreme weather events such as summer monsoons and atmospheric rivers experienced in California. Unlike more

  2. Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Alfieri, L.; Salamon, P.; Bianchi, A.; Neal, J. C.; Feyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing at trans-national level. The creation of a European flood hazard map would currently imply a collection of scattered regional maps, often lacking mutual consistency due to the variety of adopted approaches and quality of the underlying input data. In this work, we derive a pan-European flood hazard map at 100m resolution. The proposed approach is based on expanding a literature cascade model through a physically based approach. A combination of distributed hydrological and hydraulic models was set up for the European domain. Then, an observed meteorological data set is used to derive a long-term streamflow simulation and subsequently coherent design flood hydrographs for a return period of 100years along the pan-European river network. Flood hydrographs are used to simulate areas at risk of flooding and output maps are merged into a pan-European flood hazard map. The quality of this map is evaluated for selected areas in Germany and United Kingdom against national/regional hazard maps. Despite inherent limitations and model resolution issues, simulated maps are in good agreement with reference maps (hit rate between 59% and 78%, critical success index between 43% and 65%), suggesting strong potential for a number of applications at the European scale

  3. Deriving global flood hazard maps of fluvial floods through a physical model cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Dutra, Emanuel; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2013-04-01

    Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (re)insurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model is coupled to ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological forcing data, and resultant runoff is passed to a river routing algorithm which simulates floodplains and flood flow across the global land area. The global hazard map is based on a 30 yr (1979-2010) simulation period. A Gumbel distribution is fitted to the annual maxima flows to derive a number of flood return periods. The return periods are calculated initially for a 25 × 25 km grid, which is then reprojected onto a 1 × 1 km grid to derive maps of higher resolution and estimate flooded fractional area for the individual 25 × 25 km cells. Several global and regional maps of flood return periods ranging from 2 to 500 yr are presented. The results compare reasonably to a benchmark data set of global flood hazard. The developed methodology can be applied to other datasets on a global or regional scale.

  4. Deriving global flood hazard maps of fluvial floods through a physical model cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pappenberger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (reinsurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF land surface model is coupled to ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological forcing data, and resultant runoff is passed to a river routing algorithm which simulates floodplains and flood flow across the global land area. The global hazard map is based on a 30 yr (1979–2010 simulation period. A Gumbel distribution is fitted to the annual maxima flows to derive a number of flood return periods. The return periods are calculated initially for a 25 × 25 km grid, which is then reprojected onto a 1 × 1 km grid to derive maps of higher resolution and estimate flooded fractional area for the individual 25 × 25 km cells. Several global and regional maps of flood return periods ranging from 2 to 500 yr are presented. The results compare reasonably to a benchmark data set of global flood hazard. The developed methodology can be applied to other datasets on a global or regional scale.

  5. A high-resolution global flood hazard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul B.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-09-01

    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ˜90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ˜1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ˜5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  6. Changing Global Patterns of Urban Exposure to Flood and Drought Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneralp, B.; Guneralp, I.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The studies that quantify the human and economic costs of increasing exposure of cities to various natural hazards consider climate change and increasing population and economic activity, but assume constant urban extent. Accurate estimates of the potential losses due to changing exposure of cities, however, require that we know where they will grow in the future. Here, we present the first-ever estimates of the changing exposure of urban infrastructure to floods and droughts due to urban land expansion from 2000 to 2030. Although the percent of land that is urban within the Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases globally only slightly to 13% by 2030, the amount of urban land is predicted to increase 230% to 234,000 km2. In 2000, about 30% of global urban land (i.e., nearly 200,000 km2) was located in the high-frequency flood zones; by 2030, this will reach 40%, (i.e., over 700,000 km2). The emerging coastal metropolitan regions in Africa and Asia will be larger than those in the developed countries and thus will have larger areas exposed to flooding. The urban extent in drylands will increase nearly 300,000 km2, reaching almost 500,000 km2. Urban land exposed to both floods and droughts is expected to increase over 250%. There are significant geographical variations in the rates and magnitudes of urban expansion exposed to floods or droughts or both. Our findings show that even without factoring in the potential impacts from climate change, the extent of urban areas exposed to flood and drought hazards will increase, respectively, 2.7 and almost 2 times by 2030. Our global view on changing geographical patterns of urban exposure to flood and drought hazards can facilitate effective mitigation and adaptation against these hazards at multiple scales.

  7. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard...

  8. Coastal Flooding Hazards due to storm surges and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole B.

    Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal areas before even considering the adverse effects of sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change. While permanent inundation may be a prevalent issue, more often floods related to extreme events (storm surges) have the largest...... damage potential.Challenges are amplified in some areas due to subsidence from natural and/or anthropogenic causes. Subsidence of even a few mm/y may over time greatly impair the safety against flooding of coastal communities and must be accounted for in order to accomplish the economically most viable...

  9. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA...

  10. Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are part of a natural process of hillslope erosion that can result in catastrophic loss of life and extensive property damage in mountainous, densely populated areas. As global population expansion on or near steep hillslopes continues, the human and economic costs associated with landslides will increase. Landslide hazard mitigation strategies generally involve hazard assessment mapping, warning systems, control structures, and regional landslide planning and policy development. To be sustainable, hazard mitigation requires that management of natural resources is closely connected to local economic and social interests. A successful strategy is dependent on a combination of multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering approaches, and the political will to take action at the local community to national scale.

  11. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1330, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  12. 78 FR 36217 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1325, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  13. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1326, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  14. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1309, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  15. 77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1266, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  16. 78 FR 43908 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1334, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  17. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1321, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  18. 77 FR 58560 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1270, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  19. 78 FR 43909 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1333, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  20. 78 FR 29768 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1311, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  1. 77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1275, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  2. 78 FR 43907 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1336, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  3. 78 FR 36213 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1329, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  4. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1259, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of ] experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  5. 78 FR 58338 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1347, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  6. 77 FR 31372 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1255, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  7. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1254, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  8. 77 FR 50709 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1263, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  9. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1312, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  10. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1339, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  11. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1344, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  12. 77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1267 to Luis ] Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  13. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1258, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  14. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1323, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  15. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process

  16. Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This conference allowed an interchange in the natural phenomena area among designers, safety professionals, and managers. The papers presented in Volume I of the proceedings are from sessions I - VIII which cover the general topics of: DOE standards, lessons learned and walkdowns, wind, waste tanks, ground motion, testing and materials, probabilistic seismic hazards, risk assessment, base isolation and energy dissipation, and lifelines and floods. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

  17. Toward economic flood loss characterization via hazard simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Cunha, Luciana K.; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Smith, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Among all natural disasters, floods have historically been the primary cause of human and economic losses around the world. Improving flood risk management requires a multi-scale characterization of the hazard and associated losses—the flood loss footprint. But this is typically not available in a precise and timely manner, yet. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel and multidisciplinary approach which relies on a computationally efficient hydrological model that simulates streamflow for scales ranging from small creeks to large rivers. We adopt a normalized index, the flood peak ratio (FPR), to characterize flood magnitude across multiple spatial scales. The simulated FPR is then shown to be a key statistical driver for associated economic flood losses represented by the number of insurance claims. Importantly, because it is based on a simulation procedure that utilizes generally readily available physically-based data, our flood simulation approach has the potential to be broadly utilized, even for ungauged and poorly gauged basins, thus providing the necessary information for public and private sector actors to effectively reduce flood losses and save lives.

  18. Flood risk mitigation in Europe: how far away are we from the aspired forms of adaptive governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, Marie; Larrue, Corinne; Alexander, Meghan; Hegger, D.L.T.; bakker, marloes; Pettersson, Maria; Crabbé, Ann; Mees, Hannelore; Chorynski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Flood mitigation is a strategy that is growing in importance across Europe. This growth corresponds with an increasing emphasis on the need to learn to live with floods and make space for water. Flood mitigation measures aim at reducing the likelihood and magnitude of flooding and complement flood

  19. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Somerset County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Somerset County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Somerset County, Maine is 18.1 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980

  20. A high-resolution physically-based global flood hazard map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaheil, Y.; Begnudelli, L.; McCollum, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results from a physically-based global flood hazard model. The model uses a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model is set up such that it allows the application of large-scale flood hazard through efficient use of parallel computing. For hydrology, we use the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model. HRR accounts for surface hydrology using Green-Ampt parameterization. The model is calibrated against observed discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) network, among other publicly-available datasets. The parallel-computing framework takes advantage of the river network structure to minimize cross-processor messages, and thus significantly increases computational efficiency. For inundation, we implemented a computationally-efficient 2D finite-volume model with wetting/drying. The approach consists of simulating flood along the river network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs simulated by HRR, and scaled up to certain return levels, e.g. 100 years. The model is distributed such that each available processor takes the next simulation. Given an approximate criterion, the simulations are ordered from most-demanding to least-demanding to ensure that all processors finalize almost simultaneously. Upon completing all simulations, the maximum envelope of flood depth is taken to generate the final map. The model is applied globally, with selected results shown from different continents and regions. The maps shown depict flood depth and extent at different return periods. These maps, which are currently available at 3 arc-sec resolution ( 90m) can be made available at higher resolutions where high resolution DEMs are available. The maps can be utilized by flood risk managers at the national, regional, and even local levels to further understand their flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual

  1. Has dyke development in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta shifted flood hazard downstream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Khanh Triet, Nguyen; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2017-08-01

    the only and not the most important driver of the observed changes. It has to be noted that changes in tidal levels caused by sea level rise in combination with the widely observed land subsidence and the temporal coincidence of high water levels and spring tides have even larger impacts. It is recommended to develop flood risk management strategies using the high-dyke areas as retention zones to mitigate the flood hazard downstream.

  2. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406 Section 3285.406 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406...

  3. 77 FR 77085 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard... The Honorable Sean 5291 East 60th April 11, 2012 080006 (11-08-0367P). Ford, Sr., Mayor, Avenue...-0747P). Ford, Sr., Mayor, Avenue, Commerce City of Commerce City, CO 80022. City, 7887 East 60th...

  4. To what extent can green infrastructure mitigate downstream flooding in a peri-urban catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J. E.; Burns, M.; Sanders, B. F.; Flethcher, T.

    2016-12-01

    to retain rainfall runoff volumes is much decreased, with a full implementation of SCMs only reducing flooded area by 8% and flow intensity by 5.5%. Therefore additional measures are required for downstream flood hazard mitigation from long duration events.

  5. Flood Hazard Assessment along the Western Regions of Saudi Arabia using GIS-based Morphometry and Remote Sensing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Qianwen

    2014-12-01

    Flash flooding, as a result of excessive rainfall in a short period, is considered as one of the worst environmental hazards in arid regions. Areas located in the western provinces of Saudi Arabia have experienced catastrophic floods. Geomorphologic evaluation of hydrographic basins provides necessary information to define basins with flood hazard potential in arid regions, especially where long-term field observations are scarce and limited. Six large basins (from North to South: Yanbu, Rabigh, Khulais, El-Qunfza, Baish and Jizan) were selected for this study because they have large surface areas and they encompass high capacity dams at their downstream areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were applied to conduct detailed morphometric analysis of these basins. The six basins were further divided into 203 sub-basins based on their drainage density. The morphometric parameters of the six basins and their associated 203 sub-basins were calculated to estimate the degree of flood hazard by combining normalized values of these parameters. Thus, potential flood hazard maps were produced from the estimated hazard degree. Furthermore, peak runoff discharge of the six basins and sub-basins were estimated using the Snyder Unit Hydrograph and three empirical models (Nouh’s model, Farquharson’s model and Al-Subai’s model) developed for Saudi Arabia. Additionally, recommendations for flood mitigation plans and water management schemes along these basins were further discussed.

  6. The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Son

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans.

  7. Climate change impact on flood hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brilly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes have a high impact on river discharges and therefore on floods. There are a few different methods we can use to predict discharge changes in the future. In this paper we used the complex HBV model for the Vipava River and simple correlation between discharge and precipitation data for the Soča River. The discharge prediction is based on the E-OBS precipitation data for three future time periods (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100. Estimated discharges for those three future periods are presented for both rivers. But a special situation occurs at the confluence where the two rivers with rather different catchments unite, and this requires an additional probability analysis.

  8. Assessing the Influences of a Flood Diversion Project on Mitigating River Stage, Inundation Extent and Economic Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan usually suffers severe inundation disasters during typhoons and strong rainstorms, and therefore flood mitigation is considered an important issue. To assess the effect of the Yuansantze flood diversion tunnel (YFDT on flood mitigation at the upstream reaches of the Keelung River, a three-dimensional, unstructured grid, Finite-Volume, primitive equation Community Ocean Model (FVCOM was used. The model was validated with observed data for water levels and inundation extent during different typhoon events. The simulated results show a good agreement with field measurements of water level with three historical typhoon events but underestimated the measured inundation extent with Typhoon Nari. The validated model was then applied to assess the flood mitigation and economic loss with the YFDT. The results demonstrated that the river level decreases approximately 3 m with the YFDT and that the inundation extent decreases by more than 50% in the Ruifang District with YFDT. The YDFT aims to not only mitigate hazards but also reduce economic losses. The average annual expected benefit after construction of the YFDT is approximately 184 million NTD in the Ruifang District.

  9. Panchromatic Satellite Image Classification for Flood Hazard Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the use of panchromatic (PAN satellite image data for flood hazard assessment with anaid of various digital image processing techniques. Two SPOT PAN satellite images covering part of the Nile River inEgypt were used to delineate the flood extent during the years 1997 and 1998 (before and after a high flood. Threeclassification techniques, including the contextual classifier, maximum likelihood classifier and minimum distanceclassifier, were applied to the following: 1 the original PAN image data, 2 the original PAN image data and grey-levelco-occurrence matrix texture created from the PAN data, and 3 the enhanced PAN image data using an edgesharpeningfilter. The classification results were assessed with reference to the results derived from manualdigitization and random checkpoints. Generally, the results showed improvement of the calculation of flood area whenan edge-sharpening filter was used. In addition, the maximum likelihood classifier yielded the best classificationaccuracy (up to 97% compared to the other two classifiers. The research demonstrates the benefits of using PANsatellite imagery as a potential data source for flood hazard assessment.

  10. Developments in large-scale coastal flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Dottori, Francesco; Giardino, Alessio; Bouziotas, Dimitrios; Bianchi, Alessandra; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Coastal flooding related to marine extreme events has severe socioeconomic impacts, and even though the latter are projected to increase under the changing climate, there is a clear deficit of information and predictive capacity related to coastal flood mapping. The present contribution reports on efforts towards a new methodology for mapping coastal flood hazard at European scale, combining (i) the contribution of waves to the total water level; (ii) improved inundation modeling; and (iii) an open, physics-based framework which can be constantly upgraded, whenever new and more accurate data become available. Four inundation approaches of gradually increasing complexity and computational costs were evaluated in terms of their applicability to large-scale coastal flooding mapping: static inundation (SM); a semi-dynamic method, considering the water volume discharge over the dykes (VD); the flood intensity index approach (Iw); and the model LISFLOOD-FP (LFP). A validation test performed against observed flood extents during the Xynthia storm event showed that SM and VD can lead to an overestimation of flood extents by 232 and 209 %, while Iw and LFP showed satisfactory predictive skill. Application at pan-European scale for the present-day 100-year event confirmed that static approaches can overestimate flood extents by 56 % compared to LFP; however, Iw can deliver results of reasonable accuracy in cases when reduced computational costs are a priority. Moreover, omitting the wave contribution in the extreme total water level (TWL) can result in a ˜ 60 % underestimation of the flooded area. The present findings have implications for impact assessment studies, since combination of the estimated inundation maps with population exposure maps revealed differences in the estimated number of people affected within the 20-70 % range.

  11. Flood Hazard Mapping over Large Regions using Geomorphic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Caterina; Troy, Tara J.; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Historically, man has always preferred to settle and live near the water. This tendency has not changed throughout time, and today nineteen of the twenty most populated agglomerations of the world (Demographia World Urban Areas, 2015) are located along watercourses or at the mouth of a river. On one hand, these locations are advantageous from many points of view. On the other hand, they expose significant populations and economic assets to a certain degree of flood hazard. Knowing the location and the extent of the areas exposed to flood hazards is essential to any strategy for minimizing the risk. Unfortunately, in data-scarce regions the use of traditional floodplain mapping techniques is prevented by the lack of the extensive data required, and this scarcity is generally most pronounced in developing countries. The present work aims to overcome this limitation by defining an alternative simplified procedure for a preliminary, but efficient, floodplain delineation. To validate the method in a data-rich environment, eleven flood-related morphological descriptors derived from DEMs have been used as linear binary classifiers over the Ohio River basin and its sub-catchments, measuring their performances in identifying the floodplains at the change of the topography and the size of the calibration area. The best performing classifiers among those analysed have been applied and validated across the continental U.S. The results suggest that the classifier based on the index ln(hr/H), named the Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), is the most suitable to detect the flood-prone areas in data-scarce environments and for large-scale applications, providing good accuracy with low requirements in terms of data and computational costs. Keywords: flood hazard, data-scarce regions, large-scale studies, binary classifiers, DEM, USA.

  12. Debris flow hazards mitigation--Mechanics, prediction, and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-L.; Major, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment held in Chengdu, China, September 10-13, 2007. The papers cover a wide range of topics on debris-flow science and engineering, including the factors triggering debris flows, geomorphic effects, mechanics of debris flows (e.g., rheology, fluvial mechanisms, erosion and deposition processes), numerical modeling, various debris-flow experiments, landslide-induced debris flows, assessment of debris-flow hazards and risk, field observations and measurements, monitoring and alert systems, structural and non-structural countermeasures against debris-flow hazards and case studies. The papers reflect the latest devel-opments and advances in debris-flow research. Several studies discuss the development and appli-cation of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies in debris-flow hazard/risk assessment. Timely topics presented in a few papers also include the development of new or innovative techniques for debris-flow monitoring and alert systems, especially an infra-sound acoustic sensor for detecting debris flows. Many case studies illustrate a wide variety of debris-flow hazards and related phenomena as well as their hazardous effects on human activities and settlements.

  13. Safety of Italian dams in the face of flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchiola, Daniele; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-09-01

    Most rivers in Italy are segmented by dams that need rehabilitation because of (1) safety requirements by increasingly risk-averse societies, (2) changes in the downstream river and riparian system after dams building, (3) poor initial design at the time of completion and (4) modified priorities of watershed management. Safe design of flood spillways is a major concern, and requires to cope with low frequency flood hazard. One must estimate flood figures with high return periods (R ⩾ 1000-10,000 years) but statistical methods involve large uncertainties because of the short length of the available records. This paper investigates the return period of the design flood of existing spillways RS of large dams in Italy. We used re-normalized flood frequency approach and regionalization using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The estimation of the site specific index flood is carried out by simple scaling with basin area at the regional level. The result show that 55% (245) of the 448 examined dams are equipped by spillway with RS > 10,000; and 71% (315) of the dams have RS > 1000. Conversely, 29% (130) of the dams display RS routing may dampen the outflow hydrograph, but one should carefully account for the need of achieving accurate dam safety assessment of these dams based on site specific investigations, also accounting for global change forcing.

  14. ON EFFECT OF HAZARD MAP ON CONS CIOUSNESS OF FLOOD DISASTER PREVENSION OF RESIDENTS WHO EXPERIENCED FLOOD RECENTLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Koji; Koga, Syota; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, the effect of the flood hazard map distributed to the residents who experienced flood disasters recently and an effective method for improving consciousness of flood di saster prevention are discussed. The questionnaire surveys were conducted on the residents living in the middle basin of the Nishiki River, Iwakuni city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, before and after the distribution of the hazard map. It is found from this investigation that "knowledge", "att achment", and "crisis", are the main factors in the psychological process related to the flood prevention behavior. The effect of the distribution of the hazard map is judged from the probability of the flood prevention behavior. In addition, it is also found that "knowledge", "flood experiment of T0514", "crisis", "eff ectiveness", "load", and "easy reading of the hazard map", are keys to improve the cons ciousness of flood di saster prevention.

  15. Advancements in the global modelling of coastal flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Brown, Sally; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Ward, Philip J.

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges and high tides can cause catastrophic floods. Due to climate change and socio-economic development the potential impacts of coastal floods are increasing globally. Global modelling of coastal flood hazard provides an important perspective to quantify and effectively manage this challenge. In this contribution we show two recent advancements in global modelling of coastal flood hazard: 1) a new improved global dataset of extreme sea levels, and 2) an improved vertical datum for extreme sea levels. Both developments have important implications for estimates of exposure and inundation modelling. For over a decade, the only global dataset of extreme sea levels was the DINAS-COAST Extreme Sea Levels (DCESL), which uses a static approximation to estimate total water levels for different return periods. Recent advances have enabled the development of a new dynamically derived dataset: the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. Here we present a comparison of the DCESL and GTSR extreme sea levels and the resulting global flood exposure for present-day conditions. While DCESL generally overestimates extremes, GTSR underestimates extremes, particularly in the tropics. This results in differences in estimates of flood exposure. When using the 1 in 100-year GTSR extremes, the exposed global population is 28% lower than when using the 1 in 100-year DCESL extremes. Previous studies at continental to global-scales have not accounted for the fact that GTSR and DCESL are referenced to mean sea level, whereas global elevation datasets, such as SRTM, are referenced to the EGM96 geoid. We propose a methodology to correct for the difference in vertical datum and demonstrate that this also has a large effect on exposure. For GTSR, the vertical datum correction results in a 60% increase in global exposure.

  16. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  17. Integrated Modeling for Flood Hazard Mapping Using Watershed Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh S. Sadrolashrafi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this stduy, a new framework which integrates the Geographic Information System (GIS with the Watershed Modeling System (WMS for flood modeling is developed. It also interconnects the terrain models and the GIS software, with commercial standard hydrological and hydraulic models, including HEC-1, HEC-RAS, etc. The Dez River Basin (about 16213 km2 in Khuzestan province, IRAN, is domain of study because of occuring frequent severe flash flooding. As a case of study, a major flood in autumn of 2001 is chosen to examine the modeling framework. The model consists of a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-1 that converts excess precipitation to overland flow and channel runoff and a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS that simulates steady state flow through the river channel network based on the HEC-1, peak hydrographs. In addition, it delineates the maps of potential flood zonation for the Dez River Basin. These are achieved based on the state of the art GIS with using WMS software. Watershed parameters are calibrated manually to perform a good simulation of discharge at three sub-basins. With the calibrated discharge, WMS is capable of producing flood hazard map. The modeling framework presented in this study demonstrates the accuracy and usefulness of the WMS software for flash flooding control. The results of this research will benefit future modeling efforts by providing validate hydrological software to forecast flooding on a regional scale. This model designed for the Dez River Basin, while this regional scale model may be used as a prototype for model applications in other areas.

  18. Volcanic hazards and their mitigation: Progress and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1989-05-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, volcanology began to emerge as a modern science as a result of increased interest in eruptive phenomena following some of the worst volcanic disasters in recorded history: Krakatau (Indonesia) in 1883 and Mont Pelée (Martinique), Soufrière (St. Vincent), and Santa María (Guatemala) in 1902. Volcanology is again experiencing a period of heightened public awareness and scientific growth in the 1980s, the worst period since 1902 in terms of volcanic disasters and crises. A review of hazards mitigation approaches and techniques indicates that significant advances have been made in hazards assessment, volcano monitoring, and eruption forecasting. For example, the remarkable accuracy of the predictions of dome-building events at Mount St. Helens since June 1980 is unprecedented. Yet a predictive capability for more voluminous and explosive eruptions still has not been achieved. Studies of magma-induced seismicity and ground deformation continue to provide the most systematic and reliable data for early detection of precursors to eruptions and shallow intrusions. In addition, some other geophysical monitoring techniques and geochemical methods have been refined and are being more widely applied and tested. Comparison of the four major volcanic disasters of the 1980s (Mount St. Helens, U.S.A. (1980), El Chichón, Mexico (1982); Galunggung, Indonesia (1982); and Nevado del Ruíz, Colombia (1985) illustrates the importance of predisaster geoscience studies, volcanic hazards assessments, volcano monitoring, contingency planning, and effective communications between scientists and authorities. The death toll (>22,000) from the Ruíz catastrophe probably could have been greatly reduced; the reasons for the tragically ineffective implementation of evacuation measures are still unclear and puzzling in view of the fact that sufficient warnings were given. The most pressing problem in the mitigation of volcanic and associated hazards on

  19. Coastal flooding hazard assessment on potentially vulnerable coastal sectors at Varna regional coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Andreeva, Nataliya

    2017-04-01

    Storm induced flooding is one of the most significant threats that the coastal communities face. In the light of the climate change it is expected to gain even more importance. Therefore, the adequate assessment of this hazard could increase the capability of mitigation of environmental, social, and economic impacts. The study was accomplished in the frames of the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT Project (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolkit). The hazard assessment was applied on three potentially vulnerable coastal sectors located at the regional coast of Varna, Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The potential "hotspot" candidates were selected during the initial phase of CRAF which evaluated the coastal risks at regional level. The area of interest comprises different coastal types - from natural beaches and rocky cliffs to man modified environments presented by coastal and port defense structures such as the Varna Port breakwater, groynes, jetties and beaches formed by the presence of coastal structures. The assessment of coastal flooding was done using combination of models -XBeach model and LISFLOOD inundation model applied consecutively. The XBeach model was employed to calculate the hazard intensities at the coast up to the berm crest, while LISFLOOD model was used to calculate the intensity and extent of flooding in the hinterland. At the first stage, 75 extreme storm events were simulated using XBeach model run in "non-hydrostatic" mode to obtain series of flood depth, depth-velocity and overtopping discharges at the predefined coastal cross-shore transects. Extreme value analysis was applied to the calculated hazard parameters series in order to determine their probability distribution functions. This is so called response approach, which is focused on the onshore impact rather than on the deep water boundary conditions. It allows calculation of the hazard extremes probability distribution induced by a

  20. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested

  1. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2010 Greene County Special Flood Hazard Area Lines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer represents the approximate effective Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary for Greene County Missouri. This boundary became effective in...

  2. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2014 Greene County Special Flood Hazard Area Lines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer represents the approximate effective Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary for Greene County Missouri. This boundary became effective in...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations....

  5. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act of...

  6. FLOOD HAZARDS PERCEPTION. THE RESULT OF AN OPINION SURVEY MADE IN THE LITTLE TOWNS FROM LOWER ARIEŞ CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA URCAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazards perception. The result of an opinion survey made in the little towns from lower Arieş corridor. This paper has been prepared based on information obtained from a survey conducted on a sample of 560 residents from the towns of Turda and Câmpia Turzii, residing in areas with different degrees of exposure to the risk of flooding. The residents were questioned about the floods they had suffered and gave varied responses to the degree of flood damage on the population, to the amount of information and the degree of insurance against floods. The questionnaire was structured on different aspects that emphasized: identification, level of experience, knowledge and information; the perception of the causes that generated and amplified floods; the perception involving authorities in prevention and mitigation of flood damage; availability for implementation of voluntary actions, the degree of insurance and aid to flood. In this study it was taken into account the location of households, the previous flood experience, the age and the education level of the respondents.

  7. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for El-Awali River Catchment-Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hdeib, Rouya; Abdallah, Chadi; Moussa, Roger; Hijazi, Samar

    2016-04-01

    River flooding prediction and flood forecasting has become an essential stage in the major flood mitigation plans worldwide. Delineation of floodplains resulting from a river flooding event requires coupling between a Hydrological rainfall-runoff model to calculate the resulting outflows of the catchment and a hydraulic model to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along the river main course. In this study several methods were applied to predict the flood discharge of El-Awali River using the available historical data and gauging records and by conducting several site visits. The HEC-HMS Rainfall-Runoff model was built and applied to calculate the flood hydrographs along several outlets on El-Awali River and calibrated using the storm that took place on January 2013 and caused flooding of the major Lebanese rivers and by conducting additional site visits to calculate proper river sections and record witnesses of the locals. The Hydraulic HEC-RAS model was then applied to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along El-Awali River main reach. Floodplain delineation and Hazard mapping for 10,50 and 100 years return periods was performed using the Watershed Modeling System WMS. The results first show an underestimation of the flood discharge recorded by the operating gauge stations on El-Awali River, whereas, the discharge of the 100 years flood may reach up to 506 m3/s compared by lower values calculated using the traditional discharge estimation methods. Second any flooding of El-Awali River may be catastrophic especially to the coastal part of the catchment and can cause tragic losses in agricultural lands and properties. Last a major floodplain was noticed in Marj Bisri village this floodplain can reach more than 200 meters in width. Overall, performance was good and the Rainfall-Runoff model can provide valuable information about flows especially on ungauged points and can perform a great aid for the floodplain delineation and flood

  8. A Multi-Faceted Debris-Flood Hazard Assessment for Cougar Creek, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A destructive debris flood occurred between 19 and 21 June 2013 on Cougar Creek, located in Canmore, Alberta. Cougar Creek fan is likely the most densely developed alluvial fan in Canada. While no lives were lost, the event resulted in approximately $40 M of damage and closed both the Trans-Canada Highway (Highway 1 and the Canadian Pacific Railway line for a period of several days. The debris flood triggered a comprehensive hazard assessment which is the focus of this paper. Debris-flood frequencies and magnitudes are determined by combining several quantitative methods including photogrammetry, dendrochronology, radiometric dating, test pit logging, empirical relationships between rainfall volumes and sediment volumes, and landslide dam outburst flood modeling. The data analysis suggests that three distinct process types act in the watershed. The most frequent process is normal or “clearwater” floods. Less frequent but more damaging are debris floods during which excessive amounts of bedload are transported on the fan, typically associated with rapid and extensive bank erosion and channel infilling and widening. The third and most destructive process is interpreted to be landslide dam outbreak floods. This event type is estimated to occur at return periods exceeding 300 years. Using a cumulative magnitude frequency technique, the data for conventional debris floods were plotted up to the 100–300s year return period. A peak-over-threshold approach was used for landslide dam outbreak floods occurring at return periods exceeding 300 years, as not all such events were identified during test trenching. Hydrographs for 6 return period classes were approximated by using the estimated peak discharges and fitting the hydrograph shape to integrate to the debris flood volumes as determined from the frequency-magnitude relationship. The fan volume was calculated and compared with the integrated frequency-magnitude curve to check of the validity of

  9. Rossitsa River Basin: Flood Hazard and Risk Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria; Pencheva, Denislava

    2017-04-01

    The process of Flood Risk Management Planning and adaptation of measures for flood risk reduction as the Early Warning provoke the necessity of surveys involving Identification aspects. This project presents risk identification combining two lines of analysis: (1) Creation a mathematical model of rainfall-runoff processes in a watershed based on limited number of observed input and output variables; (2) Procedures for determination of critical thresholds - discharges/water levels corresponding to certain consequences. The pilot region is Rossitsa river basin, Sevlievo, Bulgaria. The first line of analysis follows next steps: (a) Creation and calibration of Unit Hydrograph Models based on limited number of observed data for discharge and precipitation; The survey at the selected region has 22 observations for excess rainfall and discharge. (b) The relations of UHM coefficients from the input parameters have been determined statistically, excluding the ANN model of the run-off coefficient as a function of 3 parameters (amount of precipitation two days before, soil condition, intensity of the rainfall) where a feedforward neural network is used. (c) Additional simulations with UHM aiming at generation of synthetic data for rainfall-runoff events, which extend the range of observed data; (d) Training, validation and testing a generalized regional ANN Model for discharge forecasting with 4 input parameters, where the training data set consists of synthetic data, validation and testing data sets consists of observations. A function between consequences and discharges has been reached in the second line of analysis concerning critical hazard levels determination. Unsteady simulations with the hydraulic model using three typical hydrographs for determination of the existing time for reaction from one to upper critical threshold are made. Correction of the critical thresholds aiming at providing necessary time for reaction between the thresholds and probability analysis of

  10. Hazard and Risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, David; McKinney, Daene

    2016-04-01

    As the climate changes and glaciers continue to melt, the number of glacial lakes and the size of these lakes is rapidly increasing. These glacial lakes are contained by terminal moraines composed of debris, soil, and sometimes ice, which are susceptible to fail catastrophically and cause a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). Understanding the hazard and risk associated with these lakes is important for downstream communities and other stakeholders, e.g., hydroelectric companies. Unfortunately, existing methods that are used to assess GLOF hazards yield conflicting classifications, which leads to confusion amongst the stakeholders who these studies are meant to assist. This study assesses existing methods on potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Nepal and uses these methods to develop an objective and holistic risk & action framework that may be used to assist and prioritize risk-mitigation actions.

  11. Simulating floods : On the application of a 2D-hydraulic model for flood hazard and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Alkema, D.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, river floods in Europe seem to occur more frequently and are causing more and more economic and emotional damage. Understanding the processes causing flooding and the development of simulation models to evaluate countermeasures to control that damage are important issues. This study deals with the application of a 2D hydraulic flood propagation model for flood hazard and risk assessment. It focuses on two components: 1) how well does it predict the spatial-dynamic chara...

  12. Multisite flooding hazard assessment in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Roth, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThis contribution presents an assessment of the joint probability distribution able to describe multi-site multi-basin flood scenarios in a high dimensionality framework. This goal will be pursued through two different approaches: the multivariate skew- t distribution and the Student copula with arbitrary margins. While copulas have been widely used in the modeling of hydrological processes, the use of the skew- t distribution in hydrology has been only recently proposed with reference to a trivariate application (Ghizzoni et al., 2010, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 1243-1255). Both methods are here applied and discussed in a context of considerably higher dimensionality: the Upper Mississippi River floods. In fact, to enhance the characteristics of the correlation structure, eighteen nested and non-nested gauging stations were selected, with significantly different contributing areas. Such conditions represent a challenge for both the skew- t and the copula approach. In perspective, the ability of such approaches in explaining the multivariate aspects of the relevant processes is needed to specify flood hazard scenarios in terms of their intensity, extension and frequency. When this is associated to the knowledge of location, value and vulnerability of exposed elements, comprehensive flood risk scenarios can be produced, and risk cumuli quantified, for given portfolios, composed of wherever located risks.

  13. Developing consistent scenarios to assess flood hazards in mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, B; Comiti, F; Scherer, C; Fuchs, S

    2012-02-01

    The characterizing feature of extreme events in steep mountain streams is the multiplicity of possible tipping process patterns such as those involving sudden morphological changes due to intense local erosion, aggradation as well as clogging of critical flow sections due to wood accumulations. Resolving a substantial part of the uncertainties underlying these hydrological cause-effect chains is a major challenge for flood risk management. Our contribution is from a methodological perspective based on an expert-based methodology to unfold natural hazard process scenarios in mountain streams to retrace their probabilistic structure. As a first step we set up a convenient system representation for natural hazard process routing. In this setting, as a second step, we proceed deriving the possible and thus consistent natural hazard process patterns by means of Formative Scenario Analysis. In a last step, hazard assessment is refined by providing, through expert elicitation, the spatial probabilistic structure of individual scenario trajectories. As complement to the theory the applicability of the method is shown through embedded examples. To conclude we discuss the major advantages of the presented methodological approach for hazard assessment compared to traditional approaches, and with respect to the risk governance process.

  14. Flood and Debris Flow Hazard Predictions in Steep, Burned Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengers, Francis; McGuire, Luke; Kean, Jason; Staley, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Post-wildfire natural hazards such as flooding and debris flows threaten infrastructure and can even lead to loss of life. The risk from these natural hazards could be reduced if floods and debris flows could be predicted from modeling. Our ability to test predictive models is primarily constrained by a lack of observational data that can be used for comparison with model predictions. Following the 2009 Station Fire in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA, USA, we conducted a study with high-resolution topography and hydrologic measurements to test the effectiveness of two different hydrologic routing models to predict flood and debris flow timing. Our research focuses on comparing the performance of two hydrologic models with differing levels of complexity and efficiency using high-resolution, lidar-derived digital elevation models. The simpler model uses the kinematic wave approximation to route flows, while the more complex model uses the full shallow water equations. In both models precipitation is spatially uniform and infiltration is simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration equation. Input data for the numerical models was constrained by time series data of soil moisture, and rainfall collected at field sites as well as high-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models. We ran the numerical models and varied parameter values for the roughness coefficient and hydraulic conductivity. These parameter values were calibrated by minimizing the difference between the simulated and observed flow timing. Moreover, the two parameters were calibrated in two different watersheds, spanning two orders of magnitude in drainage area. The calibrated parameters were subsequently used to model a third watershed, and the results show a good match with observed timing of flow peaks for both models. Calibrated roughness coefficients are generally higher when using the kinematic wave approximation relative to the full shallow water equations, and decrease with increasing spatial

  15. Moral Hazard: How The National Flood Insurance Program Is Limiting Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM IS LIMITING RISK REDUCTION by Kevin T. Starbuck December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Glen Woodbury...2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MORAL HAZARD: HOW THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM IS LIMITING...providing disaster assistance, the federal involvement limits risk reduction and contributes to the rise of a moral hazard. Flooding and flood

  16. Modelling Inland Flood Events for Hazard Maps in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Nzerem, K.; Sassi, M.; Hilberts, A.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Mathur, P.; Mitas, C.; Rafique, F.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan experiences significant inland flooding, driven by torrential rainfall from plum rain storms and typhoons during summer and fall. From last 13 to 16 years data, 3,000 buildings were damaged by such floods annually with a loss US$0.41 billion (Water Resources Agency). This long, narrow island nation with mostly hilly/mountainous topography is located at tropical-subtropical zone with annual average typhoon-hit-frequency of 3-4 (Central Weather Bureau) and annual average precipitation of 2502mm (WRA) - 2.5 times of the world's average. Spatial and temporal distributions of countrywide precipitation are uneven, with very high local extreme rainfall intensities. Annual average precipitation is 3000-5000mm in the mountainous regions, 78% of it falls in May-October, and the 1-hour to 3-day maximum rainfall are about 85 to 93% of the world records (WRA). Rivers in Taiwan are short with small upstream areas and high runoff coefficients of watersheds. These rivers have the steepest slopes, the shortest response time with rapid flows, and the largest peak flows as well as specific flood peak discharge (WRA) in the world. RMS has recently developed a countrywide inland flood model for Taiwan, producing hazard return period maps at 1arcsec grid resolution. These can be the basis for evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood losses. The model is initiated with sub-daily historical meteorological forcings and calibrated to daily discharge observations at about 50 river gauges over the period 2003-2013. Simulations of hydrologic processes, via rainfall-runoff and routing models, are subsequently performed based on a 10000 year set of stochastic forcing. The rainfall-runoff model is physically based continuous, semi-distributed model for catchment hydrology. The 1-D wave propagation hydraulic model considers catchment runoff in routing and describes large-scale transport processes along the river. It also accounts for reservoir storage

  17. The Ischia island flash flood of November 2009 (Italy): Phenomenon analysis and flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, A.; Di Crescenzo, G.; Del Prete, S.; Di Iorio, L.

    The island of Ischia is particularly susceptible to landslides and flash floods due to its particular geological and geomorphological context. Urbanization in recent decades coupled with the development of tourism has increased the risk. After the November 10, 2009 event occurring in the northern sector of the island (the town of Casamicciola), a detailed geo-morphological survey was conducted to ascertain the evolution of the phenomenon. In the watersheds upstream of Casamicciola, many landslides were mapped and the volume of material involved during detachment and sliding was estimated. In the lower course area, near the town and towards the sea, flow pathways were reconstructed with the aid of extensive video footage taken during the event. Rainfall data were also analyzed and a relationship was established between the hourly rainfall rate and the flash flood. The phenomenon was found to be quite complex, with many upstream landslides stopping before reaching the urban area. In the lower course the alluvial event occurred as a flood with a very small sediment discharge, which left a very thin layer of sediment. Reconstruction of the flash flood phenomenon suggested possible action for future risk mitigation, early warning and civil protection plans.

  18. Flash flood hazard mapping: a pilot case study in Xiapu River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood hazard mapping is a supporting component of non-structural measures for flash flood prevention. Pilot case studies are necessary to develop more practicable methods for the technical support systems of flash flood hazard mapping. In this study, the headwater catchment of the Xiapu River Basin in central China was selected as a pilot study area for flash flood hazard mapping. A conceptual distributed hydrological model was developed for flood calculation based on the framework of the Xinanjiang model, which is widely used in humid and semi-humid regions in China. The developed model employs the geomorphological unit hydrograph method, which is extremely valuable when simulating the overland flow process in ungauged catchments, as compared with the original Xinanjiang model. The model was tested in the pilot study area, and the results agree with the measured data on the whole. After calibration and validation, the model is shown to be a useful tool for flash flood calculation. A practicable method for flash flood hazard mapping using the calculated peak discharge and digital elevation model data was presented, and three levels of flood hazards were classified. The resulting flash flood hazard maps indicate that the method successfully predicts the spatial distribution of flash flood hazards, and it can meet the current requirements in China.

  19. Fluor Daniel Hanford implementation plan for DOE Order 5480.28, Natural phenomena hazards mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-09-12

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature that pose a threat or danger to workers, the public, or the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado), snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strikes are examples of NPH that could occur at the Hanford Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires facilities to be designed, constructed, and operated in a manner that protects workers, the public, and the environment from hazards caused by natural phenomena. DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, includes rigorous new natural phenomena criteria for the design of new DOE facilities, as well as for the evaluation and, if necessary, upgrade of existing DOE facilities. The Order was transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1993 for compliance and is also identified in the Project Hanford Management Contract, Section J, Appendix C. Criteria and requirements of DOE Order 5480.28 are included in five standards, the last of which, DOE-STD-1023, was released in fiscal year 1996. Because the Order was released before all of its required standards were released, enforcement of the Order was waived pending release of the last standard and determination of an in-force date by DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). Agreement also was reached between the Management and Operations Contractor and DOE-RL that the Order would become enforceable for new structures, systems, and components (SSCS) 60 days following issue of a new order-based design criteria in HNF-PRO-97, Engineering Design and Evaluation. The order also requires that commitments addressing existing SSCs be included in an implementation plan that is to be issued 1 year following the release of the last standard. Subsequently, WHC-SP-1175, Westinghouse Hanford Company Implementation Plan for DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, Rev. 0, was issued in November 1996, and this document, HNF-SP-1175, Fluor Daniel Hanford

  20. A Possible Paradigm for the Mitigation of the Adverse Impacts of Natural Hazards in the Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2001-05-01

    The proneness of a country or region to a given natural hazard depends upon its geographical location, physiography, geological and structural setting, landuse/landcover situation, and biophysical and socioeconomic environments (e.g. cyclones and floods in Bangladesh, earthquakes in Turkey, drought in Sub-Saharan Africa). While the natural hazards themselves cannot be prevented, it is possible to mitigate their adverse effects, by a knowledge-based, environmentally-sustainable approach, involving the stakeholder communities: (i) by being prepared: on the basis of the understanding of the land conditions which are prone to a given hazard and the processes which could culminate in damage to life and property (e.g. planting of dense-rooted vegetation belts to protect against landslides in the earthquake-prone areas), (ii) by avoiding improper anthropogenic activities that may exacerbate a hazard (e.g. deforestation accentuating the floods and droughts), and (iii) by putting a hazard to a beneficial use, where possible (groundwater recharging of flood waters), etc. Mitigation strategies need to be custom-made for each country/region by integrating the biophysical and socioeconomic components. The proposed paradigm is illustrated in respect of Extreme Weather Events (EWEs), which is based on the adoption of three approaches: (i) Typology approach, involving the interpretation of remotely sensed data, to predict (say) temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation, (ii) "black box" approach, whereby the potential environmental consequences of an EWE are projected on the basis of previously known case histories, and (iii) Information Technology approach, to translate advanced technical information in the form of "virtual" do-it-yourself steps understandable to lay public.

  1. Large-scale assessment of flood risk and the effects of mitigation measures along the Elbe River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de J.L.; Grossmann, M.

    2010-01-01

    The downstream effects of flood risk mitigation measures and the necessity to develop flood risk management strategies that are effective on a basin scale call for a flood risk assessment methodology that can be applied at the scale of a large river. We present an example of a rapid flood risk asses

  2. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values.

  3. A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

  4. Assessing the costs of hazard mitigation through landscape interventions in the urban structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Aldea Mendes, Diana; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we look at an issue rarely approached, the economic efficiency of natural hazard risk mitigation. The urban scale at which a natural hazard can impact leads to the importance of urban planning strategy in risk management. However, usually natural, engineering, and social sciences deal with it, and the role of architecture and urban planning is neglected. Climate change can lead to risks related to increased floods, desertification, sea level rise among others. Reducing the sealed surfaces in cities through green spaces in the crowded centres can mitigate them, and can be foreseen in restructuration plans in presence or absence of disasters. For this purpose we reviewed the role of green spaces and community centres such as churches in games, which can build the core for restructuration efforts, as also field and archive studies show. We look at the way ICT can contribute to organize the information from the building survey to economic computations in direct modeling or through games. The roles of game theory, agent based modeling and networks and urban public policies in designing decision systems for risk management are discussed. Games rules are at the same time supported by our field and archive studies, as well as research by design. Also we take into consideration at a rare element, which is the role of landscape planning, through the inclusion of green elements in reconstruction after the natural and man-made disasters, or in restructuration efforts to mitigate climate change. Apart of existing old city tissue also landscape can be endangered by speculation and therefore it is vital to highlight its high economic value, also in this particular case. As ICOMOS highlights for the 2014 congress, heritage and landscape are two sides of the same coin. Landscape can become or be connected to a community centre, the first being necessary for building a settlement, the second raising its value, or can build connections between landmarks in urban routes

  5. Flooding, erosion and coastal structures hazards on the Spanish coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jorge; Losada, Inigo; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa; Izaguirre, Cristina; Requejo, Soledad; Abascal, Ana; Tomas, Antonio; Camus, Paula

    2013-04-01

    Coastal flooding, beach erosion and coastal structures can be affected by long-term changes in sea level and in the storminess. Each beach or construction requires a specific study for a proper estimation of coastal hazards. However, high resolution regional studies are useful to decision-makers to focus in the most endangered areas. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of coastal risks along the Spanish coast. Four different databases providing hourly data have been used to study 423 local sites along the Spanish coastline (around 10 Km spatial resolution). 1- The mean sea level was estimated from satellite and tide-gauges based on Church et al. (2004). 2- The astronomical tide was assessed from the Spanish tide-gauge network interpolating 68 tidal constituents to obtain a tide series for each local site. 3- The coastal surge data come from a numerical reanalysis (GOS) with 1/8 degree spatial resolution performed by using the 2-D barotropic Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model. 4- Nearshore wave time series (at 15-25 m water depth) are provided from a reanalysis obtained from a hybrid downscaling along the Spanish coast (Camus et al., 2013). Flooding can be considered as the combined result of mean sea level, tidal level, surge level and run-up. Run-up has been assessed by the Stockdon et al. (2006) formulation from the wave time series. We reconstructed hourly flood level time series from their components in the selected locations during 60 years (from 1950 to 2009). A time-dependent extreme value model based on Pareto and Poisson probability distributions has been developed for magnitude and frequency respectively. Long-term trends and their statistical significance, and future changes on flooding return levels (e.g. 20 year return level) have been estimated. Two main causes of beach erosion have been analyzed. The shoreline retreat induced by sea level rise has been quantified by using Bruun's rule, and the erosion due to changes in the

  6. New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

    2012-12-01

    Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective

  7. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property located at ______ is in a floodplain, wetland or area identified by the Federal Insurance...

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  10. Hazard function analysis for flood planning under nonstationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-05-01

    The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) involves a probabilistic assessment of the "time to failure" or "return period," T, of an event of interest. HFA is used in epidemiology, manufacturing, medicine, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. For a stationary process, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the return period always follows an exponential distribution, the same is not true for nonstationary processes. When the process of interest, X, exhibits nonstationary behavior, HFA can provide a complementary approach to risk analysis with analytical tools particularly useful for hydrological applications. After a general introduction to HFA, we describe a new mathematical linkage between the magnitude of the flood event, X, and its return period, T, for nonstationary processes. We derive the probabilistic properties of T for a nonstationary one-parameter exponential model of X, and then use both Monte-Carlo simulation and HFA to generalize the behavior of T when X arises from a nonstationary two-parameter lognormal distribution. For this case, our findings suggest that a two-parameter Weibull distribution provides a reasonable approximation for the pdf of T. We document how HFA can provide an alternative approach to characterize the probabilistic properties of both nonstationary flood series and the resulting pdf of T.

  11. Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

    2007-05-01

    A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

  12. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  13. Development of Integrated Flood Analysis System for Improving Flood Mitigation Capabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-suk

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the needs of people are growing for a more safety life and secure homeland from unexpected natural disasters. Flood damages have been recorded every year and those damages are greater than the annual average of 2 trillion won since 2000 in Korea. It has been increased in casualties and property damages due to flooding caused by hydrometeorlogical extremes according to climate change. Although the importance of flooding situation is emerging rapidly, studies related to development of integrated management system for reducing floods are insufficient in Korea. In addition, it is difficult to effectively reduce floods without developing integrated operation system taking into account of sewage pipe network configuration with the river level. Since the floods result in increasing damages to infrastructure, as well as life and property, structural and non-structural measures should be urgently established in order to effectively reduce the flood. Therefore, in this study, we developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting for supporting synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information in Korea. Keywords: Flooding, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011686022015)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

  14. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  15. Decision-Support System for Mitigating Long-Term Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, H. R.; van Delden, H.; Newman, J. P.; Riddell, G. A.; Zecchin, A. C.; Dandy, G. C.; Newland, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term flood risk in urban areas is expected to increase as a result of a number of factors, such as an increase in the severity of flood events due to the impact of climate change and the exposure of a larger number of people to flooding as a result of population growth. In order to facilitate the development of long-term flood mitigation plans, a framework for a decision-support system (DSS) is presented in this paper. The framework consists of an integrated model (see Figure) consisting of dynamic, spatially distributed land-use and flood inundation models. It also enables the impact of various flood mitigation strategies to be assessed, such as spatial planning, land management, structural measures (e.g. levees, changes in building codes), and community education. The framework considers a number of external drivers that are represented in the form of long-term planning scenarios. These include the impact of climate drivers on the extent of flooding via the flood inundation model and the impact of population and economic drivers on the size and distribution of the population via the land use allocation model. Using this framework, a DSS is being developed and applied to the Greater Adelaide region of South Australia. This DSS includes an intuitive, user-friendly interface for enabling different planning scenarios and mitigation portfolios to be selected, as well as temporal changes in flood risk maps under each of these scenarios to be observed. Changes in flood risk maps are investigated over a 30-year period with climate drivers represented by different representative concentration pathways, population drivers represented by different population projections and economic drivers represented by different employment rates. The impact of different combinations of mitigation measures is also investigated. The results indicate that climate, population and economic drivers have a significant impact on the temporal evolution of flood risk for the case study area

  16. Flood risk mitigation in Europe: how far away are we from the aspired forms of adaptive governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Fournier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood mitigation is a strategy that is growing in importance across Europe. This growth corresponds with an increasing emphasis on the need to learn to live with floods and make space for water. Flood mitigation measures aim at reducing the likelihood and magnitude of flooding and complement flood defenses. They are being put in place through the implementation of actions that accommodate (rather than resist water, such as natural flood management or adapted housing. The strategy has gained momentum over the past 20 years in an effort to improve the sustainability of flood risk management (FRM and facilitate the diversification of FRM in the pursuit of societal resilience to flooding. Simultaneously, it is increasingly argued that adaptive forms of governance are best placed to address the uncertainty and complexity associated with social-ecological systems responding to environmental challenges, such as flooding. However, there have been few attempts to examine the extent to which current flood risk governance, and flood mitigation specifically, reflect these aspired forms of adaptive governance. Drawing from EU research into flood risk governance, conducted within the STAR-FLOOD project, we examine the governance of flood mitigation in six European countries: Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Using in-depth policy and legal analysis, as well as interviews with key actors, the governance and implementation of flood mitigation in these countries is evaluated from the normative viewpoint of whether, and to what extent, it can be characterized as adaptive governance. We identify five criteria of adaptive governance based on a comprehensive literature review and apply these to each country to determine the "distance" between current governance arrangements and adaptive governance. In conclusion, the flood mitigation strategy provides various opportunities for actors to further pursue forms of adaptive governance. The

  17. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Hirpa, Feyera Aga; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the development of high-resolution flood hazard models have become feasible at continental and global scale, and their application in developing countries and data-scarce regions can be extremely helpful to increase preparedness of population and reduce catastrophic impacts. The present work describes the development of a novel procedure for global flood hazard mapping, based on the most recent advances in large scale flood modelling. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from the hydrological simulations of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Streamflow data is downscaled on a high resolution river network and processed to provide the input for local flood inundation simulations, performed with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. All flood-prone areas identified along the river network are then merged to create continental flood hazard maps for different return periods at 30‧‧ resolution. We evaluate the performance of our methodology in several river basins across the globe by comparing simulated flood maps with both official hazard maps and a mosaic of flooded areas detected from satellite images. The evaluation procedure also includes comparisons with the results of other large scale flood models. We further investigate the sensitivity of the flood modelling framework to several parameters and modelling approaches and identify strengths, limitations and possible improvements of the methodology.

  18. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  19. New river flow maxima in Northern England, December 2015: Implications for flood hazard and risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James

    2016-04-01

    December 2015 was recently confirmed as the UK's wettest month on record by the Met Office. The most extreme precipitation was associated with three extratropical storm systems, named Desmond, Eva and Frank by the pilot Met Éireann/Met Office "Name our storms" project. In response, river levels reached new maxima at many locations across Northern England. Property damage was widespread, with at least 16,000 homes in England flooded. As with recent predecessors, these events reinvigorated public debate about the extent to which natural weather variability, anthropogenic climate change, increased urbanisation and/or other changes in catchment and river management might be responsible for apparent increases in flood frequency and severity. Change detection and attribution science is required to inform the debate, but is complicated by the short (typically ~ 35 years) river flow records available. Running a large number of coupled climate and hydrological model simulations is a powerful way of addressing the 'attribution question' with respect to the hypothesised climate forcing, for example, albeit one that remains largely in the research domain at present. In the meantime, flood-frequency analysis of available records still forms the bedrock of practice in the water industry; the results are used routinely in the design of new defence structures and in the development of flood hazard maps, amongst other things. In such analyses, it is usual for the records to be assumed stationary. In this context, the specific aims of this research are twofold: • To investigate whether, under the assumption of stationarity, the outputs of standard flood-frequency modelling methods (both 'single-site' and 'spatially pooled' methods) differ significantly depending on whether the new peaks are included or excluded, and; • To assess the sustainability of previous conclusions regarding trends in English river flows by reapplying simple statistical tests, such as the Mann-Kendal test

  20. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Applications in Flood Hazards Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dano Umar Lawal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine and review the various applications of GIS and remote sensing tools in flood disaster management as opposed to the conventional means of recording the hydrological parameters, which in many cases failed to capture an extreme event. In the recent years, GIS along with remote sensing has become the key tools in flood disaster monitoring and management. Advancement particularly in the area of remote sensing application has developed gradually from optical remote sensing to microwave or radar remote sensing, which has proved a profound capability of penetrating a clouded sky and provided all weather capabilities compared to the later (optical remote sensing in flood monitoring, mapping, and management. The main concern here is delineation of flood prone areas and development of flood hazard maps indicating the risk areas likely to be inundated by significant flooding along with the damageable objects maps for the flood susceptible areas. Actually, flood depth is always considered to be the basic aspect in flood hazard mapping, and therefore in determining or estimating the flood depth, a Digital Elevation Model data (DEM is considered to be the most appropriate means of determining the flood depth from a remotely sensed data or hydrological data. Accuracy of flood depth estimation depends mainly on the resolution of the DEM data in a flat terrain and in the regions that experiences monsoon seasons such as the developing countries of Asia where there is a high dependence on agriculture, which made any effort for flood estimation or flood hazard mapping difficult due to poor availability of high resolution DEM. More so the idea of Web-based GIS is gradually becoming a reality, which plays an important role in the flood hazard management. Therefore, this paper provides a review of applications of GIS and remote sensing technology in flood disaster monitoring and management.

  1. Analyzing Flood Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise Using K-Means Clustering: Implications for Regional Flood Mitigation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, M.; Wood, N. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Schweikert, A.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    The threat of tidal flooding in coastal regions is exacerbated by sea level rise (SLR), which can lead to more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding and permanent inundation of low-lying areas. When coupled with extreme storm events, SLR also increases the extent and depth of flooding due to storm surges. To mitigate these impacts, bayfront communities are considering a variety of options for shoreline protection, including restoration of natural features such as wetlands and hardening of the shoreline using levees and sea walls. These shoreline modifications can produce changes in the tidal dynamics in a basin, either by increasing dissipation of tidal energy or enhancing tidal amplification [1]. As a result, actions taken by individual communities not only impact local inundation, but can also have implications for flooding on a regional scale. However, regional collaboration is lacking in flood mitigation planning, which is often done on a community-by-community basis. This can lead to redundancy in planning efforts and can also have adverse effects on communities that are not included in discussions about shoreline infrastructure improvements. Using flooding extent outputs from a hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay, we performed a K-means clustering analysis to identify similarities between 65 bayfront communities in terms of the spatial, demographic, and economic characteristics of their vulnerable assets for a suite of SLR and storm scenarios. Our clustering analysis identifies communities with similar vulnerabilities and allows for more effective collaboration and decision-making at a regional level by encouraging comparable communities to work together and pool resources to find effective adaptation strategies as flooding becomes more frequent and severe. [1] Holleman RC, Stacey MT (2014) Coupling of sea level rise, tidal amplification, and inundation. Journal of Physical Oceanography 44:1439-1455.

  2. Using Robust Decision Making to Assess and Mitigate the Risks of Natural Hazards in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, N.; Lempert, R. J.; Peyraud, S.

    2012-12-01

    Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) ranks fourth globally among coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change and already experiences extensive routine flooding. In the coming decades, increased precipitation, rising sea levels, and land subsidence could permanently inundate a large portion of the city's population, place the poor at particular risk, and threaten new economic development in low-lying areas. HCMC is not alone in facing the impacts of natural hazards exacerbated by uncertain future climate change, development, and other deep uncertainties. Assessing and managing these risks is a tremendous challenge, particularly in developing countries which face pervasive shortages of the data and models generally used to plan for such changes. Using HCMC as a case study, this talk will demonstrate how a scenario-based approach that uses robustness as a decision and planning element can help developing countries assess future climate risk and manage the risk of natural disasters. In contrast to traditional approaches which treat uncertainty with a small number of handcrafted scenarios, this talk will emphasize how robust decision making, which uses modeling to explore over thousands of scenarios, can identify potential vulnerabilities to HCMC's emerging flood risk management strategy and suggest potential responses. The talk will highlight several novel features of the collaboration with the HCMC Steering Committee for Flood Control. First, it examines several types of risk -- risk to the poor, risk to the non-poor, and risk to the economy -- and illustrates how management policies have different implications for these sectors. Second, it demonstrates how diverse and sometimes incomplete climate, hydrologic, socioeconomic, GIS, and other data and models can be integrated into a modeling framework to develop and evaluate many scenarios of flood risk. Third, it illustrates the importance of non-structural policies such as land use management and building design to manage

  3. Making Coastal Flood Hazard Maps to Support Decision-Making - What End Users Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J.; Cheung, W. H.; Luke, A.; Gallien, T.; Aghakouchak, A.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Growing awareness about accelerating Sea Level Rise (SLR) is contributing to coastal resilience initiatives around the world, with an emphasis on coastal planning, infrastructure adaptation, and emergency preparedness. Maps are the primary tool for communicating flood hazard, and their design raises two fundamental challenges: (1) representing the flood hazard in a scientifically defensible manner considering complexity associated with multiple drivers of flooding (e.g., rainfall, streamflow, storm surge, high tides, waves), urban infrastructure, and human interventions (e.g. pumping, sand bags) and (2) effectively communicating hazard information considering the specific needs of decision-makers. In this research we rely on a hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding that can be forced by multiple drivers of flooding (rainfall, high water levels, and waves) to simulate extreme flooding scenarios at street-level resolution. Model scenarios include 20%, 10%, 5%, 2% and 1% annual exceedance probability (AEP) scenarios for each possible driver of flooding and for both present and future sea levels. The resulting flood zones and related flood depths are aggregated using GIS techniques and transformed into a set of maps depicting annual exceedance probability, multi-year flood probability, 1% AEP flooding depth, uncertainty associated with model forcing data, and road network accessibility. The usability of each map is assessed through focus group discussions with local stakeholders who have distinct decision-making needs, such as homeowners, planners, and emergency response managers. Findings from this research reveal the mapped flood risk information and visualizations preferred by different decision-makers.

  4. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier-Klose, M.; Wagner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey. The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths) which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  5. Tidal wetland conservation and restoration for flood mitigation in estuaries and deltas: examples and global potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Smolders, Sven; Stark, Jeroen; meire, patrick

    2014-05-01

    Low-lying and densely populated deltas and estuaries are world widely exposed to flood risks caused by storm surges. On the one hand, global change is increasing these flood risks through accelerating sea level rise and increasing storm intensity, but on the other hand, local-scale human impacts on deltas and estuaries are in many cases even more increasing the vulnerability to floods. Here we address the degradation and reclamation of tidal wetlands (i.e. salt marshes in the temperate zone and mangroves in the tropical zone) as a major source for increasing vulnerability to flooding of estuaries and deltas. Firstly, we present examples of flood mitigation by tidal wetland conservation and restoration, and secondly we explore the potentials and limitations for global application of this approach of ecosystem-based flood defense (see Temmerman et al. 2013). First, we use the Scheldt estuary (SW Netherlands and Belgium) as an example where historic wetland reclamation has importantly contributed to increasing flood risks, and where tidal marsh restoration on the previously reclaimed land is nowadays brought into large-scale practice as an essential part of the flood defense system. Based on data and hydrodynamic modelling, we show that large-scale historic marsh reclamation has largely reduced the water storage capacity of the estuary and has reduced the friction to propagating flood waves, resulting in an important landward increase of tidal and storm surge levels. Hydrodynamic model scenarios demonstrate how tidal and storm surge propagation through the estuary are affected by tidal marsh properties, including the surface area, elevation, vegetation and position of marshes along the estuary. We show that nowadays tidal wetland creation on previously reclaimed land is applied as an essential part of the flood defense system along the Scheldt estuary. Secondly, a global analysis is presented of the potential application of tidal wetlands in flood mitigation in

  6. Flood hazard of the Somma-Vesuvius region based on historical (19-20th century and geomorphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Alessio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary susceptibility map of the flood hazard for the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic district, worked out by means of multi-disciplinary historical, geological, geomorphological and rainfall data processing. It is well known that the Somma-Vesuvius volcano, due to its explosive volcanism and the dense urbanization of the surrounding area, with a population exceeding 650,000 is one of the most dangerous active volcanoes of the world. Although this area has been extensively studied from the volcanological point of view with regards to its volcanic hazard, there are currently not many detailed studies about its flood hazard factors, despite the fact that, in the last century, many intense rainfall events in this area have produced several floods that invaded the surrounding plains affecting towns and roads, and causing much damages and loss of lives. Accordingly, in this paper high-resolution DEM (5×5 m pixel and detailed geomorphological maps of the whole area have been analyzed and processed in GIS environment, carrying out a comparative study of the present-day morphology and the morphology of the 1900’s volcanic edifice, including changes of infrastructures and buildings throughout the last century. These results, together with historical chronicles data and the rainfall accurate data for all flood events, have been processed in this paper for highlighting the drainage basins areas of Somma-Vesuvius where the flood phenomena could be more probable in the future, working out a preliminary zoning map, also suggesting in which sectors interventions useful for mitigation of flood risk should be implemented.

  7. DEVELOPING SOFT MEASURES FOR FLOOD RISK MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION IN ROMANIA: PUBLIC INFORMING AND AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA ZAHARIA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights, firstly, some general aspects concerning flood risk adaptation measures, especially those aiming public informing/education and awareness. Secondly, the paper is focused on Romania and presents: the legislative and action general framework on climate change adaptation and flood risk management; potential measures for flood risk mitigation and adaptation, with special focus on public informing/ communication and education actions; institutions and tools for public informing on flood risk in Romania. Finally, some examples of actions aiming flood risk informing/education and awareness at local scale (Tecuci City in Galaţi County, and the communes of Vulturu and Năneşti in Vrancea County are presented.

  8. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  9. Optimization of Upstream Detention Reservoir Facilities for Downstream Flood Mitigation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thuy Ngo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A detention reservoir is one of the most effective engineered solutions for flood damage mitigation in urban areas. Detention facilities are constructed to temporarily store storm water and then slowly drain when the peak period has passed. This delayed drainage may coincide with upstream floods and aggravate the flood risk downstream. Optimal operation and design are needed to improve the performance of detention reservoirs for flood reduction. This study couples hydrologic simulation software (EPA-SWMM with an evolutional optimizer (extraordinary particle swarm optimization, EPSO to minimize flood damage downstream while considering the inundation risk at the detention reservoir. The optimum design and operation are applied to an urban case study in Seoul, Korea, for historical severe flooding events and designed rainfall scenarios. The optimal facilities outperform the present facilities in terms of flood damage reduction both downstream and in the detention reservoir area. Specifically, the peak water level at the detention pond under optimal conditions is significantly smaller than that of the current conditions. The comparison of the total flooded volume in the whole watershed shows a dramatic reduction of 79% in a severe flooding event in 2010 and around 20% in 2011 and in 180 min designed rainfall scenarios.

  10. Flood hazards in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Nassar, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Floods are natural hazards that have complicated man's land-use planning for as long as we have had a history. Although flood hzards are a continuing danger, the year-to-year threat cannot be accurately predicted. Also, on any one stream, the time since the last destructive flood might be so long that most people now living near the stream have not experienced such a flood. Because of the unpredictability and common infrequency of disastrous flooding, or out of ignorance about the danger, or perhaps because of an urge to gamble, man tends to focus his attention on only the advantages of the flood-prone areas, rather than the risk due to the occasional major flood. The purposes of this report are to: (1) briefly describe flood hazards in this region, including some that may be unique to the Puget Sound basin, (2) indicate the parts of the area for which flood-hazard data are available, and (3) list the main sources of hydrologic information that is useful for flood-hazard analysis in conjuction with long-range planning. This map-type report is one of a series being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey to present basic environmental information and interpretations to assist land-use planning in the Puget Sound region.

  11. Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches

  12. Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Conte, Riccardo; Lanfranco, Massimo; Perrone, Gianluigi; Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara

    2010-05-01

    Geo-information and remote sensing are proper tools to enhance functional strategies for increasing awareness on natural hazards and risks and for supporting research and operational activities devoted to disaster reduction. An improved Earth Sciences knowledge coupled with Geomatics advanced technologies has been developed by the joint research group and applied by the ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action) centre, within its partnership with the UN World Food Programme (WFP) with the goal of reducing human, social, economic and environmental losses due to natural hazards and related disasters. By cooperating with local and regional authorities (Municipalities, Centro Funzionale of the Aosta Valley, Civil Protection Agency of Regione Piemonte), data on natural hazards and risks have been collected, compared to national and global data, then interpreted for helping communities and civil protection agencies of sensitive mountain regions to make strategic choices and decisions to better mitigation and adaption measures. To enhance the application of GIS and Remote-sensing technologies for geothematic mapping of geological and geomorphological risks of mountain territories of Europe and Developing Countries, research activities led to the collection and evaluation of data from scientific literature and historical technical archives, for the definition of predisposing/triggering factors and evolutionary processes of natural instability phenomena (landslides, floods, storms, …) and for the design and implementation of early-warning and early-impact systems. Geodatabases, Remote Sensing and Mobile-GIS applications were developed to perform analysis of : 1) large climate-related disaster (Hurricane Mitch, Central America), by the application of remote sensing techniques, either for early warning or mitigation measures at the national and international scale; 2) distribution of slope instabilities at the regional scale (Aosta

  13. Enhancing sediment flux control and natural hazard risk mitigation through a structured conceptual planning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, S.; Vignoli, G.; Mazzorana, B.

    2017-08-01

    Sediment fluxes from mountain rivers contribute to shape the geomorphologic features of lowland rivers and to establish the physical basis for an optimal set of ecosystem functions and related services to people. Through significant public funding, the hydro-morphological regimes of mountain rivers in the European Alps have been progressively altered over the last century, with the aim to provide a safe dwelling space, to boost transport, mobility and to support economic growth. We claim that the underlying planning weaknesses contribute to determine these inefficient resource allocations, since flood risk is still high and the ecosystem services are far from being optimal. Hence, with the overall aim to enhance sediment flux control and hazard risk mitigation in such heavily modified alpine streams, we propose a structured design workflow which guides the planner through system analysis and synthesis. As a first step the proposed workflow sets the relevant planning goals and assesses the protection structure functionality. Then a methodology is proposed to achieve the goals. This methodology consists in characterising the hydrologic basin of interest and the sediment availability and determining the sediment connectivity to channels. The focus is set on the detailed analysis of existing river cross sections where the sediment continuity is interrupted (e.g. slit and check dams). By retaining relevant sediment volumes these structures prevent the reactivation of hydro-morphological and associated ecological functionalities. Since their actual performance can be unsatisfying with respect to flood risk mitigation (e.g. mainly old structures), we introduce specific efficiency indicators as a support for the conceptual design stage to quantify effects related to sediment flux control and risk management. The proposed planning approach is then applied to the Gadria system (stream, slit dam, retention basin and culvert), located in South Tyrol, Italy. This case study

  14. Using rainfall patterns and IDF in flood hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of rainfall are commonly used as model input in e.g. urban drainage design or flood hazard studies. The hydraulic model that is used is oftentimes too computationally demanding to alllow for a simulation of a long historical time series. Instead, a limited set of high-intensity events is selected that is considered representative for the extreme rainfall over a given period at the location of interest. The set of events can be compiled from historical records, from stochastic rainfall generators or NWP model simulations. In general, there are numerous sources of realistic and plausible rainfall patterns and it is possible to compile a set of representative rainfall events for an application of interest. However, in order to apply the set of events to a flood study, a probability must be assigned to each event. This poses a challenge. Ideally, the event probabilities are derived from Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. For a given event and for a given duration, the exceedance frequency of the rainfall depth directly follows from the IDF curves. However, for a different duration, the exceedance frequency of the rainfall depth for the same event will typically be different. The exceedance frequency thus depends on the duration. Unfortunately, for many applications, the critical duration is not known beforehand. In the proposed approach this problem is overcome by selecting a set of events that covers extreme rainfall over a range of durations. A probability is assigned to each event such that the collective set of events reproduces the IDF curves. This way, the set of events not only represents the spatio-temporal rainfall patterns that may occur in the area, but also the IDF curves. The proposed method thus offers a way to use realistic rainfall patterns in combination with IDF curves in probabilistic flood studies. We will explain how the event probabilities are derived and demonstrate that a relatively small set of 50 to 100 events

  15. Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out

  16. Flood hazard mapping by integrating airborne laser scanning data, high resolution images and large scale maps: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, P.; G. Gonçalves; Gomes Pereira, L.; Moreira, M.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment and management of flood risks framework impose the mapping of flood hazard in potential flood risks areas. Floods in urban environments may happen due to rainfall extreme events and be exacerbated by saturated or impervious surfaces. Flood risk is greater in urban areas. (...)

  17. A new modelling framework and mitigation measures for increased resilience to flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Solley, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Flooding in rivers and estuaries is amongst the most significant challenges our society has yet to tackle effectively. Use of floodwall systems is one of the potential measures that can be used to mitigate the detrimental socio-economical and ecological impacts and alleviate the associated costs of flooding. This work demonstrates the utility of such systems for a case study via appropriate numerical simulations, in addition to conducting scaled flume experiments towards obtaining a better understanding of the performance and efficiency of the flood-wall systems. At first, the results of several characteristic inundation modeling scenarios and flood mitigation options, for a flood-prone region in Scotland. In particular, the history and hydrology of the area are discussed and the assumptions and hydraulic model input (model geometry including instream hydraulic structures -such as bridges and weirs- river and floodplain roughness, initial and boundary conditions) are presented, followed by the model results. Emphasis is given on the potential improvements brought about by mitigating flood risk using flood-wall systems. Further, the implementation of the floodwall in mitigating flood risk is demonstrated via appropriate numerical modeling, utilizing HEC-RAS to simulate the effect of a river's rising stage during a flood event, for a specific area. The later part of this work involves the design, building and utilization of a scaled physical model of a flood-wall system. These experiments are carried out at one of the research flumes in the Water Engineering laboratory of the University of Glasgow. These involve an experimental investigation where the increase of force applied on the floodwall is measured for different degrees of deflection of the water in the stream, under the maximum flow discharge that can be carried through without exceeding the floodwall height (and accounting for the effect of super-elevation). These results can be considered upon the

  18. New version of 1 km global river flood hazard maps for the next generation of Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bierkens, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer, launched in 2015, is an open-access and free-of-charge web-based interactive platform which assesses and visualises current and future projections of river flood impacts across the globe. One of the key components in the Analyzer is a set of river flood inundation hazard maps derived from the global hydrological model simulation of PCR-GLOBWB. For the current version of the Analyzer, accessible on http://floods.wri.org/#/, the early generation of PCR-GLOBWB 1.0 was used and simulated at 30 arc-minute ( 50 km at the equator) resolution. In this presentation, we will show the new version of these hazard maps. This new version is based on the latest version of PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 (https://github.com/UU-Hydro/PCR-GLOBWB_model, Sutanudjaja et al., 2016, doi:10.5281/zenodo.60764) simulated at 5 arc-minute ( 10 km at the equator) resolution. The model simulates daily hydrological and water resource fluxes and storages, including the simulation of overbank volume that ends up on the floodplain (if flooding occurs). The simulation was performed for the present day situation (from 1960) and future climate projections (until 2099) using the climate forcing created in the ISI-MIP project. From the simulated flood inundation volume time series, we then extract annual maxima for each cell, and fit these maxima to a Gumbel extreme value distribution. This allows us to derive flood volume maps of any hazard magnitude (ranging from 2-year to 1000-year flood events) and for any time period (e.g. 1960-1999, 2010-2049, 2030-2069, and 2060-2099). The derived flood volumes (at 5 arc-minute resolution) are then spread over the high resolution terrain model using an updated GLOFRIS downscaling module (Winsemius et al., 2013, doi:10.5194/hess-17-1871-2013). The updated version performs a volume spreading sequentially from more upstream basins to downstream basins, hence enabling a better inclusion of smaller streams, and takes into account spreading of water

  19. Analysis and GIS Mapping of Flooding Hazards on 10 May 2016, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Min Lyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10 May 2016, Guangdong Province, China, suffered a heavy rainstorm. This rainstorm flooded the whole city of Guangzhou. More than 100,000 people were affected by the flooding, in which eight people lost their lives. Subway stations, cars, and buses were submerged. In order to analyse the influential factors of this flooding, topographical characteristics were mapped using Digital Elevation Model (DEM by the Geographical Information System (GIS and meteorological conditions were statistically summarised at both the whole city level and the district level. To analyse the relationship between flood risk and urbanization, GIS was also adopted to map the effect of the subway system using the Multiple Buffer operator over the flooding distribution area. Based on the analyses, one of the significant influential factors of flooding was identified as the urbanization degree, e.g., construction of a subway system, which forms along flood-prone areas. The total economic loss due to flooding in city centers with high urbanization has become very serious. Based on the analyses, the traditional standard of severity of flooding hazards (rainfall intensity grade was modified. Rainfall intensity for severity flooding was decreased from 50 mm to 30 mm in urbanized city centers. In order to protect cities from flooding, a “Sponge City” planning approach is recommended to increase the temporary water storage capacity during heavy rainstorms. In addition, for future city management, the combined use of GIS and Building Information Modelling (BIM is recommended to evaluate flooding hazards.

  20. Disseminating near-real-time hazards information and flood maps in the Philippines through Web-GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco; Racoma, Bernard Alan; Aracan, Ken Adrian; Alconis-Ayco, Jenalyn; Saddi, Ivan Lester

    2017-09-01

    The Philippines being a locus of tropical cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. These natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property. Situated in a region where climate and geophysical tempest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government. In 2012, the Philippines launched a responsive program for disaster prevention and mitigation called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH), specifically for government warning agencies to be able to provide a 6hr lead-time warning to vulnerable communities against impending floods and to use advanced technology to enhance current geo-hazard vulnerability maps. To disseminate such critical information to as wide an audience as possible, a Web-GIS using mashups of freely available source codes and application program interface (APIs) was developed and can be found in the URLs http://noah.dost.gov.ph and http://noah.up.edu.ph/. This Web-GIS tool is now heavily used by local government units in the Philippines in their disaster prevention and mitigation efforts and can be replicated in countries that have a proactive approach to address the impacts of natural hazards but lack sufficient funds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Natural Hazard Mitigation Metrics for Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Natural Hazard Mitigation...

  2. GNSS Buoy Array in the Ocean for Natural Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Terada, Y.; Yamamoto, S. I.; Iwakiri, N.; Toyoshima, M.; Koshikawa, N.; Motohashi, O.; Hashimoto, G.; Wada, A.

    2015-12-01

    The GNSS buoy system for tsunami early warning has been developed in Japan. The system has been implemented as a national wave monitoring system and its record was used to update the tsunami warning at the 3.11 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The lessons learned in this experience was that the buoys are placed only less than 20km from the coast, which was not far enough for effective evacuation of people. We thus tried to improve the system for putting the buoy much farther from the coast. First, we tried to implement, different from current baseline mode RTK-GPS, a real-time PPP analysis strategy for positioning. In addition, we tried to use a two-way satellite data transmission in contrast with current surface radio system. We have made a series of experiments for this purpose in 2013 and 2014. A buoy of about 40km south of Shikoku, southwest Japan, was used for this purpose. GEONET data were used to obtain precise orbits and clocks of satellites. Then, the information was transferred to the GNSS buoy using LEX signal of QZSS satellite system. The received information on the buoy were used for real-time PPP analysis for every second. The obtained buoy position was then transmitted to the ground base, through an engineering test satellite, ETS-VIII. The received data was then disseminated to public through the internet. Both filtered short-term and long-term waves, were separately shown on the webpage. The success of these experiments indicates that the GNSS buoy can be placed at least more than 1,500 km from the ground based tracking network. Given this success, we would now be able to deploy a new GNSS buoy array system in the wide ocean. An array in the ocean can be used for ionospheric and atmospheric research in the same region as well as tsunami or ocean bottom crustal deformation monitoring through an application to the GNSS-acoustic system. We are now designing a regional GNSS buoy array in the western Pacific as a synthetic natural hazard mitigation system.

  3. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  4. 78 FR 65107 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... estate or mobile home with the same frequency as payments on the loan are made for the duration of the... requirements with respect to the escrow of flood insurance payments, the acceptance of private flood insurance... flood insurance payments, and section 100239 of the Act, relating to the acceptance of private...

  5. Values of Flood Hazard Mapping for Disaster Risk Assessment and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, T.; Takara, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Flood plains provide tremendous benefits for human settlements. Since olden days people have lived with floods and attempted to control them if necessary. Modern engineering works such as building embankment have enabled people to live even in flood prone areas, and over time population and economic assets have concentrated in these areas. In developing countries also, rapid land use change alters exposure and vulnerability to floods and consequently increases disaster risk. Flood hazard mapping is an essential step for any counter measures. It has various objectives including raising awareness of residents, finding effective evacuation routes and estimating potential damages through flood risk mapping. Depending on the objectives and data availability, there are also many possible approaches for hazard mapping including simulation basis, community basis and remote sensing basis. In addition to traditional paper-based hazard maps, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) promotes more interactive hazard mapping such as movable hazard map to demonstrate scenario simulations for risk communications and real-time hazard mapping for effective disaster responses and safe evacuations. This presentation first summarizes recent advancement of flood hazard mapping by focusing on Japanese experiences and other examples from Asian countries. Then it introduces a flood simulation tool suitable for hazard mapping at the river basin scale even in data limited regions. In the past few years, the tool has been practiced by local officers responsible for disaster management in Asian countries. Through the training activities of hazard mapping and risk assessment, we conduct comparative analysis to identify similarity and uniqueness of estimated economic damages depending on topographic and land use conditions.

  6. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  7. Flood Mitigation and Response: Comparing the Great Midwest Floods of 1993 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    14 Cody and Carter, 2–3; Jena Baker McNeill , “Beltway-Centric Approach to Disaster Response Is a Recipe for Disaster” (Washington, D.C.: Heritage...Flood Insurance Program’s Market Penetration Rate: Estimates and Policy Implications. Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation, 2006. Elgin, David, Charles ...midwest.chicagofedblogs.org/archives/2008/07/mattoon_flood_b.html (accessed 8/3/2008). McNeill , Jena Baker. “Beltway-Centric Approach to Disaster is a

  8. Multivariate skew- t approach to the design of accumulation risk scenarios for the flooding hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Roth, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    The multivariate version of the skew- t distribution provides a powerful analytical description of the joint behavior of multivariate processes. It enjoys valuable properties: from the aptitude to model skewed as well as leptokurtic datasets to the availability of moments and likelihood analytical expressions. Moreover, it offers a wide range of extremal dependence strength, allowing for upper and lower tail dependence. The idea underneath this work is to employ the multivariate skew- t distribution to provide an estimation of the joint probability of flood events in a multi-site multi-basin approach. This constitutes the basis for the design and evaluation of flood hazard scenarios for large areas in terms of their intensity, extension and frequency, i.e. those information required by civil protection agencies to put in action mitigation strategies and by insurance companies to price the flooding risk and to evaluate portfolios. Performances of the skew- t distribution and the corresponding t copula function, introduced to represent the state of the art for multivariate simulations, are discussed with reference to the Tanaro Basin, North-western Italy. To enhance the characteristics of the correlation structure, three nested and non-nested gauging stations are selected with contributing areas from 1500 to 8000 km 2. A dataset of 76 trivariate flood events is extracted from a mean daily discharges database available for the time period from January 1995 to December 2003. Applications include the generation of multivariate skew- t and t copula samples and models' comparison through the principle of minimum cross-entropy, here revised for the application to multivariate samples. Copula and skew- t based scenario return period estimations are provided for the November 1994 flood event, i.e. the worst on record in the 1801-2001 period. Results are encouraging: the skew- t distribution seems able to describe the joint behavior, being close to the observations. Marginal

  9. Comparative hazard analysis of processes leading to remarkable flash floods (France, 1930-1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, M.; Lang, M.; Vinet, F.; Cœur, D.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flood events are responsible for large economic losses and lead to fatalities every year in France. This is especially the case in the Mediterranean and oversea territories/departments of France, characterized by extreme hydro-climatological features and with a large part of the population exposed to flood risks. The recurrence of remarkable flash flood events, associated with high hazard intensity, significant damage and socio-political consequences, therefore raises several issues for authorities and risk management policies. This study aims to improve our understanding of the hazard analysis process in the case of four remarkable flood events: March 1930, October 1940, January 1980 and November 1999. Firstly, we present the methodology used to define the remarkability score of a flood event. Then, to identify the factors leading to a remarkable flood event, we explore the main parameters of the hazard analysis process, such as the meteorological triggering conditions, the return period of the rainfall and peak discharge, as well as some additional factors (initial catchment state, flood chronology, cascade effects, etc.). The results contribute to understanding the complexity of the processes leading to flood hazard and highlight the importance for risk managers of taking additional factors into account.

  10. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow

  11. Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2006-12-01

    An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes

  12. Integrated flood risk assessment for the Mekong Delta through the combined assessment of flood hazard change and social vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Garschagen, Matthias; Delgado, José Miguel; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Van Tuan, Vo; Thanh Binh, Nguyen; Birkmann, Joern; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Low lying estuaries as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam are among the most vulnerable areas with respect to climate change impacts. While regular floods are not a threat but an opportunity for livelihoods and income generation, extreme flood events can pose considerable risks to the people living in Deltas. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of extreme floods globally, which in combination with sea level rise and a likely intensification of cyclone activity creates increased and/or entirely new hazard exposure in the Deltas. Yet, in line with the risk literature and especially the recent IPCC SREX report, flooding risk needs to be understood as deriving from the interaction of physical hazards and the vulnerabilities of exposed elements. Therefore, the paper aims for an integrated risk assessment through combining the most up to date estimates of flood hazard projections under climate change conditions in the Mekong Delta with the assessment of vulnerability patterns. Projections of flood hazard are estimated based the modulation of the flood frequency distribution by atmospheric circulation patterns. Future projections of these patterns are calculated from an ensemble of climate models. A quasi two-dimensional hydrodynamical model of the Delta is then applied to estimate water levels and flood extend. This model is fed with a set of hydrographs which are based on both the derived climate model uncertainty and the bivariate nature of floods in the Mekong Delta. Flood peak is coupled with flood volume in the probabilistic framework to derive synthetic extreme future floods with associated probabilities of occurrence. This flood hazard analysis is combined with static sea level rise scenarios, which alter the lower boundary of the hydrodynamic model and give estimates of the impact on sea level rise on inundation extend and depths. The vulnerability assessment is based on a three step approach. Firstly, vulnerability profiles are developed for different

  13. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hagemeier-Klose

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey.

    The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  14. The value of integrating information from multiple hazards for flood risk analysis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, J. T.; Escuder-Bueno, I.; Altarejos-García, L.; Serrano-Lombillo, A.

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a methodology for estimating flood risk in urban areas integrating pluvial flooding, river flooding and failure of both small and large dams. The first part includes a review of basic concepts on flood risk analysis, evaluation and management. Flood risk analyses may be developed at local, regional and national level, however a general methodology to perform a quantitative flood risk analysis including different flood hazards is still required. The second part describes the proposed methodology, which presents an integrated approach - combining pluvial, river flooding and flooding from dam failure, as applied to a case study: an urban area located downstream of a dam under construction. The methodology enhances the approach developed within the SUFRI project ("Sustainable Strategies of Urban Flood Risk Management to cope with the residual risk", 2009-2011). This article also shows how outcomes from flood risk analysis provide better and more complete information to inform authorities, local entities and the stakeholders involved in decision-making with regard to flood risk management.

  15. 38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4708 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal... a loan secured by a building or a mobile home located or to be located in a special flood hazard... approved by the Director of FEMA, that the building or the mobile home is or will be located in a...

  16. 77 FR 76499 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and in some cases the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently... officer Community map Community State and county Location and case No. of community repository Effective... Honorable Gay Laramie County September 27, 2012 560029 1268). of Laramie County Woodhouse,...

  17. GIS-based Risk Zone of Flood Hazard in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the flood disaster risks in Anhui Province based on GIS. [Method] Taking country as basic unit, the 1∶ 250 000 basic geographic data in Anhui Province as basis, from the angle of flood disaster hazard and economic vulnerability, and by dint of the calculation of the weight of each impact factor with entropy-based fuzzy AHP method, flood risk assessment model was established to study the flood disaster risks zoning in Anhui Province. Using nearly 10 years of disaster informat...

  18. Flood Hazard Mapping using Hydraulic Model and GIS: A Case Study in Mandalay City, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Kyu Sein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of flood frequency analysis integrating with 1D Hydraulic model (HECRAS and Geographic Information System (GIS to prepare flood hazard maps of different return periods in Ayeyarwady River at Mandalay City in Myanmar. Gumbel’s distribution was used to calculate the flood peak of different return periods, namely, 10 years, 20 years, 50 years, and 100 years. The flood peak from frequency analysis were input into HEC-RAS model to find the corresponding flood level and extents in the study area. The model results were used in integrating with ArcGIS to generate flood plain maps. Flood depths and extents have been identified through flood plain maps. Analysis of 100 years return period flood plain map indicated that 157.88 km2 with the percentage of 17.54% is likely to be inundated. The predicted flood depth ranges varies from greater than 0 to 24 m in the flood plains and on the river. The range between 3 to 5 m were identified in the urban area of Chanayetharzan, Patheingyi, and Amarapua Townships. The highest inundated area was 85 km2 in the Amarapura Township.

  19. Climate change-induced impacts on urban flood risk influenced by concurrent hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. N.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In coastal regions, several hazards may lead to floods, and if they occur concurrently, the damage will be higher than for the hazards individually. The paper outlines an approach for carrying out a risk analysis with several hazards and applies it on a case study in Greater Copenhagen where two...... and that climate change most likely will not increase the correlation. The overall change in flood return periods over a forecast horizon of 110 years are estimated to decrease by one to three orders of magnitude....

  20. 78 FR 29766 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... Camp Hill, PA 17011. Gettysburg Road, Camp Hill, PA 17011. ] Northumberland (FEMA Docket Borough of...

  1. RiverFlow2D numerical simulation of flood mitigation solutions in the Ebro River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Echeverribar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of measures oriented to flood mitigation in the mid reach of the Ebro river is presented: elimination of vegetation in the riverbed, use of controlled flooding areas and construction or re-adaptation of levees. The software used is RiverFlow2D which solves the conservative free-surface flow equations with a finite volume method running on GPU. The results are compared with measurements at gauge stations and aerial views. The most effective measure has turned out to be the elimination of vegetation in the riverbed. It is demonstrated that not only the maximum flooded area is narrower but also it reduces the water depth up to 1 m. The other measures have local consequences when the peak discharge is relatively high although they could be useful in case the discharge is lower.

  2. Decision Making Methodology to Mitigate Damage From Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Imja Lake in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, D. C.; Cuellar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Nepal leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, moraine failure or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Imja Lake in the Himalaya of Nepal has experienced accelerated growth since it first appeared in the 1960s. Communities threatened by a flood from Imja Lake have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat of a GLOF. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Imja have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects in part because this information is unknown or uncertain. This work presents a demonstration of a decision making methodology developed to rationally analyze the risks posed by Imja Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed using available information. In this work the authors use decision analysis, data envelopement analysis (DEA), and sensitivity analysis to assess proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding and estimate fatalities using an empirical method developed for dam failures. The DEA methodology allows us to estimate the value of a statistical life implied by each project given the cost of the project and number of lives saved to determine which project is the most efficient. In contrast the decision analysis methodology requires fatalities to be assigned a cost but allows the inclusion of uncertainty in the decision making process. We compare the output of these two methodologies and determine the

  3. Exposure, hazard and risk mapping during a flood event using open source geospatial technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Aggarwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After a flood event there is a need to delineate the hazard footprint as quickly as possible in order to assess the magnitude of losses and to plan for the relief operations. Delineation of such hazard footprint is generally hindered by the lack of geospatial data, technology and related software packages. This paper demonstrates the use of open source data and software packages which can be used to implement most recent technology available for flood hazard footprint delineation. This study utilizes open source software packages and web applications like Geographic Resource Analysis Support System, Quantum geographic information system and Google Earth to implement a complete process of hazard mapping using remotely sensed data which include pre-processing, mapping (both hazard and exposure and accuracy assessment. In this study, Brisbane flood event of 2011 has been taken as a case study. For built-up extraction, the Landsat 7-band image has been transformed to a stack of 3-band image using vegetation, water and built-up indices. It has been observed by scattergram analysis that these transformations make vegetation, water and built-up classes more separable. Built-up area has been delineated using supervised maximum likelihood classification on the new 3-band image. For flood hazard mapping, thresholding of near-infrared band has been utilized along with the assistance of mid-infrared band to discriminate water from built-up classes. After delineating both exposure and hazard map, final risk map due to flood event has been generated to assess the urban exposure under the flood hazard impact.

  4. Integrated Modeling for Flood Hazard Mapping Using Watershed Modeling System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyedeh S. Sadrolashrafi; Thamer A. Mohamed; Ahmad R.B. Mahmud; Majid K. Kholghi; Amir Samadi

    2008-01-01

    ...) with the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) for flood modeling is developed. It also interconnects the terrain models and the GIS software, with commercial standard hydrological and hydraulic models, including HEC-1, HEC-RAS, etc...

  5. 77 FR 74856 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Community map repository modification No. Alabama: Baldwin (FEMA Docket No.: City of Gulf Shores The.... ] (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: November 28, 2012. James...

  6. 77 FR 76494 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... No. Alabama: Baldwin (FEMA Docket No.: B- City of Gulf Shores The Honorable Robert Community.... (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting...

  7. Assessing future flood hazards for adaptation planning in a northern European coastal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eSorensen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From a transdisciplinary approach in the town of Thyboron, Denmark, we investigate couplings between sea state (i.e. mean and extreme and flooding hazards today and ahead. This includes analyses of change and variability in the groundwater table, precipitation, land motion, geotechnical ground properties, sewerage systems and other infrastructure to outline a more complete platform for the integration of knowledge into climate adaptation schemes at this highly vulnerable coastal location. It involves the engagement of the main stakeholders who, although having different responsibilities, interests, needs of knowledge and data, and different timeframes for investment and planning, must join in a common appraisal of the challenges faced ahead to provide for better adaptation measures. Apart from obvious adverse effects from future storm surge events, knowledge about the coupled effects of the abovementioned parameters needs to be taken into account to reach optimal mitigation and adaptation measures. Through stakeholder interviews it becomes clear that an enhanced focus on transdisciplinary research is a viable way forward to develop such measures: it will bring in more knowledge, a broader scope, and it will provide for more holistic solutions that both serve to protect the town and allow for business development and better municipal planning ahead.

  8. Oxygen deficiency at CERN: Hazards, risks & mitigation measures

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Compressed and liquified gases are used at many places at CERN. If they are introduced to the atmosphere, they can present an oxygen deficiency hazard (ODH) and lead to reduced abilities, unconsciousness or even death. The CERN method for ODH risk assessments is done on a case-by-case basis as each situation is unique. It is crucial to make sure the personnel can evacuate safely in case of an ODH situation. My talk will explain human reactions to reduced oxygen levels and I will give some practical examples on how one can assess and control the hazards from a possible oxygen deficient atmosphere. Some real accidents involving oxygen deficiency will also be mentioned.

  9. Stimulating household flood risk mitigation investments through insurance and subsidies: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    In the period 1998-2009, floods triggered roughly 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard in Europe. Climate change and socio/economic trends are expected to further aggrevate floods losses in many regions. Research shows that flood risk can be significantly reduced if households install protective measures, and that the implementation of such measures can be stimulated through flood insurance schemes and subsidies. However, the effectiveness of such incentives to stimulate implementation of loss-reducing measures greatly depends on the decision process of individuals and is hardly studied. In our study, we developed an Agent-Based Model that integrates flood damage models, insurance mechanisms, subsidies, and household behaviour models to assess the effectiveness of different economic tools on stimulating households to invest in loss-reducing measures. Since the effectiveness depends on the decision making process of individuals, the study compares different household decision models ranging from standard economic models, to economic models for decision making under risk, to more complex decision models integrating economic models and risk perceptions, opinion dynamics, and the influence of flood experience. The results show the effectiveness of incentives to stimulate investment in loss-reducing measures for different household behavior types, while assuming climate change scenarios. It shows how complex decision models can better reproduce observed real-world behaviour compared to traditional economic models. Furthermore, since flood events are included in the simulations, the results provide an analysis of the dynamics in insured and uninsured losses for households, the costs of reducing risk by implementing loss-reducing measures, the capacity of the insurance market, and the cost of government subsidies under different scenarios. The model has been applied to the City of Rotterdam in The Netherlands.

  10. The value of integrating information from multiple hazards for flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Castillo-Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for estimating flood risk in urban areas integrating pluvial flooding, river flooding and failure of both small and large dams. The first part includes a review of basic concepts and existing methods on flood risk analysis, evaluation and management. Traditionally, flood risk analyses have focused on specific site studies and qualitative or semi-quantitative approaches. However, in this context, a general methodology to perform a quantitative flood risk analysis including different flood hazards was still required. The second part describes the proposed methodology, which presents an integrated approach – combining pluvial, river flooding and dam failure, as applied to a case study: a urban area located downstream a dam under construction. Such methodology represents an upgrade of the methodological piece developed within the SUFRI project. This article shows how outcomes from flood risk analysis provide better and more complete information to inform authorities, local entities and the stakeholders involved on decision-making with regard to flood risk management.

  11. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  12. Efficient pan-European river flood hazard modelling through a combination of statistical and physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    2017-07-01

    Flood hazard is currently being researched on continental and global scales, using models of increasing complexity. In this paper we investigate a different, simplified approach, which combines statistical and physical models in place of conventional rainfall-run-off models to carry out flood mapping for Europe. A Bayesian-network-based model built in a previous study is employed to generate return-period flow rates in European rivers with a catchment area larger than 100 km2. The simulations are performed using a one-dimensional steady-state hydraulic model and the results are post-processed using Geographical Information System (GIS) software in order to derive flood zones. This approach is validated by comparison with Joint Research Centre's (JRC) pan-European map and five local flood studies from different countries. Overall, the two approaches show a similar performance in recreating flood zones of local maps. The simplified approach achieved a similar level of accuracy, while substantially reducing the computational time. The paper also presents the aggregated results on the flood hazard in Europe, including future projections. We find relatively small changes in flood hazard, i.e. an increase of flood zones area by 2-4 % by the end of the century compared to the historical scenario. However, when current flood protection standards are taken into account, the flood-prone area increases substantially in the future (28-38 % for a 100-year return period). This is because in many parts of Europe river discharge with the same return period is projected to increase in the future, thus making the protection standards insufficient.

  13. The relevance of flood hazards and impacts in Turkey: What can be learned from different disaster loss databases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Gamze; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2016-04-01

    classification system (IRDR, 2014). Furthermore, literature, news archives and the Global Active Archive of Large Flood Events - Dartmouth Flood Observatory (floodobservatory.colorado.edu) were used to complement loss data gaps of the databases. From 1960 to 2014, EM-DAT reported 35 flood events in Turkey (26.3 % of all natural hazards events), which caused 773 fatalities (the second most destructive type of natural hazard after earthquakes) and a total economic damage of US 2.2 billion. In contrast, TABB contained 1076 flood events (8.3 % of all natural hazards events), by which 795 people died. On this basis, floods are the third most destructive type of natural hazard -after earthquakes and extreme temperatures- for human losses in Turkey. A comparison of the two databases EM-DAT and TABB reveals big mismatches of the flood data, e.g. the reported number of events, number of affected people and economic loss, differ dramatically. It is concluded that the main reason for the big differences and contradicting numbers of different natural disaster databases is lack of standardization for data collection, peril classification and database thresholds (entry criteria). Since loss data collection is gaining more and more attention, e.g. in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR), the study could offer substantial insights for flood risk mitigation and adaptation studies in Turkey. References Gall, M., Borden, K., Cutter, S.L. (2009) When do losses count? Six fallacies of loss data from natural hazards. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(6), 799-809. Genç, F.S., (2007) Türkiye'de Kentleşme ve Doǧal Afet Riskleri ile İlişkisi, TMMOB Afet Sempozyumu. IRDR (2014) IRDR Peril Classification and Hazard Glossary. Report of the Data Group in the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk. (Available at: http://www.irdrinternational.org/2014/03/28/irdr-peril-classification-and-hazard-glossary).

  14. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the

  15. Spatial and temporal spread of flood mitigation measures implemented by private households along the Rhine and their effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, P.; Kreibich, H.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods in Europe caused substantial economic damage in recent decades. In the future, flood risk is projected to increase in many places due to the effects of climate change and on-going socio-economic development in flood-prone areas. To reduce the economic impact of current and future floods, damage mitigation measures implemented by private households are increasingly considered as an important component of integrated flood risk management approaches. However, knowledge about the temporal and spatial spread of flood mitigation measures such as water barriers or adapted building use are often lacking. Moreover, estimates of the effectiveness of these measures are still scarce. To gain further insights into these aspects, we will present empirical data from a computer-aided telephone survey among 752 private households along the German part of the River Rhine. It will be discussed to what extent various types of flood mitigation measures have been implemented by private households in flood-prone areas over time. Currently, we find that several measures, e.g. flood-adapted building use are regularly employed by the population at risk (34 per cent). We will examine to what extent the deployment of these measures effectively contributes to damage reduction.

  16. Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture and Disaster: A Lesson on Seismic Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan Faults in China and was a great disaster. Most of the damage and casualties during the quake were concentrated along surface rupture zones: the 240-km-long Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault and the 70-km-long Jiangyou-Guanxian Fault. Although the Longmenshan Faults are well known and studied, the surface Fault ruptures were not considered in mitigation planning, and the associated ground-motion hazard was therefore underestimated. Not considering Fault rupture and underestimating ground-motion hazard contributed to the disastrous effects of the earthquake. The lesson from the Wenchuan earthquake disaster is that the fault rupture hazard must be assessed and considered in mitigation. Furthermore, the deterministic approach is more appropriate for fault rupture hazard assessment than the probabilistic approach.

  17. Looking before we leap: an ongoing, quantative investigation of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There are many outstanding questions about the correct response to an asteroid or comet impact threat on Earth. Nuclear munitions are currently thought to be the most efficient method of delivering an impact-preventing impulse to a potentially hazardous object (PHO). However, there are major uncertainties about the response of PHOs to a nuclear burst, and the most appropriate ways to use nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation.

  18. Development of Predictive Relationships for Flood Hazard Assessments in Ungaged Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    into account . Figures 8 and 9 show the relationships obtained that represent the best-fit flood inundated extents over settlements and agricultural...INTRODUCTION: Historically, the first great civilizations evolved from smaller settlements in river valleys (Diamond 1999); natural hazards, like flooding...and Harlan 1969) that can be used in conjunction with recommended hydrodynamic and infiltration parametric values that are found within the

  19. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Suykens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks. We have provided a comparative legal analysis of the financial compensation mechanisms following floods, be it through insurance, public funds, or a combination of both, with an empirical focus on Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and France. Similarities and differences between the methods in which these compensation mechanisms for flood damages enhance resilience were analyzed. The comparative analysis especially focused on the link between the recovery strategy on the one hand and prevention and mitigation strategies on the other. There is great potential within the recovery strategy for promoting preventive action, for example in terms of discouraging citizens from living in high-risk areas, or encouraging the uptake of mitigation measures, such as adaptive building. However, this large potential has yet to be realized, in part because of insufficient consideration and promotion of these connections within existing legal frameworks. We have made recommendations about how the linkages between strategies can be further improved. These recommendations relate to, among others, the promotion of resilient reinstatement through recovery mechanisms and the removal of legal barriers preventing the establishment of link-inducing measures.

  20. Development of a Probabilistic Flood Hazard Assessment (PFHA) for the nuclear safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Daoued, Amine; Guimier, Laurent; Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to lay the basis for a probabilistic evaluation of flood hazard (PFHA). Probabilistic assessment of external floods has become a current topic of interest to the nuclear scientific community. Probabilistic approaches complement deterministic approaches by exploring a set of scenarios and associating a probability to each of them. These approaches aim to identify all possible failure scenarios, combining their probability, in order to cover all possible sources of risk. They are based on the distributions of initiators and/or the variables caracterizing these initiators. The PFHA can characterize the water level for example at defined point of interest in the nuclear site. This probabilistic flood hazard characterization takes into account all the phenomena that can contribute to the flooding of the site. The main steps of the PFHA are: i) identification of flooding phenomena (rains, sea water level, etc.) and screening of relevant phenomena to the nuclear site, ii) identification and probabilization of parameters associated to selected flooding phenomena, iii) spreading of the probabilized parameters from the source to the point of interest in the site, v) obtaining hazard curves and aggregation of flooding phenomena contributions at the point of interest taking into account the uncertainties. Within this framework, the methodology of the PFHA has been developed for several flooding phenomena (rain and/or sea water level, etc.) and then implemented and tested with a simplified case study. In the same logic, our study is still in progress to take into account other flooding phenomena and to carry out more case studies.

  1. Comparison between changes in flood hazard and risk in Spain using historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis; Gilabert, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the COST Action ES0901 "European procedures for flood frequency estimation (FloodFreq)" had as objective "the comparison and evaluation of methods for flood frequency estimation under the various climatologic and geographic conditions found in Europe". It was highlighted the improvement of regional analyses on at-site estimates, in terms of the uncertainty of quantile estimates. In the case of Spain, a regional analysis was carried out at a national scale, which allows identifying the flow threshold corresponding to a given return period from the observed flow series recorded at a gauging station. In addition, Mediero et al. (2014) studied the possible influence of non-stationarity on flood series for the period 1942-2009. In parallel, Barnolas and Llasat (2007), among others, collected documentary information of catastrophic flood events in Spain for the last centuries. Traditionally, the first approach ("top-down") usually identifies a flood as catastrophic, when its exceeds the 500-year return period flood. However, the second one ("bottom-up approach") accounts for flood damages (Llasat et al, 2005). This study presents a comparison between both approaches, discussing the potential factors that can lead to discrepancies between them, as well as accounting for information about major changes experienced in the catchment that could lead to changes in flood hazard and risk.

  2. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: method development and application to Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Apel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas, and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims at the analysis of fluvial and pluvial flood hazard individually, but also at developing a method for the analysis of combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. Fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. Pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data, and a stochastic rain storm generator. Inundation was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphical Processor Unit (GPU for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. All hazards – fluvial, pluvial and combined – were accompanied by an uncertainty estimation considering the natural variability of the flood events. This resulted in probabilistic flood hazard maps showing the maximum inundation depths for a selected set of probabilities of occurrence, with maps showing the expectation (median

  3. Flash Flood Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Using Frequency Ratio and Statistical Index Methods in Coalmine Subsidence Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on producing flash flood hazard susceptibility maps (FFHSM using frequency ratio (FR and statistical index (SI models in the Xiqu Gully (XQG of Beijing, China. First, a total of 85 flash flood hazard locations (n = 85 were surveyed in the field and plotted using geographic information system (GIS software. Based on the flash flood hazard locations, a flood hazard inventory map was built. Seventy percent (n = 60 of the flooding hazard locations were randomly selected for building the models. The remaining 30% (n = 25 of the flooded hazard locations were used for validation. Considering that the XQG used to be a coal mining area, coalmine caves and subsidence caused by coal mining exist in this catchment, as well as many ground fissures. Thus, this study took the subsidence risk level into consideration for FFHSM. The ten conditioning parameters were elevation, slope, curvature, land use, geology, soil texture, subsidence risk area, stream power index (SPI, topographic wetness index (TWI, and short-term heavy rain. This study also tested different classification schemes for the values for each conditional parameter and checked their impacts on the results. The accuracy of the FFHSM was validated using area under the curve (AUC analysis. Classification accuracies were 86.61%, 83.35%, and 78.52% using frequency ratio (FR-natural breaks, statistical index (SI-natural breaks and FR-manual classification schemes, respectively. Associated prediction accuracies were 83.69%, 81.22%, and 74.23%, respectively. It was found that FR modeling using a natural breaks classification method was more appropriate for generating FFHSM for the Xiqu Gully.

  4. 78 FR 10187 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... modification No. Alabama: Baldwin City of Gulf The Honorable Community Development http:// March 11, 2013... Street, index.php/alabama/ City of Gulf Gulf Shores, AL baldwin/. Shores, P.O. 36547. Box 299, Gulf... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting Deputy Associate...

  5. 78 FR 747 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... areas of F. Tavaglione, Flood Control www.r9map.org/ Riverside County Chairman, and Water Docs/12-09-0462P- (12-09-0462P). Riverside County Conservation 060245- Board of District, 1995 102IAC.pdf..., Solano Department, 675 Docs/12-09-1553P- 1553P). County Board of Texas Street, 060631- Supervisors,...

  6. 78 FR 72911 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    .... North Litchfield Road, Goodyear, AZ 85338. Maricopa Unincorporated The Honorable Max Flood Control http...- Executive, 515 230, Waukesha, lomc. 1048P). West Moreland WI 53188. Boulevard, Room 320, Waukesha, WI 53188..., Avenue, www.msc.fema.gov/ 5752P). Village Bellevue, WI lomc. President, 54311. Village of Bellevue,...

  7. Landslide hazard assessment and mitigation measures in Philippine geothermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leynes, R.D.; Pioquinto, W.P.C.; Caranto, J.A. [PNOC Energy Development Corporation, Fort Bonifacio (Philippines)

    2005-04-01

    Simple, yet reliable, field criteria have been developed and are being used to qualitatively assess slope instability and slope failure potential in Philippine geothermal fields. Based on a hazard assessment classification of slopes along corridor facilities, sites for implementation of engineering measures are selected. Two case studies are presented. In Mindanao field, the ''very high-risk'' classification of an area resulted in the installation of pipe shelters, which subsequently shielded a section of a pipeline from landslides. Follow-up monitoring is also conducted using cheap, locally fabricated tools, such as surface extensometers. This is being done in Leyte field, where a landslide has threatened a transmission line tower. (author)

  8. Assessment of vulnerability to storm induced flood hazard along diverse coastline settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchev Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European coasts suffer notably from hazards caused by low-probability and high-impact hydrometeorological events. The aim of the study is to assess in probabilistic terms the magnitude of storm‐induced flooding hazard along Varna regional coast (Bulgaria, western Black Sea and to identify susceptible coastal sectors (hotspots. The study is performed employing the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF developed within EU FP7 RISC-KIT project. It constitutes a screening process that allows estimation of relevant hazard intensities, extents and potential receptors’ exposure vulnerability within predefined sectors. Total water level was the chief property considered for calculation of coastal flooding hazard. It was estimated using Holman model (for sandy beaches and EurOtop formulation (for artificial or rocky slopes. Resulting values were subjected to Extreme Value Analysis to establish that the best fitting distribution corresponds to Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Furthermore, hazard extents were modelled by means of bathtubbing or overwash estimation in order to form the flooding hazard indicator. Land use, social vulnerability, transport systems, utilities and business settings were considered as exposure indicators. Finally, potential risk was assessed by coastal indices following an index-based methodology, which combines hazard and exposure indicators into a single index, thereby providing base for comparison of coastal sectors’ vulnerability. The study found that the concentration of hotspots is highest in Varna Bay.

  9. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Using a Systems Analysis Approach to Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, M.; Eguchi, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    The earthquake hazard mitigation goal is to reduce losses due to severe natural events. The first step is to conduct a Seismic Risk Assessment consisting of 1) hazard estimation, 2) vulnerability analysis, 3) exposure compilation. Seismic hazards include ground deformation, shaking, and inundation. The hazard estimation may be probabilistic or deterministic. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) is generally applied to site-specific Risk assessments, but may involve large areas as in a National Seismic Hazard Mapping program. Deterministic hazard assessments are needed for geographically distributed exposure such as lifelines (infrastructure), but may be important for large communities. Vulnerability evaluation includes quantification of fragility for construction or components including personnel. Exposure represents the existing or planned construction, facilities, infrastructure, and population in the affected area. Risk (expected loss) is the product of the quantified hazard, vulnerability (damage algorithm), and exposure which may be used to prepare emergency response plans, retrofit existing construction, or use community planning to avoid hazards. The risk estimate provides data needed to acquire earthquake insurance to assist with effective recovery following a severe event. Earthquake Scenarios used in Deterministic Risk Assessments provide detailed information on where hazards may be most severe, what system components are most susceptible to failure, and to evaluate the combined effects of a severe earthquake to the whole system or community. Casualties (injuries and death) have been the primary factor in defining building codes for seismic-resistant construction. Economic losses may be equally significant factors that can influence proactive hazard mitigation. Large urban earthquakes may produce catastrophic losses due to a cascading of effects often missed in PSHA. Economic collapse may ensue if damaged workplaces, disruption of utilities, and

  10. Comparison of risk assessment methods: multiple perspectives of flood and avalanche hazards in North East France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacona, Florie; Eleuterio, Julian

    2010-05-01

    Mountainous areas are exposed to several natural hazards such as snow avalanches, debris flows or floods. Such processes may be more frequent and intense in high mountains but they occur in medium-high mountains as well causing loss of life and materials. Thus, the Vosges range, a medium-high mountain located in the north-east of France, is concerned by two kind of natural hazards namely avalanches and floods. While the avalanches constitute the most murderous natural risk in Alsace, its management is paradoxically not a priority. Because it causes more material damages and affects larger places with multiple and complex consequences, the flood risk is more worrying for the administrators. They didn't have the same approach toward these two kinds of risk. So, two different approaches used to assess risk and two study cases are presented: flood risk in the river Bruche (located in the north of the Vosges range, Alsace) and avalanche risk in the Vosges range. The first one is mainly focused on economic aspects of risk. Flood risk analyses are discussed from a hydro-economical perspective. The second one focuses the analysis on human, material and environmental vulnerabilities. Avalanche risk analysis is discussed from a geo-historical point of view. About 300 avalanche events have been reported since the end of the 18th century. The two approaches that we describe illustrate the complementarity of human and physical science to improve the understanding and assessment of hazardous processes in medium-high mountain range. On the one hand, the geo-historical method developed for the avalanche risk could be extended to the flood hazard. Indeed, contrary to high mountains, no service is in charge of the systematic inventory of floods and avalanches in the Vosges mountains. The geo-historical approach could address this lack of data. On the other hand, the methods of damages assessment and vulnerability characterization could be a good tool for the human science.

  11. Global river flood hazard maps: hydraulic modelling methods and appropriate uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Samuel; Smith, Helen; Molloy, James

    2014-05-01

    Flood hazard is not well understood or documented in many parts of the world. Consequently, the (re-)insurance sector now needs to better understand where the potential for considerable river flooding aligns with significant exposure. For example, international manufacturing companies are often attracted to countries with emerging economies, meaning that events such as the 2011 Thailand floods have resulted in many multinational businesses with assets in these regions incurring large, unexpected losses. This contribution addresses and critically evaluates the hydraulic methods employed to develop a consistent global scale set of river flood hazard maps, used to fill the knowledge gap outlined above. The basis of the modelling approach is an innovative, bespoke 1D/2D hydraulic model (RFlow) which has been used to model a global river network of over 5.3 million kilometres. Estimated flood peaks at each of these model nodes are determined using an empirically based rainfall-runoff approach linking design rainfall to design river flood magnitudes. The hydraulic model is used to determine extents and depths of floodplain inundation following river bank overflow. From this, deterministic flood hazard maps are calculated for several design return periods between 20-years and 1,500-years. Firstly, we will discuss the rationale behind the appropriate hydraulic modelling methods and inputs chosen to produce a consistent global scaled river flood hazard map. This will highlight how a model designed to work with global datasets can be more favourable for hydraulic modelling at the global scale and why using innovative techniques customised for broad scale use are preferable to modifying existing hydraulic models. Similarly, the advantages and disadvantages of both 1D and 2D modelling will be explored and balanced against the time, computer and human resources available, particularly when using a Digital Surface Model at 30m resolution. Finally, we will suggest some

  12. Flood-hazard study: 100-year flood stage for Lucerne Lake, San Bernadino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Mark William

    1977-01-01

    A study of the flood hydrology of Lucerne Valley, Calif., was made to develop the 100-year stage for Lucerne Lake. Synthetic-hydrologic techniques were used; and the 100-year flood stage was estimated to be at an elevation of 2,849.3 feet above mean sea level. Channel dimensions were measured at 59 sites in Lucerne Valley. Dranage area-discharge relations developed from channel-geometry data for sites nearby were used to estimate the discharge at 12 additional sites where channel geometry could not be measured. In order to compute the total volume discharge into the playa, the peak discharges were converted to volumes. From the Apple Valley report (Busby, 1975) the equation formulated from the relation between peak discharge and flood volume for the deserts of California was used to compute the flood volumes for routing into Lucerne Lake. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Real-time forecasts of flood hazard and impact: some UK experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Major UK floods over the last decade have motivated significant technological and scientific advances in operational flood forecasting and warning. New joint forecasting centres between the national hydrological and meteorological operating agencies have been formed that issue a daily, national Flood Guidance Statement (FGS to the emergency response community. The FGS is based on a Flood Risk Matrix approach that is a function of potential impact severity and likelihood. It has driven an increased demand for robust, accurate and timely forecast and alert information on fluvial and surface water flooding along with impact assessments. The Grid-to-Grid (G2G distributed hydrological model has been employed across Britain at a 1km resolution to support the FGS. Novel methods for linking dynamic gridded estimates of river flow and surface runoff with more detailed offline flood risk maps have been developed to obtain real-time probabilistic forecasts of potential impacts, leading to operational trials. Examples of the national-scale G2G application are provided along with case studies of forecast flood impact from (i an operational Surface Water Flooding (SWF trial during the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, (ii SWF developments under the Natural Hazards Partnership over England & Wales, and (iii fluvial applications in Scotland.

  14. Use of Geologic and Paleoflood Information for INL Probabilistic Flood Hazard Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenaa, D.; O'Connell, D.; Creed, B.

    2009-05-01

    The Big Lost River is a western U.S., closed basin stream which flows through and terminates on the Idaho National Laboratory. Historic flows are highly regulated, and peak flows decline downstream through natural and anthropomorphic influences. Glaciated headwater regions were the source of Pleistocene outburst floods which traversed the site. A wide range of DOE facilities (including a nuclear research reactor) require flood stage estimates for flow exceedance probabilities over a range from 1/100/yr to 1/100,000/yr per DOE risk based standards. These risk management objectives required the integration of geologic and geomorphic paleoflood data into Bayesian non parametric flood frequency analyses that incorporated measurement uncertainties in gaged, historical, and paleoflood discharges and non exceedance bounds to produce fully probabilistic flood frequency estimates for annual exceedance probabilities of specific discharges of interest. Two-dimensional hydraulic flow modeling with scenarios for varied hydraulic parameters, infiltration, and culvert blockages on the site was conducted for a range of discharges from 13-700 m3/s. High-resolution topographic grids and two-dimensional flow modeling allowed detailed evaluation of the potential impacts of numerous secondary channels and flow paths resulting from flooding in extreme events. These results were used to construct stage probability curves for 15 key locations on the site consistent with DOE standards. These probability curves resulted from the systematic inclusion of contributions of uncertainty from flood sources, hydraulic modeling, and flood-frequency analyses. These products also provided a basis to develop weights for logic tree branches associated with infiltration and culvert performance scenarios to produce probabilistic inundation maps. The flood evaluation process was structured using Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee processes (NRC-NUREG/CR-6372) concepts, evaluating and integrating the

  15. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) flood hazard projections: Los Angeles, San Diego and Orange counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  16. Mapping and Mitigating the International Rip Current Health Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rip currents are concentrated seaward flows of water originating in the surf zones of beaches. Rips cause hundreds of international drownings each year. Calculating exact numbers is barred by logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports, but annual rip current fatalities are estimated at 100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Notably, Australia's lifeguards rescue 17,600 swimmers from rips each year. This project addresses the geophysical, social, and systematic causes of fatalities in hopes of decreasing the global number of rip-related deaths. We demonstrate a novel method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep or less), specifically within rip channels (topographic low spots in the nearshore that result from feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry). We calculate bathymetry using 8-band multispectral imagery from the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) satellite and field measurements of depth, generating maps of the changing nearshore at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including `yellow' (585-625 nm) and `coastal blue' (400-450 nm). Methods are tested for consistency amongst dates and locations. Previous research shows drownings result from a combination of the physical environment with personal and group behaviors; for this reason we build on rip-detection by evaluating tourists' and locals' knowledge and understanding of their beach's rip behavior. By combining the geomorphologic maps developed from WV2 with interview data, we evaluate how the physical environment dictates the exposure of certain swimmers. Controls include rip channel location, beach access points, and environmental factors favored by swimmers. The project serves as an evaluation of the landscape's creation of a physical feature that becomes a hazard when vulnerable humans

  17. Assessing Future Flood Hazards for Adaptation Planning in a Northern European Coastal Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, Niels H.; Molgaard, Mads R.

    2016-01-01

    From a transdisciplinary approach in the town of Thyboron, Denmark, we investigate couplings between sea state (i.e., mean and extreme) and flooding hazards today and ahead. This includes analyses of change and variability in the groundwater table, precipitation, land motion, geotechnical ground...

  18. Sustainable and non-conventional monitoring systems to mitigate natural hazards in low income economies: the 4onse project approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ratnayake, Rangajeewa; Antonovic, Milan; Strigaro, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Environmental monitoring systems in low economies countries are often in decline, outdated or missing with the consequence that there is a very scarce availability and accessibility to these information that are vital for coping and mitigating natural hazards. Non-conventional monitoring systems based on open technologies may constitute a viable solution to create low cost and sustainable monitoring systems that may be fully developed, deployed and maintained at local level without lock-in dependances on copyrights or patents or high costs of replacements. The 4onse research project , funded under the Research for Development program of the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss Office for Development and Cooperation, propose a complete monitoring system that integrates Free & Open Source Software, Open Hardware, Open Data, and Open Standards. After its engineering, it will be tested in the Deduru Oya catchment (Sri Lanka) to evaluate the system and develop a water management information system to optimize the regulation of artificial basins levels and mitigate flash floods. One of the objective is to better scientifically understand strengths, criticalities and applicabilities in terms of data quality; system durability; management costs; performances; sustainability. Results, challenges and experiences from the first six months of the projects will be presented with particular focus on the activities of synergies building and data collection and dissemination system advances.

  19. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Flash Floods in an Andean Stream: Challenges for Assessing Flood Hazards in Mountain Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M. T.; Escauriaza, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rain-induced flash floods are common events in regions close to the southern Andes, in north and central Chile. Rapid urban development combined to the changing climate and ENSO effects have resulted in an alarming proximity of flood-prone streams to densely populated areas in the Andean foothills, increasing the risk for cities and infrastructure. Simulations of rapid floods in these complex watersheds are particularly challenging, especially if there is insufficient geomorphological and hydrometeorological data. In the Quebrada de Ramón, an Andean stream that passes through a highly populated area in the east part of Santiago, Chile, previous events have demonstrated that sediment concentration, flow resistance, and the characteristic temporal and spatial scales of the hydrograph, are important variables to predict the arrival time of the peak discharge, flow velocities and the extension of inundated areas. The objective of this investigation is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flash floods in the Quebrada de Ramón, quantifying the effects of these factors on the flood propagation. We implement a two-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations (Guerra et al. 2014) modified to account for hyperconcentrated flows over natural topography. We evaluate events of specific return periods and sediment concentrations, using different methodologies to quantify the flow resistance in the channel and floodplains. Through this work we provide a framework for future studies aimed at improving hazard assessment, urban planning, and early warning systems in urban areas near mountain streams with limited data, and affected by rapid flood events. Work supported by Fondecyt grant 1130940 and CONICYT/FONDAP grant 15110017.

  20. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  1. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  2. 44 CFR 71.3 - Denial of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance. 71... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF COASTAL BARRIER LEGISLATION § 71.3 Denial of flood insurance. (a) No new flood insurance...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: average conditions in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 20-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 1-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 1-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  7. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 100-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: average conditions in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 100-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 20-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential (flood uncertainty) associated with...

  11. Living with Familiar Hazards: Flood Experiences and Human Vulnerability in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacosta Aboagye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores demographic characteristics, migration history, and impact of flooding on households and communities. The main objective is to explore the different ways in which floods impact households and communities in Accra. Specifically, the paper analyzes how floods alter the set of resources available to households and communities. The results indicate that urbanization and governmental policies have rendered more people, especially the poor and recent migrants, homeless. These homeless people have become more vulnerable to flooding than the average Accra resident. The results also show that the homeless community contrast with the fixed community in terms of socio-economic characteristics, degree of social cohesion, and physical location. The paper concludes that the unchanging pattern of vulnerability shows the inability of a society to cope and adjust to familiar hazards.

  12. The Atlas of Natural Hazards and Risks of Austria: first results for fluvial and pluvial floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Tader, Andreas; Glade, Thomas; Neuhold, Clemens; Stiefelmeyer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Incoherent societal adaptation to natural processes results in significant losses every year. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of hazards and risks, and of particular hot spots in a given region or period, is essential for reducing adverse impacts. Commonly, different hazard and risk estimations are performed within individual approaches based on tailor-made concepts. This works well as long as specific cases are considered. The advantage of such a procedure is that each individual hazard and risk is addressed in the best possible manner. The drawback, however, consists in the fact that the results differ significantly in terms of quality and accuracy and therefore cannot be compared. Hence, there is a need to develop a strategy and concept which uses similar data sources of equivalent quality in order to adequately analyze the different natural hazards and risks at broader scales. The present study is aiming to develop such a platform. The project Risk:ATlas focuses on the design of an atlas visualizing the most relevant natural hazards and, in particular, possible consequences for the entire territory of Austria. Available as a web-based tool and as a printed atlas, it is seen as a key tool to improve the basis for risk reduction, risk adaptation and risk transfer. The atlas is founded on those data sets available for the entire territory of Austria at a consistent resolution and quality. A 1 m resolution DEM and the official cadastre and building register represent the core, further data sets are employed according to the requirements for each natural hazard and risk. In this contribution, the methodology and the preliminary results for fluvial and pluvial floods and their consequences to buildings for three selected test areas in different types of landscapes (rural, urban and mountainous) are presented. Flooding depths expected for annualities of 30, 100 and 300 are derived from existing data sets for fluvial floods and are computed

  13. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either a fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of a combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims to analyse a fluvial and a pluvial flood hazard individually, but also to develop a method for the analysis of a combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as an example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River, which can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events, causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. The fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula-based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. The pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data and a stochastic rainstorm generator. Inundation for all flood scenarios was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. The combined fluvial-pluvial flood scenarios were derived by adding rainstorms to the fluvial flood events during the highest fluvial water levels. The probabilities of occurrence of the combined events were determined assuming independence of the two flood types and taking the seasonality and probability of

  14. Flood hazard management from a coevolutionary perspective: exposure and policy response in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Röthlisberger, Veronika; Thaler, Thomas; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2017-04-01

    A coevolutionary perspective is adopted to understand the dynamics of exposure to hydrological hazards in the European Alps. A spatially explicit, object-based temporal assessment of elements at risk to flood hazards (river floods, torrential floods and debris flows) in Austria and Switzerland is presented for the 1919-2012 period. The assessment is based on two different datasets, (a) hazard information adhering to legally binding land use planning restrictions and (b) information on building types combined from different national level spatial data. We discuss these transdisciplinary dynamics and focus on economic, social and institutional interdependencies and interactions between human and physical systems. Exposure changes in the response to multiple drivers, including population growth and land use conflicts. The results show that while some regional assets are associated with a strong increase in exposure to hazards, others are characterized by a below-average level of exposure. The spatiotemporal results indicate relatively stable hot spots in the European Alps. These results coincide with the topography of the countries and with the respective range of economic activities and political settings. Furthermore, the differences between management approaches as a result of multiple institutional settings are discussed. A coevolutionary framework widens the explanatory power of multiple drivers to changes in exposure and risk, and supports a shift from structural, security-based policies towards an integrated, risk-based natural hazard management system.

  15. Natural Hazards and Mitigation Measures in USA%美国的自然灾害和防灾减灾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳尔

    2009-01-01

    美国是一个自然灾害多发国家,整个西部、中部和东部是地震活跃地区,南部沿海地区遭受飓风袭击,干旱和洪水也非常严重.由于对公共安全的重视,许多自然灾害并未造成严重的人员伤害.例如,1994年北加州地震袭击了人口稠密的洛杉矶地区,人员伤亡仅61人.文章讨论了美国的自然灾害,并认为长期的防灾工作是非常必要的.%Natural disasters frequently happers in U.S.A.,frequent earthquakes in the whole western, central and eastern pant, hurricanes in the costal area in the south, and serious drought and floods. Because public security was paid great attention to,many to natural disasters didit cause heary casualties. For example, 61 died in the northern califoria earthquake in 1994 which atlacked populous Los Angeles.This paper discusses the presence of natural hazards in the US and the response measures that the author believes are keys to the long-term hazard mitigation.

  16. Geological hazards associated with intense rain and flooding in Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. A.; van Schalkwyk, A.

    1993-02-01

    The combination of rugged topography and climate predisposes the province of Natal to severe floods. Information available since 1856 shows that bridge and slope failures have been recorded in twenty out of twenty-five flood episodes. Bridge failures are caused mostly by geological factors. The mechanism of failure can be classified broadly into foundation failures and changes of river course. Scour and debris build-up have led to failures of foundations located in rock and alluvial sediments. In preparing and replacing bridges the aims have been to increase the area of waterway, increase foundation depths to reach more competent strata and lay protection along banks and abutments to counteract scour. Historically, slope failures have not been well documented but following the 1987/88 storms 223 slope failures were recorded. The classification of the failures allowed the mechanisms of failure to be ascertained, and general design considerations to be reviewed. In areas adjacent to the Drakensberg Mountains slope failures are part of a natural erosion cycle which may be accelerated in periods of heavy rain. Throughout Natal, hummocky ground adjacent to dolerite intrusions reveals the on-going history of failure caused by water ingress and the generation of high pore water pressures on the slip planes. Classic flows occurred throughout the Greater Durban area where residual sandy soils of the Natal Group sandstone became supersaturated. Slumping was common on steep terrain underlain by granite-gneiss in the Kwa-Zulu area. Shales of the Pietermaritzburg Formation are notoriously unstable, yet few failures occurred during the summer storms of 1987/88. Inadequate drainage was responsible for many failures, this was particularly so along the railways.

  17. Forecasting surface water flooding hazard and impact in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven J.; Moore, Robert J.; Wells, Steven C.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, there is increasing demand for more robust and timely forecast and alert information on Surface Water Flooding (SWF). Within a UK context, the government Pitt Review into the Summer 2007 floods provided recommendations and impetus to improve the understanding of SWF risk for both off-line design and real-time forecasting and warning. Ongoing development and trial of an end-to-end real-time SWF system is being progressed through the recently formed Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) with delivery to the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC) providing coverage over England & Wales. The NHP is a unique forum that aims to deliver coordinated assessments, research and advice on natural hazards for governments and resilience communities across the UK. Within the NHP, a real-time Hazard Impact Model (HIM) framework has been developed that includes SWF as one of three hazards chosen for initial trialling. The trial SWF HIM system uses dynamic gridded surface-runoff estimates from the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) hydrological model to estimate the SWF hazard. National datasets on population, infrastructure, property and transport are available to assess impact severity for a given rarity of SWF hazard. Whilst the SWF hazard footprint is calculated in real-time using 1, 3 and 6 hour accumulations of G2G surface runoff on a 1 km grid, it has been possible to associate these with the effective rainfall design profiles (at 250m resolution) used as input to a detailed flood inundation model (JFlow+) run offline to produce hazard information resolved to 2m resolution. This information is contained in the updated Flood Map for Surface Water (uFMfSW) held by the Environment Agency. The national impact datasets can then be used with the uFMfSW SWF hazard dataset to assess impacts at this scale and severity levels of potential impact assigned at 1km and for aggregated county areas in real-time. The impact component is being led by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) within the NHP

  18. Ecological applications for flood hazard minimization in the Siwaliks region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Y. P.; Tang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape of Siwaliks region of Nepal. Ecological applications especially focused on soil bioengineering techniques have been used in Nepal for nearly four decades to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. In this study, both vegetative check dams and wire net check dams along with vegetation were used for flood hazard minimization. After three growing seasons, the banks of the ephemeral stream were almost fully stabilized. Vegetation based solutions are found to be more effective than the mechanical methods of stream bank stabilization. Bamboo combinations for check dam construction and planting of bamboo behind check dam are both very useful for stream bank stabilization. Vegetation application on flood damaged bare ground was also found to be very successful. Furthermore, some plants species showed almost equal growth performances on both flood-affected and unaffected bare ground. However, more scientific implementation of ecological applications for flood hazard minimization in those affected areas is essential in future.

  19. The large-scale impact of climate change to Mississippi flood hazard in New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. A. Driessen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the impact of climate change on the Mississippi River flood hazard in the New Orleans area. This city has a unique flood risk management challenge, heavily influenced by climate change, since it faces flood hazards from multiple geographical locations (e.g. Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River and multiple sources (hurricane, river, rainfall. Also the low elevation and significant subsidence rate of the Greater New Orleans area poses a high risk and challenges the water management of this urban area. Its vulnerability to flooding became dramatically apparent during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 with huge economic losses and a large number of casualties.
    A SOBEK Rural 1DFLOW model was set up to simulate the general hydrodynamics. This improved model includes two important spillways that are operated during high flow conditions. Subsequently, a weighted multi-criteria calibration procedure was performed to calibrate the model for high flows. Validation for floods in 2011 indicates a very reasonable performance for high flows and clearly demonstrates the necessity of the spillways.
    32 different scenarios are defined which includes the relatively large sea level rise and the changing discharge regime that is expected due to climate change. The impact of these scenarios is analysed by the hydrodynamic model. Results show that during high flows New Orleans will not be affected by varying discharge regimes, since the presence of the spillways ensures a constant discharge through the city. In contrary, sea level rise is expected to push water levels upwards. The effect of sea level rise will be noticeable even more than 470 km upstream. Climate change impacts necessitate a more frequent use of the spillways and opening strategies that are based on stages. Potential alternatives on how to cope with the flood hazard of this river in the long term, such as river widening and large-scale redistribution of

  20. Planning ahead for asteroid and comet hazard mitigation, phase 1: parameter space exploration and scenario modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clement, R Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term, feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground- and space-based observations of small solar-system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the object's physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor.

  1. Flood-hazard mapping in Honduras in response to Hurricane Mitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The devastation in Honduras due to flooding from Hurricane Mitch in 1998 prompted the U.S. Agency for International Development, through the U.S. Geological Survey, to develop a country-wide systematic approach of flood-hazard mapping and a demonstration of the method at selected sites as part of a reconstruction effort. The design discharge chosen for flood-hazard mapping was the flood with an average return interval of 50 years, and this selection was based on discussions with the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Honduran Public Works and Transportation Ministry. A regression equation for estimating the 50-year flood discharge using drainage area and annual precipitation as the explanatory variables was developed, based on data from 34 long-term gaging sites. This equation, which has a standard error of prediction of 71.3 percent, was used in a geographic information system to estimate the 50-year flood discharge at any location for any river in the country. The flood-hazard mapping method was demonstrated at 15 selected municipalities. High-resolution digital-elevation models of the floodplain were obtained using an airborne laser-terrain mapping system. Field verification of the digital elevation models showed that the digital-elevation models had mean absolute errors ranging from -0.57 to 0.14 meter in the vertical dimension. From these models, water-surface elevation cross sections were obtained and used in a numerical, one-dimensional, steady-flow stepbackwater model to estimate water-surface profiles corresponding to the 50-year flood discharge. From these water-surface profiles, maps of area and depth of inundation were created at the 13 of the 15 selected municipalities. At La Lima only, the area and depth of inundation of the channel capacity in the city was mapped. At Santa Rose de Aguan, no numerical model was created. The 50-year flood and the maps of area and depth of inundation are based on the estimated 50-year storm tide.

  2. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  3. A GIS based approach for the prediction of the dam break flood hazard – A case study of Zardezas reservoir “Skikda, Algeria”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derdous Oussama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams in rivers can offer many advantages, however the consequences resulting from their failure could result in major damage, including loss of life and property destruction. To mitigate the threats of dam break it is essential to appreciate the characteristics of the potential flood in realistic manner. In this study an approach based on the integration of hydraulic modelling and GIS has been used to assess the risks resulting from a potential failure of Zardezas dam, a concrete dam located in Skikda, in the North East of Algeria. HEC-GeoRAS within GIS was used to extract geometric information from a digital elevation model and then imported into HEC-RAS. Flow simulation of the dam break was performed using HEC-RAS and results were mapped using the GIS. Finally, a flood hazard map based on water depth and flow velocity maps was created in GIS environment. According to this map the potential failure of Zardezas dam will place a large number in people in danger. The present study has shown that Application of Geographical Information System (GIS techniques in integration with hydraulic modelling can significantly reduce the time and the resources required to forecast potential dam break flood hazard which can play a crucial role in improving both flood disaster management and land use planning downstream of dams.

  4. Economic Levers for Mitigating Interest Flooding Attack in Named Data Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of unwelcome, unavoidable, and malicious behavior, distributed denial of service (DDoS is an ongoing issue in today’s Internet as well as in some newly conceived future Internet architectures. Recently, a first step was made towards assessing DDoS attacks in Named Data Networking (NDN—one of the promising Internet architectures in the upcoming big data era. Among them, interest flooding attack (IFA becomes one of the main serious problems. Enlightened by the extensive study on the possibility of mitigating DDoS in today’s Internet by employing micropayments, in this paper we address the possibility of introducing economic levers, say, dynamic pricing mechanism, and so forth, for regulating IFA in NDN.

  5. Individual risk evaluation and interventions for mitigation in the transportation of hazardous goods: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Elena Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of hazardous substances is an economic activity essential for goods’ transference chain. However, the risk in transporting hazardous materials is related to the occur of accidents causing environmental damages and public health dangerous consequences. A quite recent Italian example is the Viareggio accident (2010, which involved a train with tank cars containing liquefied petroleum gas (LPG which caused more than thirty deaths. This paper describes the safety state in the Varese district (an area of northern Italy with a very high population density and industrial activities, with the aim at comparing the current situation (considering the risks due to the transportation of hazardous materials on the main motorways and main national roads with a potential scenario that introduces a few mitigating interventions, such as a partial conversion from road haulage to rail transport. This comparison can be accomplished by developing the existing intermodal platforms and implementing new ones in strategic areas.

  6. Characteristics of Large Low-frequency Debris Flow Hazards and Mitigation Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shige

    2005-01-01

    A low-frequency debris flow took place in the north coastal range of Venezuela on Dec. 16, 1999,and scientists all over the world paid attention to this catastrophe. Four characteristics of low-frequency debris hazard are discussed: long return period and extreme catastrophe, special rare triggering factors,difficulty in distinguishing and a series of small hazards subsequent to the catastrophe. Different measures, such as preventing, forecast - warning,engineering, can be used for mitigating and controlling the catastrophe. In engineering practice, it is a key that large silt-trap dams are used to control rare large debris flow. A kind of low dam with cheap cost can be used to replace high dam in developing countries. A planning for controlling debris flow hazard in Cerro Grande stream of Venezuela is presented at the end of this paper.

  7. Analysis of Flood Hazards for the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, Richard; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kim, Taeyun; Ward, Duane L.

    2010-11-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a flood hazard analysis for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. The general approach for the analysis was to determine the maximum water elevation levels associated with the design-basis flood (DBFL) and compare them to the floor elevations at critical building locations. Two DBFLs for the MFC site were developed using different precipitation inputs: probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and 10,000 year recurrence interval precipitation. Both precipitation inputs were used to drive a watershed runoff model for the surrounding upland basins and the MFC site. Outflows modeled with the Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System were input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydrodynamic flood routing model.

  8. Analysis of Flood Hazards for the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, Richard; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kim, Taeyun; Ward, Duane L.

    2010-11-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a flood hazard analysis for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. The general approach for the analysis was to determine the maximum water elevation levels associated with the design-basis flood (DBFL) and compare them to the floor elevations at critical building locations. Two DBFLs for the MFC site were developed using different precipitation inputs: probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and 10,000 year recurrence interval precipitation. Both precipitation inputs were used to drive a watershed runoff model for the surrounding upland basins and the MFC site. Outflows modeled with the Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System were input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydrodynamic flood routing model.

  9. Optimal Spatial Design of Capacity and Quantity of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Urban Flood Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS into a stormwater runoff management model (SWMM for the spatial design of capacities and quantities of rain barrel for urban flood mitigation. A simulation-optimization model is proposed for effectively identifying the optimal design. First of all, we particularly classified the characteristic zonal subregions for spatial design by using fuzzy C-means clustering with the investigated data of urban roof, land use and drainage system. In the simulation method, a series of regular spatial arrangements specification are designed by using statistical quartiles analysis for rooftop area and rainfall frequency analysis; accordingly, the corresponding reduced flooding circumstances can be simulated by SWMM. Moreover, the most effective solution for the simulation method is identified from the calculated net benefit, which is equivalent to the subtraction of the facility cost from the decreased inundation loss. It serves as the initially identified solution for the optimization model. In the optimization method, backpropagation neural network (BPNN are first applied for developing a water level simulation model of urban drainage systems to substitute for SWMM to conform to newly considered interdisciplinary multi-objective optimization model, and a tabu search-based algorithm is used with the embedded BPNN-based SWMM to optimize the planning solution. The developed method is applied to the Zhong-He District, Taiwan. Results demonstrate that the application of tabu search and the BPNN-based simulation model into the optimization model can effectively, accurately and fast search optimal design considering economic net benefit. Furthermore, the optimized spatial rain barrel design could reduce 72% of inundation losses according to the simulated flood events.

  10. Short-term Reservoir Optimization by Stochastic Optimization for Mitigation Downstream Flood Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenberg, Dirk; Assis Dos Reis, Alberto; Kuwajima, Julio; Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Mainardi Fan, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    An important objective of the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs is the mitigation of flood risks in downstream river reaches. Under the assumptions of reservoirs with finite storage capacities, a key factor for its effective use during flood events is the proper timing of detention measures under consideration of forecast uncertainty. Operational flow forecasting systems support this task by providing deterministic or probabilistic inflow forecasts and decision support components for assessing optimum release strategies. We focus on the decision support component and propose a deterministic optimization and its extension to stochastic optimization procedures based on the non-adaptive Sample Average Approximation (SAA) approach and an adaptive multi-stage stochastic optimization with underlying scenario trees. These techniques are used to compute release trajectories of the reservoirs over a finite forecast horizon of up to 14 days by integrating a nonlinear gradient-based optimization algorithm and a model of the water system. The latter consists of simulation components for pool routing and kinematic or diffusive wave models for the downstream river reaches including a simulation mode and a reverse adjoint mode for the efficient computation of first-order derivatives. The framework has been implemented for a reservoir system operated by the Brazilian Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais S.A. (CEMIG). We present results obtained for the operation of the Três Marias reservoir in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais with a catchment area of near 55,000 km2, an installed capacity of 396 MW and operation restrictions due to downstream flood risk. The focus of our discussion is the impact of sparsely available ground data, forecast uncertainty and its consideration in the optimization procedure. We compare the performance of the above mentioned optimization techniques and conclude the superiority of the stochastic methods.

  11. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  12. Integration of rainfall/runoff and geomorphological analyses flood hazard in small catchments: case studies from the southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Manuela; Ascione, Alessandra; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We present the first results of an analysis of flood hazard in ungauged mountain catchments that are associated with intensely urbanized alluvial fans. Assessment of hydrological hazard has been based on the integration of rainfall/runoff modelling of drainage basins with geomorphological analysis and mapping. Some small and steep, ungauged mountain catchments located in various areas of the southern Apennines, in southern Italy, have been chosen as test sites. In the last centuries, the selected basins have been subject to heavy and intense precipitation events, which have caused flash floods with serious damages in the correlated alluvial fan areas. Available spatial information (regional technical maps, DEMs, land use maps, geological/lithological maps, orthophotos) and an automated GIS-based procedure (ArcGis tools and ArcHydro tools) have been used to extract morphological, hydrological and hydraulic parameters. Such parameters have been used to run the HEC (Hydrologic Engineering Center of the US Army Corps of Engineers) software (GeoHMS, GeoRAS, HMS and RAS) based on rainfall-runoff models, which have allowed the hydrological and hydraulic simulations. As the floods occurred in the studied catchments have been debris flows dominated, the solid load simulation has been also performed. In order to validate the simulations, we have compared results of the modelling with the effects produced by past floods. Such effects have been quantified through estimations of both the sediment volumes within each catchment that have the potential to be mobilised (pre-event) during a sediment transfer event, and the volume of sediments delivered by the debris flows at basins' outlets (post-event). The post-event sediment volume has been quantified through post-event surveys and Lidar data. Evaluation of the pre-event sediment volumes in single catchments has been based on mapping of sediment storages that may constitute source zones of bed load transport and debris flows. For

  13. Hazard assessment of glacial lake outburst floods from Kyagar glacier, Karakoram mountains, China

    OpenAIRE

    Haemmig, Christoph; Huss, Matthias; Keusen, Hansrudolf; Hess, Josef; Wegmüller, Urs; Ao, Zhigang; Kulubayi, Wubuli

    2014-01-01

    Kyagar glacier is located in the Chinese Karakoram mountains. The glacier tongue entirely blocks the riverbed in the upper Shaksgam valley and impounds a glacial lake, which was the source of several violent and disastrous glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). A GLOF early warning system was implemented between 2011 and 2013. We present an integrative analysis of the hazard potential of Kyagar lake, taking into account the ice flow dynamics of Kyagar glacier as well as the recent surface mass...

  14. Scale orientated analysis of river width changes due to extreme flood hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krapesch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the morphological effects of extreme floods (recurrence interval >100 years and examines which parameters best describe the width changes due to erosion based on 5 affected alpine gravel bed rivers in Austria. The research was based on vertical aerial photos of the rivers before and after extreme floods, hydrodynamic numerical models and cross sectional measurements supported by LiDAR data of the rivers. Average width ratios (width after/before the flood were calculated and correlated with different hydraulic parameters (specific stream power, shear stress, flow area, specific discharge. Depending on the geomorphological boundary conditions of the different rivers, a mean width ratio between 1.12 (Lech River and 3.45 (Trisanna River was determined on the reach scale. The specific stream power (SSP best predicted the mean width ratios of the rivers especially on the reach scale and sub reach scale. On the local scale more parameters have to be considered to define the "minimum morphological spatial demand of rivers", which is a crucial parameter for addressing and managing flood hazards and should be used in hazard zone plans and spatial planning.

  15. A portfolio approach to evaluating natural hazard mitigation policies: An Application to lateral-spread ground failure in Coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Dinitz, L.B.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Evans, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, efforts to prevent catastrophic losses from natural hazards have largely been undertaken by individual property owners based on site-specific evaluations of risks to particular buildings. Public efforts to assess community vulnerability and encourage mitigation have focused on either aggregating site-specific estimates or adopting standards based upon broad assumptions about regional risks. This paper develops an alternative, intermediate-scale approach to regional risk assessment and the evaluation of community mitigation policies. Properties are grouped into types with similar land uses and levels of hazard, and hypothetical community mitigation strategies for protecting these properties are modeled like investment portfolios. The portfolios consist of investments in mitigation against the risk to a community posed by a specific natural hazard, and are defined by a community's mitigation budget and the proportion of the budget invested in locations of each type. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated through an integrated assessment of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure risk in the Watsonville, California area. Data from the magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 are used to model lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility. Earth science and economic data are combined and analyzed in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The portfolio model is then used to evaluate the benefits of mitigating the risk in different locations. Two mitigation policies, one that prioritizes mitigation by land use type and the other by hazard zone, are compared with a status quo policy of doing no further mitigation beyond that which already exists. The portfolio representing the hazard zone rule yields a higher expected return than the land use portfolio does: However, the hazard zone portfolio experiences a higher standard deviation. Therefore, neither portfolio is clearly preferred. The two mitigation policies both reduce expected losses

  16. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  17. Open Source Web-Based Solutions for Disseminating and Analyzing Flood Hazard Information at the Community Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Santillan, M. M.-M.; Santillan, J. R.; Morales, E. M. O.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss in this paper the development, including the features and functionalities, of an open source web-based flood hazard information dissemination and analytical system called "Flood EViDEns". Flood EViDEns is short for "Flood Event Visualization and Damage Estimations", an application that was developed by the Caraga State University to address the needs of local disaster managers in the Caraga Region in Mindanao, Philippines in accessing timely and relevant flood hazard information before, during and after the occurrence of flood disasters at the community (i.e., barangay and household) level. The web application made use of various free/open source web mapping and visualization technologies (GeoServer, GeoDjango, OpenLayers, Bootstrap), various geospatial datasets including LiDAR-derived elevation and information products, hydro-meteorological data, and flood simulation models to visualize various scenarios of flooding and its associated damages to infrastructures. The Flood EViDEns application facilitates the release and utilization of this flood-related information through a user-friendly front end interface consisting of web map and tables. A public version of the application can be accessed at http://121.97.192.11:8082/"target="_blank">http://121.97.192.11:8082/. The application is currently expanded to cover additional sites in Mindanao, Philippines through the "Geo-informatics for the Systematic Assessment of Flood Effects and Risks for a Resilient Mindanao" or the "Geo-SAFER Mindanao" Program.

  18. Assessing inundation hazards to nuclear powerplant sites using geologically extended histories of riverine floods, tsunamis, and storm surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim; Atwater, Brian F.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Smith, Christopher G.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Most nuclear powerplants in the United States are near rivers, large lakes, or oceans. As evident from the Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, disaster of 2011, these water bodies pose inundation threats. Geologic records can extend knowledge of rare hazards from flooding, storm surges, and tsunamis. This knowledge can aid in assessing the safety of critical structures such as dams and energy plants, for which even remotely possible hazards are pertinent. Quantitative analysis of inundation from geologic records perhaps is most developed for and applied to riverine flood hazards, but because of recent natural disasters, geologic investigations also are now used widely for understanding tsunami hazards and coastal storm surges.

  19. Flood- and Drought-Related Natural Hazards Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2016-03-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has many ongoing and recent water-related natural hazard activities in New England that can be used to help mitigate the effects of natural hazards in cooperation with other agencies. The themes related to potential hazards and the tools and science to better understand and address them include the following:

  20. The asteroid and comet impact hazard: risk assessment and mitigation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzner, Christian; Dürfeld, Kai; Kasper, Jan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2006-08-01

    The impact of extraterrestrial matter onto Earth is a continuous process. On average, some 50,000 tons of dust are delivered to our planet every year. While objects smaller than about 30 m mainly disintegrate in the Earth's atmosphere, larger ones can penetrate through it and cause damage on the ground. When an object of hundreds of meters in diameter impacts an ocean, a tsunami is created that can devastate coastal cities. Further, if a km-sized object hit the Earth it would cause a global catastrophe due to the transport of enormous amounts of dust and vapour into the atmosphere resulting in a change in the Earth's climate. This article gives an overview of the near-Earth asteroid and comet (near-Earth object-NEO) impact hazard and the NEO search programmes which are gathering important data on these objects. It also points out options for impact hazard mitigation by using deflection systems. It further discusses the critical constraints for NEO deflection strategies and systems as well as mitigation and evacuation costs and benefits. Recommendations are given for future activities to solve the NEO impact hazard problem.

  1. Earthquake and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, A.

    2012-04-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is a classic example of active continental rifting, and a natural laboratory setting to study initiation and early stage evolution of continental rifts. The EARS is at different stages of development that varies from relatively matured rift (16 mm/yr) in the Afar to a weakly extended Okavango Delta in the south with predicted opening velocity < 3 mm/yr. Recent studies in the region helped researchers to highlight the length and timescales of magmatism and faulting, the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism, and their implications for the development of along-axis segmentation. Although the human resource and instrument coverage is sparse in the continent, our understanding of rift processes and deep structure has improved in the last decade after the advent of space geodesy and broadband seismology. The recent major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mega dike intrusions that occurred along the EARS attracted several earth scientist teams across the globe. However, most African countries traversed by the rift do not have the full capacity to monitor and mitigate earthquake and volcanic hazards. Few monitoring facilities exist in some countries, and the data acquisition is rarely available in real-time for mitigation purpose. Many sub-Saharan Africa governments are currently focused on achieving the millennium development goals with massive infrastructure development scheme and urbanization while impending natural hazards of such nature are severely overlooked. Collaborations with overseas researchers and other joint efforts by the international community are opportunities to be used by African institutions to best utilize limited resources and to mitigate earthquake and volcano hazards.

  2. Detailed Flood Modeling and Hazard Assessment from Storm Tides, Rainfall and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, P. M.; Hall, T. M.; Georgas, N.; Conticello, F.; Cioffi, F.; Lall, U.; Vinogradov, S. V.; Blumberg, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    A flood hazard assessment has been conducted for the Hudson River from New York City to Troy at the head of tide, using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and merging hydrologic inputs and storm tides from tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, as well as spring freshet floods. Our recent work showed that neglecting freshwater flows leads to underestimation of peak water levels at up-river sites and neglecting stratification (typical with two-dimensional modeling) leads to underestimation all along the Hudson. The hazard assessment framework utilizes a representative climatology of over 1000 synthetic tropical cyclones (TCs) derived from a statistical-stochastic TC model, and historical extra-tropical cyclones and freshets from 1950-present. Hydrodynamic modeling is applied with seasonal variations in mean sea level and ocean and estuary stratification. The model is the Stevens ECOM model and is separately used for operational ocean forecasts on the NYHOPS domain (http://stevens.edu/NYHOPS). For the synthetic TCs, an Artificial Neural Network/ Bayesian multivariate approach is used for rainfall-driven freshwater inputs to the Hudson, translating the TC attributes (e.g. track, SST, wind speed) directly into tributary stream flows (see separate presentation by Cioffi for details). Rainfall intensity has been rising in recent decades in this region, and here we will also examine the sensitivity of Hudson flooding to future climate warming-driven increases in storm precipitation. The hazard assessment is being repeated for several values of sea level, as projected for future decades by the New York City Panel on Climate Change. Recent studies have given widely varying estimates of the present-day 100-year flood at New York City, from 2.0 m to 3.5 m, and special emphasis will be placed on quantifying our study's uncertainty.

  3. Flood hazards and masonry constructions: a probabilistic framework for damage, risk and resilience at urban scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarki, A.; Valencia, N.; Salagnac, J. L.; Barroca, B.

    2012-05-01

    This paper deals with the failure risk of masonry constructions under the effect of floods. It is developed within a probabilistic framework, with loads and resistances considered as random variables. Two complementary approaches have been investigated for this purpose: - a global approach based on combined effects of several governing parameters with individual weighted contribution (material quality and geometry, presence and distance between columns, beams, openings, resistance of the soil and its slope. . .), - and a reliability method using the failure mechanism of masonry walls standing out-plane pressure. The evolution of the probability of failure of masonry constructions according to the flood water level is analysed. The analysis of different failure probability scenarios for masonry walls is conducted to calibrate the influence of each "vulnerability governing parameter" in the global approach that is widely used in risk assessment at the urban or regional scale. The global methodology is implemented in a GIS that provides the spatial distribution of damage risk for different flood scenarios. A real case is considered for the simulations, i.e. Cheffes sur Sarthe (France), for which the observed river discharge, the hydraulic load according to the Digital Terrain Model, and the structural resistance are considered as random variables. The damage probability values provided by both approaches are compared. Discussions are also developed about reduction and mitigation of the flood disaster at various scales (set of structures, city, region) as well as resilience.

  4. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  5. Damage assessment of bridge infrastructure subjected to flood-related hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Cahill, Paul; Bekić, Damir; Kerin, Igor; Pakrashi, Vikram; Lapthorne, John; Morais, João Gonçalo Martins Paulo; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Transportation assets represent a critical component of society's infrastructure systems. Flood-related hazards are considered one of the main climate change impacts on highway and railway infrastructure, threatening the security and functionality of transportation systems. Of such hazards, flood-induced scour is a primarily cause of bridge collapses worldwide and one of the most complex and challenging water flow and erosion phenomena, leading to structural instability and ultimately catastrophic failures. Evaluation of scour risk under severe flood events is a particularly challenging issue considering that depth of foundations is very difficult to evaluate in water environment. The continual inspection, assessment and maintenance of bridges and other hydraulic structures under extreme flood events requires a multidisciplinary approach, including knowledge and expertise of hydraulics, hydrology, structural engineering, geotechnics and infrastructure management. The large number of bridges under a single management unit also highlights the need for efficient management, information sharing and self-informing systems to provide reliable, cost-effective flood and scour risk management. The "Intelligent Bridge Assessment Maintenance and Management System" (BRIDGE SMS) is an EU/FP7 funded project which aims to couple state-of-the art scientific expertise in multidisciplinary engineering sectors with industrial knowledge in infrastructure management. This involves the application of integrated low-cost structural health monitoring systems to provide real-time information towards the development of an intelligent decision support tool and a web-based platform to assess and efficiently manage bridge assets. This study documents the technological experience and presents results obtained from the application of sensing systems focusing on the damage assessment of water-hazards at bridges over watercourses in Ireland. The applied instrumentation is interfaced with an open

  6. A spatiotemporal optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maizia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by floods, requires the development of effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to traffic network, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper: (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the developed evacuation model is applied are the Tours valley (Fr, 37), which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation), and the Gien valley (Fr, 45), which benefits from a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan, i.e., computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) according to a priority list established for this purpose. The evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a spatiotemporal optimization model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  7. Perspectives on open access high resolution digital elevation models to produce global flood hazard layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeffrey; Trigg, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Global flood hazard models have recently become a reality thanks to the release of open access global digital elevation models, the development of simplified and highly efficient flow algorithms, and the steady increase in computational power. In this commentary we argue that although the availability of open access global terrain data has been critical in enabling the development of such models, the relatively poor resolution and precision of these data now limit significantly our ability to estimate flood inundation and risk for the majority of the planet's surface. The difficulty of deriving an accurate 'bare-earth' terrain model due to the interaction of vegetation and urban structures with the satellite-based remote sensors means that global terrain data are often poorest in the areas where people, property (and thus vulnerability) are most concentrated. Furthermore, the current generation of open access global terrain models are over a decade old and many large floodplains, particularly those in developing countries, have undergone significant change in this time. There is therefore a pressing need for a new generation of high resolution and high vertical precision open access global digital elevation models to allow significantly improved global flood hazard models to be developed.

  8. Efficient pan-European flood hazard modelling through a combination of statistical and physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik; Morales Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2016-04-01

    Low-resolution hydrological models are often applied to calculate extreme river discharges and delimitate flood zones on continental and global scale. Still, the computational expense is very large and often limits the extent and depth of such studies. Here, we present a quick yet similarly accurate procedure for flood hazard assessment in Europe. Firstly, a statistical model based on Bayesian Networks is used. It describes the joint distribution of annual maxima of daily discharges of European rivers with variables describing the geographical characteristics of their catchments. It was quantified with 75,000 station-years of river discharge, as well as climate, terrain and land use data. The model's predictions of average annual maxima or discharges with certain return periods are of similar performance to physical rainfall-runoff models applied at continental scale. A database of discharge scenarios - return periods under present and future climate - was prepared for the majority of European rivers. Secondly, those scenarios were used as boundary conditions for one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic model SOBEK. Utilizing 1D instead of 2D modelling conserved computational time, yet gave satisfactory results. The resulting pan-European flood map was contrasted with some local high-resolution studies. Indeed, the comparison shows that, in overall, the methods presented here gave similar or better alignment with local studies than previously released pan-European flood map.

  9. Dam break modelling, risk assessment and uncertainty analysis for flood mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zagonjolli, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis a range of modelling techniques is explored to deal effectively with flood risk management. In particular, attention is paid to floods caused by failure of hydraulic structures such as dams and dikes. The methods considered here are applied for simulating dam and dike failure events, flood water routing in downstream areas, and flood risk reduction, providing a unified framework for addressing a variety of flood related events. Numerical, statistical and constraint based method...

  10. Comparison of 2D numerical models for river flood hazard assessment: simulation of the Secchia River flood in January, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustikova, Iuliia; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Castellarin, Attilio

    2017-04-01

    that would be efficient for simulating flooding scenarios for large and very large floodplains. This research aims at contributing to the reduction of uncertainties and limitations in hazard and risk assessment.

  11. NB Power`s Mactaquac Dam : is it possible for the Mactaquac Dam to mitigate the flooding in the Maugerville/Sheffield area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.; Harriman, F.

    1997-04-01

    The feasibility of using the Mactaquac Dam to control river flows and mitigate flooding in the Maugerville/Sheffield area in New Brunswick was discussed. The area is located in the Saint John River valley and has often been subjected to flooding. The causes of the floods in the section of the river were examined in order to evaluate the effectiveness of using the Mactaquac Dam in this manner. The storage capability of the Mactaquac headpond was also examined. The 1973 flood was used as an example to demonstrate the capability of the dam to control flood levels. It was concluded that the flooding in the area is a natural phenomenon and that the Mactaquac Development was not designed and does not have the ability to mitigate flood levels. 1 fig.

  12. Assessing Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Hazard in the Nepal Himalayas using Satellite Imagery and Hydraulic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The last half century has witnessed considerable glacier melt that has led to the formation of large glacial lakes. These glacial lakes typically form behind terminal moraines comprising loose boulders, debris, and soil, which are susceptible to fail and cause a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). These lakes also act as a heat sink that accelerates glacier melt and in many cases is accompanied by rapid areal expansion. As these glacial lakes continue to grow, their hazard also increases due to the increase in potential flood volume and the lakes' proximity to triggering events such as avalanches and landslides. Despite the large threat these lakes may pose to downstream communities, there are few detailed studies that combine satellite imagery with hydraulic models to present a holistic understanding of the GLOF hazard. The aim of this work is to assess the GLOF hazard of glacial lakes in Nepal using a holistic approach based on a combination of satellite imagery and hydraulic models. Imja Lake will be the primary focus of the modeling efforts, but the methods will be developed in a manner that is transferable to other potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Nepal.

  13. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, S.

    2013-07-01

    In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address - in research as well as in practice - since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  14. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kjellgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address – in research as well as in practice – since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  15. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  16. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by...

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: average conditions in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 100-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  19. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 100-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 20-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: average conditions in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  2. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 1-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 1-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: 20-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding, low-lying vulnerable areas, and maxium/minimum flood potential associated with the sea-level rise...

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  7. Numerical and probabilistic analysis of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-09

    The possibility of asteroid and comet impacts on Earth has received significant recent media and scientific attention. Still, there are many outstanding questions about the correct response once a potentially hazardous object (PHO) is found. Nuclear munitions are often suggested as a deflection mechanism because they have a high internal energy per unit launch mass. However, major uncertainties remain about the use of nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation. There are large uncertainties in a PHO's physical response to a strong deflection or dispersion impulse like that delivered by nuclear munitions. Objects smaller than 100 m may be solid, and objects at all sizes may be 'rubble piles' with large porosities and little strength. Objects with these different properties would respond very differently, so the effects of object properties must be accounted for. Recent ground-based observations and missions to asteroids and comets have improved the planetary science community's understanding of these objects. Computational power and simulation capabilities have improved such that it is possible to numerically model the hazard mitigation problem from first principles. Before we know that explosive yield Y at height h or depth -h from the target surface will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a PHO, we must quantify energy deposition into the system of particles that make up the PHO. Here we present the initial results of a parameter study in which we model the efficiency of energy deposition from a stand-off nuclear burst onto targets made of PHO constituent materials.

  8. A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover

  9. Volunteered Geographic Information in Natural Hazard Analysis: A Systematic Literature Review of Current Approaches with a Focus on Preparedness and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Klonner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of new technologies, citizens can contribute to scientific research via Web 2.0 applications for collecting and distributing geospatial data. Integrating local knowledge, personal experience and up-to-date geoinformation indicates a promising approach for the theoretical framework and the methods of natural hazard analysis. Our systematic literature review aims at identifying current research and directions for future research in terms of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI within natural hazard analysis. Focusing on both the preparedness and mitigation phase results in eleven articles from two literature databases. A qualitative analysis for in-depth information extraction reveals auspicious approaches regarding community engagement and data fusion, but also important research gaps. Mainly based in Europe and North America, the analysed studies deal primarily with floods and forest fires, applying geodata collected by trained citizens who are improving their knowledge and making their own interpretations. Yet, there is still a lack of common scientific terms and concepts. Future research can use these findings for the adaptation of scientific models of natural hazard analysis in order to enable the fusion of data from technical sensors and VGI. The development of such general methods shall contribute to establishing the user integration into various contexts, such as natural hazard analysis.

  10. Cities and Sea Level Rise: A Roadmap for Flood Hazard Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Diane; Cousins, Ann

    2016-04-01

    defend all areas nor retreat entirely and will need to make a decision to retreat from certain locations or to relocate particular assets in areas at lower risk. We identify a series of specific questions which should be answered by city managers when selecting the most appropriate response for a particular location. The selection of options appropriate for building resilience does not depend entirely on the nature of the physical hazard and the accommodation space available, but also on the socio-political and environmental context in which adaptation decisions are made. The most important element in adapting to sea level rise is to have policies in place that incentivise risk reduction. The more comprehensively adaptation measures can be integrated into related policy areas and linked up with existing economic, social and environment measures, the more successful adaptation policies are likely to be. Changes to planning regulations, although resource-intensive, are the most cost-effective way of managing risk exposure over time. Flood insurance can also serve as a highly persuasive financial incentive for flood-resilient construction and locating businesses and homes in safer locations.

  11. Toward a coupled Hazard-Vulnerability Tool for Flash Flood Impacts Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terti, Galateia; Ruin, Isabelle; Anquetin, Sandrine; Gourley, Jonathan J.

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods (FF) are high-impact, catastrophic events that result from the intersection of hydrometeorological extremes and society at small space-time scales, generally on the order of minutes to hours. Because FF events are generally localized in space and time, they are very difficult to forecast with precision and can subsequently leave people uninformed and subject to surprise in the midst of their daily activities (e.g., commuting to work). In Europe, FFs are the main source of natural hazard fatalities, although they affect smaller areas than riverine flooding. In the US, also, flash flooding is the leading cause of weather-related deaths most years, with some 200 annual fatalities. There were 954 fatalities and approximately 31 billion U.S. dollars of property damage due to floods and flash floods from 1995 to 2012 in the US. For forecasters and emergency managers the prediction of and subsequent response to impacts due to such a sudden onset and localized event remains a challenge. This research is motivated by the hypothesis that the intersection of the spatio-temporal context of the hazard with the distribution of people and their characteristics across space and time reveals different paths of vulnerability. We argue that vulnerability and the dominant impact type varies dynamically throughout the day and week according to the location under concern. Thus, indices are appropriate to develop and provide, for example, vehicle-related impacts on active population being focused on the road network during morning or evening rush hours. This study describes the methodological developments of our approach and applies our hypothesis to the case of the June 14th, 2010 flash flood event in the Oklahoma City area (Oklahoma, US). Social (i.e. population socio-economic profile), exposure (i.e. population distribution, land use), and physical (i.e. built and natural environment) data are used to compose different vulnerability products based on the forecast location

  12. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  13. The FASTER Approach: A New Tool for Calculating Real-Time Tsunami Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Cross, A.; Johnson, L.; Miller, K.; Nicolini, T.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    In the aftermath of the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunamis that struck the California coastline, emergency managers requested that the state tsunami program provide more detailed information about the flood potential of distant-source tsunamis well ahead of their arrival time. The main issue is that existing tsunami evacuation plans call for evacuation of the predetermined "worst-case" tsunami evacuation zone (typically at a 30- to 50-foot elevation) during any "Warning" level event; the alternative is to not call an evacuation at all. A solution to provide more detailed information for secondary evacuation zones has been the development of tsunami evacuation "playbooks" to plan for tsunami scenarios of various sizes and source locations. To determine a recommended level of evacuation during a distant-source tsunami, an analytical tool has been developed called the "FASTER" approach, an acronym for factors that influence the tsunami flood hazard for a community: Forecast Amplitude, Storm, Tides, Error in forecast, and the Run-up potential. Within the first couple hours after a tsunami is generated, the National Tsunami Warning Center provides tsunami forecast amplitudes and arrival times for approximately 60 coastal locations in California. At the same time, the regional NOAA Weather Forecast Offices in the state calculate the forecasted coastal storm and tidal conditions that will influence tsunami flooding. Providing added conservatism in calculating tsunami flood potential, we include an error factor of 30% for the forecast amplitude, which is based on observed forecast errors during recent events, and a site specific run-up factor which is calculated from the existing state tsunami modeling database. The factors are added together into a cumulative FASTER flood potential value for the first five hours of tsunami activity and used to select the appropriate tsunami phase evacuation "playbook" which is provided to each coastal community shortly after the forecast

  14. Risk Evaluation for Flood Hazard in Weifang Based on GIS%基于GIS的潍坊市暴雨洪涝灾害风险区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树军; 袁静; 何永健; 崔建云

    2012-01-01

    为了提高对暴雨洪涝灾害的抗御能力,为潍坊市的暴雨洪涝防灾减灾提供技术支持和决策依据,基于潍坊市1:50000的DEM数据和2009年统计年鉴资料以及历史灾情数据,计算得出影响潍坊市洪涝灾害风险的评价指标,即致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境敏感性、承灾体易损性、防灾减灾能力的综合作用.将洪涝灾害风险性评价技术和GIS技术相结合,对洪涝灾害程度进行评价和等级划分,绘制潍坊地区的洪涝灾害风险区划图.结果表明,诸城全市、高密市的绝大部分地区属于洪涝高风险区,只有极少数地区为较高风险区;安丘偏东南大部分地区、高密北部少数地区、昌乐东南部属于较高风险区;较低风险区和低风险区主要分布在昌邑北部大部分地区、寿光大部分地区、潍坊北部和中部以及青州西部;其余地区基本为中等风险区.%In order to improve the resilience of the rainstorm and flood disasters, and provide the technical support and decision-making basis for preventing and mitigating rainstorm and flood disasters in Weifang City, based on the digital topographic map of 1:50000 scale, statistic yearbook of 2009 and historical disaster data in Weifang, integrative estimate indexes which affected the flood risk in Weifang, including risk of flood hazard-form factors, sensitivity of flood hazard-breeding circumstance, vulnerability of flood hazard-bear circumstance, and capacity of flood hazard resistant were calculated. Combined the technology of flood risk assessment and GIS, the extent of flood was assessed and graded. And then the flood risk areas zoning map in Weifang was drew. The results showed that, all the areas in Zhucheng and most areas in Gaomi were the highest flood risk regions; most areas in southeast of Anqiu, small areas in northern of Gaomi and southeast of Changle were higher risk regions; the lower and low risk regions were most areas in northern of

  15. Flood damage assessment – Literature review and recommended procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lea; Löwe, Roland; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    The assessment of flood risk is an essential tool in evaluating the potential consequences of a flood. The analysis of the risk can be applied as part of the flood plain management, but can also be used in a cost-benefit analysis, when comparing different adaption strategies. This analysis...... is therefore important when assessing flood disaster mitigation options and economical optimizations of possible measures. A common definition is that the flood risk is found with the use of a flood hazard assessment and a flood vulnerability assessment (Apel, Merz and Thieken, 2008). The flood hazard...... is the quantification of amount, extent, and location of flooding expected to occur with a given return period. This means that the spatial distribution of the calculated inundation depth as a function of the return period can be used to describe the flood hazard. The vulnerability is the susceptibility of the area...

  16. First look at changes in flood hazard in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankers, Rutger; Arnell, Nigel W.; Clark, Douglas B.; Falloon, Pete D.; Fekete, Balázs M.; Gosling, Simon N.; Heinke, Jens; Kim, Hyungjun; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-01

    Climate change due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation events, which is likely to affect the probability of flooding into the future. In this paper we use river flow simulations from nine global hydrology and land surface models to explore uncertainties in the potential impacts of climate change on flood hazard at global scale. As an indicator of flood hazard we looked at changes in the 30-y return level of 5-d average peak flows under representative concentration pathway RCP8.5 at the end of this century. Not everywhere does climate change result in an increase in flood hazard: decreases in the magnitude and frequency of the 30-y return level of river flow occur at roughly one-third (20-45%) of the global land grid points, particularly in areas where the hydrograph is dominated by the snowmelt flood peak in spring. In most model experiments, however, an increase in flooding frequency was found in more than half of the grid points. The current 30-y flood peak is projected to occur in more than 1 in 5 y across 5-30% of land grid points. The large-scale patterns of change are remarkably consistent among impact models and even the driving climate models, but at local scale and in individual river basins there can be disagreement even on the sign of change, indicating large modeling uncertainty which needs to be taken into account in local adaptation studies.

  17. Communicating Risk and Cultivating Resilience in Rural Alaskan Communities: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Flood Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing extent and vulnerability of technologically advanced society together with aspects of global climate change intensifies the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Every year, communities around the world face the devastating consequences of hazardous events, including loss of life, property and infrastructure damage, and environmental decline. Environmentally sound strategies have to be developed to minimize these consequences. However, hazard-prone areas differ geographically, climatically, and culturally. There is no a one-size-fits-all solution. Thus, it is crucial that future decision-makers not only know the conditions that make some natural Earth processes hazardous to people, but also understand how people perceive and adjust to potential natural hazards in their regions. In May 2013, an ice jam caused major flooding in Galena, a remote village in interior Alaska. Within two days, flooding destroyed nearly the entire region's infrastructure, and displaced over 400 residents. Almost a year later, a significant part of Galena's population was still evacuated in Fairbanks and other neighboring towns. The rebuilding holdup reflected the federal government's reluctance to spend millions of dollars an the area that may be destroyed again by the next flood. Massive floods inundated towns along the Yukon River before (e.g., Eagle in 2009 and Holycross in 1975), but people return to refurbish and again inhabit the same territories. Rivers have a significant importance to Alaskan rural communities. Not only do rivers provide food, drink, transportation, and in some cases arable land and irrigation, but they also carry cultural significance for the Native Alaskan people. The Galena case study provides a revealing example of challenges of communicating with and educating the public and policy makers about natural hazards.

  18. Maximum flood hazard assessment for OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmrichter, P.; McClintock, J.; Peng, J. [AMEC plc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Leung, H. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has entered a process to seek Environmental Assessment and licensing approvals to construct a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) near the existing Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) at the Bruce nuclear site in the Municipality of Kincardine, Ontario. In support of the design of the proposed DGR project, maximum flood stages were estimated for potential flood hazard risks associated with coastal, riverine and direct precipitation flooding. The estimation of lake/coastal flooding for the Bruce nuclear site considered potential extreme water levels in Lake Huron, storm surge and seiche, wind waves, and tsunamis. The riverine flood hazard assessment considered the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) within the local watersheds, and within local drainage areas that will be directly impacted by the site development. A series of hydraulic models were developed, based on DGR project site grading and ditching, to assess the impact of a Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) occurring directly at the DGR site. Overall, this flood assessment concluded there is no potential for lake or riverine based flooding and the DGR area is not affected by tsunamis. However, it was also concluded from the results of this analysis that the PMF in proximity to the critical DGR operational areas and infrastructure would be higher than the proposed elevation of the entrance to the underground works. This paper provides an overview of the assessment of potential flood hazard risks associated with coastal, riverine and direct precipitation flooding that was completed for the DGR development. (author)

  19. Mapping Urban Risk: Flood Hazards, Race, & Environmental Justice In New York"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maantay, Juliana; Maroko, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of disaggregating population data aggregated by census tracts or other units, for more realistic population distribution/location. A newly-developed mapping method, the Cadastral-based Expert Dasymetric System (CEDS), calculates population in hyper-heterogeneous urban areas better than traditional mapping techniques. A case study estimating population potentially impacted by flood hazard in New York City compares the impacted population determined by CEDS with that derived by centroid-containment method and filtered areal weighting interpolation. Compared to CEDS, 37 percent and 72 percent fewer people are estimated to be at risk from floods city-wide, using conventional areal weighting of census data, and centroid-containment selection, respectively. Undercounting of impacted population could have serious implications for emergency management and disaster planning. Ethnic/racial populations are also spatially disaggregated to determine any environmental justice impacts with flood risk. Minorities are disproportionately undercounted using traditional methods. Underestimating more vulnerable sub-populations impairs preparedness and relief efforts.

  20. Use of agent-based modelling in emergency management under a range of flood hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagg Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Life Safety Model (LSM was developed some 15 years ago, originally for dam break assessments and for informing reservoir evacuation and emergency plans. Alongside other technological developments, the model has evolved into a very useful agent-based tool, with many applications for a range of hazards and receptor behaviour. HR Wallingford became involved in its use in 2006, and is now responsible for its technical development and commercialisation. Over the past 10 years the model has been applied to a range of flood hazards, including coastal surge, river flood, dam failure and tsunami, and has been verified against historical events. Commercial software licences are being used in Canada, Italy, Malaysia and Australia. A core group of LSM users and analysts has been specifying and delivering a programme of model enhancements. These include improvements to traffic behaviour at intersections, new algorithms for sheltering in high-rise buildings, and the addition of monitoring points to allow detailed analysis of vehicle and pedestrian movement. Following user feedback, the ability of LSM to handle large model ‘worlds’ and hydrodynamic meshes has been improved. Recent developments include new documentation, performance enhancements, better logging of run-time events and bug fixes. This paper describes some of the recent developments and summarises some of the case study applications, including dam failure analysis in Japan and mass evacuation simulation in England.

  1. The Puerto Rico Component of the National Tsunami Hazard and Mitigation Program (PR-NTHMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Lopez, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Caribbean region has a documented history of damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas. Of particular interest is the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands (PRVI) region, where the proximity of the coast to prominent tectonic faults would result in near-field tsunamis. Tsunami hazard assessment, detection capabilities, warning, education and outreach efforts are common tools intended to reduce loss of life and property. It is for these reasons that the PRSN is participating in an effort with local and federal agencies to develop tsunami hazard risk reduction strategies under the NTHMP. This grant supports the TsunamiReady program, which is the base of the tsunami preparedness and mitigation in PR. In order to recognize threatened communities in PR as TsunamiReady by the US NWS, the PR Component of the NTHMP have identified and modeled sources for local, regional and tele-tsunamis and the results of simulations have been used to develop tsunami response plans. The main goal of the PR-NTHMP is to strengthen resilient coastal communities that are prepared for tsunami hazards, and recognize PR as TsunamiReady. Evacuation maps were generated in three phases: First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios of potential underwater earthquakes were developed, and these scenarios were then modeled through during the second phase. The third phase consisted in determining the worst-case scenario based on the Maximum of Maximums (MOM). Inundation and evacuation zones were drawn on GIS referenced maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Maps and related evacuation products, like evacuation times, can be accessed online via the PR Tsunami Decision Support Tool. Based on these evacuation maps, tsunami signs were installed, vulnerability profiles were created, communication systems to receive and disseminate tsunami messages were installed in each TWFP, and tsunami response plans were

  2. The Brave New World of Real-time GPS for Hazards Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over 600 continuously-operating, real-time telemetered GPS receivers operate throughout California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. These receivers straddle active crustal faults, volcanoes and landslides, the magnitude-9 Cascadia and northeastern Alaskan subduction zones and their attendant tsunamigenic regions along the Pacific coast. Around the circum-Pacific, there are hundreds more and the number is growing steadily as real-time networks proliferate. Despite offering the potential for sub-cm positioning accuracy in real-time useful for a broad array of hazards mitigation, these GPS stations are only now being incorporated into routine seismic, tsunami, volcanic, land-slide, space-weather, or meterologic monitoring. We will discuss NASA's READI (Real-time Earthquake Analysis for DIsasters) initiative. This effort is focussed on developing all aspects of real-time GPS for hazards mitigation, from establishing international data-sharing agreements to improving basic positioning algorithms. READI's long-term goal is to expand real-time GPS monitoring throughout the circum-Pacific as overseas data become freely available, so that it may be adopted by NOAA, USGS and other operational agencies responsible for natural hazards monitoring. Currently ~100 stations are being jointly processed by CWU and Scripps Inst. of Oceanography for algorithm comparison and downstream merging purposes. The resultant solution streams include point-position estimates in a global reference frame every second with centimeter accuracy, ionospheric total electron content and tropospheric zenith water content. These solutions are freely available to third-party agencies over several streaming protocols to enable their incorporation and use in hazards monitoring. This number will ramp up to ~400 stations over the next year. We will also discuss technical efforts underway to develop a variety of downstream applications of the real-time position streams, including the ability to broadcast

  3. Flood Zones, FEMA flood hazard, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Zones dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'FEMA flood...

  4. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  5. Special Issue: Risk Management Challenges: Mitigate the Risk from Natural Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Paton

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Within minutes of the March 2011 earthquake in Japan, news media provided unprecedented coverage of an unfolding natural catastrophe. Events such as this place natural disasters firmly in the public eye but only for a short time. It falls to the research community to learn the lessons offered by these events and turn them into opportunities for developing more effective risk management and mitigation strategies and identifying the factors that contribute to the vulnerability and resilience of communities and response and recovery agencies. Disasters such as the Japanese tsunami also highlight the ever-present need for systematic, rigorous research into the risk posed by natural hazards and how these risks can be managed. Of course it is vital to ensure that the findings from such research endeavours are disseminated to those who can use the findings.

  6. Application of Chance-Constrained Stochastic Optimization for Mitigating Downstream Flood Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Assis dos Reis, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Ensemble forecasting is a growing field in the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs and mitigation of flood risks in downstream river reaches. The assessment of uncertainty over the prediction horizon provides added value to the operational flow forecasting system. It provides probabilistic inflow forecasts which, combined with decision support systems, determine optimum release strategies. One way of doing this is through scenario tree-based stochastic optimization. The representation of the ensemble forecasted is converted into a scenario-tree and optimized based on an adaptive multi-stage stochastic optimization. Typical inequality constraints applied over this problem require a full compliance of each ensemble's trajectory and neglect the uncertainty distribution. We propose the application of chance constrained optimization to overcome such problem, allowing a more flexible approach that does not depend on the number of ensembles but rather on the distribution of uncertainty. This technique is used to compute release trajectories of the reservoirs over a finite forecast horizon of up to 14 days by integrating a nonlinear gradient-based optimization algorithm and a model of the water system. The latter consists of simulation components for pool routing and kinematic or diffusive wave models for the downstream river reaches including a simulation mode and a reverse adjoint mode for the efficient computation of first-order derivatives. This framework has been implemented for a reservoir system operated by the Brazilian Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais S.A. (CEMIG). We present results obtained for the operation of the Tres Marias reservoir in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais with a catchment area of near 55,000 km2. The focus of our discussion is the impact of chance constrains on the optimization procedure and its flexibility for extending the number of ensemble forecasts thus providing a more accurate representation of uncertainty. We compare the

  7. Mapping hazards from glacier lake outburst floods based on modelling of process cascades at Lake 513, Carhuaz, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Demian; Huggel, Christian; Cochachin, Alejo; Guillén, Sebastiàn; García, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Recent warming has had enormous impacts on glaciers and high-mountain environments. Hazards have changed or new ones have emerged, including those from glacier lakes that form as glaciers retreat. The Andes of Peru have repeatedly been severely impacted by glacier lake outburst floods in the past. An important recent event occurred in the Cordillera Blanca in 2010 when an ice avalanche impacted a glacier lake and triggered an outburst flood that affected the downstream communities and city of...

  8. Mapping hazards from glacier lake outburst floods based on modelling of process cascades at Lake 513, Carhuaz, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, D; C. Huggel; Cochachin, A.; Guillén, S.; García, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent warming has had enormous impacts on glaciers and high-mountain environments. Hazards have changed or new ones have emerged, including those from glacier lakes that form as glaciers retreat. The Andes of Peru have repeatedly been severely impacted by glacier lake outburst floods in the past. An important recent event occurred in the Cordillera Blanca in 2010 when an ice avalanche impacted a glacier lake and triggered an outburst flood that affected the downstream commu...

  9. Oklahoma experiences largest earthquake during ongoing regional wastewater injection hazard mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeck, William; Hayes, Gavin; McNamara, Daniel E.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Barnhart, William; Earle, Paul; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    The 3 September 2016, Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake was the largest recorded earthquake in the state of Oklahoma. Seismic and geodetic observations of the Pawnee sequence, including precise hypocenter locations and moment tensor modeling, shows that the Pawnee earthquake occurred on a previously unknown left-lateral strike-slip basement fault that intersects the mapped right-lateral Labette fault zone. The Pawnee earthquake is part of an unprecedented increase in the earthquake rate in Oklahoma that is largely considered the result of the deep injection of waste fluids from oil and gas production. If this is, indeed, the case for the M5.8 Pawnee earthquake, then this would be the largest event to have been induced by fluid injection. Since 2015, Oklahoma has undergone wide-scale mitigation efforts primarily aimed at reducing injection volumes. Thus far in 2016, the rate of M3 and greater earthquakes has decreased as compared to 2015, while the cumulative moment—or energy released from earthquakes—has increased. This highlights the difficulty in earthquake hazard mitigation efforts given the poorly understood long-term diffusive effects of wastewater injection and their connection to seismicity.

  10. Current and future pluvial flood hazard analysis for the city of Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick; Tabari, Hossein; De Niel, Jan; Van Uytven, Els; Lambrechts, Griet; Wellens, Geert

    2016-04-01

    to two types of methods). These were finally transferred into future pluvial flash flood hazard maps for the city together with the uncertainties, and are considered as basis for spatial planning and adaptation.

  11. Socio-Economic Appraisal of Flood Hazard among the Riparian Communities: Case Study of Brahmaputra Valley in Assam; India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nikhil; Wasini Pandey, Bindhy

    2017-04-01

    Brahmaputra valley of Assam is one of the most hazard prone areas of the Indian subcontinent. Recurring floods have severely affected the riparian communities of the region since time immemorial. But, the frequency of the problem has been intensified after the great earthquakes of 1897 and 1950. These two extreme earthquakes have disturbed the geological setting of the basin and the channel morphology has been altered henceforth. The impact of floods on riparian communities in Brahmaputra valley has been abysmal. During the monsoon season almost 30 per cent of the valley has been inundated with floods and the riparian communities are mostly affected. Large chunk of people have been uprooted from their native lands due to recurring floods in the low lying areas of the region. Although it is impossible to quantify the human tragedy during the natural disasters, but one can easily understand the situation by the facts that about 1.8 million people and 200,000 hectares of farmland were affected in the 2016 floods of Assam. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the spatio-temporal changes of the morphology of Brahmaputra River and its impact on the livelihood of the riparian communities. For that, LANDSAT and SENTINEL imageries have been used to examine the shifting of bank lines of three decades. CARTOSAT DEM has been used to prepare the FLOOD HAZARD ZONATION map of the Brahmaputra valley to examine the flood vulnerable areas of the region. The present study also tries to explain the livelihood condition of the Internally Displaced Persons and their social cohesion. Keywords: Brahmaputra River, Flood, LANDSAT, CARTOSAT DEM, FLOOD HAZARD ZONATION, Riparian Communities

  12. Assessment, prevention and mitigation of landslide hazard in the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra Punyatoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are destructive geological processes that have globally caused deaths and destruction to property worth billion dollars. Landslide occurrences are widespread and prolific in India covering more than 15 per cent of the total area. These are mostly concentrated in the Himalayan belt, parts of Meghalaya Plateau, Nilgiri Hills, Western and Eastern Ghats. The slope failure in the hilly terrain is due to geological processes and events. The frequency and magnitude of slope failure also increased due to anthropogenic activities such as road construction, deforestation and urban expansion. Keeping all these problems in mind research focuses on the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Himalaya as it falls under very high risk zone in case of landslides and comprise of three objectives. They are: a to analyse the spatial pattern of landslides in the Lesser Himalaya, b to assess the causes of landslides vulnerability in the study region and c to suggests some preventive measures to mitigate landslides. In this work an attempt has been made to collect data on landslides incidences and damage from the secondary sources like Geological Survey of India, Building Material and Technology Promotion council from Ministry of Urban Affairs. The methodologies adopted for data analysis are simple tabulations, bar diagrams, statistical and mapping techniques to represent the Landslide vulnerability of the Lesser Himalaya. The analysis of the study reveals that there is increase in the number of landslides. The spatial pattern of landslide shows linear patterns, viz. along roads, rivers or lineaments/ faults. Besides, heavy rainfall, floods and earthquakes enhance the vulnerability condition. The landslides may be part and parcel of the Himalayan landscape, but they can be mitigated by some suitable measures. Few methods of landslide prevention in the study region have been suggested.

  13. Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

  14. Lessons from the autumn 2014 flash floods in the city of Nîmes and its neighborhood (France: behavior of several mitigation dams and hydrological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouchier Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Languedoc area, in Southern France, is prone to autumnal flash floods which are characteristic of the Mediterranean climate. To cope with this threat, the local authorities have chosen to build several dams on the main dangerous rivers of the area. We have focused on the flood mitigation facilities of two operators: the City of Nîmes and the Gardons Rivers Managing authority. After the catastrophic flash flood of October 1988, the city of Nîmes built flood mitigation dams on many of its high-risk streams. These flood barriers worked several times during the intense rainfalls of autumn 2014. The on-site conclusions drawn from these floods and the computation carried out with hydrological models confirmed how well the dams functioned. In 2010, the Gardons Rivers Managing authority built a flood mitigation dam on the Esquielle River to protect the village of Saint-Geniès-de-Malgoirès. The spillway of this dam worked for the first time in the autumn of 2014. We analyzed one of the major floods monitored on that occasion at its outlet. The goals of this study are: (i to evaluate dams efficiency and (ii to test, on a catchment which was not used for its calibration, the AIGA flash flood warning method, which was developed by IRSTEA.

  15. Climate-related hazards: a method for global assessment of urban and rural population exposure to cyclones, droughts, and floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-02-21

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures.

  16. Combining sea state and land subsidence rates in an assessment of flooding hazards at the Danish North Sea coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, Niels; Knudsen, Per

    Sand nourishments (2-3 M3/y) counteract erosion on the central North Sea coast of Denmark and dikes and artificial dunes protect the low-lying hinterland from flooding. The fisheries towns of Thyboron, Thorsminde and Hvide Sande are all liable to flooding during storm surges. Tide gauge series fr...... the coast are presented and the town of Thyboron is used as a case where, in addition to SLR and extremes, analyses of land movement and ocean-groundwater interactions are included in an integrated method for assessing future coastal flooding hazards.......Sand nourishments (2-3 M3/y) counteract erosion on the central North Sea coast of Denmark and dikes and artificial dunes protect the low-lying hinterland from flooding. The fisheries towns of Thyboron, Thorsminde and Hvide Sande are all liable to flooding during storm surges. Tide gauge series from...

  17. TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hubbard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS, National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC, NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

  18. Mapping the Historical Probability of Increased Flood Hazard During ENSO Events Using a New 20th Century River Flow Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerton, R.; Cloke, H. L.; Stephens, L.; Woolnough, S. J.; Zsoter, E.; Pappenberger, F.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees fluctuations between anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to influence river flow and flooding at the global scale. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and this link, alongside the predictive skill of ENSO up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. Information is readily available indicating the likely impacts of El Niño and La Niña on precipitation across the globe, which is often used as a proxy for flood hazard. However, the nonlinearity between precipitation and flood magnitude and frequency means that it is important to assess the impact of ENSO events not only on precipitation, but also on river flow and flooding. Historical probabilities provide key information regarding the likely impacts of ENSO events. We estimate, for the first time, the historical probability of increased flood hazard during El Niño and La Niña through a global hydrological analysis, using a new 20thCentury ensemble river flow reanalysis for the global river network. This dataset was produced by running the ECMWF ERA-20CM atmospheric reanalysis through a research set-up of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) using the CaMa-Flood hydrodynamic model, to produce a 110-year global reanalysis of river flow. We further evaluate the added benefit of the hydrological analysis over the use of precipitation as a proxy for flood hazard. For example, providing information regarding regions that are likely to experience a lagged influence on river flow compared to the influence on precipitation. Our results map, at the global scale, the probability of abnormally high river flow during any given month during an El Niño or La Niña; information such as this is key for organisations that work at the global scale, such as humanitarian aid organisations, providing a seasons-ahead indicator of potential

  19. Flood risk and mitigation strategies in the southeastern suburbs of Fez City (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akdim, Brahim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of flooding in the south-eastern suburbs of Fez (Morocco was engendered by multiple factors (topographic, hydro-climatic, land use, social, technical. This study focuses on the Aouinate El Hajjaj district and shows that the district’s evolution, characterized by informal transactions (speculation, land squatting, construction without respect of norms and regulations was a major factor in the genesis of flood risk as the district extended into vulnerable sectors. Public efforts to resolve the district’s crisis and reinforce its environmental safety began in 1993 (2 dams and channels were constructed, street were paved and basic facilities were provided, such as drinking water, sanitation and electricity, but the risk factors persist. Technical solutions are locally recognized to be useful, but they are not sufficient. Other mitigating actions including the reduction of physical and socioeconomic vulnerability and the strengthening of the social structure of the community should be considered in a systemic point of view. They constitute elements of an alternative strategy in urban planning and development and must be framed by laws and regulations. Their use could be undertaken at individual, community and State levels depending on the specific dimension of each measure. A vision which integrates local and regional scales is essential in risk studies, in order to design a more sustainable action. The role of non-governmental organisations is important in flood mitigation and urban environmental policy. The incorporation of flood prevention as a parameter of urban planning should be considered by planners and the local population.En los suburbios del sudeste de Fez (Marruecos el riesgo de inundaciones responde a fenómenos de diversa naturaleza física y humana (topográficos, hidrológicos, climáticos, utilización del suelo, factores sociales y técnicos. En este trabajo se analiza la situación del distrito de Aouinate El Hajjaj

  20. Developing a scientific procedure for community based hazard mapping and risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, M.

    2011-12-01

    As an international exchange student from the Geological Sciences Department at San Diego State University (SDSU), I joined the KKN-PPM program at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in July 2011 for 12 days (July 4th to July 16th) of its two month duration (July 4th to August 25th). The KKN-PPM group I was attached was designated 154 and was focused in Plosorejo Village, Karanganyar, Kerjo, Central Java, Indonesia. The mission of KKN-PPM 154 was to survey Plosorejo village for existing landslides, to generate a simple hazard susceptibility map that can be understood by local villagers, and then to begin dissemination of that map into the community. To generate our susceptibility map we first conducted a geological survey of the existing landslides in the field study area, with a focus on determining landslide triggers and gauging areas for susceptibility for future landslides. The methods for gauging susceptibility included lithological observation, the presence of linear cracking, visible loss of structural integrity in structures such as villager homes, as well as collaboration with local residents and with the local rescue and response team. There were three color distinctions used in representing susceptibility which were green, where there is no immediate danger of landslide damage; orange, where transportation routes are at risk of being disrupted by landslides; and red, where imminent landslide potential puts a home in direct danger. The landslide inventory and susceptibility data was compiled into digital mediums such as CorelDraw, ArcGIS and Google Earth. Once a technical map was generated, we presented it to the village leadership for confirmation and modification based on their experience. Finally, we began to use the technical susceptibility map to draft evacuation routes and meeting points in the event of landslides, as well as simple susceptibility maps that can be understood and utilized by local villagers. Landslide mitigation

  1. The 3D Elevation Program—Landslide recognition, hazard assessment, and mitigation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2017-01-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program conducts landslide hazard assessments, pursues landslide investigations and forecasts, provides technical assistance to respond to landslide emergencies, and engages in outreach. All of these activities benefit from the availability of high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) elevation information in the form of light detection and ranging (lidar) data and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data. Research on landslide processes addresses critical questions of where and when landslides are likely to occur as well as their size, speed, and effects. This understanding informs the development of methods and tools for hazard assessment and situational awareness used to guide efforts to avoid or mitigate landslide impacts. Such research is essential for the USGS to provide improved information on landslide potential associated with severe storms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, coastal wave erosion, and wildfire burn areas.Decisionmakers in government and the private sector increasingly depend on information the USGS provides before, during, and following disasters so that communities can live, work, travel, and build safely. The USGS 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply lidar-derived superior terrain data to address landslide applications and a wide range of other urgent needs nationwide. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  2. Decision Making Support System (DMSS) For Water Resources And Flood Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful Ridwan Radzi, Mohd

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a significant issue in low-lying parts of the catchment in Malaysia, leading to flood damage & disruption in major storm events. Recognising the potential to reduce damage, the decision making support system (DMSS) has been developed to optimise the operation of the water resources assets to both maximise the effectiveness of flood control & maximize the availability of water for public supply & irrigation demand under drought conditions. DMSS functions as to reduce human error during critical times. The tools optimized rules for barrage, sluice gates, pumping station & dams. Its provide priority for flood zone protection & fuzzy logic supervisory control for all equipment.

  3. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  4. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  5. Seawater-flooding events and impact on freshwater lenses of low-lying islands: Controlling factors, basic management and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Voss, Clifford I.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2017-08-01

    An unprecedented set of hydrologic observations was collected after the Dec 2008 seawater-flooding event on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. By two days after the seawater flooding that occurred at the beginning of dry season, the observed salinity of water withdrawn by the island's main skimming well increased to 100% seawater concentration, but by ten days later already decreased to only 10-20% of seawater fraction. However, the damaging impact on the potability of the groundwater supply (when pumped water had concentrations above 1% seawater fraction) lasted 22 months longer. The data collected make possible analyses of the hydrologic factors that control recovery and management of the groundwater-supply quality on Roi-Namur and on similar low-lying islands. With the observed data as a guide, three-dimensional numerical-model simulation analyses reveal how recovery is controlled by the island's hydrology. These also allow evaluation of the efficacy of basic water-quality management/mitigation alternatives and elucidate how groundwater withdrawal and timing of the seawater-flooding event affect the length of recovery. Simulations show that, as might be expected, by adding surplus captured rainwater as artificial recharge, the freshwater-lens recovery period (after which potable groundwater may again be produced) can be shortened, with groundwater salinity remaining lower even during the dry season, a period during which no artificial recharge is applied. Simulations also show that the recovery period is not lengthened appreciably by groundwater withdrawals during recovery. Simulations further show that had the flooding event occurred at the start of the wet season, the recovery period would have been about 25% (5.5 months) shorter than actually occurred during the monitored flood that occurred at the dry-season start. Finally, analyses show that artificial recharge improves freshwater-lens water quality, making possible longer use of

  6. Exposure to Flood Hazards in Miami and Houston: Are Hispanic Immigrants at Greater Risk than Other Social Groups?

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Alejandra; Collins, Timothy W.; Sara E. Grineski; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on the vulnerability of marginalized groups in the environmental justice (EJ) and hazards fields, analysts have tended to lump people together in broad racial/ethnic categories without regard for substantial within-group heterogeneity. This paper addresses that limitation by examining whether Hispanic immigrants are disproportionately exposed to risks from flood hazards relative to other racial/ethnic groups (including US-born Hispanics), adjustin...

  7. STUDY REGARDING DELINEATION OF FLOOD HAZARD ZONES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE SOMEŞ RIVER, BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological studies will provide the characteristic parameters for the floods occurred for the calculus discharges with overflow probabilities of 0,1%; 1%, 5%, 10%. The hydrologic and hydraulic models will be made by using the hydro-meteorological data base and the topographical measurements on site; them calibration will be done according to the records of the historical floods. The studies on the hydrologic and hydraulic models will be necessary for the establishment of the carrying capacity of the riverbeds, for the delimitation of the flood plains and for the detection of the transit discharges at the hydro-technical installations, but also for the establishment of the parameters needed for the structural measures’ projects. These will be based on the 1D and 2D unstable hydro-dynamic models. Therefore, the users would be able to assess the proposed measures and the impact over the river’s system; of course with the potential combination of the 1D and 2D. The main objectives followed by the project are: • identification of the river basins or river sub-basins with flood risks; • regionalization of the flood hazard; • presentation of the main flash floods occurred during the last 30 years, which induced floods; • assessment of the consequences of eventual flood over the population, properties and environment; • the establishment of the protection degree, accepted for the human settlements, for the economic and social objectives, for the farm areas, etc.;

  8. Dam break modelling, risk assessment and uncertainty analysis for flood mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagonjolli, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis a range of modelling techniques is explored to deal effectively with flood risk management. In particular, attention is paid to floods caused by failure of hydraulic structures such as dams and dikes. The methods considered here are applied for simulating dam and dike failure events,

  9. Dam break modelling, risk assessment and uncertainty analysis for flood mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagonjolli, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis a range of modelling techniques is explored to deal effectively with flood risk management. In particular, attention is paid to floods caused by failure of hydraulic structures such as dams and dikes. The methods considered here are applied for simulating dam and dike failure events,

  10. Flood mitigation through optimal control of a network of multi-purpose reservoirs by using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    MyoLin, Nay; Rutten, Martine; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a common natural disaster in the world. Construction of reservoirs, sluice gates, dikes, embankments and sea walls are implemented to minimize loss of life and property in a flood event. Rather than completely relying on large structural measures, non-structural measures such as real time control of a reservoir system can also improve flood prevention and water supply in a river basin. In this paper, we present the optimal operation of a multi-reservoir system by using Model Predictive Control (MPC) and particular attention is focused on flood mitigation of the Sittaung River Basin, Myanmar. The main challenges are non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and exponential growth of computational complexity with the state and control dimension. To deal with an issue related to non-linearity, we applied simplified internal model based on linearization scheme with a large grid length. For solving curse of dimensionality, we utilize the reduced model in which the states of the system are reduced by considering outflows from uncontrolled catchments as disturbances in the water system. We also address the computational time for real time control by using large time step scheme. Simulation results indicate that this model is able to use for real time control of a reservoir system addressing trade-offs between the multiple objectives.

  11. Development processes of a master plan for flood protection and mitigation in a community area: A case study of Roi Et province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Jothityangkoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development processes of a master plan formulation for flood protection and mitigation consists of the selection process of a targeted area based on risk level, developing a present and future flood inundation map and a flood risk map and identify direction and drainage capacity of the targeted area. Main causes of flooding in the area can be identified leading to designing flood protection and a flood drainage system in both structural and non-structural measures, prior to a public hearing process from stakeholders to finalize the master plan to provide maximum benefits and less negative impact. These processes are applied to Roi Et Province. Based on flood risk criteria, 24 municipalities with high risk are selected. The cause of flooding in the municipality area can be combined in 2 groups, flooding from low efficiency of storm drainage capacity and flooding from overbank flow from the Mun, Chi and Yang Rivers. Structural measures for the first and second group are the improvement of the existing system or changing a new drainage system and the improvement of existing river dikes and levees. It is also possible to design and construct a new one. Constructing a polder system for the community area, requires a budget about 3,338 million baht. To support structural measures, non-structural measures are required, for example, a flood warning system, an emergency response plan during flood disaster.

  12. Practices and Lessons Learned in Coping with Climatic Hazards at the River-Basin Scale: Floods and Droughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Roest

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Climatic hazards such as floods and droughts have always been a primary matter of concern for human populations. Severe floods damage settlements, transport networks, and arable land. Although devastating droughts are harmful primarily for agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems, they can also lead to local water supply shortages. Despite significant achievements in science and technology and success stories in environmental management in the 20th century, people still continue to suffer the consequences of climate hazards worldwide. This paper provides an overview of existing practices for coping with floods and droughts, compares strategies in different river basins, and outlines the areas that need improvement. First, the existing protection measures and response strategies against floods and droughts are briefly described. An overview is given of expected climate change and existing coping strategies for floods and droughts in seven case study basins. Four of the basins, namely the Elbe, Guadiana, Rhine, and Tisza, are located in Europe; the Nile and the Orange are in Africa; and the Amudarya is in Central Asia. Analysis of the coping strategies shows that structural measures exist in all seven river basins, but that nonstructural measures are generally not very extensive and/or advanced. Finally, the success stories in dealing with climatic hazards and lessons learned, taken partly from the seven case study basins and partly from literature, are summarized.

  13. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  14. An establishment on the hazard mitigation system of large scale landslides for Zengwen reservoir watershed management in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Lee, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Huang, Meng-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Extremely heavy rainfall with accumulated rainfall amount more than 2900mm within continuous 3 day event occurred at southern Taiwan has been recognized as a serious natural hazard caused by Morakot typhoon in august, 2009. Very destructive large scale landslides and debris flows were induced by this heavy rainfall event. According to the satellite image processing and monitoring project was conducted by Soil & Water Conservation Bureau after Morakot typhoon. More than 10904 sites of landslide with total sliding area of 18113 ha were significantly found by this project. Also, the field investigation on all landslide areas were executed by this research on the basis of disaster type, scale and location related to the topographic condition, colluvium soil characteristics, bedrock formation and geological structure after Morakot hazard. The mechanism, characteristics and behavior of this large scale landslide combined with debris flow disasters are analyzed and Investigated to rule out the interaction of factors concerned above and identify the disaster extent of rainfall induced landslide during the period of this study. In order to reduce the disaster risk of large scale landslide and debris flow, the adaption strategy of hazard mitigation system should be set up as soon as possible and taken into consideration of slope land conservation, landslide control countermeasure planning, disaster database establishment, environment impact analysis and disaster risk assessment respectively. As a result, this 3-year research has been focused on the field investigation by using GPS/GIS/RS integration, mechanism and behavior study regarding to the rainfall induced landslide occurrence, disaster database and hazard mitigation system establishment. In fact, this project has become an important issue which was seriously concerned by the government and people live in Taiwan. Hopefully, all results come from this research can be used as a guidance for the disaster prevention and

  15. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  16. Volcanic hazard in Mexico: a comprehensive on-line database for risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad; Capra, Lucia; Bonasia, Rosanna

    2013-04-01

    Researchers are currently working on several key aspects of the Mexican volcanoes, such as remote sensing, field data of old and recent volcaniclastic deposits, structural framework, monitoring (rainfall data and visual observation of lahars), and laboratory experiment (analogue models and numerical simulations - fall3D, titan2D). Each investigation is focused on specific processes, but it is fundamental to visualize the global status of the volcano in order to understand its behavior and to mitigate future hazards. The Mexican Volcanoes @nline represents a novel initiative aimed to collect, on a systematic basis, the complete set of data obtained so far on the volcanoes, and to continuously update the database with new data. All the information is compiled from published works and updated frequently. Maps, such as the geological map of the Mexican volcanos and the associated hazard zonation, as well as point data, such as stratigraphic sections, sedimentology and diagrams of rainfall intensities, are presented in Google Earth format in order to be easily accessed by the scientific community and the general public. An important section of this online database is the presentation of numerical simulations results for ash dispersion associated with the principal Mexican active volcanoes. Daily prediction of ash flow dispersion (based on real-time data from CENAPRED and the Mexican Meteorological Service), as well as large-scale high-resolution subduction simulations performed on HORUS (the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory's supercomputer) represent a central part of the Mexican Volcanos @nline database. The Mexican Volcanoes @nline database is maintained by the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory and it is based entirely on Open Source software. The website can be visited at: http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/mexican_volcanoes.

  17. Improving Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness Using Real-Time and Post-Tsunami Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The February 27, 2010 Chile and March 11, 2011 Japan tsunamis caused dramatic loss of life and damage in the near-source region, and notable impacts in distant coastal regions like California. Comprehensive real-time and post-tsunami field surveys and the availability of hundreds of videos within harbors and marinas allow for detailed documentation of these two events by the State of California Tsunami Program, which receives funding through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Although neither event caused significant inundation of dry land in California, dozens of harbors sustained damage totaling nearly $100-million. Information gathered from these events has guided new strategies in tsunami evacuation planning and maritime preparedness. Scenario-specific, tsunami evacuation "playbook" maps and guidance are being produced detailing inundation from tsunamis of various size and source location. These products help coastal emergency managers prepare local response plans when minor distant source tsunamis or larger tsunamis from local and regional sources are generated. In maritime communities, evaluation of strong tsunami currents and damage are being used to validate/calibrate numerical tsunami model currents and produce in-harbor hazard maps and identify offshore safety zones for potential boat evacuation when a tsunami Warning is issued for a distant source event. Real-time and post-tsunami field teams have been expanded to capture additional detailed information that can be shared in a more timely manner during and after an event through a state-wide clearinghouse. These new products and related efforts will result in more accurate and efficient emergency response by coastal communities, potentially reducing the loss of lives and property during future tsunamis.

  18. Simulating floods : On the application of a 2D-hydraulic model for flood hazard and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, D.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, river floods in Europe seem to occur more frequently and are causing more and more economic and emotional damage. Understanding the processes causing flooding and the development of simulation models to evaluate countermeasures to control that damage are important issues. This

  19. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  20. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  1. Natural Hazard Mitigation Strategies in the Continental Caribbean: The Case of Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem M. Usher

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La petite nation de Belize est nichée au cœur de l’Amérique Centrale, bordée au nord par le Mexique, à l'ouest et au sud par le Guatemala ; la mer Caraïbe constituant sa frontière orientale. Situé sur la trajectoire des cyclones tropicaux atlantiques, le pays est exposé aux catastrophes atmosphériques. Parmi les plus notables dans l’histoire de Bélize : l'ouragan de 1931 et l'ouragan Hattie qui ont fait 275 victimes et causé des dommages évalués à plus de 1 milliard de dollars. En réponse, le pays a mis en place diverses politiques responsables et inédites visant la réduction des risques afin de sauvegarder sa population et de protéger l’essor du tourisme. Malgré ces efforts, la majorité des populations côtières demeure vulnérable aux ouragans et aux inondationsThe small nation of Belize is nestled on the Central American Continent bounded on its north by Mexico, the west and south by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea on its eastern border.  Located in the path of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, the country is susceptible to atmospheric disasters.  Most notably are the Hurricane of 1931 and Hurricane Hattie which claimed 275 lives and caused damages in excess of US$1 Billion. Consequently, Belize has implemented several responsible and original mitigation policies to safeguard its population and protect the bourgeoning tourism industry. In spite of those efforts, most of its coastal populations remain vulnerable to hurricanes and floods.

  2. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

  3. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Palcacocha lake is located in the Ancash Region in the Cordillera Blanca at an elevation of 4,567 m in the Quilcay sub-basin, province of Huaraz, Peru. The lake drains into the Quebrada Cojup, which subsequently drains into the Quilcay River. The Quilcay River passes through the City of Huaraz emptying its water into the Santa River, which is the primary river of the basin. This location has a special interest since the city of Huaraz, which is located at the bottom of the Quilcay sub-basin, was devastated by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) released from Lake Palcacocha on December 13, 1941. In that event, many lost their lives. In recent years Palcacocha has grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Ice/rock avalanches from the steep surrounding slopes can now directly reach the lake. A process chain of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow from Lake Palcacocha could easily reach the city of Huaraz with the current lake volume. Local authorities and people living in Huaraz are concerned about the threat posed by Lake Palcacocha, and consequently they have requested technical support in order to investigate the impacts that a GLOF could have in the city of Huaraz. To assess the hazard for the city of Huaraz a holistic approach is used that considers a chain of processes that could interact in a GLOF event from Lake Palcacocha. We assume that an avalanche from Palcaraju glacier, located directly above the lake, could be a GLOF trigger, followed by the formation of waves in the lake that can overtop the damming moraine starting an erosive process. The wave and avalanche simulations are described in another work, and here we use those results to simulate the propagation of the inundation downstream using FLO-2D, a model that allows us to include debris flow. GLOF hydrographs are generated using a dam break module in Mike 11. Empirical equations are used to calculate the hydrograph peaks and calibrate the inundation model. In order to quantify

  4. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  5. Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

    2010-12-01

    Two major disasters in Pakistan and innumerable lesser disasters throughout the Himalaya-Karakoram region in 2010 highlight geologic events and extreme weather (perhaps climate change) in affecting the well being of whole nations and commerce and relations between nations. Two chief events in Pakistan include the Jan. 4 rockslide into the Hunza River and the subsequent formation of a natural dam lake (Lake Gojal); and the monsoon precipitation-fed flooding across the Indus Basin. The first event severed Pakistan’s major land link with China. The second event devastated Pakistan’s national land-based transportation infrastructure and agriculture and displaced millions of people. In a country plagued by monsoon-driven floods, the lack of catastrophic breakout of Lake Gojal is welcome. Satellite-based monitoring shows the spillway to be eroding more rapidly (but not alarmingly) under August’s monsoon peak flow. Similar events have occurred before in the region and will occur again. These mega-events in Pakistan should be an alert for all of South Asia, as climate change increases or shifts the hazard environment, encroaching development and urbanization increases the vulnerabilities, and as improved capacity for trans-national commerce breaks down the Himalayan barrier and both promotes new opportunities and possible conflicts. 2010's natural mega-calamities in Pakistan and widespread landsliding and flooding elsewhere in South Asia underscores the subcontinent’s need for a thorough field-, remote sensing-, and modeling-based assessment of the disaster potential related to landslides, glacier surges, extreme monsoon precipitation events, natural glacier and landslide dam lake outbursts, and unseasonal snow melting. The Himalayan-Karakoram region is remarkable for its heterogeneous responses to climate change. For instance, some areas are undergoing rapid glacier recession and stagnation; others are undergoing glacier growth. We take the instance of the

  6. Response of debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region to recent warming, and implications for outburst flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, D. I.; Bolch, T.; Hands, K.; Gulley, J.; Luckman, A.; Nicholson, L. I.; Quincey, D.; Thompson, S.; Toumi, R.; Wiseman, S.

    2012-08-01

    orders of magnitude greater than sub-debris melt rates, so extensive lake formation accelerates overall rates of ice loss. Most supraglacial lakes are 'perched' above hydrological base level, and are susceptible to drainage if they become connected to the englacial drainage system. Speleological surveys of conduits show that large englacial voids can be created by drainage of warm lake waters along pre-existing weaknesses in the ice. Roof collapses can open these voids up to the surface, and commonly provide the nuclei of new lakes. Thus, by influencing both lake drainage and formation, englacial conduits exert a strong control on surface ablation rates. An important threshold is crossed when downwasting glacier surfaces intersect the hydrological base level of the glacier. Base-level lakes formed behind intact moraine dams can grow monotonically, and in some cases can pose serious GLOF hazards. Glacier termini can evolve in different ways in response to the same climatic forcing, so that potentially hazardous lakes will form in some situations but not others. Additionally, the probability of a flood is not simply a function of lake volume, but depends on the geometry and structure of the dam, and possible trigger mechanisms such as ice- or rockfalls into the lake. Satellite-based measurements of glacier surface gradient and ice velocities allow probable future locations of base-level lakes to be identified. A base-level lake has begun to grow rapidly on Ngozumpa Glacier west of Mount Everest, and could attain a volume of ~ 108 m3 within the next 2 or 3 decades. Unless mitigation efforts are undertaken, this lake could pose considerable GLOF hazard potential.

  7. An influence diagram for urban flood risk assessment through pluvial flood hazards under non-stationary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Helena Lisa Alexandra; Friis Hansen, P.; Garrè, Luca

    2014-01-01

    non-stationary conditions using an influence diagram (ID) which is a Bayesian network (BN) extended with decision and utility nodes. Non-stationarity is considered to be the influence of climate change where extreme precipitation patterns change over time. The overall risk is quantified in monetary...... terms expressed as expected annual damage. The network is dynamic in as much as it assesses risk at different points in time. The framework provides means for decision-makers to assess how different decisions on flood adaptation affect the risk now and in the future. The result from the ID was extended...... for flooding increases over time, and the benefits of implementing flood adaptation measures....

  8. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asare-Kyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI. Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.

  9. Analysis on the Effects of Flood Damage Mitigation in Coastal City according to Coastal Structure Construction : focusing on Busan-Si Marin City in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park

    2017-04-01

    Recently, as sea level rise and rainfall increase due to climate change, Urban development in the coastal area has caused multiple flood damages in coastal cities with a mixture flood mitigation as well as wave overtopping. flood damage of coastal floods that occur continuously in the coastal area is the main cause of flood mitigation rather than wave overtopping when a typhoon occurs. coastal structures that can reduce the flood damage of coastal cities due to wave overtopping include breakwaters and tetraport located near the coast. but, tetraport are facilities to reduce the impact of waves, it is not a facility to reduce flood damage. in this study, the reduction effects of depending on flood damage area and expected damages cost before and after installation of breakwaters were analyzed for Marine City located on the coast of Busan Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-77] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  10. Influence of Climate Change on Flood Hazard using Climate Informed Bayesian Hierarchical Model in Johnson Creek River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarekarizi, M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme events are proven to be affected by climate change, influencing hydrologic simulations for which stationarity is usually a main assumption. Studies have discussed that this assumption would lead to large bias in model estimations and higher flood hazard consequently. Getting inspired by the importance of non-stationarity, we determined how the exceedance probabilities have changed over time in Johnson Creek River, Oregon. This could help estimate the probability of failure of a structure that was primarily designed to resist less likely floods according to common practice. Therefore, we built a climate informed Bayesian hierarchical model and non-stationarity was considered in modeling framework. Principle component analysis shows that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Western Pacific Index (WPI) and Eastern Asia (EA) are mostly affecting stream flow in this river. We modeled flood extremes using peaks over threshold (POT) method rather than conventional annual maximum flood (AMF) mainly because it is possible to base the model on more information. We used available threshold selection methods to select a suitable threshold for the study area. Accounting for non-stationarity, model parameters vary through time with climate indices. We developed a couple of model scenarios and chose one which could best explain the variation in data based on performance measures. We also estimated return periods under non-stationarity condition. Results show that ignoring stationarity could increase the flood hazard up to four times which could increase the probability of an in-stream structure being overtopped.

  11. The main accomplishemnt of flood hazard monitoring and evaluating for China by remote sensing in 1998——the application of flood hazard's quick-reporting system remote sensing based on network%1998年全国洪涝灾害遥感监测评估的主要成果--基于网络的洪涝灾情遥感速报系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the main applied accomplishment in flood disaster is quick-reporing system by remole sensing based on network for Chinese flood monitoring and assessment in 1998.It includes the following aspects:monitor flood dynamically,assess the losses of crops,analyze the efficiency of the flood-preventing projects,analyze the surveying results for dangerous regions,monitor flood in cities,evaluate the vulnerability of the life-line projects and industry areas,analyze the necessity of flood eater-storage and flood-diversion for the floods in Changjiang River;finally,it gives some proposals for decision making in prevebtubg flood and mitigating harzard and function-zoning planning for rebuilding of homestead after hazard etc.%介绍了基于网络的洪涝灾害遥感速报系统在1998年全国特大洪涝灾害监测评估中的主要应用成果,包括动态监测、农作物损失评估、防洪工程有效性分析、险工险段调查分析、城市洪灾监测、工业区生命线工程易损性评估、长江洪水蓄洪分洪必要性分析、防洪减灾决策建议和灾后重建家园功能分区规划等.

  12. Debris flow, debris avalanche and flood hazards at and downstream from Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin M.; Vallance, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Mount Rainier volcano has produced many large debris flows and debris avalanches during the last 10,000 years. These flows have periodically traveled more than 100 kilometers from the volcano to inundate parts of the now-populated Puget Sound Lowland. Meteorological floods also have caused damage, but future effects will be partly mitigated by reservoirs. Mount Rainier presents the most severe flow risks of any volcano in the United States. Volcanic debris flows (lahars) are of two types: (1) cohesive, relatively high clay flows originating as debris avalanches, and (2) noncohesive flows with less clay that begin most commonly as meltwater surges. Three case histories represent important subpopulations of flows with known magnitudes and frequencies. The risks of each subpopulation may be considered for general planning and design. A regional map illustrates the extent of inundation by the case-history flows, the largest of which originated as debris avalanches and moved from Mount Rainier to Puget Sound. The paleohydrologic record of these past flows indicates the potential for inundation by future flows from the volcano. A map of the volcano and its immediate vicinity shows examples of smaller debris avalanches and debris flows in the 20th century.

  13. Flash Flood Hazard Mapping Using Satellite Images and GIS Tools: A case study of Najran City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Elkhrachy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood in the cities led to high levels of water in the streets and roads, causing many problems such as bridge collapse, building damage and traffic problems. It is impossible to avoid risks of floods or prevent their occurrence, however it is plausible to work on the reduction of their effects and to reduce the losses which they may cause. Flash flood mapping to identify sites in high risk flood zones is one of the powerful tools for this purpose. Mapping flash flood will be beneficial to urban and infrastructure planners, risk managers and disaster response or emergency services during extreme and intense rainfall events. The objective of this paper is to generate flash flood map for Najran city, Saudi Arabia, using satellite images and GIS tools. To do so, we use SPOT and SRTM DEMs data for which accuracy assessment is achieved by using check points, obtained by GPS observations. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used to determine relative impact weight of flood causative factors to get a composite flood hazard index (FHI. The causative factors in this study are runoff, soil type, surface slope, surface roughness, drainage density, distance to main channel and land use. All used data are finally integrated in an ArcMap to prepare a final flood hazard map for study area. The areas in high risk flood zones are obtained by overlaying the flood hazard index map with the zone boundaries layer. The affected population number and land area are determined and compared.

  14. Flood-hazard analysis of four headwater streams draining the Argonne National Laboratory property, DuPage County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.; Zeeb, Hannah L.

    2016-11-22

    Results of a flood-hazard analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Argonne National Laboratory, for four headwater streams within the Argonne National Laboratory property indicate that the 1-percent and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods would cause multiple roads to be overtopped. Results indicate that most of the effects on the infrastructure would be from flooding of Freund Brook. Flooding on the Northeast and Southeast Drainage Ways would be limited to overtopping of one road crossing for each of those streams. The Northwest Drainage Way would be the least affected with flooding expected to occur in open grass or forested areas.The Argonne Site Sustainability Plan outlined the development of hydrologic and hydraulic models and the creation of flood-plain maps of the existing site conditions as a first step in addressing resiliency to possible climate change impacts as required by Executive Order 13653 “Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change.” The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN is the hydrologic model used in the study, and the Hydrologic Engineering Center‒River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) is the hydraulic model. The model results were verified by comparing simulated water-surface elevations to observed water-surface elevations measured at a network of five crest-stage gages on the four study streams. The comparison between crest-stage gage and simulated elevations resulted in an average absolute difference of 0.06 feet and a maximum difference of 0.19 feet.In addition to the flood-hazard model development and mapping, a qualitative stream assessment was conducted to evaluate stream channel and substrate conditions in the study reaches. This information can be used to evaluate erosion potential.

  15. Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Ralph R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Leann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with

  16. Building a flood hazard map due to magma effusion into the caldera lake of the Baekdusan Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Yun, S.; Yu, S.; Kim, I.

    2013-12-01

    Many volcanic craters and calderas are filled with large amounts of water that can pose significant flood hazards to downstream communities due to their high elevation and the potential for catastrophic releases of water. Recent reports pointed out the Baekdusan volcano that is located between the border of China and North Korea as a potential active volcano. Since Millennium Eruption around 1000 AD, smaller eruptions have occurred at roughly 100-year intervals, with the last one in 1903. The volcano is showing signs of waking from a century-long slumber recently and the volcanic ash may spread up to the northeastern of Japan. The development of various forecasting techniques to prevent and minimize economic and social damage is in urgent need. Floods from lake-filled calderas may be particularly large and high. Volcanic flood may cause significant hydrologic hazards for this reason. This study focuses on constructing a flood hazard map triggered by the uplift of lake bottom due to magma effusion in the Baekdusan volcano. A physically-based uplift model was developed to compute the amount of water and time to peak flow. The ordinary differential equation was numerically solved using the finite difference method and Newton-Raphson iteration method was used to solve nonlinear equation. The magma effusion rate into the caldera lake is followed by the past record from other volcanic activities. As a result, the hydrograph serves as an upper boundary condition when hydrodynamic model (Flo-2D) runs to simulate channel routing downstream. The final goal of the study stresses the potential flood hazard represented by the huge volume of water in the caldera lake, the unique geography, and the limited control capability. he study will contribute to build a geohazard map for the decision-makers and practitioners. Keywords: Effusion rate, Volcanic flood, Caldera lake, Uplift, Flood hazard map Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-2] from

  17. Flood risk perceptions and spatial multi-criteria analysis: an exploratory research for hazard mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Raaijmakers, Ruud; Krywkow, Jorg; van der Veen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The conventional method of risk analysis (with risk as a product of probability and consequences) does not allow for a pluralistic approach that includes the various risk perceptions of stakeholders or lay people within a given social system. This article introduces a methodology that combines the

  18. Seawater-flooding events and impact on freshwater lenses of low-lying islands: Controlling factors, basic management and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Voss, Clifford I.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2017-01-01

    An unprecedented set of hydrologic observations was collected after the Dec 2008 seawater-flooding event on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. By two days after the seawater flooding that occurred at the beginning of dry season, the observed salinity of water withdrawn by the island’s main skimming well increased to 100% seawater concentration, but by ten days later already decreased to only 10–20% of seawater fraction. However, the damaging impact on the potability of the groundwater supply (when pumped water had concentrations above 1% seawater fraction) lasted 22 months longer. The data collected make possible analyses of the hydrologic factors that control recovery and management of the groundwater-supply quality on Roi-Namur and on similar low-lying islands.With the observed data as a guide, three-dimensional numerical-model simulation analyses reveal how recovery is controlled by the island’s hydrology. These also allow evaluation of the efficacy of basic water-quality management/mitigation alternatives and elucidate how groundwater withdrawal and timing of the seawater-flooding event affect the length of recovery. Simulations show that, as might be expected, by adding surplus captured rainwater as artificial recharge, the freshwater-lens recovery period (after which potable groundwater may again be produced) can be shortened, with groundwater salinity remaining lower even during the dry season, a period during which no artificial recharge is applied. Simulations also show that the recovery period is not lengthened appreciably by groundwater withdrawals during recovery. Simulations further show that had the flooding event occurred at the start of the wet season, the recovery period would have been about 25% (5.5 months) shorter than actually occurred during the monitored flood that occurred at the dry-season start. Finally, analyses show that artificial recharge improves freshwater-lens water quality, making possible longer

  19. Flood hazard risk assessment of Hanzhong city at the upper reaches of Hanjiang River%汉江上游汉中市洪水灾害风险评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国芳; 查小春; 石晓静; 刘嘉慧; 姬霖; 王光朋

    2016-01-01

    declined gradually from basin center to two sides around the main stream.The flood risk level is the highest in the southern part of Hanzhong,in the middle part of Chenggu county and in the northeastern part of Nanzheng county.The low level areas of flood disaster risk were Mian,Xixiang and Yang counties.Liuba county was the lowest in flood hazard risk.The assessment results are correspond-ing with the flood hazard occurrence in Hanzhong city in 2012,which can provide a scientific basis formaking reasonable flood control and mitigation planning in Hanzhong city.

  20. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suykens, C.B.R.; Priest, Sally; van Doorn - Hoekveld, W.J.; Thuillier, Thomas; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks.

  1. Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco, E.; Louie, J. N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Schmitz, M.; Moschetti, M. P.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Pasyanos, M.

    2013-12-01

    During July 2013, IRIS held an Advanced Studies Institute in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, that was designed to enable early-career scientists who already have mastered the fundamentals of seismology to begin collaborating in frontier seismological research. The Institute was conceived of at a strategic planning workshop in Heredia, Costa Rica, that was supported and partially funded by USAID, with a goal of building geophysical capacity to mitigate the effects of future earthquakes. To address this broad goal, we drew participants from a dozen different countries of Middle America. Our objectives were to develop understanding of the principles of earthquake hazard analysis, particularly site characterization techniques, and to facilitate future research collaborations. The Institute was divided into three main sections: overviews on the fundamentals of earthquake hazard analysis and lectures on the theory behind methods of site characterization; fieldwork where participants acquired new data of the types typically used in site characterization; and computer-based analysis projects in which participants applied their newly-learned techniques to the data they collected. This was the first IRIS institute to combine an instructional short course with field work for data acquisition. Participants broke into small teams to acquire data, analyze it on their own computers, and then make presentations to the assembled group describing their techniques and results.Using broadband three-component seismometers, the teams acquired data for Spatial Auto-Correlation (SPAC) analysis at seven array locations, and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) analysis at 60 individual sites along six profiles throughout Santo Domingo. Using a 24-channel geophone string, the teams acquired data for Refraction Microtremor (SeisOptReMi™ from Optim) analysis at 11 sites, with supplementary data for active-source Multi-channel Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis at

  2. Analysis of the Hazard, Vulnerability, and Exposure to the Risk of Flooding (Alba de Yeltes, Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Veleda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work has developed a method using GIS technology to evaluate the danger, vulnerability, and exposure to the risk of flooding in the Alba de Yeltes area (Salamanca, Spain. It is a non-structural measure for the prevention and mitigation of the risk of extraordinary flooding. After completing a full analysis of the physical environment (climate, geology, geomorphology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use, hydrological-hydraulic modeling was carried out using the GeoHecRas river analysis software. The results obtained from the analysis and the models have generated a danger map that facilitates the efficient evaluation of the spatial distribution of the different severity parameters (depth of the watersheet, current flow rate, and flood-prone areas. Also, map algebra and the databases associated with GIS tools, together with the vulnerability and exposure cartography, have allowed the risk to be analyzed in an integrate manner and the production of an environmental diagnostic map. The results of this study propose that there are inhabited areas close to the Yeltes-Morasverdes riverbed that have a high risk of flooding, indicating the need for proper land planning and the implementation of a series of measures that will help to reduce the risk of flooding and its impact.

  3. A quality assessment framework for natural hazard event documentation: application to trans-basin flood reports in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.

    2014-02-01

    Written sources that aim at documenting and analysing a particular natural hazard event in the recent past are published at vast majority as grey literature (e.g. as technical reports) and therefore outside of the scholarly publication routes. In consequence, the application of event-specific documentation in natural hazard research has been constrained by barriers in accessibility, concerns of credibility towards these sources and by limited awareness of their content and its usefulness for research questions. In this study we address the concerns of credibility for the first time and present a quality assessment framework for written sources from a user's perspective, i.e. we assess the documents' fitness for use to enhance the understanding of trans-basin floods in Germany in the period 1952-2002. The framework is designed to be generally applicable for any natural hazard event documentation and assesses the quality of a document, addressing accessibility as well as representational, contextual, and intrinsic dimensions of quality. We introduce an ordinal scaling scheme to grade the quality in the individual quality dimensions and the Pedigree score which serves as a measure for the overall document quality. We present results of an application of the framework to a set of 133 cases of event-specific documentation relevant for understanding trans-basin floods in Germany. Our results show that the majority of flood event-specific reports are of good quality, i.e. they are well enough drafted, largely accurate and objective, and contain a substantial amount of information on the sources, pathways and receptors/consequences of the floods. The validation of our results against assessments of two independent peers confirms the objectivity and transparency of the quality assessment framework. Using an example flood event that occurred in October/November 1998 we demonstrate how the information from multiple reports can be synthesised.

  4. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Thouret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows, and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials.

    In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access

  5. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, J.-C.; Enjolras, G.; Martelli, K.; Santoni, O.; Luque, J. A.; Nagata, M.; Arguedas, A.; Macedo, L.

    2013-02-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season) ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials. In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water) in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access to vital resources. Our

  6. Visualization of the Impact of the Catastrophic Flooding Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Moreri, K. K.

    maps. This can greatly help decision makers with the emergency measures and mitigation in most of the cases. In this article, we present a case study about mapping of flood risks due to a dam burst showing risk maps of flood hazards and available emergency facilities and their significance for risk...

  7. Climate change beliefs and hazard mitigation behaviors: Homeowners and wildfire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ

    2015-01-01

    Downscaled climate models provide projections of how climate change may exacerbate the local impacts of natural hazards. The extent to which people facing exacerbated hazard conditions understand or respond to climate-related changes to local hazards has been largely overlooked. In this article, we examine the relationships among climate change beliefs, environmental...

  8. CoSMoS v3.0 Phase 2 flood-hazard projections: San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Foxgrover, Amy; Herdman, Liv

    2016-01-01

    CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) v3.0 for Southern California. Phase 2 data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for a variety of storm conditions and sea-level rise scenarios. Several changes from Phase 1 projections are reflected in many areas. Data will be disseminated by county, with San Diego County being the first of Phase 2 data releases.

  9. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  10. Enhancing ecosystem services for flood mitigation: a conservation strategy for peri-urban landscapes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Barbedo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A key reason why some ecosystem services are undervalued is because they are not easily perceived both by beneficiaries and potential providers. Hydrological modeling allows us to assess, quantify, and visualize the causal link between a particular human intervention and the positive or negative impacts this has on flooding. This study uses such a model to test hypothetical changes in land use in the Brazilian coastal city of Paraty. We discuss how the adoption of higher density patterns of urban development can respond to the needs of a growing population, while safeguarding cultural landscapes of high environmental value against unsustainable urban sprawl and encroachment. Results of the modeling exercise show how water-flow regulation services can be improved, and to what extent restoring natural functions and properties of peri-urban floodplains may reduce urban flooding.

  11. Dealing with uncertainty in the probability of overtopping of a flood mitigation dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, copula multivariate functions were used to model, probabilistically, the most important variables of flood events: discharge peak, flood volume and duration. However, in most of the cases, the sampling uncertainty, from which small-sized samples suffer, is neglected. In this paper, considering a real reservoir controlled by a dam as a case study, we apply a structure-based approach to estimate the probability of reaching specific reservoir levels, taking into account the key components of an event (flood peak, volume, hydrograph shape) and of the reservoir (rating curve, volume-water depth relation). Additionally, we improve information about the peaks from historical data and reports through a Bayesian framework, allowing the incorporation of supplementary knowledge from different sources and its associated error. As it is seen here, the extra information can result in a very different inferred parameter set and consequently this is reflected as a strong variability of the reservoir level, associated with a given return period. Most importantly, the sampling uncertainty is accounted for in both cases (single-site and multi-site with historical information scenarios), and Monte Carlo confidence intervals for the maximum water level are calculated. It is shown that water levels of specific return periods in a lot of cases overlap, thus making risk assessment, without providing confidence intervals, deceiving.

  12. Community-based early warning systems for flood risk mitigation in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul J.; Brown, Sarah; Dugar, Sumit

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on the use of community-based early warning systems for flood resilience in Nepal. The first part of the work outlines the evolution and current status of these community-based systems, highlighting the limited lead times currently available for early warning. The second part of the paper focuses on the development of a robust operational flood forecasting methodology for use by the Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) to enhance early warning lead times. The methodology uses data-based physically interpretable time series models and data assimilation to generate probabilistic forecasts, which are presented in a simple visual tool. The approach is designed to work in situations of limited data availability with an emphasis on sustainability and appropriate technology. The successful application of the forecast methodology to the flood-prone Karnali River basin in western Nepal is outlined, increasing lead times from 2-3 to 7-8 h. The challenges faced in communicating probabilistic forecasts to the last mile of the existing community-based early warning systems across Nepal is discussed. The paper concludes with an assessment of the applicability of this approach in basins and countries beyond Karnali and Nepal and an overview of key lessons learnt from this initiative.

  13. Cartography of flood hazard by overflowing rivers using hydraulic modeling and geographic information system: Oued El Harrach case (North of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Astite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is the management of flood risk through the use of cartography of flood hazards by overflowing rivers. This cartography is developed using modern simulation tools namely the hydraulic model (HECRAS as well as the Geographic Information System (ArcGis. The study concerns Oued El Harrach (North of Algeria surrounding area which has been subject to several floods causing significant human and material damage. This loss is a consequence of the use flood zones as habitats for people. This can be avoided in the future by use the mapping of the spatial extent of the flood hazard on the land of the Oued El Harrach. Hence the importance of the cartography developed in this study as an essential tool for decision makers in prevention, protection and management of flood risks.

  14. The Brave New World of Real-time GPS for Hazards Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C.; Webb, F.

    2016-12-01

    Real-time GPS position streams are desirable for a variety of seismic and tsunami monitoring and hazard mitigation applications. We report on progress in our development of a comprehensive real-time GPS-based seismic monitoring system for the Cascadia subduction zone. This system is based on 1 Hz point position estimates computed in the ITRF08 reference frame. Convergence from phase and range observables to point position estimates is accelerated using a Kalman filter based, in-line stream editor that produces independent estimations of carrier phase integer biases and other parameters. Positions are then estimated using streamed satellite clock and orbit products from the International GNSS Service (IGS). The resulting positions show typical RMS scatter of 2.5 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical with latencies below 2 seconds. To facilitate the use of these point position streams for applications such as seismic monitoring, we broadcast real-time positions and covariances using custom-built aggregation-distribution software based on RabbitMQ messaging platform. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we have developed a Java-based front-end that provides a real-time visual display of time-series, displacement vector fields, and map-view, contoured, peak ground displacement. This Java-based front-end is available for download through the PANGA(.org) website. We currently analyze 120 PBO and PANGA stations along the Cascadia margin and San Andreas system in California along with another 50 from the circum-Pacific. We are gearing up to process all available west-coast real-time stations. These will serve as milestones towards our over-arching goal of extending our processing to include all of the available real-time streams from the Pacific rim. In addition, we have developed a Kalman filter to combine CWU real-time PPP solutions with those from Scripps Institute of Oceanography's PPP-AR real-time solutions as well as real-time solutions from other

  15. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) flood-hazard projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding and potential low-lying vulnerable areas associated with the sea-level rise and storm conditions...

  16. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm): flood-hazard depth projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Maximum depth of flooding surface (in cm) in the region landward of the present day shoreline that is inundated for the storm condition and...

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm): flood-hazard depth projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Maximum depth of flooding surface (in cm) in the region landward of the present day shoreline that is inundated for the storm condition and...

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) flood-hazard projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Geographic extent of projected coastal flooding and potential low-lying vulnerable areas associated with the sea-level rise and storm conditions...

  19. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and

  20. The effects of adaptation and mitigation on coastal flood impacts during the 21st century. An application of the DIVA and IMAGE models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Nicholls, R.J.; Klein, R.J.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of mitigation and adaptation on coastal flood impacts. We focus on a scenario that stabilizes concentrations at 450 ppm-CO 2-eq leading to 42 cm of global mean sea-level rise in 1995-2100 (GMSLR) and an unmitigated one leading to 63 cm of GMSLR. We also consider sensit

  1. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614 Banks and... Requirements Pt. 614, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614—Sample Form of Notice of Special... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a special flood hazard area using FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map...

  2. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a Novel Visual Metaphor Measure (PRISM) to Evaluate School Children's Perceptions of Natural Hazards, Sources of Hazard Information, Hazard Mitigation Organizations, and the Effectiveness of Future Hazard Education Programs in Dominica, Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, M.; Day, S. J.; Teeuw, R. M.; Solana, C.; Sensky, T.

    2014-12-01

    This project aims to study the development of understanding of natural hazards (and of hazard mitigation) from the age of 11 to the age of 15 in secondary school children from 5 geographically and socially different schools on Dominica, through repeated interviews with the students and their teachers. These interviews will be coupled with a structured course of hazard education in the Geography syllabus; the students not taking Geography will form a control group. To avoid distortion of our results arising from the developing verbalization and literacy skills of the students over the 5 years of the project, we have adapted the PRISM tool used in clinical practice to assess patient perceptions of illness and treatment (Buchi & Sensky, 1999). This novel measure is essentially non-verbal, and uses spatial positions of moveable markers ("object" markers) on a board, relative to a fixed marker that represents the subject's "self", as a visual metaphor for the importance of the object to the subject. The subjects also explain their reasons for placing the markers as they have, to provide additional qualitative information. The PRISM method thus produces data on the perceptions measured on the board that can be subjected to statistical analysis, and also succinct qualitative data about each subject. Our study will gather data on participants' perceptions of different natural hazards, different sources of information about these, and organizations or individuals to whom they would go for help in a disaster, and investigate how these vary with geographical and social factors. To illustrate the method, which is generalisable, we present results from our initial interviews of the cohort of 11 year olds whom we will follow through their secondary school education.Büchi, S., & Sensky, T. (1999). PRISM: Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure: a brief nonverbal measure of illness impact and therapeutic aid in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 40(4), 314-320.

  4. Use of a Novel Visual Metaphor Measure (PRISM) to Evaluate School Children's Perceptions of Natural Hazards, Sources of Hazard Information, Hazard Mitigation Organizations, and the Effectiveness of Future Hazard Education Programs in Dominica, Eastern Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Martin; Day, Simon; Teeuw, Richard; Solana, Carmen; Sensky, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This project aims to study the development of understanding of natural hazards (and of hazard mitigation) from the age of 11 to the age of 15 in secondary school children from 5 geographically and socially different schools on Dominica, through repeated interviews with the students and their teachers. These interviews will be coupled with a structured course of hazard education in the Geography syllabus; the students not taking Geography will form a control group. To avoid distortion of our results arising from the developing verbalization and literacy skills of the students over the 5 years of the project, we have adapted the PRISM tool used in clinical practice to assess patient perceptions of illness and treatment (Buchi & Sensky, 1999). This novel measure is essentially non-verbal, and uses spatial positions of moveable markers ("object" markers) on a board, relative to a fixed marker that represents the subject's "self", as a visual metaphor for the importance of the object to the subject. The subjects also explain their reasons for placing the markers as they have, to provide additional qualitative information. The PRISM method thus produces data on the perceptions measured on the board that can be subjected to statistical analysis, and also succinct qualitative data about each subject. Our study will gather data on participants' perceptions of different natural hazards, different sources of information about these, and organizations or individuals to whom they would go for help in a disaster, and investigate how these vary with geographical and social factors. To illustrate the method, which is generalisable, we present results from our initial interviews of the cohort of 11 year olds whom we will follow through their secondary school education. Büchi, S., & Sensky, T. (1999). PRISM: Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure: a brief nonverbal measure of illness impact and therapeutic aid in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 40(4), 314-320.

  5. COMPACT: The role of soil management in mitigating catchment flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Coates, Victoria; Frost, Matthew; Demirci, Emrah

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports a new NERC funded research project which addresses the impact of agricultural soil compaction on surface runoff and catchment scale flood risk. The intensification of agriculture, through increasing the number of animals in pasture, and the use of larger, heavier machinery for arable farming, over the past 50 years or so is hypothesised to have had an impact on the severity and frequency of flooding. These land management practices cause soil compaction, which reduces the rate of rainfall infiltration and the volume of water that can be stored within the sub-surface. This results in more rainfall being partitioned into the faster surface runoff pathway into rivers and potentially causing flooding downstream. However, the level of soil compaction is highly heterogeneous over space and time. This is because different animals i.e. cattle, sheep and horses, exert different loads on the soil and are kept at different densities. Furthermore, farm animals are known to exhibit behaviour whereby certain parts of the field are moved over more frequently than others. The same is the case in arable farming practices, whereby ploughing forms tramlines or wheelings, which are more compacted. Different forms of management practice ranging from zero-tillage to conventional cultivation exert different pressures on the soil at different times of year. However, very little is known about this variability of soil compaction levels at the sub-field level and land under different management practices. This research aims to quantify this sub-field variation in compaction severity and depths through using novel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Animal tracking GPS technology. Combining these with more conventional soil property tests, including bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and using a penetrometer will allow relationships with frequency of load to be developed over different spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, X-Ray CT scanning will reveal the

  6. Threshold determination and hazard evaluation of the disaster about drought/flood sudden alternation in Huaihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhonghui; Li, Ning; Wu, Xianhua

    2017-08-01

    Based on the related impact factors of precipitation anomaly referred in previous research, eight atmospheric circulation indicators in pre-winter and spring picked out by correlation analysis as the independent variables and the hazard levels of drought/flood sudden alternation index (DFSAI) as the dependent variables were used to construct the nonlinear and nonparametric classification and regression tree (CART) for the threshold determination and hazard evaluation on bimonthly and monthly scales in Huaihe River basin. Results show that the spring indicators about Arctic oscillation index (AOI_S), Asia polar vortex area index (APVAI_S), and Asian meridional circulation index (AMCI_S) were extracted as the three main impact factors, which were proved to be suitable for the hazard levels assessment of the drought/flood sudden alternation (DFSA) disaster based on bimonthly scale. On monthly scale, AOI_S, northern hemisphere polar vortex intensity index in pre-winter (NHPVII_PW), and AMCI_S are the three primary variables in hazard level prediction of DFSA in May and June; NHPVII_PW, AMCI_PW, and AMCI_S are for that in June and July; NHPVII_PW and EASMI are for that in July and August. The type of the disaster (flood to drought/drought to flood/no DFSA) and hazard level under different conditions also can be obtained from each model. The hazard level and type were expressed by the integer from - 3 to 3, which change from the high level of disaster that flood to drought (level - 3) to the high level of the reverse type (level 3). The middle number 0 represents no DFSA. The high levels of the two sides decrease progressively to the neutralization (level 0). When AOI_S less than - 0.355, the disaster of the quick turn from drought to flood is more apt to happen (level 1) on bimonthly scale; when AOI_S less than - 1.32, the same type disaster may occur (level 2) in May and June on monthly scale. When NHPVII_PW less than 341.5, the disaster of the quick turn from flood to

  7. Treading water: Flood hazard management and adapting to climate change in BC’s Lower Mainland

    OpenAIRE

    Arros, Pomme Mira

    2013-01-01

    Increases in coastal flooding from climate change related sea level rise and increased rainfall will stress local government’s resources. While local governments are planning for expected climate change effects through the use of adaptation and flood management tools, a number of barriers limit long-term adaptation planning. This study examines which flood management tools are currently used in four municipalities in the Lower Mainland: the City of Vancouver, Delta, Richmond and Surrey. The s...

  8. Stochastic Urban Pluvial Flood Hazard Maps Based upon a Spatial-Temporal Rainfall Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Eduardo Simões; Susana Ochoa-Rodríguez; Li-Pen Wang; Rui Daniel Pina; Alfeu Sá Marques; Christian Onof; Leitão, João P.

    2015-01-01

    It is a common practice to assign the return period of a given storm event to the urban pluvial flood event that such storm generates. However, this approach may be inappropriate as rainfall events with the same return period can produce different urban pluvial flooding events, i.e., with different associated flood extent, water levels and return periods. This depends on the characteristics of the rainfall events, such as spatial variability, and on other characteristics of the sewer system a...

  9. Repeated glacial-lake outburst floods in Patagonia: An increasing hazard?

    OpenAIRE

    Dussaillant, Alejandro; Benito, Gerardo; Buytaert, Wouter; Carling, Paul; Meier, Claudio; Espinoza, Fabián

    2009-01-01

    Five similar glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) occurred in April, October, December 2008, March and September 2009 in the Northern Patagonia Icefield. On each occasion, Cachet 2 Lake, dammed by the Colonia Glacier, released circa 200-million m3 water into the Colonia River. Refilling has occurred rapidly, such that further outbreak floods can be expected. Pipeflow calculations of the subglacial tunnel drainage and 1D hydraulic models of the river flood give consistent results, with an esti...

  10. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood ins...

  11. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphometric analyze for flood hazard map using DTM built with LIDAR and Echo-sounder data in Danube Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, A.; Nichersu, I.; Trifanov, C.; Nichersu, I.; Mierla, M.

    2012-04-01

    will be merged with high quality LIDAR data available for the whole area and the accurate DTM result will help in better understanding of the morphology of the area, with acurate models and flooding scenarios. It is well known that is difficult to determine and delineate on the topographic maps, the floods limit, which is essential in the preparation of hazard maps. To perform a morphometric analysis for real floods is needed to be defined precisely on the 3D model. In this paper, we wish to present an analysis of flooding phenomenon in the Danube Delta, based on the study of digital models.

  13. Performance of Models for Flash Flood Warning and Hazard Assessment: The 2015 Kali Gandaki Landslide Dam Breach in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Bricker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha earthquake and its aftershocks weakened mountain slopes in Nepal. Co- and postseismic landsliding and the formation of landslide-dammed lakes along steeply dissected valleys were widespread, among them a landslide that dammed the Kali Gandaki River. Overtopping of the landslide dam resulted in a flash flood downstream, though casualties were prevented because of timely evacuation of low-lying areas. We hindcast the flood using the BREACH physically based dam-break model for upstream hydrograph generation, and compared the resulting maximum flow rate with those resulting from various empirical formulas and a simplified hydrograph based on published observations. Subsequent modeling of downstream flood propagation was compromised by a coarse-resolution digital elevation model with several artifacts. Thus, we used a digital-elevation-model preprocessing technique that combined carving and smoothing to derive topographic data. We then applied the 1-dimensional HEC-RAS model for downstream flood routing, and compared it to the 2-dimensional Delft-FLOW model. Simulations were validated using rectified frames of a video recorded by a resident during the flood in the village of Beni, allowing estimation of maximum flow depth and speed. Results show that hydrological smoothing is necessary when using coarse topographic data (such as SRTM or ASTER, as using raw topography underestimates flow depth and speed and overestimates flood wave arrival lag time. Results also show that the 2-dimensional model produces more accurate results than the 1-dimensional model but the 1-dimensional model generates a more conservative result and can be run in a much shorter time. Therefore, a 2-dimensional model is recommended for hazard assessment and planning, whereas a 1-dimensional model would facilitate real-time warning declaration.

  14. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

  15. Combining hazard, exposure and social vulnerability to provide lessons for flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koks, E. E.; Jongman, B.; Husby, T. G.; Botzen, W. J W

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk assessments provide inputs for the evaluation of flood risk management (FRM) strategies. Traditionally, such risk assessments provide estimates of loss of life and economic damage. However, the effect of policy measures aimed at reducing risk also depends on the capacity of households to

  16. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

  17. A global classification of coastal flood hazard climates associated with large-scale oceanographic forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Vitousek, Sean; Camus, Paula; Tomás, Antonio; Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Inigo J; Barnard, Patrick L; Erikson, Li H; Ruggiero, Peter; Reguero, Borja G; Mendez, Fernando J

    2017-07-11

    Coastal communities throughout the world are exposed to numerous and increasing threats, such as coastal flooding and erosion, saltwater intrusion and wetland degradation. Here, we present the first global-scale analysis of the main drivers of coastal flooding due to large-scale oceanographic factors. Given the large dimensionality of the problem (e.g. spatiotemporal variability in flood magnitude and the relative influence of waves, tides and surge levels), we have performed a computer-based classification to identify geographical areas with homogeneous climates. Results show that 75% of coastal regions around the globe have the potential for very large flooding events with low probabilities (unbounded tails), 82% are tide-dominated, and almost 49% are highly susceptible to increases in flooding frequency due to sea-level rise.

  18. The Study of Insurance Premium Rate GIS Mapping Considering the Storm and Flood Hazard Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  19. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  20. Looking Before We Leap: Recent Results From An Ongoing Quantitative Investigation Of Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, R. P.; Korycansky, D. G.; Huebner, W. F.

    2010-10-01

    The asteroid and comet impact hazard is now part of public consciousness, as demonstrated by movies, Super Bowl commercials, and popular news stories. However, there is a popular misconception that hazard mitigation is a solved problem. Many people think, `we'll just nuke it.’ There are, however, significant scientific questions remaining in the hazard mitigation problem. Before we can say with certainty that an explosive yield Y at height of burst h will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a potentially hazardous object (PHO), we need to quantify how and where energy is deposited into the rubble pile or conglomerate that may make up the PHO. We then need to understand how shock waves propagate through the system, what causes them to disrupt, and how long gravitationally bound fragments take to recombine. Here we present numerical models of energy deposition from an energy source into various materials that are known PHO constituents, and rigid body dynamics models of the recombination of disrupted objects. In the energy deposition models, we explore the effects of porosity and standoff distance as well as that of composition. In the dynamical models, we explore the effects of fragment size and velocity distributions on the time it takes for gravitationally bound fragments to recombine. Initial models indicate that this recombination time is relatively short, as little as 24 hours for a 1 km sized PHO composed of 1000 meter-scale self-gravitating fragments with an initial velocity field of v/r = 0.001 1/s.

  1. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD INGWE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect datafrom primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the studyareas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  2. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD INGWE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the study areas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Tsunami Hazard Mitigation by Mangrove Forest in North Coast Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Harry Gunawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest or known as bakau forest is important forest as a natural wave barrier or tsunami wave mitigation. Some advantages of mangrove forest to reduce the water waves are already studied. Mangrove forest in north coast of Bali’s island, Buleleng regency, Indonesia is in damaged condition. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of mangrove forest as the water wave mitigation in numerical simulation point of view. Moreover, the results also show the effect of tsunami propagation to the coastal area with and without mangrove resistance. Here, the nonlinear shallow water equations are used to govern the model of numerical simulation.

  4. Coupling scenarios of urban growth and flood hazard along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sekovski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent of coastline urbanization reduces their resilience to flooding, especially in low lying areas. The study site is the Emilia-Romagna Region coastline (Italy, historically affected by marine storms and floods. The main aim of this study is to investigate the vulnerability of this coastal area to marine flooding by considering the dynamics of the forcing component (Total Water Level and the dynamics of the receptor (urban areas. This was done by comparing the output of the three flooding scenarios (10, 100 and >100 year return periods to the output of different scenarios of future urban growth up to 2050. Scenario-based marine flooding extents were derived by applying the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS® to a high resolution Digital Terrain Model. Three scenarios of urban growth (similar-as-historic, compact and sprawled up to 2050 were estimated by applying the cellular automata based SLEUTH model. The results show that, if the urban growth is compact-like, flood-prone areas will largely increase with respect to similar-as-historic and sprawled growth scenarios. Combining the two methodologies can be useful for identify flood-prone areas that have a high potential for future urbanization, and is therefore crucial for coastal managers and planners.

  5. Flood Hazard Zonation by Combining Mod-Clark and HEC-RAS Models in Bustan Dam Basin, Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Parisay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood is one of the devastating phenomena which every year incurs casualties and property damages. Flood zonation is an efficient technique for flood management. The main goal of this research is flood hazard and risk zonation along a 21 km reach of the Gorganrud river in Bustan dam watershed considering two conditions: present landuse condition and scenario planning. To this end a combination of a hydrologic model (the distributed HEC-HMS with the Mod-Clark transform option and a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS were used. The required inputs to run the Mod-Clarck module of HEC-HMS are gridded files of river basin, curve number and rainfall with the SHG coordinate system and DSS format. In this research the input files were prepared using the Watershed Modeling System (WMS at cell size of 200 m. Since the Mod-Clark method requires rainfall data as radar format (NEXRAD, the distributed rainfall mapseries with time intervals of 15 minutes prepared within the PCRaster GIS system were converted to the DSS format using the asc2dss package. also the curve number map was converted to the DSS format using HEC-GeoHMS. Then, these DSS files were substituted with rainfall and curve number maps within the WMS. After calibration and validation, model was run for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 years, in two conditions of current landuse and scenario planning. The simulated peak discharge data, geometric parameters of river and cross section (at 316 locations data prepared by the HEC-GeoRAS software and roughness coefficients data, were used by the HEC-RAS software to simulate the hydraulic behavior of the river and flood inundation area maps were produced using GIS. The results of the evaluation showed that in addition to the percent error in peak flow, less than 3.2%, the model has a good performance in peak flow simulation, but is not successful in volume estimation. The results of flood zones revealed that from the total area in floodplain with

  6. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  7. Preliminary Results of Bedrock Variations in the Tekirdag Region (NW Turkey) by Multidisciplinary Geophysical Methods for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, M. K.; Arslan, M. S.; Ozel, A. O.; İşseven, T.; Genc, T.; Aksahin, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    As it is well known, North Anatolian fault Zone is highly capable of producing destructive earthquakes. Hence, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are very important for the urban areas which is close to the major faults. From this point of view, multidisciplinary geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. Our study area Tekirdag region which located western end of Nort Anatolian Fault Zone is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. We carried out research on determination of bedrock variations has been carried out in the Tekirdag Region which took place in the western end of North Anatolian Fault Zone by using multidisciplinary geophysical methods. This research has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the joint project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education. Microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on the seven profiles of 45km to 60km length. We attempt to map variations in bedrock, its geologic structure along the profiles. According to the results obtained in the region where the north-south direction is toward the north branch of the bedrock, and also in the east-west direction it was determined to be deepening westward. Final target would be 3-dimensional mapping of bedrock in the area.

  8. Quantitative analysis of the 1981 and 2001 Etna flank eruptions: a contribution for future hazard evaluation and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Proietti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lava flows produced during Etna flank eruptions represent severe hazards for the nearby inhabited areas, which can be protected by adopting prompt mitigation actions, such as the building of diversion barriers. Lava diversion measures were attempted recently during the 1983, 1991-93, 2001 and 2002 Etna eruptions, although with different degrees of success. In addition to the complexity of barrier construction (due to the adverse physical conditions, the time available to successfully slow the advance of a lava flow depends on the lava effusion rate, which is not easily measurable. One method to estimate the average lava effusion rate over a specified period of time is based on a volumetric approach; i.e. the measurement of the volume changes of the lava flow over that period. Here, this has been compared to an approach based on thermal image processing, as applied to estimate the average effusion rates of lava flows during the 1981 and 2001 Etna eruptions. The final volumes were measured by the comparison of pre-eruption and post-eruption photogrammetric digital elevation models and orthophotographs. Lava volume growth during these eruptions was estimated by locating the flow-front positions from analyses of scientific papers and newspapers reports, as well as from helicopter photographs. The analyses of these two eruptions contribute to the understanding of the different eruptive mechanisms, highlighting the role of the peak effusion rate, which represents a critical parameter for planning of mitigation actions and for hazard evaluation.

  9. ANSI / FM Approvals 2510 flood abatement equipment test standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravetz Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards, including flooding, continue to be the leading cause of commercial and industrial property damage worldwide. Until recently, there has been a limited amount of readily available guidance on choosing flood abatement protection. FM Approvals, a division of FM Global, one of the world’s largest business property insurers, working together with the Association of State Floodplain Managers and the US Army Corps of Engineers have developed a National Flood Barrier Test Program after recognizing the urgent demand for reliable flood abatement products to mitigate potential losses. This lead to the ANSI/ FM2510 flood abatement equipment standard.

  10. An Integrated Modelling Framework to Assess Flood Risk under Urban Development and Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk in cities is strongly affected by the development of the city itself. Many studies focus on changes in the flood hazard as a result of, for example, changed degrees of sealing in the catchment or climatic changes. However, urban developments in flood prone areas can affect the exposure to the hazard and thus have large impacts on flood risk. Different urban socio-economic development scenarios, rainfall inputs and options for the mitigation of flood risk, quickly lead to a large nu...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood... in appendix A of 44 CFR part 65) when determining whether the building or mobile home offered...

  12. Special Flood Hazard Evaluation Report, Maumee River, Defiance and Paulding Counties, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    into the Flood Flow Frequency Analysis (FFFA) computer program (Reference 3) to determine the discharge-frequency relationship for the Maumee River...although the flood may occur in any year. It is based on statistical analysis of streamflow records available for the watershed and analysis of rainfall...C) K) K4 10 ERFODBUDR .S ryEgne itit ufI N - FODA ONAYSEIA LO AADEAUTO 6 ? -F -C )I= ~ - %E )tvXJ. AE LO LVTO MAMERVE CROS SECIONLOCAION DEFINCEAND

  13. Nonstructural Approaches to the Management of the Snohomish River Basin Flood Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    minimize flood damage. In riverine situations, provided that until a floodway has been desig- nated no use (including landfill ) shall be permitted...of riparian wetland via dike breaching). Cathcart Gap is the largest contiguous riparian association within the reach and has important habitat and NVS...constructed between Snohomish and Cathcart to reduce flood elevations here, as previously M discussed. The Corps of Engineers should be responsible for the

  14. Remote Sensing for Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: New NSF sponsored initiative at Michigan Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gross, E.

    2005-12-01

    Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety and, eventually, economic development, they lack the resources required to advance the development and practice of remote sensing. Both developed and developing countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development, and this common commitment creates a solid foundation upon which to build an integrated education and research project. This will prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve a suite of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. This project makes two important advances: (1) We intend to develop the first formal linkage among geoscience agencies from four Pacific Latin American countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador), focusing on the collaborative development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resource development; (2) We will build a new educational system of applied research and engineering, using two existing educational programs at Michigan Tech: a new Peace Corp/Master's International (PC/MI) program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment, and an "Enterprise" program for undergraduates, which gives teams of geoengineering students the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems This project will involve 1-2 post-doctoral researchers, 3 Ph.D., 9 PC/MI, and roughly 20 undergraduate students each year.

  15. Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, John L

    2004-05-01

    Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of

  16. Cities and Sea Level Rise: A Roadmap for Flood Hazard Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, D. P.; Cousins, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal cities will face a range of increasingly severe challenges as sea level rises, and adaptation to future flood risk will require more than structural defences. Many cities will not be able to rely solely on engineering structures for protection and will need to develop a suite of policy responses to increase their resilience to impacts of rising sea level. Local governments generally maintain day-to-day responsibility and control over the use of the vast majority of property at risk of flooding, and the tools to promote flood risk adaptation are already within the capacity of most cities. Policy tools available to address other land-use problems can be refashioned and used to adapt to sea level rise. This study reviews approaches for urban adaptation through case studies of cities which have developed flood adaptation strategies that combine structural defences with innovative approaches to living with flood risk. The aim of the overall project is to produce a 'roadmap' to guide practitioners through the process of analysing coastal flood risk in urban areas. Technical knowledge of flood risk reduction measures is complemented with a consideration of the essential impact that local policy has on the treatment of coastal flooding and the constraints and opportunities that result from the specific country or locality characteristics in relation to economic, political, social and environmental priorities, which are likely to dictate the approach to coastal flooding and the actions proposed. Detailed analyses of the adaptation strategies used by Rotterdam (Netherlands), Bristol (UK), and Norfolk (Virginia) are used to draw out a range of good practice elements that promote effective adaptation to sea level rise. These can be grouped into risk reduction, governance issues, and insurance, and can be used to provide examples of how other cities could adopt and implement flood adaptation strategies from a relatively limited starting position. Most cities will

  17. Mitigation of hydrogen hazard in a fusion reactor by reduction of metallic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, F.; Chaudron, V. [Technicatome, Dir. de l' Ingenierie, SEPS, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France); Latge, C. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laurent, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1998-07-01

    Significant quantities of hydrogen could be generated inside a fusion reactor during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) by chemical reaction between steam released into the torus and plasma-facing components at high temperature. On the basis of functional specifications stemming from ITER accident sequence analyses, it appears that the implementation of an anaerobic hydrogen elimination system inside the torus or its expansion volume is the most advisable mitigation means because it allows removal of the hydrogen at its source of production before it comes into contact with oxygen. After a review of literature data and an experimental evaluation of various types of metallic oxides at laboratory scale, manganese oxide catalyzed by silver compounds was found to be the most efficient hydrogen getter. In order to test this hydrogen mitigation technique in representative fusion plant accident conditions, Technicatome and the CEA designed and built a pilot installation named MIRHABEL (MItigation of the Risk linked to Hydrogen by ABsorption and ELimination). After a short description of MIRHABEL, this paper presents and discusses the test results with respect to ITER accident conditions. (authors)

  18. Neo-deterministic seismic hazard scenarios for India—a preventive tool for disaster mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Magrin, Andrea; Vaccari, Franco; Ashish; Mir, Ramees R.; Peresan, Antonella; Panza, Giuliano Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Current computational resources and physical knowledge of the seismic wave generation and propagation processes allow for reliable numerical and analytical models of waveform generation and propagation. From the simulation of ground motion, it is easy to extract the desired earthquake hazard parameters. Accordingly, a scenario-based approach to seismic hazard assessment has been developed, namely the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment (NDSHA), which allows for a wide range of possible seismic sources to be used in the definition of reliable scenarios by means of realistic waveforms modelling. Such reliable and comprehensive characterization of expected earthquake ground motion is essential to improve building codes, particularly for the protection of critical infrastructures and for land use planning. Parvez et al. (Geophys J Int 155:489-508, 2003) published the first ever neo-deterministic seismic hazard map of India by computing synthetic seismograms with input data set consisting of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogues. As described in Panza et al. (Adv Geophys 53:93-165, 2012), the NDSHA methodology evolved with respect to the original formulation used by Parvez et al. (Geophys J Int 155:489-508, 2003): the computer codes were improved to better fit the need of producing realistic ground shaking maps and ground shaking scenarios, at different scale levels, exploiting the most significant pertinent progresses in data acquisition and modelling. Accordingly, the present study supplies a revised NDSHA map for India. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (Dmax), maximum velocity (Vmax) and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid over the studied territory.

  19. Combining Hydrological Modeling and Remote Sensing Observations to Enable Data-Driven Decision Making for Devils Lake Flood Mitigation in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Kirilenko, Andrei; Lim, Howe; Teng, Williams

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews work to combine the hydrological models and remote sensing observations to monitor Devils Lake in North Dakota, to assist in flood damage mitigation. This reports on the use of a distributed rainfall-runoff model, HEC-HMS, to simulate the hydro-dynamics of the lake watershed, and used NASA's remote sensing data, including the TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and AIRS surface air temperature, to drive the model.

  20. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  1. Warm Storms Associated with Avalanches Hazard and Floods in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, J.

    2003-04-01

    Rain-on-snow events produce avalanches of different magnitude depending on the snowpack properties, air temperatures and rain intensities. Winter storms in this mountain range typically have rain/snow levels between 1000 and 2200 m. above sea level, but warm storms with higher rain/snow of to 3000 m. above sea level. occur in extreme winters and have the potential to generate rain on snow floods and wet-snow avalanches. For example, the flood of June 29 of 2000 occurred after one of extremely wet June of the last 40 years were snowfall was 991cm in the Aconcagua Valley. Infrequently storms activity generated a huge snowfall and rainfall over the Andes mountains on June of 2000 (1525mm in El Maule Valley) and the end of the unusually period, the flood was triggered by rising temperatures on the mountains and heavy rain (199mm in 24 hours) fall over the fresh snow on the morning of June 29 and floods wave developed and moved down along of the all river located on Central part of Chile, the foods peak was 2970.5m3/s on the El Maule basin in the morning of June 29. This paper studies the characteristics of warm storms the had the potential to generate wet-snow avalanches and floods.

  2. Improvements on flood alleviation in Germany: lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrow, Theresia; Thieken, Annegret H; Kreibich, Heidi; Bahlburg, Cord Heinrich; Merz, Bruno

    2006-11-01

    The increase in damage due to natural disasters is directly related to the number of people who live and work in hazardous areas and continuously accumulate assets. Therefore, land use planning authorities have to manage effectively the establishment and development of settlements in flood-prone areas in order to avoid the further increase of vulnerable assets. Germany faced major destruction during the flood in August 2002 in the Elbe and Danube catchments, and many changes have been suggested in the existing German water and planning regulations. This article presents some findings of a "Lessons Learned" study that was carried out in the aftermath of the flood and discusses the following topics: 1) the establishment of comprehensive hazard maps and flood protection concepts, 2) the harmonization of regulations of flood protection at the federal level, 3) the communication of the flood hazard and awareness strategies, and 4) how damage potential can be minimized through measures of area precaution such as resettlement and risk-adapted land use. Although attempts towards a coordinated and harmonized creation of flood hazard maps and concepts have been made, there is still no uniform strategy at all planning levels and for all states (Laender) of the Federal Republic of Germany. The development and communication of possible mitigation strategies for "unthinkable extreme events" beyond the common safety level of a 100-year flood are needed. In order to establish a sustainable and integrated flood risk management, interdisciplinary and catchment-based approaches are needed.

  3. Preliminary Study in Spatial Data Warehouse of Flood Control and Disaster Mitigation in Yangtze River Basin%长江防洪减灾空间数据仓库初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹小国

    2002-01-01

    Since 1990s,the spatial data warehouse technology has rapidly been developing, but due to the complexity of multi-dimensional analysis, extensive application of the spatial data warehouse technology is affected. In the light of the characteristics of the flood control and disaster mitigation in the Yangtze river basin, it is proposed to design a scheme about the subjects and data distribution of the spatial data warehouse of the flood control and disaster mitigation in Yangtze river basin, i.e., to adopt a distributed scheme. The creation and development of the spatial data warehouse of the flood control and disaster mitigation in Yangtze river basin is presented .The necessity and urgency of establishing the spatial data warehouse is expounded from the viewpoint of the present situation being short of available information for the flood control and disaster mitigation in Yangtze river basin.

  4. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  5. Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faied, D.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation Dohy Faied, Aurora Sanchez (on behalf of SSP08 VAPOR Project Team) Dohy.Faied@masters.isunet.edu While numerous global initiatives exist to address the potential hazards posed by volcanic eruption events and assess impacts from a civil security viewpoint, there does not yet exist a single, unified, international system of early warning and hazard tracking for eruptions. Numerous gaps exist in the risk reduction cycle, from data collection, to data processing, and finally dissemination of salient information to relevant parties. As part of the 2008 International Space University's Space Studies Program, a detailed gap analysis of the state of volcano disaster risk reduction was undertaken, and this paper presents the principal results. This gap analysis considered current sensor technologies, data processing algorithms, and utilization of data products by various international organizations. Recommendations for strategies to minimize or eliminate certain gaps are also provided. In the effort to address the gaps, a framework evolved at system level. This framework, known as VIDA, is a tool to develop user requirements for civil security in hazardous contexts, and a candidate system concept for a detailed design phase. VIDA also offers substantial educational potential: the framework includes a centralized clearinghouse for volcanology data which could support education at a variety of levels. Basic geophysical data, satellite maps, and raw sensor data are combined and accessible in a way that allows the relationships between these data types to be explored and used in a training environment. Such a resource naturally lends itself to research efforts in the subject but also research in operational tools, system architecture, and human/machine interaction in civil protection or emergency scenarios.

  6. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  7. Exploration of land-use scenarios for flood hazard modeling – the case of Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion leads to modifications in land use and land cover and to the loss of vegetated areas. These developments are in some regions of the world accelerated by a changing regional climate. As a consequence, major changes in the amount of green spaces can be observed in many urban regions. Amongst other dependences the amount of green spaces determines the availability of retention areas in a watershed. The goal of this research is to develop possible land-use and land-cover scenarios for a watershed and to explore the influence of land-use and land-cover changes on its runoff behavior using the distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS. The study area for this research is a small peri-urban watershed in the eastern area of Santiago de Chile.

    Three spatially explicit exploratory land-use/land-cover scenario alternatives were developed based on the analysis of previous land-use developments using high resolution satellite data, on the analysis of urban planning laws, on the analysis of climate change predictions, and on expert interviews. Modeling the resulting changes in runoff allows making predictions about the changes in flood hazard which the adjacent urban areas are facing after heavy winter precipitation events. The paper shows how HEC-HMS was used applying a distributed event modeling approach. The derived runoff values are combined with existing flood hazard maps and can be regarded as important source of information for the adaptation to changing conditions in the study area. The most significant finding is that the land-use changes that have to be expected after long drought periods pose the highest risk with respect to floods.

  8. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.

    2005-12-01

    Policy formulation for the mitigation and management of risks posed by natural hazards requires that governments confront difficult decisions for resource allocation and be able to justify their spending. Governments also need to recognize when spending offers little improvement and the circumstances in which relatively small amounts of spending can make substantial differences. Because natural hazards can have detrimental impacts on local and regional economies, patterns of economic development can also be affected by spending decisions for disaster mitigation. This paper argues that by mapping interdependencies among physical, social and economic factors, governments can improve resource allocation to mitigate the risks of natural hazards while improving economic development on local and regional scales. Case studies of natural hazards in Turkey have been used to explore specific "filters" that act to modify short- and long-term outcomes. Pre-event filters can prevent an event from becoming a natural disaster or change a routine event into a disaster. Post-event filters affect both short and long-term recovery and development. Some filters cannot be easily modified by spending (e.g., rural-urban migration) but others (e.g., land-use practices) provide realistic spending targets. Net social benefits derived from spending, however, will also depend on the ways by which filters are linked, or so-called "interdependencies". A single weak link in an interdependent system, such as a power grid, can trigger a cascade of failures. Similarly, weak links in social and commercial networks can send waves of disruption through communities. Conversely, by understanding the positive impacts of interdependencies, spending can be targeted to maximize net social benefits while mitigating risks and improving economic development. Detailed information on public spending was not available for this study but case studies illustrate how networks of interdependent filters can modify

  9. Implications of using on-farm flood flow capture to recharge groundwater and mitigate flood risks along the Kings River, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, Philip A M; Roy, Sujoy B; Choperena, Joe; Cameron, Don; Horwath, William R

    2014-12-02

    The agriculturally productive San Joaquin Valley faces two severe hydrologic issues: persistent groundwater overdraft and flooding risks. Capturing flood flows for groundwater recharge could help address both of these issues, yet flood flow frequency, duration, and magnitude vary greatly as upstream reservoir releases are affected by snowpack, precipitation type, reservoir volume, and flood risks. This variability makes dedicated, engineered recharge approaches expensive. Our work evaluates leveraging private farmlands in the Kings River Basin to capture flood flows for direct and in lieu recharge, calculates on-farm infiltration rates, assesses logistics, and considers potential water quality issues. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soil series suggested that a cementing layer would hinder recharge. The standard practice of deep ripping fractured the layer, resulting in infiltration rates averaging 2.5 in d(-1) (6 cm d(-1)) throughout the farm. Based on these rates 10 acres are needed to infiltrate 1 cfs (100 m(3) h(-1)) of flood flows. Our conceptual model predicts that salinity and nitrate pulses flush initially to the groundwater but that groundwater quality improves in the long term due to pristine flood flows low in salts or nitrate. Flood flow capture, when integrated with irrigation, is more cost-effective than groundwater pumping.

  10. Comparing Benefit Estimation Techniques: Residential Flood H