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Sample records for flight spectrometer cosy-tof

  1. Implementation of a new data acquisition and exclusive measurement of the reaction vector pp → ppπ+π- at the time of flight spectrometer COSY-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhardt, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The two-pion production pp ppπ + π - was measured exclusively at T p =793 MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. In this measurement both the new EMS-based data acquisition system and a delayed pulse technique have been used, which, in addition to particle identification, energy, time of flight, and angle determination provides pi+ identification for pions in the theta lab range from 2 to 28 degrees. The measured total cross section for this reaction is σ=4.1(4) μb at T p =793 MeV. Due to an improved efficiency correction, the earlier measured total cross section has been corrected to σ=1.6 μb at T p =747 MeV. This value agrees nicely with the results from WASA/PROMICE. The data are compared to previous data and theoretical models which have been developed to understand the results from WASA/PROMICE measurements. The measurements have been carried out with transversally polarized proton beam which made it possible to determine analyzing powers for different subsystems of the two pion production reaction. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing power values up to A y =0.3. The data in the range of Roper excitation confirm that the dominating π π decay channel is N * →Nσ. (orig.)

  2. Implementation of a new data acquisition and exclusive measurement of the reaction (vector)pp {yields} pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} at the time of flight spectrometer COSY-TOF; Implementierung einer neuen Datenerfassung und exklusive Messung der Reaktion (vector)pp {yields} pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} am Flugzeitspektrometer COSY-TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardt, Arthur

    2009-06-12

    The two-pion production pp pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} was measured exclusively at T{sub p}=793 MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. In this measurement both the new EMS-based data acquisition system and a delayed pulse technique have been used, which, in addition to particle identification, energy, time of flight, and angle determination provides pi+ identification for pions in the theta{sub lab} range from 2 to 28 degrees. The measured total cross section for this reaction is {sigma}=4.1(4) {mu}b at T{sub p}=793 MeV. Due to an improved efficiency correction, the earlier measured total cross section has been corrected to {sigma}=1.6 {mu}b at T{sub p}=747 MeV. This value agrees nicely with the results from WASA/PROMICE. The data are compared to previous data and theoretical models which have been developed to understand the results from WASA/PROMICE measurements. The measurements have been carried out with transversally polarized proton beam which made it possible to determine analyzing powers for different subsystems of the two pion production reaction. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing power values up to A{sub y}=0.3. The data in the range of Roper excitation confirm that the dominating {pi} {pi} decay channel is N{sup *}{yields}N{sigma}. (orig.)

  3. Commissioning of the vacuum straw tracker for the COSY-TOF spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Matthias; Ritman, James; Voigtlaender, Pierre; Wintz, Peter [Institut fuer Kernphysik I, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The Straw-Tracker at COSY-TOF is a system of 3120 Straws arranged in 30 layers. These are operated at 1.2 bar drift-gas pressure in the TOF vacuum so that they are self-supporting, despite their mylar wrapping being only 30 {mu}m thick. As a result the total radiation length amounts to only 1 %. The operation with 1500 V anode voltage in medium vacuum at {approx}5.10{sup -3} mbar imposes stringent demands on detector design and handling. In this talk the system is introduced and it is reported on the commissioning during the year 2008. The emphasis is placed on vacuum operation and results on the efficiency and resolution under experiment conditions.

  4. Measurement of {lambda} polarisation observables at the COSY-TOF spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzolotto, C.

    2007-05-22

    In this work the (vector)pp {yields} pK{sup +}{lambda} reaction is studied. Data were taken at the COSY-TOF experiment in 2002 with a polarised proton beam at the momenta of 2.75 GeV/c and 2.95 GeV/c. The calculated beam polarisation was 39.8% and 61.9% respectively. The experimental setup covers the whole phase space of the reaction. The exclusive measurement allows the extraction of polarisation observables not only in the beam fragmentation region (x{sub F}>0), but also in the target fragmentation region (x{sub F} < 0). Samples of 11991 pK{sup +}{lambda} events at 2.75 GeV/c and of 19243 events at 2.95 GeV/c beam momentum have been reconstructed. The {lambda} polarisation, the {lambda} analysing power and the spin transfer coefficient were extracted. The {lambda} polarisation P{sub {lambda}} has a negative trend. The analysing power A{sup {lambda}}{sub y} and the spin transfer coefficient D{sub NN} are found to be compatible with zero. The measured spin transfer coefficient is in contradiction with the only result published up to now at comparable beam momenta. (orig.)

  5. Online control package for COSY-TOF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodina, Ekaterina [Institute fuer Kernphysik I, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52325, Juelich (Germany); Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Roderburg, Eduard; Ritman, James [Institute fuer Kernphysik I, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52325, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The new Straw Tube Tracker and Quirl Microstrip detectors have been installed at the TOF (Time Of Flight) experiment at the COSY accelerator in IKP FZ-Juelich. These new detectors increase the number of channels of the COSY-TOF detector by about a factor of 3. Therefore, a new control package to adjust electronic parameters and for control the proper functionality of all channels is being developed. The online controlling based on visualization of key parameters of detectors plays an important role. The concept and the techniques of the online software package are developed for the COSY-TOF experiment. It consists of conversion software, which transforms a binary data stream from the DAQ to detector oriented event format, methods of IPC (Inter-Process Communications), and GUI (graphical user interface). To achieve data transfer through the network and real time data performance the IPC tools - sockets and shared memory are used. A special GUI, TOF-ONLINE has been developed, based on ROOT. The GUI allows the detectors, plotting spectra, resetting data, etc., to be selected in an intuitive way. Examples of the visualization and the results of the first beam time will be introduced.

  6. Time-of-flight spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The flight time of an ion in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field (IOFE) is an m/e-dependent property of this field and is independent of the initial position and velocity. The d.c. component of the equation of motion for an ion in the IOFE describes a harmonic oscillation of constant period. When ions oscillate for many periods with one species overtaking another the motion may no longer be truly periodic although the resulting period or 'quasi-period' still remains independent of the initial conditions. This period or 'quasi-period' is used in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer described. The principle of operation is also described and both analytical and experimental results are reported. (B.D.)

  7. Polarization observables measured in the reaction vector pp → pK{sup +}Λ by COSY-TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauenstein, Florian [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: COSY-TOF-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The vector pp → pK{sup +}Λ reaction was measured with the COSY-TOF detector using a polarized proton beam with beam momenta 2.7 GeV/c and 2.95 GeV/c. The measurements with a polarized beam allow the determination of polarization observables in addition to the differential cross sections. These observables are the Λ polarization, the spin transfer to the Λ and the analyzing power of the final state particles. The latter is connected with the partial wave composition of the final state system, while the first two can improve the understanding of the underlying reaction mechanism of the associated strangeness production. Currently, no sophisticated models exist in this energy regime, thus, conclusive results concerning the reaction mechanism can not be drawn yet. Nevertheless, the obtained data are the first with full phase space acceptance and high statistics in this beam energy regime. In this talk the extraction methods for the different polarization observables are explained, and results for the polarization observables as a function of different variables are shown. The dependencies of the results on the beam momentum are discussed. Furthermore, a comparison with theoretical expectations from high energy physics for the Λ polarization is given.

  8. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Kozlov, B.N.; Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.; Shebelin, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer containing a pulsed ion source with an electron gun and two electrodes limiting ionization range, drift space and ion acceptor, is described. To expand functional possibilities, a slot collimator of the gas stream, two quantum generators and two diaphragms for the inlet of quantum generator radiation located on both sides of the ion source, are introduced in the ion source. The above invention enables to study details of the complex interaction process of laser radiation with molecules of the gas stream, which is actual for laser isotope separation

  9. Detailed investigation of a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Trostell, B.

    1981-02-01

    Properties of a neutron spectrometer and telescope, based on double neutron interaction in hydrogen based scintillators and neutron time-of-flight technique, have been investigated in detail. Theoretical scaling of the resolutions with the flight path length and scattering angle have been confirmed by experimental results. Important parameters in connection with calibration of the spectrometer are discussed and calculated relative resolutions of the ion temperature are shown when applied to a fusion deuterium plasma. (Auth.)

  10. Multichannel analyzer for the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojter, A.P.; Slyisenko, V.Yi.; Doronyin, M.Yi.; Maznij, Yi.O.; Vasil'kevich, O.A.; Golyik, V.V.; Koval'ov, O.M.; Kopachov, V.Yi.; Savchuk, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    New multichannel time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of the energy and angular distributions of neutrons from the WWWR-M reactor is considered. This spectrometer has been developed for the replacement of the previous one to increase the number of channels and measurement precision, reduce the time of channel tuning and provide the automatic monitoring during the experiment.

  11. The ANTARES recoil time-of-flight spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J W; Russell, G J [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The Australian National Tandem for Applied Research (ANTARES), is a 8MV FN tandem particle accelerator at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Research on the accelerator is divided between two groups, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and lon Beam Analysis (IBA). The IBA group carries out a range of research projects from nuclear physics to materials characterisation. The major IBA project on the accelerator is a recoil time-of-flight spectrometer which consists of two electrostatic time pulse generators and an ion-implanted surface barrier detector. The spectrometer is ideally suited to the profiling of layered multi-element materials, and has been used to characterise materials such as metal-germanides, optoelectronics, superconductors and catalytic converters. This paper will describe the time-of-flight system as well as some recent materials characterisation results. 1 refs., 3 figs.

  12. The ANTARES recoil time-of-flight spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.W.; Russell, G.J. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian National Tandem for Applied Research (ANTARES), is a 8MV FN tandem particle accelerator at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Research on the accelerator is divided between two groups, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and lon Beam Analysis (IBA). The IBA group carries out a range of research projects from nuclear physics to materials characterisation. The major IBA project on the accelerator is a recoil time-of-flight spectrometer which consists of two electrostatic time pulse generators and an ion-implanted surface barrier detector. The spectrometer is ideally suited to the profiling of layered multi-element materials, and has been used to characterise materials such as metal-germanides, optoelectronics, superconductors and catalytic converters. This paper will describe the time-of-flight system as well as some recent materials characterisation results. 1 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Inhomogeneous oscillatory electric field time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The mass-to-charge ratio of an ion can be determined from the measurement of its flight time in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field produced by the potential distribution V(x, y, t) = Vsub(DC) + Vsub(AC) cos ωt) (αsub(x)X 2 + αsub(y)Y 2 + αsub(z)Z 2 ). The governing equation of motion is the Mathieu equation. The principle of operation of this novel mass spectrometer is described and results of computer calculations of the flight time and resolution are reported. An experimental apparatus and results and results demonstrating the feasibility of this mass spectrometer principle are described. (author)

  14. Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Ofengenden, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described. The time coder is of modular structure, is performed in the CAMAC standard and operates on line with DVK-2 computer. The main coder units include supporting generator, timers, time-to-digital converter, memory unit and crate controller. Method for measuring background symmetrically to the effect is proposed for a more correct background accounting. 4 refs.; 1 fig

  15. The high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unruh, Tobias [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II and Physik Department E13, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Tobias.Unruh@frm2.tum.de; Neuhaus, Juergen; Petry, Winfried [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II and Physik Department E13, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2007-10-11

    The TOFTOF spectrometer is a multi-disc chopper time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at the research neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). After five reactor cycles of routine operation the characteristics of the instrument are reported in this article. The spectrometer features an excellent signal to background ratio due to its remote position in the neutron guide hall, an elaborated shielding concept and an s-shaped curved primary neutron guide which acts i.a. as a neutron velocity filter. The spectrometer is fed with neutrons from the undermoderated cold neutron source of the FRM II leading to a total neutron flux of {approx}10{sup 10}n/cm{sup 2}/s in the continuous white beam at the sample position distributed over a continuous and particularly broad wavelength spectrum. A high energy resolution is achieved by the use of high speed chopper discs made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic. In the combination of intensity, resolution and signal to background ratio the spectrometer offers new scientific prospects in the fields of inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering.

  16. The high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Tobias; Neuhaus, Jürgen; Petry, Winfried

    2007-10-01

    The TOFTOF spectrometer is a multi-disc chopper time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at the research neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). After five reactor cycles of routine operation the characteristics of the instrument are reported in this article. The spectrometer features an excellent signal to background ratio due to its remote position in the neutron guide hall, an elaborated shielding concept and an s-shaped curved primary neutron guide which acts i.a. as a neutron velocity filter. The spectrometer is fed with neutrons from the undermoderated cold neutron source of the FRM II leading to a total neutron flux of ˜1010n/cm2/s in the continuous white beam at the sample position distributed over a continuous and particularly broad wavelength spectrum. A high energy resolution is achieved by the use of high speed chopper discs made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic. In the combination of intensity, resolution and signal to background ratio the spectrometer offers new scientific prospects in the fields of inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering.

  17. Time recording unit for a neutron time of flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, Praful; Ajit Kiran, S.; Chandak, R.M.; Poudel, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2011-01-01

    Here the architecture and design of Time Recording Unit for a Neutron Time of Flight Spectrometer have been described. The Spectrometer would have an array of 50 Nos. of one meter long linear Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) placed vertically around the sample at a distance of 2000 mm. The sample receives periodic pulsed neutron beam coming through a Fermi chopper. The time and zone of detection of a scattered neutron in a PSD gives information of its flight time and path length, which will be used to calculate its energy. A neutron event zone (position) and time detection module for each PSD provides a 2 bit position/zone code and an event timing pulse. The path length assigned to a neutron detected in a zone (Z1, Z2 etc) in the PSD is the mean path length seen by the neutrons detected in that zone of the PSD. A Time recording unit described here receives event zone code and timing pulse for all the 50 detectors, tags a proper time window code to it, before streaming it to computer for calculation of the energy distribution of neutrons scattered from the sample

  18. Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer elegant breadboard: built and tested - and flight model spectrometer unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.

    2017-11-01

    A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities [1]. The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in [2]. The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the

  19. Polarisation analysis on the LET time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, G. J.; Košata, J.; Devonport, M.; Galsworthy, P.; Bewley, R. I.; Voneshen, D. J.; Dalgliesh, R.; Stewart, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a design for implementing uniaxial polarisation analysis on the LET cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, installed on the second target station at ISIS. The polarised neutron beam is to be produced by a transmission-based supermirror polariser with the polarising mirrors arranged in a “double-V” formation. This will be followed by a Mezei-type precession coil spin flipper, selected for its small spatial requirements, as well as a permanent magnet guide field to transport the beam polarisation to the sample position. The sample area will contain a set of holding field coils, whose purpose is to produce a highly homogenous magnetic field for the wide-angle 3He analyser cell. To facilitate fast cell changes and reduce the risk of cell failure, we intend to separate the cell and cryostat from the vacuum of the sample tank by installing both in a vessel at atmospheric pressure. When the instrument upgrade is complete, the performance of LET is expected to be commensurate with existing and planned polarised cold neutron spectrometers at other sources. Finally, we discuss the implications of performing uniaxial polarisation analysis only, and identify quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) on ionic conducting materials as an interesting area to apply the technique.

  20. Proton Transfer Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS) measures gas-phase compounds in ambient air and headspace samples before using chemical ionization to produce positively charged molecules, which are detected with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. This ionization method uses a gentle proton transfer reaction method between the molecule of interest and protonated water, or hydronium ion (H3O+), to produce limited fragmentation of the parent molecule. The ions produced are primarily positively charged with the mass of the parent ion, plus an additional proton. Ion concentration is determined by adding the number of ions counted at the molecular ion’s mass-to-charge ratio to the number of air molecules in the reaction chamber, which can be identified according to the pressure levels in the reaction chamber. The PTRMS allows many volatile organic compounds in ambient air to be detected at levels from 10–100 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). The response time is 1 to 10 seconds.

  1. FOCUS: neutron time-of-flight spectrometer at SINQ: recent progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S.; Mesot, J.; Holitzner, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Hempelmann, R. [Saarbruecken Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    At the Swiss neutron spallation source SINQ a time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons is under construction. The design foresees a Hybrid solution combining a Fermi chopper with a doubly focusing crystal monochromator. During 1996 important progress has been made concerning the main spectrometer components such as the spectrometer housing and the detector system. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  2. Multiple-ion-beam time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Continetti, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative approach to increase the throughput of mass spectrometric analyses using a multiple-ion-beam mass spectrometer is described. Two sample spots were applied onto a laser desorption/ionization target and each spot was simultaneously irradiated by a beam of quadrupled Nd:YLF laser radiation (261.75 nm) to produce ions by laser-desorption ionization. Acceleration of the ions in an electric field created parallel ion beams that were focused by two parallel einzel lens systems. After a flight path of 2.34 m, the ions were detected with a microchannel plate-phosphor screen assembly coupled with a charge coupled device camera that showed two resolved ion beams. Time-of-flight mass spectra were also obtained with this detector. Experiments were performed using both metal atom cations (Ti + and Cr + ) produced by laser desorption/ionization and the molecular ions of two different proteins (myoglobin and lysozyme), created by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization using an excess of nicotinic acid as matrix

  3. A reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X

    1991-01-01

    The design, construction and operation of a reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the details of the ion mirror are discussed. The principle of velocity focusing with a single-stage ion mirror and the effect of the acceleration region are discussed. The performance of the reflecting instrument is described. Its detection limit is illustrated by observation of [M + H][sup +] ions from [approximately]5-35 femtomoles of various peptides. The factors that affect the resolution are discussed. The principle and operation of the reflecting instrument as a tandem mass spectrometer is described; this involves correlated detection of neutral and ionized fragments. The efficiency, resolution, sensitivity, and mass determination of daughter ions by this method are discussed. Methods of sample preparation are described. By using a nitrocellulose substrate, organic molecular ions as large as bovine insulin (MW 5733) were detected for the first time with low energy (keV) ion bombardment of a solid surface. Many daughter ion spectra resulting from metastable decay of parent ions have been studied. Secondary ions [(CsI)[sub n]Cs][sup +] with n up to [approximately]50 were detected; all clusters were found to be metastable, with most lifetimes <100 [mu]s, and for n>10 the daughter ions are dominant in the mass spectrum. Peptides of mass up to [approximately]2000 u have been studied with the correlated method; the daughter ion spectra were found to be strongly influenced by the identity of the bound cation (H[sup +], Na[sup +], K[sup +], or Ag[sup +]). Many daughter ions formed by known reactions yield structure and sequence information about the peptides. In addition, the [M + Na][sup +] and [M + Ag][sup +] ions decompose by a previously unreported pathway, namely, rearrangement of a C-terminal carboxyl oxygen onto the daughter ion containing the N-terminus. Both the reflected spectra and daughter ion spectra were found useful in peptide sequencing.

  4. Physical design of time-of-flight mass spectrometer in energetic cluster impact deposition apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guoqing; Shi Ying; Chen Jingsheng; Zhu Dezhang; Pan Haochang; Xu Hongjie

    1999-01-01

    The principle and physical design of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped in the energetic cluster impact deposition apparatus are introduced. Some problems existed in experiments and their solutions are also discussed

  5. Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a...

  6. Rocket flight performance of a preprototype Apollo 17 UV spectrometer S-169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, calibration, flight performance and flight data of an Ebert ultraviolet spectrometer are described which is an accurate representation of the conceptual design of the Apollo 17 UV spectrometer. The instrument was flown in an Aerobee 350 rocket from Wallops Island, Va., at 7:10 p.m. EDT on June 10, 1971 to an altitude of 328 km with a solar elevation angle of about 11 deg.

  7. A neutron time of flight spectrometer appropriate for D-T plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.

    1984-02-01

    A neutron time-of-flight spectrometer with 2 m flight path for diagnostics of deuterium plasmas in JET is presently under construction. An upgrade of this spectrometer to make it appropriate for 14-MeV neutron spectroscopy is presented here. It is suggested to use backscattering in a deuterium based scintillator. The flight path length is 1-2 m and the efficiency is of the order of 2.10 -5 cm -5 . Results from test of principle are presented with estimates for neutron and gamma backgrounds

  8. BATS - Backscattering And Time-of-flight Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eijck, L.; Seydel, T.; Frick, B.; Schober, H.

    2011-01-01

    The new backscattering spectrometer IN16b will go into commissioning end 2011, providing in its final state about ten times higher count rate than its predecessor, IN16. Here we propose to increase its dynamic range by a factor of 7 with the TOF mode extension, BATS. This will make IN16b the leading high resolution backscattering spectrometer for incoherent quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering; it will be competitive to the coarser resolution inverted geometry backscattering spectrometers that are being brought online at spallation sources. The increased dynamic range will extend the scope of science addressed on IN16b, generating considerable potential in fields such as the hydrogen economy (proton conduction, fuel cells, hydrogen storage), soft matter, biology and nano-science (nano-scale confinement, functionalized polymers). Such a large impact can be achieved using only a moderate investment. (authors)

  9. Double-arm time-of-flight mass-spectrometer of nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajvazian, G.M.; Astabatyan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer of nuclear fragments for the investigation of heavy nuclei photofission in the intermediate energy range is described. The calibration results and working characteristics of the spectrometer, obtained using 252 Cf as a source of spontaneous fission, are presented. A mass resolution of σ m ∼2-3 a.m.u. was obtained within the registered fragments mass range of 80-160 a.m.u. The spectrometer was tested in the experiment on the investigation of 238 U nuclei fission by Bremsstahlung photons with Eγ max=1.75 GeV

  10. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  11. Antimatter search with AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) during STS-91 precursor flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpat, Behcet

    2000-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed to study the antimatter, matter and dark matter in space. AMS successfully flown on space shuttle Discovery during precursor flight STS-91 in a 51.7 degree sign orbit at altitudes between 320 and 390 km. No antimatter nuclei with Z ≥ 2 were detected. In this report we present the AMS performances during shuttle flight and we give new limits on antimatter/matter flux ratio

  12. Computer-controlled neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, S.H.

    1979-12-01

    A time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron inelastic scattering research has been interfaced to a PDP-15/30 computer. The computer is used for experimental data acquisition and analysis and for apparatus control. This report was prepared to summarize the functions of the computer and to act as a users' guide to the software system

  13. Experiments at the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer GNEIS in Gatchina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, O.A.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gatchina neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS at the 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron and its main characteristics are given. Some results of the nuclear fission experiments and neutron cross section measurements are presented not only to illustrate the facility performance but to outline the basic directions of the researches as well. 28 refs.; 10 figs

  14. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters

  15. Ion optics of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.; Ito, H.; Matsuo, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ion optics for a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers have been investigated. The multiple focusing (triple isochronous focusing and triple spacial focusing) conditions can be achieved by using a symmetrical arrangement of the sectors in a mass spectrometer. Both high mass resolution and high ion transmission can be accomplished simultaneously. The principles of MS/MS and MS/MS/MS analyses using a TOF mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers have been proposed. Product ion spectra can be obtained by measuring the total flight times and the kinetic energy of the products without any additional separation processes, any coincidence techniques or any special timing circuits. In an experiment, MS/MS and MS/MS/MS mass spectra have been obtained. The first generation product ions have been produced by a metastable decay, and the second generation products have been produced by a sequential decay. (orig.)

  16. Dual cascade time-of-flight mass spectrometer basing on electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, L. G.; Goloskokov, Yu. V.; Karetskaya, S.P.; Mit', A.G.

    1999-01-01

    In the report [1] we have suggested the scheme of time-of-flight spectrometer containing two electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional field that doesn't depend on one of the Cartesian coordinates). In the articles [2,3] there have been found conditions for obtaining high quality of time-of-flight and spatial focusing. One of basic advantages of this scheme - is availability of intermediate stigmatic image. In the plane where this image is it's possible to place controlled diaphragm that limits ion scatter along the energy if the scatter is too large. With the help of this diaphragm at the spectrometer you can register mass spectrum with the selected energy. Good focusing quality allows reducing of initial ion energy by this increasing the time of their flight and thus analyzers resolving ability. Ion source and receiver are spaced at rather a long distances. This can be useful to solve some practical tasks

  17. FOCUS: time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S; Mesot, J [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hempelmann, R [Saarbruecken Univ., Physical Chemistry, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The physical layout of the Time-Of-Flight spectrometer at the new spallation source SINQ is presented. The concept shows up a hybrid-TOF combining a Fermi-chopper with a crystal monochromator. The demand of a versatile and flexible instrument for several applications is taken into account by the option of switching from time-focusing to monochromatic focusing mode such that the spectrometer can be optimised for both quasielastic and inelastic scattering applications. (author) 5 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  18. The Dubna double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy-ion reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, K.D.; Gippner, P.; Seidel, W.; Stary, F.; Will, E.; Heidel, K.; Lukyanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Salamatin, V.S.; Sodan, H.; Chubarian, G.G.

    1986-05-01

    The double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer DEMAS designed for the detection and identification of heavy-ion reaction products at incident energies below 10 MeV/amu is presented. Based on the kinematic coincidence method, the relevant physical information is obtained from the measurement of the two correlated velocity vectors of the binary fragments. Construction and performance of the different detector systems applied to measure the time-of-flight values, the position coordinates and the kinetic energies of both fragments are presented in detail. The description of the data acquisition and analysing procedures is followed by the discussion of some experimental examples to demonstrate the spectrometer performance. A mass resolution of typically 4 - 5 amu (fwhm) is routinely achieved. (author)

  19. Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriashin, A.V.; Devkin, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, J.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Sztaricskai, T.; Petoe, G.; Vasvary, L.

    1986-01-01

    A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra from (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (Auth.)

  20. Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryashin, A.V.; Devlein, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, Y.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra form (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (author). 3 figs., 6 refs

  1. Measurement and simulation of the inelastic resolution function of a time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, S.V.; Zirkel, A.; Neuhaus, J.; Petry, W.; Bossy, J.; Peters, J.; Schober, H.

    2002-01-01

    The deconvolution of inelastic neutron scattering data requires the knowledge of the inelastic resolution function. The inelastic resolution function of the time-of-flight spectrometer IN5/ILL has been measured by exploiting the sharp resonances of the roton and maxon excitations in superfluid 4 He for the two respective (q,ω) values. The calculated inelastic resolution function for three different instrumental setups is compared to the experimentally determined resolution function. The agreement between simulation and experimental data is excellent, allowing us in principle to extrapolate the simulations and thus to determine the resolution function in the whole accessible dynamic range of IN5 or any other time-of-flight spectrometer. (orig.)

  2. Measurement and simulation of the inelastic resolution function of a time-of-flight spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, S V; Neuhaus, J; Petry, W; Bossy, J; Peters, J; Schober, H

    2002-01-01

    The deconvolution of inelastic neutron scattering data requires the knowledge of the inelastic resolution function. The inelastic resolution function of the time-of-flight spectrometer IN5/ILL has been measured by exploiting the sharp resonances of the roton and maxon excitations in superfluid sup 4 He for the two respective (q,omega) values. The calculated inelastic resolution function for three different instrumental setups is compared to the experimentally determined resolution function. The agreement between simulation and experimental data is excellent, allowing us in principle to extrapolate the simulations and thus to determine the resolution function in the whole accessible dynamic range of IN5 or any other time-of-flight spectrometer. (orig.)

  3. Spectrometry using the PTB neutron multisphere spectrometer (NEMUS) at flight altitudes and at ground level

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegel, B; Matzke, M; Schrewe, U J; Wittstock, J

    2002-01-01

    Bonner sphere measurements are presented for flights at altitudes of up to 12 km and geomagnetic latitudes between 26 deg.N and 86 deg.N and compared with results obtained by several survey meters. As an example of the natural neutron background near sea level, results from a recent longterm measurement campaign performed at the PTB site using an extended spectrometer are presented. The dependence of neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent on the atmospheric pressure is demonstrated.

  4. Satellite-borne time-of-flight particle spectrometer and its response to protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shino, T.

    1994-01-01

    One of the purposes of the high energy particle (HEP) experiment of the GEOTAIL satellite launched in 1992 is the elucidation of plasma dynamics in the tail region of planetary magnetosphere. For that purpose, a low energy particle detector (LD) was on board, which mainly observed relatively low energy particles up to a few MeV. The LD is the particle spectrometer based on time of flight technique. In order to confirm further its sensitivity to high energy protons, the beam experiment was carried out at Waseda University using the engineering model of the LD spectrometer that is exactly the same as the launched one. The LD spectrometer is shown, and its functions are explained. The LD was designed to identify electrons of 30 - 400 keV, protons of 30 - 1500 keV, helium ions of 80 - 4000 keV, and heavy ions (mainly C, N and O) of 160 - 1500 keV. The relation of measured time of flight signals with energy signals is shown. There are several factors that determine the detection efficiency of the spectrometer, which are discussed. The experiment and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Development of an ion time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    signal. Without loss of generality, the secondary signal is obtained by the passage of the ion through a thin carbon foil, which produces ion-induced secondary electron emission (IISEE). The time-of-flight spectrometer physically acts as an ion/electron separator. The electrons that enter the active volume of the spectrometer are transported onto the microchannel plate detector to generate the secondary signal. The electron optics can be designed in variety of ways depending on the nature of the measurement and physical requirements. Two ion time-of-flight spectrometer designs are introduced: the parallel electric and magnetic (PEM) field spectrometer and the cross electric and magnetic (CEM) field spectrometer. The CEM field spectrometers have been extensively used in a wide range of applications where precise mass differentiation is required. The PEM field spectrometers have lately found interest in mass spectroscopy applications. The application of the PEM field spectrometer for energy measurements is a novel approach. The PEM field spectrometer used in the measurements employs axial electric and magnetic fields along the nominal direction of the incident ion. The secondary electrons are created by a thin carbon foil on the entrance disk and transported on the microchannel plate that faces the carbon foil. The initial angular distribution of the secondary electrons has virtually no effect on the transport time of the secondary electrons from the surface of the carbon foil to the electron microchannel plate detector. Therefore, the PEM field spectrometer can offer high-resolution energy measurement for relatively lower electric fields. The measurements with the PEM field spectrometer were made with the Tandem linear particle accelerator at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center at Yorktown Heights, NY. The CEM field spectrometer developed for the thesis employs axial electric field along the nominal direction of the ion, and has perpendicular magnetic field. As the

  6. Cassini Ion Mass Spectrometer Peak Calibrations from Statistical Analysis of Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, A. K.; Johnson, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Cassini Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) is an actuating time-of-flight (TOF) instrument capable of resolving ion mass, energy, and trajectory over a field of view that captures nearly the entire sky. One of three instruments composing the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer, IMS sampled plasma throughout the Kronian magnetosphere from 2004 through 2012 when it was permanently disabled due to an electrical malfunction. Initial calibration of the flight instrument at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was limited to a handful of ions and energies due to time constraints, with only about 30% of planned measurements carried out prior to launch. Further calibration measurements were subsequently carried out after launch at SwRI and Goddard Space Flight Center using the instrument prototype and engineering model, respectively. However, logistical differences among the three calibration efforts raise doubts as to how accurately the post-launch calibrations describe the behavior of the flight instrument. Indeed, derived peak parameters for some ion species differ significantly from one calibration to the next. In this study we instead perform a statistical analysis on 8 years of flight data in order to extract ion peak parameters that depend only on the response of the flight instrument itself. This is accomplished by first sorting the TOF spectra based on their apparent compositional similarities (e.g. primarily water group ions, primarily hydrocarbon ions, etc.) and normalizing each spectrum. The sorted, normalized data are then binned according to TOF, energy, and counts in order to generate energy-dependent probability density maps of each ion peak contour. Finally, by using these density maps to constrain a stochastic peak fitting algorithm we extract confidence intervals for the model parameters associated with various measured ion peaks, establishing a logistics-independent calibration of the body of IMS data gathered over the course of the Cassini mission.

  7. A time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron diffraction under high pressure or at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roult, G.; Buevoz, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    For high pressure neutron diffraction studies (40 kilobars) the sample is placed in a very thick cell. In order to allow the neutron beam to go through the cell loosing as little intensity as possible, the inner part is kept solid while the external part has some windows facing the incident and reflected beam. The window dimensions are small (a few millimeters wide and a few centimeters long). There are two alternatives: to have the window either in a perpendicular plane or in a plane parallel to the axis. In the first case a fixed wavelength spectrometer can be used but the sample is small and the contribution of the cell to the diffraction pattern is relatively great. In the second case samples can be something like ten times greater and the cell contribution can be eliminated but a fixed wavelength spectrometer cannot be used. Thus the time-of-flight method is very convenient. The second alternative was chosen

  8. Monte Carlo study of the performance of a time-of-flight multichopper spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, L.L.; Eckert, J.; Pynn, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is a powerful technique for neutron transport studies. While it has been applied for many years to the study of nuclear systems, there are few codes available for neutron transport in the optical regime. The recent surge of interest in so-called next generation spallation neutron sources and the desire to design new and optimized instruments for these facilities has led us to develop a Monte Carlo code geared toward the simulation of neutron scattering instruments. The time-of-flight multichopper spectrometer, of which IN5 at the ILL is the prototypical example, is the first spectrometer studied with the code. Some of the results of a comparison between the IN5 performance at a reactor and at a Long Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS) are summarized here

  9. The new JET 2.5-MeV neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Belle, P.v.; Grosshoeg, G.; Hoek, M.; Jarvis, O.N.; Olsson, M.; Sadler, G.

    1992-01-01

    A major upgrade of the JET 2.5-MeV neutron time-of-flight spectrometer has been completed. The improvement has permitted ion temperature measurements for Maxwellian deuterium plasmas with T i >4 keV to be obtained in 0.5-s intervals. By combining observations of neutron and x-ray energy spectra with studies of γ-ray emission from reactions between fast deuterons and impurities, the effects of ICRF heating on the deuterium energy distribution have been studied. The time evolution of neutron energy spectra from deuterium-beam heated deuterium plasmas is illustrated and a method for evaluating the ion temperature from such sequences is indicated. Furthermore, the spectrometer has shown stable performance during high neutron fluxes

  10. HYSPEC : A CRYSTAL TIME OF FLIGHT HYBRID SPECTROMETER FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPIRO, S.M.; ZALIZNYAK, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    This document lays out a proposal by the Instrument Development Team (IDT) composed of scientists from leading Universities and National Laboratories to design and build a conceptually new high-flux inelastic neutron spectrometer at the pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge. This instrument is intended to supply users of the SNS and scientific community, of which the IDT is an integral part, with a platform for ground-breaking investigations of the low-energy atomic-scale dynamical properties of crystalline solids. It is also planned that the proposed instrument will be equipped with a polarization analysis capability, therefore becoming the first polarized beam inelastic spectrometer in the SNS instrument suite, and the first successful polarized beam inelastic instrument at a pulsed spallation source worldwide. The proposed instrument is designed primarily for inelastic and elastic neutron spectroscopy of single crystals. In fact, the most informative neutron scattering studies of the dynamical properties of solids nearly always require single crystal samples, and they are almost invariably flux-limited. In addition, in measurements with polarization analysis the available flux is reduced through selection of the particular neutron polarization, which puts even more stringent limits on the feasibility of a particular experiment. To date, these investigations have mostly been carried out on crystal spectrometers at high-flux reactors, which usually employ focusing Bragg optics to concentrate the neutron beam on a typically small sample. Construction at Oak Ridge of the high-luminosity spallation neutron source, which will provide intense pulsed neutron beams with time-averaged fluxes equal to those at medium-flux reactors, opens entirely new opportunities for single crystal neutron spectroscopy. Drawing upon experience acquired during decades of studies with both crystal and time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers, the IDT has developed a conceptual

  11. HYSPEC : A CRYSTAL TIME OF FLIGHT HYBRID SPECTROMETER FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAPIRO,S.M.; ZALIZNYAK,I.A.

    2002-12-30

    This document lays out a proposal by the Instrument Development Team (IDT) composed of scientists from leading Universities and National Laboratories to design and build a conceptually new high-flux inelastic neutron spectrometer at the pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge. This instrument is intended to supply users of the SNS and scientific community, of which the IDT is an integral part, with a platform for ground-breaking investigations of the low-energy atomic-scale dynamical properties of crystalline solids. It is also planned that the proposed instrument will be equipped with a polarization analysis capability, therefore becoming the first polarized beam inelastic spectrometer in the SNS instrument suite, and the first successful polarized beam inelastic instrument at a pulsed spallation source worldwide. The proposed instrument is designed primarily for inelastic and elastic neutron spectroscopy of single crystals. In fact, the most informative neutron scattering studies of the dynamical properties of solids nearly always require single crystal samples, and they are almost invariably flux-limited. In addition, in measurements with polarization analysis the available flux is reduced through selection of the particular neutron polarization, which puts even more stringent limits on the feasibility of a particular experiment. To date, these investigations have mostly been carried out on crystal spectrometers at high-flux reactors, which usually employ focusing Bragg optics to concentrate the neutron beam on a typically small sample. Construction at Oak Ridge of the high-luminosity spallation neutron source, which will provide intense pulsed neutron beams with time-averaged fluxes equal to those at medium-flux reactors, opens entirely new opportunities for single crystal neutron spectroscopy. Drawing upon experience acquired during decades of studies with both crystal and time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers, the IDT has developed a conceptual

  12. Design study of a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Hoek, M.; Nishitani, Takeo.

    1993-06-01

    A time-of-flight neutron spectrometer is proposed for measurements of neutron energy spectra from deuterium-deuterium reactions in JT-60U tokamak plasmas. The sensitivity of the instrument is 2 · 10 -2 cm 2 , energy resolution is 4.5 % (FWHM) and maximum useful count-rate is 6 kHz. Analysis of neutron energy spectra will provide information on central ion temperatures larger than ∼ 4 keV with an accuracy of ± 10 %, and neutron source fraction from reactions between thermal ions with an accuracy of ± 15 %. The minimum time required for data acquisition is 0.1 s. (author)

  13. Design of microcomputer-based data acquisition system for the time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H; Su, C [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering

    1981-07-15

    A microcomputer-based data aquisition system used on a time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer is described. The flight time of 90/sup 0/-scattered ions from target atom determined directly with a 30 MHz crystal-controlled oscillator and its associated circuit. The ion intensity is detected by a channel multiplier, and its output signal pulse is converted from the analog form into digital form by an ADC. Both flight time and ion intensity are stored in the microcomputer.

  14. Design of microcomputer-based data acquisition system for the time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.; Su, C.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based data aquisition system used on a time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer is described. The flight time of 90 0 -scattered ions from target atom determined directly with a 30 MHz crystal-controlled oscillator and its associated circuit. The ion intensity is detected by a channel multiplier, and its output signal pulse is converted from the analog form into digital form by an ADC. Both flight time and ion intensity are stored in the microcomputer. (orig.)

  15. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-01-01

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments

  16. A PCI time digitizer for the new JET time-of-flight neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J.; Batista, A.J.N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R.; Cruz, N.; Carvalho, P.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Kaellne, J.

    2004-01-01

    A PCI time digitizer module with eight independent time-to-digital converter (TDC) channels is being developed for the new time-of-flight spectrometer designed for optimized rate (TOFOR) which diagnoses deuterium plasmas of the EFDA-JET tokamak. The module shall measure with high accuracy the flight-times of 2.5 MeV neutrons in the 100 ns range as given by two groups of scintillation detectors operating at average event rates from the expected 500 kHz up to 5 MHz. The module stores up to 64 million hit-times with a resolution of 0.4 ns and incorporates a digital signal processor and a system-on-chip device which performs the data transfer, the device control/monitoring and may perform statistical, data reduction or control algorithms in real-time

  17. A Time of flight spectrometer for measurements of double differential neutron scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, I.; Dominguez, O.; Sarria, P. Sandin, C.

    1996-01-01

    The time -of-Flight neutron spectrometry technique by associated particle method was improved using a D-T neutron generator at Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis. This technique was implemented for double differential cross section measurements and supported by the IAEA Project CUB/01/005. An stilbene scintillation detector (dia=100 mm, length=50 mm) was used as principal neutron detector detector and was situated outside a hole in the concrete wall. This way the fligth path was extended and the scattered neutron cone accurate collimated throught the 2 m concrete wall. For the associated particle α detection a thin plastic NE-102 scint illator was used, as well as, two scintilation detectors and a long counter for the neutron flux monitoring. In this TOF neutron spectrometer (3.40 m flight path) a 1.7 nseg. temporal resolution was obtained

  18. In-Flight Spectral Calibration of the APEX Imaging Spectrometer Using Fraunhofer Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Damm, Aalexander; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-11-01

    The Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) is an imaging spectrometer which allows to observe atmospheric trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using a high resolution spectrum of solar Fraunhofer lines, APEX measurements collected during flight have been spectrally calibrated for centre wavelength positions (CW) and instrument slit function (ISF) and compared to the laboratory calibration. We find that CWs depend strongly on both across- and along-track position due to spectral smile and CWs dependency on ambient pressure. The width of the ISF is larger than estimated from the laboratory calibration but can be described by a linear scaling of the laboratory values. The ISF width depends on across- but not on along-track direction. The results demonstrate the importance of characterizing and monitoring the instrument performance during flight and will be used to improve the Empa APEX NO2 retrieval algorithm.

  19. Novel time-of-flight spectrometer for the analysis of positron annihilation induced Auger electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Legl, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger-electron spectroscopy (PAES) has several advantages over conventional Auger-electron spectroscopy such as extremely high surface sensitivity and outstanding signal-to-noise ratio at the Auger-transition energy. In order to benefit from these prominent features a low-energy positron beam of high intensity is required for surface sensitive PAES studies. In addition, an electron energy analyzer is required, which efficiently detects the Auger electrons with acceptable energy resolution. For this reason a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed at the intense positron source NEPOMUC that allows PAES studies within short measurement time. This TOF-PAES setup combines a trochoidal filter and a flight tube in a Faraday cage in order to achieve an improved energy resolution of about 1 eV at high electron energies up to E≅1000 eV. The electron flight time is the time between the annihilation radiation at the sample and when the electron hits a microchannel plate detector at the end of the flight tube

  20. Laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometer for isotope mass detection and elemental analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar; Ahmed, Rizwan; Umar, Z. A.; Aslam Baig, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the construction and modification of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer to improve its mass resolution. This system consists of a laser ablation/ionization section based on a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 500 mJ, 5 ns pulse duration) integrated with a one meter linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled with an electric sector and a magnetic lens and outfitted with a channeltron electron multiplier for ion detection. The resolution of the system has been improved by optimizing the accelerating potential and inserting a magnetic lens after the extraction region. The isotopes of lithium, lead and cadmium samples have been resolved and detected in accordance with their natural abundance. The capability of the system has been further exploited to determine the elemental composition of a brass alloy, having a certified composition of zinc and copper. Our results are in excellent agreement with its certified composition. This setup is found to be extremely efficient and convenient for fast analyses of any solid sample.

  1. The multiple disk chopper neutron time-of-flight spectrometer at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.B.; Cook, J.C.; Copley, J.R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A highly versatile multiple disk chopper neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is being installed at the Cold Neutron Research Facility of the National institute of Standards and Technology. This new instrument will fill an important gap in the portfolio of neutron inelastic scattering spectrometers in North America. It will be used for a wide variety of experiments such as studies of magnetic and vibrational excitations, tunneling spectroscopy, and quasielastic neutron scattering investigations of local and translational diffusion. The instrument uses disk choppers to monochromate and pulse the incident beam, and the energy changes of scattered neutrons are determined from their times-of-flight to a large array of detectors. The disks and the guide have been designed to make the instrument readily adaptable to the specific performance requirements of experimenters. The authors present important aspects of the design, as well as estimated values of the flux at the sample and the energy resolution for elastic scattering. The instrument should be operational in 1996

  2. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  3. TOPLAR: Time of Flight with Larmor Precessions - or - How to extend the dynamic range of NSE spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Well, A.A.; Bleuel, M.; Pappas, C.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectrometers typically cover a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude at a given wavelength. At long Fourier times the limits are given by the homogeneity of precession fields. At short Fourier times, the quasi-elastic approximation and the NSE formalism mark a methodological limit. We propose to overcome this limitation and by combining Time Of Flight with Larmor precession to extend the capabilities of Neutron Spin Echo spectrometers towards short Fourier times. TOFLAR should be easily implemented on NSE spectrometers equipped with a chopper system such as IN15 or the planned WASP. (authors)

  4. Low-pressure, multistep, multiwire proportional counter for the time-of-flight isochronous spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A low-pressure, multistep, multiwire proportional counter (MSMWPC) has been developed for the characterization and testing of the time-of-flight isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer and its associated secondary-beam transport line. This type of counter was selected because of its high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and good position (0.2 mm FWHM) and timing (180 ps FWHM) resolution. Furthermore, because the counter operates at low gas pressures (1-10 torr) and high electric-field strengths, which enable short collection times, it can be used as a transmission counter with thin gas-isolation windows and it can operate at high counting rates. Here the authors discuss the basic operating principle of the MSMWPC, describe the technical details of the detector and signal processing, and report on the performance they have measured for alpha particles and fission fragments

  5. An Improvement on Space Focusing Resolution in Two-Field Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, M.; Aydin, R.; Akin, U.; Kilic, H. S.; Sise, O.; Ulu, M.; Dogan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFMS) is a sophisticated device for the mass selective analysis of a variety of samples. The main limitation on TOFMS technique is the obtainable resolution where the two main limiting factors are the initial space and energy spread of particles created in ionization region. Similar charged particles starting at different points will reach the detector at different times. So, this problem makes space focusing is very important subject. We have presented principles of two-fields TOFMS with second-order space focusing both using analytical methods and ray-tracing simulation. This work aims understanding of ion optical system clearly and gives hint of expectation for future developments

  6. RAMSES - Rapid Measurement and Special Environment time-of-flight Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, H.; Koza, M.; Mutka, H.; Zbiri, M.; Andersen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Time-of-flight spectrometers are ideally suited to study the dynamics of complex materials as encountered in all domains of current scientific interest ranging from health care, biology, earth and environmental sciences, cultural heritage to energy storage and preservation. Complex materials are often available in samples of small amount, or the scientific questions to study require environments limiting the sample size (e.g., Paris-Edinburgh cells and levitation furnaces). The proposed instrument would be optimized for these conditions offering a very high neutron flux over a small beam cross-section in combination with good resolution and extended dynamical range. The later asks for a wavelength band extending slightly into the thermal region. This is achieved on a cold guide with super-mirror coating. (authors)

  7. Time-of-flight small-angle scattering spectrometers on pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1987-01-01

    The operation principles, constructions, advantages and shortcomings of known time-of-flight small angle neutron scattering (TOF SANS) spectrometers built up with pulsed neutron sources are reviewed. The most important characteristics of TOF SANS apparatuses are rather a high luminosity and the possibility for the measurement in an extremely wide range of scattering vector at a single exposure. This is achieved by simultaneous employment of white beam, TOF technique for wave length-scan and the commonly known angle-scan. However, the electronic equipment, data-matching programs, and the measurement procedure, necessary for accurate normalization of experimental data and their transformation into absolute cross-section scale, they all become more complex, as compared with those for SANS apparatuses operating on steady-state neutron sources, where only angle-scan is used

  8. Design of combined magnetic field system for magnetic-bottle time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Tian Jinshou; Zhang Meizhi; Kang Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the primary requirement for the magnetic field system in magnetic-bottle time-of-flight spectrometer, an appropriate combined inhomogeneous magnetic field system is designed. The inhomogeneous higher magnetic field part, with the highest field of 1.2 T, is produced by the combination of a permanent magnet and a pole piece with optimized shape. The magnet,known as NdFeB magnet,is one of rare earth permanent magnets in N52. The guiding uniform magnetic field of 1.0 x 10 -3 T is provided by solenoid, with length of 3 m and radius of 3 cm. The pitch between the pole piece and the near end of used solenoid is determined to be 5 cm, which can satisfy the actual engineering needs. (authors)

  9. Conceptual design of the time-of-flight backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES, at the European Spallation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapatsaris, N.; Bordallo, H. N.; Lechner, R. E.; Markó, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the conceptual design of the backscattering time-of-flight spectrometer MIRACLES approved for construction at the long-pulse European Spallation Source (ESS). MIRACLES’s unparalleled combination of variable resolution, high flux, extended energy, and momentum transfer (0.2–6 Å"−"1) ranges will open new avenues for neutron backscattering spectroscopy. Its remarkable flexibility can be attributed to 3 key elements: the long-pulse time structure and low repetition rate of the ESS neutron source, the chopper cascade that tailors the moderator pulse in the primary part of the spectrometer, and the bent Si(111) analyzer crystals arranged in a near-backscattering geometry in the secondary part of the spectrometer. Analytical calculations combined with instrument Monte-Carlo simulations show that the instrument will provide a variable elastic energy resolution, δ(ħ ω), between 2 and 32 μeV, when using a wavelength of λ ≈ 6.267 Å (Si(111)-reflection), with an energy transfer range, ħ ω, centered at the elastic line from −600 to +600 μeV. In addition, when selecting λ ≈ 2.08 Å (i.e., the Si(333)-reflection), δ(ħ ω) can be relaxed to 300 μeV and ħ ω from about 10 meV in energy gain to ca −40 meV in energy loss. Finally, the dynamic wavelength range of MIRACLES, approximately 1.8 Å, can be shifted within the interval of 2–20 Å to allow the measurement of low-energy inelastic excitations.

  10. Conceptual design of the time-of-flight backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES, at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsaris, N., E-mail: nikolaos.tsapatsaris@esss.se, E-mail: ruep.lechner@gmail.com, E-mail: bordallo@nbi.ku.dk; Bordallo, H. N., E-mail: nikolaos.tsapatsaris@esss.se, E-mail: ruep.lechner@gmail.com, E-mail: bordallo@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, The University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); European Spallation Source ERIC, Tunavägen 24, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Lechner, R. E., E-mail: nikolaos.tsapatsaris@esss.se, E-mail: ruep.lechner@gmail.com, E-mail: bordallo@nbi.ku.dk [European Spallation Source ERIC, Tunavägen 24, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Markó, M. [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we present the conceptual design of the backscattering time-of-flight spectrometer MIRACLES approved for construction at the long-pulse European Spallation Source (ESS). MIRACLES’s unparalleled combination of variable resolution, high flux, extended energy, and momentum transfer (0.2–6 Å{sup −1}) ranges will open new avenues for neutron backscattering spectroscopy. Its remarkable flexibility can be attributed to 3 key elements: the long-pulse time structure and low repetition rate of the ESS neutron source, the chopper cascade that tailors the moderator pulse in the primary part of the spectrometer, and the bent Si(111) analyzer crystals arranged in a near-backscattering geometry in the secondary part of the spectrometer. Analytical calculations combined with instrument Monte-Carlo simulations show that the instrument will provide a variable elastic energy resolution, δ(ħ ω), between 2 and 32 μeV, when using a wavelength of λ ≈ 6.267 Å (Si(111)-reflection), with an energy transfer range, ħ ω, centered at the elastic line from −600 to +600 μeV. In addition, when selecting λ ≈ 2.08 Å (i.e., the Si(333)-reflection), δ(ħ ω) can be relaxed to 300 μeV and ħ ω from about 10 meV in energy gain to ca −40 meV in energy loss. Finally, the dynamic wavelength range of MIRACLES, approximately 1.8 Å, can be shifted within the interval of 2–20 Å to allow the measurement of low-energy inelastic excitations.

  11. A neutron spectrometer based on the combination of time-of-flight and Larmor modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, F.M.; Kreuger, R.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Kraan, W.H.; Rekveldt, M.Th.; Van Well, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    A study on the feasibility of neutron beam instrumentation that applies Larmor modulation for incoming, and time-of-flight for scattered wavelength determination (or vice versa) is currently under way at IRI. The instrument resulting from this combination can in principle measure quasi elastic and inelastic scattering with a flexible resolution and dynamic range. An important difference with current spectrometers is that there is no selection of neutron wavelengths for either the incoming beam (direct geometry) or scattered beam (inverted geometry). Therefore much of the available flux is used and there is no a priory selection of the energy transfer range and resolution. This instrument will be mainly applicable for quasi-elastic scattering and complex line shapes that are extended over a broad range in energy transfer. Line shapes can be measured directly in Fourier space, which is often advantageous. Due to signal to noise considerations, this instrument will be less suitable for the determination of weak, discrete energy transfer signals. A requirement for the Larmor modulator is that it can work with a white neutron beam. This can be realised for neutrons having a wavelength above ∼ 0.1 nm by use of 'adiabatic resonance π flippers'. This type of instrument may be applied at the future ESS pulsed neutron source in order to complement current spectrometers. (author)

  12. Neutron time-of-flight counters and spectrometers for diagnostics of burning fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Olsson, M.

    1991-02-01

    Experiment with burning fusion plasmas in tokamaks will place particular requirements on neutron measurements from radiation resistance-, physics-, burn control- and reliability considerations. The possibility to meet these needs by measurements of neutron fluxes and energy spectra by means of time-of-flight techniques are described. Reference counters and spectrometers are proposed and characterized with respect to efficiency, count-rate capabilities, energy resolution and tolerable neutron and γ-radiation background levels. The instruments can be used in a neutron camera and are capable to operate in collimated neutron fluxes up to levels corresponding to full nuclear output power in the next generation of experiments. Energy resolutions of the spectrometers enables determination of ion temperatures from 3 (keV) through analysis of the Doppler broadening. Primarily, the instruments are aimed for studies of 14 (MeV) neutrons produced in (d,t)-plasmas but can, after minor modifications, be used for analysis of 2.45 (MeV) neutrons produced in (d,d)-plasma. (au) (33 refs.)

  13. On the use of the cold time-of-flight spectrometer in Studsvik for liquid 3He measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faak, Bjoern.

    1989-01-01

    The time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at the R2 reactor in Studsvik has been reconstructed. The design and the performance of the instrument are briefly described. Improvements required for measurement of the neutron scattering function of liquid 3 He are discussed. (author)

  14. Design of a reflex time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the study of the desorption of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggi, F.

    1991-01-01

    A reflex time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the study of the desorption and dissociation of molecular ions has been designed. A general overview of the instrument is reported, together with the different experimental aspects of the technique. These include mechanical and vacuum solutions, secondary ion optics in the electrostatic mirror, electronics, data acquisition and analysis

  15. A new time of flight mass spectrometer for absolute dissociative electron attachment cross-section measurements in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2018-02-01

    A new time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to study the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section using a relative flow technique of a wide variety of molecules in gas phase, ranging from simple diatomic to complex biomolecules. Unlike the Wiley-McLaren type TOFMS, here the total ion collection condition has been achieved without compromising the mass resolution by introducing a field free drift region after the lensing arrangement. The field free interaction region is provided for low energy electron molecule collision studies. The spectrometer can be used to study a wide range of masses (H- ion to few hundreds atomic mass unit). The mass resolution capability of the spectrometer has been checked experimentally by measuring the mass spectra of fragment anions arising from DEA to methanol. Overall performance of the spectrometer has been tested by measuring the absolute DEA cross section of the ground state SO2 molecule, and the results are satisfactory.

  16. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  17. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. A high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments and ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosev, Krasimir Milchev

    2007-07-01

    For the purpose of fission-fragment detection a double time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed. The key component of the TOF spectrometer is a TOF detector consisting of multichannel-plate (MCP) detectors with a position-sensitive readout, a foil for secondary electron (SE) production and an electrostatic mirror. The fission fragments are detected by measuring the SEs impinging on the position-sensitive anode after emission from the foil, acceleration and deflection by the electrostatic mirror. The functionality of the different detector components is proven in detail. Optimised schemes for the high-voltage supplies of the MCP detectors have been implemented successfully. In order to process the multichannel-plate detector signals optimally, a new state-of-the-art constant-fraction discriminator based on the amplitude and rise time compensated technique with very low threshold capabilities and optimised walk properties has been developed and incorporated into the setup. In a setup consisting of two mirror MCP detectors, we could successfully observe the TOF spectrum of a mixed ({sup 226}Ra,{sup 222}Rn,{sup 210}Po,{sup 218}Po,{sup 214}Po) {alpha}-source. Testing photo-fission experiments were performed at the bremsstrahlung facility at the ELBE accelerator. The setup consisted of two mirror detectors (first arm) and a 80 mm diameter MCP detector (second arm) with a {sup 238}U target positioned in between. TOF measurements with two bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12.9 and 16.0 MeV were carried out. A clear cut separation of the TOF peaks for the medium-mass and heavy fission fragments was observed. (orig.)

  19. A high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosev, Krasimir Milchev

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of fission-fragment detection a double time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed. The key component of the TOF spectrometer is a TOF detector consisting of multichannel-plate (MCP) detectors with a position-sensitive readout, a foil for secondary electron (SE) production and an electrostatic mirror. The fission fragments are detected by measuring the SEs impinging on the position-sensitive anode after emission from the foil, acceleration and deflection by the electrostatic mirror. The functionality of the different detector components is proven in detail. Optimised schemes for the high-voltage supplies of the MCP detectors have been implemented successfully. In order to process the multichannel-plate detector signals optimally, a new state-of-the-art constant-fraction discriminator based on the amplitude and rise time compensated technique with very low threshold capabilities and optimised walk properties has been developed and incorporated into the setup. In a setup consisting of two mirror MCP detectors, we could successfully observe the TOF spectrum of a mixed ( 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po, 218 Po, 214 Po) α-source. Testing photo-fission experiments were performed at the bremsstrahlung facility at the ELBE accelerator. The setup consisted of two mirror detectors (first arm) and a 80 mm diameter MCP detector (second arm) with a 238 U target positioned in between. TOF measurements with two bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12.9 and 16.0 MeV were carried out. A clear cut separation of the TOF peaks for the medium-mass and heavy fission fragments was observed. (orig.)

  20. Absolute calibration of a time-of-flight spectrometer and imaging plate for the characterization of laser-accelerated protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I W; Kim, C M; Sung, J H; Kim, I J; Yu, T J; Lee, S K; Jin, Y-Y; Pae, K H; Hafz, N; Lee, J

    2009-01-01

    A proton energy spectrometer system is composed of a time-of-flight spectrometer (TOFS) and a Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS), and is used to characterize laser-accelerated protons. The TOFS detects protons with a plastic scintillator, and the TPS with a CR-39 or imaging plate (IP). The two spectrometers can operate simultaneously and give separate time-of-flight (TOF) and Thomson parabola (TP) data. We propose a method to calibrate the TOFS and IP by comparing the TOF data and the TP data taken with CR-39 and IP. The absolute response of the TOFS as a function of proton energy is calculated from the proton number distribution measured with CR-39. The sensitivity of IP to protons is obtained from the proton number distribution estimated with the calibrated TOFS. This method, based on the comparison of the simultaneously measured data, gives more reliable results when using laser-accelerated protons as a calibration source. The calibrated spectrometer system can be used to measure absolutely calibrated energy spectra for the optimization of laser-accelerated protons

  1. Sensitivity of peak positions to flight-path parameters in a deep-inelastic scattering neutron TOF spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.MacA.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A.; Blach, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of small changes in flight-path parameters (primary and secondary flight paths, detector angles), and of displacement of the sample along the beam axis away from its ideal position, are examined for an inelastic time-of-flight (TOF) neutron spectrometer, emphasising the deep-inelastic regime. The aim was to develop a rational basis for deciding what measured shifts in the positions of spectral peaks could be regarded as reliable in the light of the uncertainties in the calibrated flight-path parameters. Uncertainty in the length of the primary or secondary flight path has the least effect on the positions of the peaks of H, D and He, which are dominated by the accuracy of the calibration of the detector angles. This aspect of the calibration of a TOF spectrometer therefore demands close attention to achieve reliable outcomes where the position of the peaks is of significant scientific interest and is discussed in detail. The corresponding sensitivities of the position of peak of the Compton profile, J(y), to flight-path parameters and sample position are also examined, focusing on the comparability across experiments of results for H, D and He. We show that positioning the sample to within a few mm of the ideal position is required to ensure good comparability between experiments if data from detectors at high forward angles are to be reliably interpreted.

  2. Tandem Mass Spectrometry on a Miniaturized Laser Desorption Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Cornish, Timothy; Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS) is a powerful and widely-used technique for identifying the molecular structure of organic constituents of a complex sample. Application of MSMS to the study of unknown planetary samples on a remote space mission would contribute to our understanding of the origin, evolution, and distribution of extraterrestrial organics in our solar system. Here we report on the realization of MSMS on a miniaturized laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LD-TOF-MS), which is one of the most promising instrument types for future planetary missions. This achievement relies on two critical components: a curved-field reflectron and a pulsed-pin ion gate. These enable use of the complementary post-source decay (PSD) and laser-assisted collision induced dissociation (L-CID) MSMS methods on diverse measurement targets with only modest investment in instrument resources such as volume and weight. MSMS spectra of selected molecular targets in various organic standards exhibit excellent agreement when compared with results from a commercial, laboratory-scale TOF instrument, demonstrating the potential of this powerful technique in space and planetary environments.

  3. Design of the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the RAON facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J.W.; Park, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Kim, G.D.; Kim, Y.K.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been proposed for high precision mass measurements on the future Korean heavy ion accelerator called RAON. MR-TOF-MS will allow us to reach very high mass resolving power (> 10 5 ) with extremely short measurement times (several ms) in a compact device. The MR-TOF-MS is composed of two electrostatic ion mirrors in combination with einzel lenses. The principle is that the injected ions travel for hundreds of revolutions inside MR-TOF-MS and ions with different masses are temporally separated. When temporal separation becomes larger than the ion bunch width, ions are extracted from the MR-TOF-MS by switching off the mirror voltages, and then arrive at a detector plane located at time focus, where an MCP detector for the mass measurement or an ion gate for the isobar separation is deployed. In this paper, simulation results for the MR-TOF-MS design using SIMION code are presented. Temporal broadenings, caused by the kinetic energy spread and the transverse emittance, were minimized by optimization of the electrode potentials, and it was demonstrated that the mass resolving power of 10 5 is achievable for the condition of an energy spread of ±30 eV and an emittance of 0.75 π*mm*mrad

  4. Data recording programme for a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, J.G.

    1975-04-01

    A modular program was written for the acquisition of the measurement data of a rotating crystal neutron spectrometer in a PDP-11/20 computer (16 K core memory). The modules are subroutines called by the higher-order FORTRAN programs. This program, which is carried out under the version 08/02 disk operating system, collects the data of a maximum number of 7 detectors in the core memory via interrupts in the on line mode. The detectors are connected to a time-of-flight unit which assigns the time and the detector number to the signals (minimum width of time channel 0.5 μs). From the T.O.F. unit the signals are passed on to the computer via a CAMAC input register and the CA-11 a branch driver manufactured by DEC. All the measurement data can be graphically displayed on a Tektronix visual display unit (keyboard interrupt). Relevant data are stored on disk and passed on to the central computer (S 4004) for further processing at the end of the experiment. (orig./RF) [de

  5. A real time scintillating fiber Time of Flight spectrometer for LINAC photoproduced neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, M.; Berra, A.; Conti, V.; Giannini, G.; Ostinelli, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2015-03-01

    The use of high-energy (> 8 MeV) LINear ACcelerators (LINACs) for medical cancer treatments causes the photoproduction of secondary neutrons, whose unwanted dose to the patient has to be calculated. The characterization of the neutron spectra is necessary to allow the dosimetric evaluation of the neutron beam contamination. The neutron spectrum in a hospital environment is usually measured with integrating detectors such as bubble dosimeters, Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) or Bonner Spheres, which integrate the information over a time interval and an energy one. This paper presents the development of a neutron spectrometer based on the Time of Flight (ToF) technique in order to perform a real time characterization of the neutron contamination. The detector measures the neutron spectrum exploiting the fact that the LINAC beams are pulsed and arranged in bunches with a rate of 100-300 Hz depending on the beam type and energy. The detector consists of boron loaded scintillating fibers readout by a MultiAnode PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT). A detailed description of the detector and the acquisition system together with the results in terms of ToF spectra and number of neutrons with a Varian Clinac iX are presented.

  6. In-flight calibration of Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer. (3) Effective area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Okajima, Takashi; Eckart, Megan E.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hoshino, Akio; Iizuka, Ryo; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Mori, Hideyuki; Porter, Frederick S.; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Yaqoob, Tahir

    2018-03-01

    We present the result of the in-flight calibration of the effective area of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board the Hitomi X-ray satellite using an observation of the Crab nebula. We corrected for artifacts when observing high count rate sources with the X-ray microcalorimeter. We then constructed a spectrum in the 0.5-20 keV band, which we modeled with a single power-law continuum attenuated by interstellar extinction. We evaluated the systematic uncertainty of the spectral parameters by various calibration items. In the 2-12 keV band, the SXS result is consistent with the literature values in flux (2.20 ± 0.08 × 10-8 erg s-1 cm-2 with a 1 σ statistical uncertainty) but is softer in the power-law index (2.19 ± 0.11). The discrepancy is attributable to the systematic uncertainty of about +6%/-7% and +2%/-5% respectively for the flux and the power-law index. The softer spectrum is affected primarily by the systematic uncertainty of the Dewar gate valve transmission and the event screening.

  7. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI- photoelectron ionization (PEI portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX, SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1 with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear.

  8. Reflection-time-of-flight spectrometer for two-electron (e,2e) coincidence spectroscopy on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, J.; Kerherve, G.; Winkler, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a novel time-of-flight spectrometer for two-electron-emission (e,2e/γ,2e) correlation spectroscopy from surfaces at low electron energies is presented. The spectrometer consists of electron optics that collect emitted electrons over a solid angle of approximately 1 sr and focus them onto a multichannel plate using a reflection technique. The flight time of an electron with kinetic energy of E kin ≅25 eV is around 100 ns. The corresponding time- and energy resolution are typically ≅1 ns and ≅0.65 eV, respectively. The first (e,2e) data obtained with the present setup from a LiF film are presented

  9. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. Dual Source Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer and Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.; Cornish, T.; Cheng, A.; Gorevan, S.; Niemann, H.; Harpold, D.; Rafeek, S.; Yucht, D.

    We present details of an instrument under development for potential NASA missions to planets and small bodies. The instrument comprises a dual ionization source (laser and electron impact) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) and a carousel sam- ple handling system for in situ analysis of solid materials acquired by, e.g., a coring drill. This DSTOF instrument could be deployed on a fixed lander or a rover, and has an open design that would accommodate measurements by additional instruments. The sample handling system (SHS) is based on a multi-well carousel, originally de- signed for Champollion/DS4. Solid samples, in the form of drill cores or as loose chips or fines, are inserted through an access port, sealed in vacuum, and transported around the carousel to a pyrolysis cell and/or directly to the TOF-MS inlet. Samples at the TOF-MS inlet are xy-addressable for laser or optical microprobe. Cups may be ejected from their holders for analyzing multiple samples or caching them for return. Samples are analyzed with laser desorption and evolved-gas/electron-impact sources. The dual ion source permits studies of elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of unprepared samples with a single mass spectrometer. Pulsed laser desorption per- mits the measurement of abundance and isotope ratios of refractory elements, as well as the detection of high-mass organic molecules in solid samples. Evolved gas analysis permits similar measurements of the more volatile species in solids and aerosols. The TOF-MS is based on previous miniature prototypes at JHU/APL that feature high sensitivity and a wide mass range. The laser mode, in which the sample cup is directly below the TOF-MS inlet, permits both ablation and desorption measurements, to cover elemental and molecular species, respectively. In the evolved gas mode, sample cups are raised into a small pyrolysis cell and heated, producing a neutral gas that is elec- tron ionized and pulsed into the TOF-MS. (Any imaging

  11. A multiple-orbit time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on a low energy electrostatic storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Spanjers, T. L.; Thorn, P. A.; Reddish, T. J.; Hammond, P.

    2012-11-01

    The results are presented for an electrostatic storage ring, consisting of two hemispherical deflector analyzers (HDA) connected by two separate sets of cylindrical lenses, used as a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Based on the results of charged particle simulations and formal matrix model, the Ion Storage Ring is capable of operating with multiple stable orbits, for both single and multiply charged ions simultaneously.

  12. A new approach for accurate mass assignment on a multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondo, Toshinobu; Jensen, Kirk R; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato

    2017-12-01

    A simple, effective accurate mass assignment procedure for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is desirable. External mass calibration using a mass calibration standard together with an internal mass reference (lock mass) is a common technique for mass assignment, however, using polynomial fitting can result in mass-dependent errors. By using the multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer infiTOF-UHV, we were able to obtain multiple time-of-flight data from an ion monitored under several different numbers of laps that was then used to calculate a mass calibration equation. We have developed a data acquisition system that simultaneously monitors spectra at several different lap conditions with on-the-fly centroid determination and scan law estimation, which is a function of acceleration voltage, flight path, and instrumental time delay. Less than 0.9 mDa mass errors were observed for assigned mass to charge ratios ( m/z) ranging between 4 and 134 using only 40 Ar + as a reference. It was also observed that estimating the scan law on-the-fly provides excellent mass drift compensation.

  13. Investigation of the ion beam of the Titan source by the time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, A.S.; Gushenets, V.V.; Nikolaev, A.G.; Yushkov, G.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The Titan ion source generates wide-aperture beams of both gaseous and metal ions of various materials. The above possibility is realized on the account of combining two types of arc discharge with cold cathodes in the source discharge system. The vacuum arc, initiated between the cathode accomplished from the ion forming material, and hollow anode, is used for obtaining the metal ions. The pinch-effect low pressure arc discharge, ignited on the same hollow anode, is used for obtaining gaseous ions. The composition of ion beams, generated by the Titan source through the specially designed time-of-flight spectrometer, is studied. The spectrometer design and principle pf operation are presented. The physical peculiarities of the source functioning, influencing the ion beam composition, are discussed [ru

  14. A high-efficiency spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer combining time-of-flight spectroscopy with exchange-scattering polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, Chris M.; Graff, Jeff; Lebedev, Gennadi; Andresen, Nord; Schmid, Andreas; Fedorov, Alexei; El Gabaly, Farid; Wan, Weishi; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2010-04-13

    We describe a spin-resolved electron spectrometer capable of uniquely efficient and high energy resolution measurements. Spin analysis is obtained through polarimetry based on low-energy exchange scattering from a ferromagnetic thin-film target. This approach can achieve a similar analyzing power (Sherman function) as state-of-the-art Mott scattering polarimeters, but with as much as 100 times improved efficiency due to increased reflectivity. Performance is further enhanced by integrating the polarimeter into a time-of-flight (TOF) based energy analysis scheme with a precise and flexible electrostatic lens system. The parallel acquisition of a range of electron kinetic energies afforded by the TOF approach results in an order of magnitude (or more) increase in efficiency compared to hemispherical analyzers. The lens system additionally features a 90 degrees bandpass filter, which by removing unwanted parts of the photoelectron distribution allows the TOF technique to be performed at low electron drift energy and high energy resolution within a wide range of experimental parameters. The spectrometer is ideally suited for high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES), and initial results are shown. The TOF approach makes the spectrometer especially ideal for time-resolved spin-ARPES experiments.

  15. Dustbuster: a New Generation Impact-ionization Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer for in situ Analysis of Cosmic Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. E.; Ahrens, T. J.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    We have developed and tested a small impact-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for analysis of cosmic dust, suitable for use on deep space missions. This mass spectrometer, named Dustbuster, incorporates a large target area and a reflectron, simultaneously optimizing mass resolution, sensitivity, and collection efficiency. Dust particles hitting the 65-cm2 target plate are partially ionized. The resulting ions are accelerated through a modified reflectron that focuses the ions in space and time to produce high-resolution spectra. The instrument, shown below, measures 10 x 10 x 20 cm, has a mass of 500 g, and consumes little power. Laser desorption ionization of metal and mineral samples (embedded in the impact plate) simulates particle impacts for instrument performance tests. Mass resolution in these experiments is near 200, permitting resolution of isotopes. The mass spectrometer can be combined with other instrument components to determine dust particle trajectories and sizes. This project was funded by NASA's Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  16. The 2.5-MeV neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR for experiments at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hjalmarsson, A.

    2007-08-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer for measurement of the 2.5-MeV neutron emission from fusion plasmas has been developed and put into use at the JET tokamak. It has been optimized for operation at high rates (TOFOR) for the purpose of performing advanced neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) diagnosis of deuterium plasmas with a focus on the fuel ion motional states for different auxiliary heating scenarios. This requires operation over a large dynamic range including high rates of >100 kHz with a maximum value of 0.5 MHz for the TOFOR design. This paper describes the design principles and their technical realization. The performance is illustrated with recent neutron time-of-flight spectra recorded for plasmas subjected to different heating scenarios. A data acquisition rate of 39 kHz has been achieved at about a tenth of the expected neutron yield limit of JET, giving a projected maximum of 400 kHz at peak JET plasma yield. This means that the count rate capability for NES diagnosis of D plasmas has been improved more than an order of magnitude. Another important performance factor is the spectrometer bandwidth where data have been acquired and analyzed successfully with a response function for neutrons over the energy range 1 to >5 MeV. The implications of instrumental advancement represented by TOFOR are discussed

  17. The 2.5-MeV neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR for experiments at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hjalmarsson, A. (and others)

    2007-08-15

    A time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer for measurement of the 2.5-MeV neutron emission from fusion plasmas has been developed and put into use at the JET tokamak. It has been optimized for operation at high rates (TOFOR) for the purpose of performing advanced neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) diagnosis of deuterium plasmas with a focus on the fuel ion motional states for different auxiliary heating scenarios. This requires operation over a large dynamic range including high rates of >100 kHz with a maximum value of 0.5 MHz for the TOFOR design. This paper describes the design principles and their technical realization. The performance is illustrated with recent neutron time-of-flight spectra recorded for plasmas subjected to different heating scenarios. A data acquisition rate of 39 kHz has been achieved at about a tenth of the expected neutron yield limit of JET, giving a projected maximum of 400 kHz at peak JET plasma yield. This means that the count rate capability for NES diagnosis of D plasmas has been improved more than an order of magnitude. Another important performance factor is the spectrometer bandwidth where data have been acquired and analyzed successfully with a response function for neutrons over the energy range 1 to >5 MeV. The implications of instrumental advancement represented by TOFOR are discussed.

  18. Precision measurements with the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer of ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko; Ascher, Pauline; Borgmann, Christopher; Boehm, Christine; Eliseev, Sergey; Eronen, Tommi; George, Sebastian; Kisler, Dmitry; Naimi, Sarah [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beck, Dietrich; Herfurth, Frank; Litvinov, Yuri; Minaya Ramirez, Enrique; Neidherr, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Breitenfeldt, Martin [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200d - bus 2418, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Cakirli, Burcu [University of Istanbul, Department of Physics, 34134 Istanbul (Turkey); Cocolios, Thomas Elias [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Herlert, Alexander Josef [FAIR GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kowalska, Magdalena [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Kreim, Susanne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Lunney, David; Manea, Vladimir [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus, Bat. 104, 108 (France); Rosenbusch, Marco; Schweikhard, Lutz; Wienholtz, Frank; Wolf, Robert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Stanja, Juliane; Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The masses of exotic nuclides are among the most important input parameters for modern nuclear theory and astrophysical models. At the high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-ToF-MS) in combination with a Bradbury-Nielsen gate (BNG) can be used to achieve high-resolution isobar purification with mass-resolving powers of 105 in a few tens of milliseconds. Furthermore, the MR-ToF device can be used as a spectrometer to determine the masses of nuclides with very low yields and short half-lives, where a Penning-trap mass measurement becomes impractical due to the lower transport efficiency and decay losses during the purification and measurement cycles. Recent cross-check experiments show that the MR-ToF MS allows mass measurements with uncertainties in the sub-ppm range. In a first application the mass measurements of the nuclides 53,54Ca was performed, delivered with production rates as low as 10/s and half-lives of only 90(6) ms. The nuclides serve as important benchmarks for testing modern chiral effective theory with realistic 3-body forces. The contribution presents the on-line mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP focusing on the new applications, which became possible after the implementation of the MR-ToF MS into the current setup. In particular, the mass measurements of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes up to A=54 are discussed. In addition, measurements of the isotonic potassium isotopes are reported.

  19. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (a...... than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum....

  20. Study of the nuclear reactions 208Pb + 58Ni and 208Pb + 64Ni with a focusing time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapotta, K.

    1983-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis the construction of a time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy ions with magnetic focusing is described. Then ion trajectories are calculated, and the effective spatial angle and the angular resolution are determined. In the second part the study of quasielastic transfer and deep inelastic reactions of 58 Ni and 64 Ni with 208 Pb at E=265 MeV respectively 260 MeV by means of this spectrometer is described. (HSI) [de

  1. In-flight calibration of Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer. (1) Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Sawada, Makoto; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Angellini, Lorella; Boyce, Kevin R.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Koyama, Shu; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Loewenstein, Michael; McCammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Nakashima, Shinya; Porter, Frederick S.; Seta, Hiromi; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Terada, Yukikatsu; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

    2018-03-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument of Suzaku provided the first measurement of the non-X-ray background (NXB) of an X-ray calorimeter spectrometer, but the data set was limited. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument of Hitomi was able to provide a more detailed picture of X-ray calorimeter background, with more than 360 ks of data while pointed at the Earth, and a comparable amount of blank-sky data. These data are important not only for analyzing SXS science data, but also for categorizing the contributions to the NXB in X-ray calorimeters as a class. In this paper, we present the contributions to the SXS NXB, the types and effectiveness of the screening, the interaction of the screening with the broad-band redistribution, and the residual background spectrum as a function of magnetic cut-off rigidity. The orbit-averaged SXS NXB in the range 0.3-12 keV was 4 × 10-2 counts s-1 cm-2. This very low background in combination with groundbreaking spectral resolution gave SXS unprecedented sensitivity to weak spectral lines.

  2. A small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Yukihiko

    1986-01-01

    A principle for simultaneous and real time measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is proposed. A simple, small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with a dc glow discharge tube and an ion sampling electrode system for the simultaneous measurement on the basis of the proposed plinciple, has been constructed and tested. Details of the experimental setup including the geometry and the electronic hardware are described. It is shown that mass spectra of neutrals and ions from the positive column of the argon dc glow discharge are successfully observed on a single oscilloscope display. (author)

  3. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  4. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Chen Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G.; Sullivan, Scott T.; Hudson, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates.

  5. A homemade high-resolution orthogonal-injection time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a heated capillary inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Changjuan; Huang Zhengxu; Gao Wei; Nian Huiqing; Chen Huayong; Dong Junguo; Shen Guoying; Fu Jiamo; Zhou Zhen

    2008-01-01

    We describe a homemade high-resolution orthogonal-injection time-of-flight (O-TOF) mass spectrometer combing a heated capillary inlet. The O-TOF uses a heated capillary tube combined with a radio-frequency only quadrupole (rf-only quadrupole) as an interface to help the ion transmission from the atmospheric pressure to the low-pressure regions. The principle, configuration of the O-TOF, and the performance of the instrument are introduced in this paper. With electrospray ion source, the performances of the mass resolution, the sensitivity, the mass range, and the mass accuracy are described. We also include our results obtained by coupling atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser deporption ionization with this instrument

  6. Construction and simulation of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the University of Notre Dame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, B.E., E-mail: bschult4@nd.edu; Kelly, J.M.; Nicoloff, C.; Long, J.; Ryan, S.; Brodeur, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the most significant problems in the production of rare isotopes is the simultaneous production of contaminants, often time isobaric. Thus, a high-resolution beam purification method is required which needs to be compatible with both the low yield and short half-life of the desired radionuclide. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer meets all these criteria, in addition to boasting a smaller footprint relative to traditional separator dipole magnets. Such a device is currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame and is intended to be coupled to the IG-ISOL source of the planned cyclotron facility. The motivation and conceptual design are presented, as well as the status of simulations to determine the feasibility of using a Bradbury–Nielsen gate for bunching ion beams during initial system testing.

  7. In-line monitoring of effluents from HTGR fuel particle preparation processes using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures

  8. Optimized design of the chopper disks and the neutron guide in a disk chopper neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copley, J.R.D.

    1990-01-01

    We consider important aspects of the performance of a disk chopper neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The intensity at the sample position, and the contributions of the choppers to the resolution of the instrument, are evaluated as a function of the widths of the slots in the chopper disks and the width of the neutron guide between the disks. We find that there is an optimum choice of the ratios of these widths and that this choice depends on a single parameter which, for elastic scattering, is a simple ratio of distances. When pairs of counter-rotating disks are employed, the widths of the slots can be modified by grossly changing the phase relationship between the members of a chopper pair. If the slot widths are changed, the width of the guide should also be altered in order to maintain the spectrometer in an optimized state. This change in the guide width may be effectively achieved using an arrangement of nested guides. Resolution and intensity calculations demonstrate the important gains which may be realized using this approach. (orig.)

  9. The 2.5-MeV neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR for experiments at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Kaellne, J.; Weiszflog, M.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hellesen, C.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Combo, A.; Cruz, N.; Sousa, J.; Popovichev, S.

    2008-01-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer for measurement of the 2.5-MeV neutron emission from fusion plasmas has been developed and put into use at the JET tokamak. It has been optimized for operation at high rates (TOFOR) for the purpose of performing advanced neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) diagnosis of deuterium plasmas with a focus on the fuel ion motional states for different auxiliary heating scenarios. This requires operation over a large dynamic range, including high rates of >100 kHz with a maximum value of 0.5 MHz for the TOFOR design. This paper describes the design principles and their technical realization. The performance is illustrated with recent neutron TOF spectra recorded for plasmas subjected to different heating scenarios. A true event count rate of 39 kHz has been achieved at about a tenth of the expected neutron yield limit of JET, giving a projected maximum of 400 kHz at peak JET plasma yield. This means that the count rate capability for NES diagnosis of D plasmas has been improved more than an order of magnitude. Another important performance factor is the spectrometer bandwidth, where data have been acquired and analyzed successfully with a response function for neutrons over the energy range 1 to >5 MeV. The implications of instrumental advancement represented by TOFOR are discussed

  10. A method for the determination of detector channel dead time for a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Salama, M.; Abd-Kawi, A.; Sadek, S.; Hamouda, I.

    1975-01-01

    A new method is developed to measure the dead time of a detector channel for a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The method is based on the simultaneous use of two identical BF 3 detectors but with two different efficiencies, due to their different enrichment in B 10 . The measurements were performed using the T.O.F. spectrometer installed at channel No. 6 of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The main contribution to the dead time was found to be due to the time analyser and the neutron detector used. The analyser dead time has been determined using a square wave pulse generator with frequency of 1 MC/S. For channel widths of 24.4 us, 48.8 ud and 97.6 us, the weighted dead times for statistical pulse distribution were found to be 3.25 us, 1.87 us respectively. The dead time of the detector contributes mostly to the counting losses and its value was found to be (33+-3) us

  11. Development of a hand-portable photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckman, S.L.; Bostrom, G.A.; Waterfield, L.G.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Raptis, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    ANL is currently developing a portable chemical sensor system based on laser desorption photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It will incorporate direct sampling, a cryocooler base sample adsorption and concentration, and direct surface multiphoton ionization. All components will be in a package 9 x 11 x 4 in., weighing 15-18 lbs. A sample spectrum is given for a NaCl sample

  12. Fission physics experiments at the time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS in Gatchina (PNPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    The outline of and fission physics experiments at the Gatchina neutron spectrometer GNEIS based on the 1 GeV PNPI proton synchrotron are presented. The prefission gamma-ray spectrum of the (n, gamma f) reaction were investigated. The capture gamma-ray spectra for 721.6 eV and 1211.4 eV resonances in U-238 were measured and the nature of the 721.6 eV resonance in U-238 were examined. The forward-backward asymmetry in slow neutron fission of U-235 and energy dependence of the forward-backward and instrumental asymmetry coefficients were obtained. Fission cross section ratios for Th-232 to U-235 and for U-238 to U-235 in the energy range up to 200 MeV were measured. The results of the cross section ratios agreed well with those of Behrens et al. and Difilippo et al. (T.H.)

  13. Multi-Grid detector for neutron spectroscopy: results obtained on time-of-flight spectrometer CNCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, M.; Bebb, R.; Berry, K.; Birch, J.; Bryś, T.; Buffet, J.-C.; Clergeau, J.-F.; Deen, P. P.; Ehlers, G.; van Esch, P.; Everett, S. M.; Guerard, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herwig, K.; Hultman, L.; Höglund, C.; Iruretagoiena, I.; Issa, F.; Jensen, J.; Khaplanov, A.; Kirstein, O.; Lopez Higuera, I.; Piscitelli, F.; Robinson, L.; Schmidt, S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2017-04-01

    The Multi-Grid detector technology has evolved from the proof-of-principle and characterisation stages. Here we report on the performance of the Multi-Grid detector, the MG.CNCS prototype, which has been installed and tested at the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer, CNCS at SNS. This has allowed a side-by-side comparison to the performance of 3He detectors on an operational instrument. The demonstrator has an active area of 0.2 m2. It is specifically tailored to the specifications of CNCS. The detector was installed in June 2016 and has operated since then, collecting neutron scattering data in parallel to the He-3 detectors of CNCS. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of this data, in particular on instrument energy resolution, rate capability, background and relative efficiency. Stability, gamma-ray and fast neutron sensitivity have also been investigated. The effect of scattering in the detector components has been measured and provides input to comparison for Monte Carlo simulations. All data is presented in comparison to that measured by the 3He detectors simultaneously, showing that all features recorded by one detector are also recorded by the other. The energy resolution matches closely. We find that the Multi-Grid is able to match the data collected by 3He, and see an indication of a considerable advantage in the count rate capability. Based on these results, we are confident that the Multi-Grid detector will be capable of producing high quality scientific data on chopper spectrometers utilising the unprecedented neutron flux of the ESS.

  14. Quasielastic high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometers employing multi-disk chopper cascades for spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of multi-disk chopper time-of-flight (MTOF) spectrometers for high-resolution quasielastic and low-energy inelastic neutron scattering at spallation sources is discussed in some detail. A continuously variable energy resolution (1 μeV to 10 meV), and a large dynamic range (1 μeV to 100 meV), are outstanding features of this type of instrument, which are easily achieved also at a pulsed source using state-of-the-art technology. The method of intensity-resolution optimization of MTOF spectrometers at spallation sources is treated on the basis of the requirement of using (almost) 'all the neutrons of the pulse', taking into account the constant, but wavelength-dependent duration of the source pulse. It follows, that the optimization procedure (which is slightly different from that employed in the steady-state source case) should give priority to the highest resolution, whenever such a choice becomes necessary. This leads to long monochromator distances (L l2 ) of the order of 50 m, for achieving resolutions now available at reactor sources. A few examples of spectrometer layout and corresponding design parameters for large-angle and for small-angle quasielastic scattering instruments are given. In the latter case higher energy resolution than for large-angle scattering is required and achieved. The use of phase-space transformers, neutron wavelength band-pass filters and multichromatic operation for the purpose of intensity-resolution optimization are discussed. This spectrometer can be designed to make full use of the pulsed source peak flux. Therefore, and because of a number of improvements, high resolution will be available at high intensity: for any given resolution the total intensity at the detectors, when placed at one of the planned new spallation sources (SNS, JSNS, ESS, AUSTRON) will be larger by at least three orders of magnitude than the total intensity of any of the presently existing instruments of this type in routine operation at steady

  15. First spatial separation of a heavy ion isomeric beam with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Ayet San Andres, S.; Ebert, J.; Geissel, H.; Haettner, E.; Hornung, C.; Miskun, I.; Pietri, S.; Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Weick, H.; Dendooven, P.; Diwisch, M.; Greiner, F.; Heiße, F.; Knöbel, R.; Lippert, W.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Prochazka, A.; Ranjan, M.; Takechi, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.

    2015-05-01

    211Po ions in the ground and isomeric states were produced via 238U projectile fragmentation at 1000 MeV/u. The 211Po ions were spatially separated in flight from the primary beam and other reaction products by the fragment separator FRS. The ions were energy-bunched, slowed-down and thermalized in a gas-filled cryogenic stopping cell (CSC). They were then extracted from the CSC and injected into a high-resolution multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). The excitation energy of the isomer and, for the first time, the isomeric-to-ground state ratio were determined from the measured mass spectrum. In the subsequent experimental step, the isomers were spatially separated from the ions in the ground state by an ion deflector and finally collected with a silicon detector for decay spectroscopy. This pioneering experimental result opens up unique perspectives for isomer-resolved studies. With this versatile experimental method new isomers with half-lives longer than a few milliseconds can be discovered and their decay properties can be measured with highest sensitivity and selectivity. These experiments can be extended to studies with isomeric beams in nuclear reactions.

  16. Performance comparison and selection criteria: an assessment for choosing the best flight detector for the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.; Vilenius, E.; Mall, U.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance evaluation of a sample of InGaAs detectors from which the best unit had to be selected for the flight model of the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer to be flown on the Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008.

  17. Airborne testing and demonstration of a new flight system based on an Aerodyne N2O-CO2-CO-H2O mini-spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvakharia, A.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Conley, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. With high atmospheric backgrounds and small relative signals, N2O emissions have been challenging to observe and understand on regional scales with traditional instrumentation. Fast-response airborne measurements with high precision and accuracy can potentially bridge this observational gap. Here we present flight assessments of a new flight system based on an Aerodyne mini-spectrometer as well as a Los Gatos N2O/CO analyzer during the Fertilizer Emissions Airborne Study (FEAST). With the Scientific Aviation Mooney aircraft, we conducted test flights for both analyzers where a known calibration gas was sampled throughout the flight (`null' tests). Clear altitude/cabin-pressure dependencies were observed for both analyzers if operated in an "off-the-shelf' manner. For the remainder of test flights and the FEAST campaign we used a new flight system based on an Aerodyne mini-spectrometer with the addition of a custom pressure control/calibration system. Instead of using traditional approaches with spectral-zeros and infrequent in-flight calibrations, we employ a high-flow system with stable flow control to enable high frequency (2 minutes), short duration (15 seconds) sampling of a known calibration gas. This approach, supported by the null test, enables correction for spectral drift caused by a variety of factors while maintaining a 90% duty cycle for 1Hz sampling from an aircraft. Preliminary in-flight precisions are estimated at 0.05 ppb, 0.1 ppm, 1 ppb, and 10 ppm for N2O, CO2, CO, and H2O respectively. We also present a further 40 hours of inter-comparison in flight with a Picarro 2301-f ring-down spectrometer demonstrating consistency between CO2 and H2O measurements and no altitude dependent error.

  18. Time lens for high-resolution neutron time-of-flight spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.; Gaehler, R.; Grigoriev, P.; Kats, E.I.

    2005-01-01

    We examine in analytic and numeric ways the imaging effects of temporal neutron lenses created by traveling magnetic fields. For fields of parabolic shape we derive the imaging equations, investigate the time magnification, the evolution of the phase-space element, the gain factor, and the effect of finite beam size. The main aberration effects are calculated numerically. The system is technologically feasible and should convert neutron time-of-flight instruments from pinhole to imaging configuration in time, thus enhancing intensity and/or time resolution. Further fields of application for high-resolution spectrometry may be opened

  19. High resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for crossed molecular beam study of elementary chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Minghui; Che Li; Ren Zefeng; Dai Dongxu; Wang Xiuyan; Yang Xueming

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe an apparatus in our laboratory for investigating elementary chemical reactions using the high resolution time-of-flight Rydberg tagging method. In this apparatus, we have adopted a rotating source design so that collision energy can be changed for crossed beam studies of chemical reactions. Preliminary results on the HI photodissociation and the F atom reaction with H 2 are reported here. These results suggest that the experimental apparatus is potentially a powerful tool for investigating state-to-state dynamics of elementary chemical reactions

  20. In-flight calibration of the Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer. (2) Point spread function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Sato, Toshiki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Angelini, Lorella; Asai, Ryota; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Kelley, Richard; Koyama, Shu; Kurashima, Sho; Ishida, Manabu; Mori, Hideyuki; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Yaqoob, Tahir

    2018-03-01

    We present results of inflight calibration of the point spread function of the Soft X-ray Telescope that focuses X-rays onto the pixel array of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer system. We make a full array image of a point-like source by extracting a pulsed component of the Crab nebula emission. Within the limited statistics afforded by an exposure time of only 6.9 ks and limited knowledge of the systematic uncertainties, we find that the raytracing model of 1 {^'.} 2 half-power-diameter is consistent with an image of the observed event distributions across pixels. The ratio between the Crab pulsar image and the raytracing shows scatter from pixel to pixel that is 40% or less in all except one pixel. The pixel-to-pixel ratio has a spread of 20%, on average, for the 15 edge pixels, with an averaged statistical error of 17% (1 σ). In the central 16 pixels, the corresponding ratio is 15% with an error of 6%.

  1. Measuring the Heat Load on the Flight ASTRO-H Soft Xray Spectrometer Dewar

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPirro, M.; Shirron, P.; Yoshida, S.; Kanao, K.; Tsunematsu, S.; Fujimoto, R.; Sneiderman, G.; Kimball, M.; Ezoe, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Xray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument on-board the ASTRO-H X-ray mission is based on microcalorimeters operating at 50 mK. Low temperature is achieved by use of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cyclically operating up to a heat sink at either 1.2 K or 4.5 K. The 1.2 K heat sink is provided by a 40 liter superfluid helium dewar. The parasitic heat to the helium from supports, plumbing, wires, and radiation, and the cyclic heat dumped by the ADR operation determine the liquid helium lifetime. To measure this lifetime we have used various techniques to rapidly achieve thermal equilibrium and then measure the boil-off rate of the helium. We have measured a parasitic heat of 650 microwatts and a cyclic heat of 100 microwatts for a total of 750 microwatts. This closely matches the predicted heat load. Starting with a fill level at launch of more than 33 liters results in a lifetime of greater than 4 years for the liquid helium. The techniques and accuracy for this measurement will be explained in this paper.

  2. A passive Bonner sphere spectrometer for in-flight neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Vana, N.

    2003-01-01

    The neutron energy spectrum was measured onboard a series of four return flights between Cologne (Germany) and Washington, DC (USA) during the solar minimum conditions of June/July 1996. This experiment was world-wide the first determination of the neutron spectrum by passive spectrometry methods onboard an aircraft. The project was conducted with the support of the German Airforce which reserved two seat rows in the front of an Airbus A 310-304 for the passive BSS. The count rates were computed according to the Pair Method and unfolded with MAXED. Obtained spectrum shows two relative maxima around 1 and 100 MeV, the second of which cannot be completely assessed by the applied BSS. The agreement between measurement and calculation proved to be excellent

  3. Ion optics of a new time-of-flight mass spectrometer for quantitative surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryovkin, Igor V.; Calaway, Wallis F.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A new time-of-flight instrument for quantitative surface analysis was developed and constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. It implements ion sputtering and laser desorption for probing analyzed samples and can operate in regimes of secondary neutral mass spectrometry with laser post-ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The instrument incorporates two new ion optics developments: (1) 'push-pull' front end ion optics and (2) focusing and deflecting lens. Implementing these novel elements significantly enhance analytical capabilities of the instrument. Extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the instrument were conducted in SIMION 3D (c) to perfect its ion optics. The operating principles of the new ion optical systems are described, and a scheme of the new instrument is outlined together with its operating modes

  4. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer using an imaging detector and a rotating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Atsushi; Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    A new technique for minor isotope analysis that uses a rotating electric field and an imaging detector is described. The rotating electric field is generated by six cylindrically arranged plane electrodes with multi-phase sinusoidal wave voltage. When ion packets that are discriminated by time-of-flight enter the rotating electric field, they are circularly deflected, rendering a spiral image on the fluorescent screen of the detector. This spiral image represents m/z values of ions as the position and abundance of ions as brightness. For minor isotopes analyses, the micro channel plate detector under gate control operation is used to eliminate the influence of high intensity of major isotopes. (author)

  5. Performance optimisation of a new-generation orthogonal-acceleration quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Tony; Constantine, Jill; Harrison, Mark; Cavoit, Fabien

    2008-04-01

    Orthogonal-acceleration quadrupole time-of-flight (oa-QTOF) mass spectrometers, employed for accurate mass measurement, have been commercially available for well over a decade. A limitation of the early instruments of this type was the narrow ion abundance range over which accurate mass measurements could be made with a high degree of certainty. Recently, a new generation of oa-QTOF mass spectrometers has been developed and these allow accurate mass measurements to be recorded over a much greater range of ion abundances. This development has resulted from new ion detection technology and improved electronic stability or by accurate control of the number of ions reaching the detector. In this report we describe the results from experiments performed to evaluate the mass measurement performance of the Bruker micrOTOF-Q, a member of the new-generation oa-QTOFs. The relationship between mass accuracy and ion abundance has been extensively evaluated and mass measurement accuracy remained stable (+/-1.5 m m/z units) over approximately 3-4 orders of magnitude of ion abundance. The second feature of the Bruker micrOTOF-Q that was evaluated was the SigmaFit function of the software. This isotope pattern-matching algorithm provides an exact numerical comparison of the theoretical and measured isotope patterns as an additional identification tool to accurate mass measurement. The smaller the value, the closer the match between theoretical and measured isotope patterns. This information is then employed to reduce the number of potential elemental formulae produced from the mass measurements. A relationship between the SigmaFit value and ion abundance has been established. The results from the study for both mass accuracy and SigmaFit were employed to define the performance criteria for the micrOTOF-Q. This provided increased confidence in the selection of elemental formulae resulting from accurate mass measurements.

  6. Shock tube/time-of-flight mass spectrometer for high temperature kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, Robert S.; Giri, Binod R.; Kiefer, John H.

    2007-01-01

    A shock tube (ST) with online, time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection has been constructed for the study of elementary reactions at high temperature. The ST and TOF-MS are coupled by a differentially pumped molecular beam sampling interface, which ensures that the samples entering the TOF-MS are not contaminated by gases drawn from the cold end wall thermal boundary layer in the ST. Additionally, the interface allows a large range of postshock pressures to be used in the shock tube while maintaining high vacuum in the TOF-MS. The apparatus and the details of the sampling system are described along with an analysis in which cooling of the sampled gases and minimization of thermal boundary layer effects are discussed. The accuracy of kinetic measurements made with the apparatus has been tested by investigating the thermal unimolecular dissociation of cyclohexene to ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, a well characterized reaction for which considerable literature data that are in good agreement exist. The experiments were performed at nominal reflected shock wave pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr, and temperatures ranging from 1260 to 1430 K. The rate coefficients obtained are compared with the earlier shock tube studies and are found to be in very good agreement. As expected no significant difference is observed in the rate constant between pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr

  7. Action spectroscopy of SrCl{sup +} using an integrated ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Prateek, E-mail: teek24@ucla.edu; Schowalter, Steven J.; Hudson, Eric R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    The photodissociation cross-section of SrCl{sup +} is measured in the spectral range of 36 000–46 000 cm{sup −1} using a modular time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). By irradiating a sample of trapped SrCl{sup +} molecular ions with a pulsed dye laser, X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state molecular ions are electronically excited to the repulsive wall of the A{sup 1}Π state, resulting in dissociation. Using the TOF-MS, the product fragments are detected and the photodissociation cross-section is determined for a broad range of photon energies. Detailed ab initio calculations of the SrCl{sup +} molecular potentials and spectroscopic constants are also performed and are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The spectroscopic constants for SrCl{sup +} are also compared to those of another alkaline earth halogen, BaCl{sup +}, in order to highlight structural differences between the two molecular ions. This work represents the first spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of SrCl{sup +}.

  8. IN5 Polarisation Option (IPOP) and HIgh FIeld Magnet Option (HIFIMO) for the IN5 time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollivier, J.; Mutka, H.

    2011-01-01

    The new secondary spectrometer for the cold neutron time-of-flight (ToF) instrument IN5 was built with non-magnetic material, keeping in mind the upgrade option of polarisation analysis (PA) and the possibility of applying high continuous magnetic fields. The refurbished instrument has a high incident flux and elevated count-rate and offers a unique opportunity for applying polarised neutron methods for high resolution inelastic scattering, including single crystal investigations. On IN5 the polarised option would use the PASTIS concept of three sets of compact perpendicular coils (see the PANTHER proposal) allowing XYZPA and a 3 He analyser banana. As for high magnetic fields: a magnet suitable for ToF instruments must place a minimal amount of material in the incoming and outgoing beams and provide a large asymmetric view towards the detectors. An homogeneous field area of about 20 mm diameter over 30 mm height is also required. There is a size constraint set by the 800 mm diameter sample chamber and the optimal angular acceptance towards the detectors is -12 degrees / +135 degrees in the equatorial plane and +/- 22 degrees in the vertical direction

  9. HYSPEC: A crystal time-of-flight hybrid spectrometer for the spallation neutron source with polarization capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.; Zaliznyak, I.A.; Passell, L.; Ghosh, V.J.; Leonhardt, W.J.; Hagen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid spectrometer (HYSPEC) is a unique direct geometry inelastic scattering instrument under construction at the spallation neutron source (SNS). It combines the intensity enhancement features of focusing Bragg crystals with time-of-flight energy analysis. It will be located at beam-line 14B, which views a coupled liquid hydrogen moderator. A neutron beam from the moderator will travel along a curved guide, through a Fermi chopper and will then be focused onto a sample in an external building, 39 m from the source. In this configuration the intensity at the sample position is more than an order of magnitude larger than for other planned inelastic instrument. A movable detector bank 4.5 m from the sample will cover an angular range of 60 deg. in the horizontal plane and 15 deg. in the vertical direction. An important feature of HYSPEC is the ability to do neutron polarization analysis experiments. A Heusler crystal, which polarizes the neutron beam, can be used as the focusing crystal and a series of bender analyzers will analyze the polarization of the scattered beam

  10. Angle-resolving time-of-flight electron spectrometer for near-threshold precision measurements of differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, M.; Matsumoto, J.; Setiawan, A.; Panajotovic, R.; Harrison, J.; Lower, J. C. A.; Newman, D. S.; Mondal, S.; Buckman, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a new type of low-energy crossed-beam electron spectrometer for measuring angular differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atomic and molecular targets. Designed for investigations at energies close to excitation thresholds, the spectrometer combines a pulsed electron beam with the time-of-flight technique to distinguish between scattering channels. A large-area, position-sensitive detector is used to offset the low average scattering rate resulting from the pulsing duty cycle, without sacrificing angular resolution. A total energy resolution better than 150 meV (full width at half maximum) at scattered energies of 0.5-3 eV is achieved by monochromating the electron beam prior to pulsing it. The results of a precision measurement of the differential cross section for electron-impact excitation of helium, at an energy of 22 eV, are used to assess the sensitivity and resolution of the spectrometer

  11. GEANT4 simulation and evaluation of a time-of-flight spectrometer for nuclear cross section measurements in particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, Oxana

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 a new project has been launched in a cooperation between the RWTH Aachen Physics Department, the University Hospital Aachen and the Philips Research Laboratories. The project aim is to validate and improve GEANT4 nuclear interaction models for use in proton and ion therapy. The method chosen here is the measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections which will not only provide a comparison to the simulation but will also allow to improve some of the parameters in the nuclear models. In the first phase of the project 200 MeV protons are used as a projectile in combination with a thin graphite target. For use in particle therapy the excitation functions of the most frequently produced isotopes need to be measured with an accuracy of 10% or less. For this purpose a dedicated detector system has been designed and implemented in GEANT4. The detection of target fragments produced by protons in graphite is achieved via time-of-flight spectrometry. In the setup presented here the primary beam first hits the Start detector and initiates the time-of-flight measurement before it passes through the apertures of two Veto detectors and impinges on the target. Successively, the secondary particles emanating from the target travel a short distance of 70/80 cm through vacuum (0.1 mbar) before they hit one of the 20 Stop detectors which end the time-of-flight measurement and record the energy deposited by the particle. The dissertation at hand describes the underlying detector concept and presents a detailed GEANT4 simulation of the setup which allows to evaluate the detector performance with respect to target fragment identification at a projectile energy of 200 MeV. At first, correlations of time-of-flight and energy deposition are built from simulated data and are subsequently used to reconstruct mass spectra of the detected fragments. Such influences on the detection performance as the target thickness, the residual pressure within the detector chamber, the Veto system

  12. GEANT4 simulation and evaluation of a time-of-flight spectrometer for nuclear cross section measurements in particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, Oxana

    2011-06-08

    In 2007 a new project has been launched in a cooperation between the RWTH Aachen Physics Department, the University Hospital Aachen and the Philips Research Laboratories. The project aim is to validate and improve GEANT4 nuclear interaction models for use in proton and ion therapy. The method chosen here is the measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections which will not only provide a comparison to the simulation but will also allow to improve some of the parameters in the nuclear models. In the first phase of the project 200 MeV protons are used as a projectile in combination with a thin graphite target. For use in particle therapy the excitation functions of the most frequently produced isotopes need to be measured with an accuracy of 10% or less. For this purpose a dedicated detector system has been designed and implemented in GEANT4. The detection of target fragments produced by protons in graphite is achieved via time-of-flight spectrometry. In the setup presented here the primary beam first hits the Start detector and initiates the time-of-flight measurement before it passes through the apertures of two Veto detectors and impinges on the target. Successively, the secondary particles emanating from the target travel a short distance of 70/80 cm through vacuum (0.1 mbar) before they hit one of the 20 Stop detectors which end the time-of-flight measurement and record the energy deposited by the particle. The dissertation at hand describes the underlying detector concept and presents a detailed GEANT4 simulation of the setup which allows to evaluate the detector performance with respect to target fragment identification at a projectile energy of 200 MeV. At first, correlations of time-of-flight and energy deposition are built from simulated data and are subsequently used to reconstruct mass spectra of the detected fragments. Such influences on the detection performance as the target thickness, the residual pressure within the detector chamber, the Veto system

  13. Laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF): performance, reference spectra and classification of atmospheric samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Ramisetty, Ramakrishna; Mohr, Claudia; Huang, Wei; Leisner, Thomas; Saathoff, Harald

    2018-04-01

    The laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH) is able to identify the chemical composition and mixing state of individual aerosol particles, and thus is a tool for elucidating their impacts on human health, visibility, ecosystem, and climate. The overall detection efficiency (ODE) of the instrument we use was determined to range from ˜ (0.01 ± 0.01) to ˜ (4.23 ± 2.36) % for polystyrene latex (PSL) in the size range of 200 to 2000 nm, ˜ (0.44 ± 0.19) to ˜ (6.57 ± 2.38) % for ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), and ˜ (0.14 ± 0.02) to ˜ (1.46 ± 0.08) % for sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 300 to 1000 nm. Reference mass spectra of 32 different particle types relevant for atmospheric aerosol (e.g. pure compounds NH4NO3, K2SO4, NaCl, oxalic acid, pinic acid, and pinonic acid; internal mixtures of e.g. salts, secondary organic aerosol, and metallic core-organic shell particles; more complex particles such as soot and dust particles) were determined. Our results show that internally mixed aerosol particles can result in spectra with new clusters of ions, rather than simply a combination of the spectra from the single components. An exemplary 1-day ambient data set was analysed by both classical fuzzy clustering and a reference-spectra-based classification method. Resulting identified particle types were generally well correlated. We show how a combination of both methods can greatly improve the interpretation of single-particle data in field measurements.

  14. Comparison of linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of Orbitrap and ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan

    2017-11-30

    The linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of mass spectrometers are important in metabolome and residue analysis. A large linear dynamic range is mandatory if both low- and high-abundance ions have to be detected and quantitated in heavy matrix samples. These performance criteria, as provided by modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), were systematically investigated. The comparison included two generations of Orbitraps, and an ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system In addition, different scan modes, as provided by the utilized instruments, were investigated. Calibration curves of different compounds covering a concentration range of five orders of magnitude were measured to evaluate the linear interscan dynamic range. The linear intrascan dynamic range and the resulting mass accuracy were evaluated by repeating these measurements in the presence of a very intense background. Modern HRMS instruments can show linear dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude. Often, however, the linear dynamic range is limited by the detection capability (sensitivity and selectivity) and by the electrospray ionization. Orbitraps, as opposed to TOF instruments, show a reduced intrascan dynamic range. This is due to the limited C-trap and Orbitrap capacity. The tested TOF instrument shows poorer mass accuracies than the Orbitraps. In contrast, hyphenation with an ion-mobility device seems not to affect the linear dynamic range. The linear dynamic range of modern HRMS instrumentation has been significantly improved. This also refers to the virtual absence of systematic mass shifts at high ion abundances. The intrascan dynamic range of the current Orbitrap technology may still be a limitation when analyzing complex matrix extracts. On the other hand, the linear dynamic range is not only limited by the detector technology, but can also be shortened by peripheral devices, where the ionization and transfer of ions take place. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  15. Characterization of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its applications in the study of solid surfaces; Charakterisierung eines Flugzeitmassenspektrometers und seine Anwendungen in der Festkoerperoberflaechenuntersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarov, P.

    2006-12-21

    The object and the purpose of the present work was to develop, to assemble and to start running a new TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer for imaging SNMS analytic which is optimized for the analysis of highly molecular secondary ions. The most important purpose was the characterization of the TOF mass spectrometer. The obtained mass spectra of indium, tantalum and silver clusters reflect the excellent properties of the TOF mass spectrometer for the detection of large clusters with good detection efficiency up to masses of 16000 amu. The possibility of the deflection of selected saturated atom and cluster peaks serves for further improvement of the detection efficiency for large molecules. The accessible mass resolution was determined to be of the order of m/{delta}m=1000 in the high mass region. Numerous measurements were carried out to characterize the useful yield of this spectrometer. For a best possible adaptation of the TOF mass spectrometer for the detection of highly molecular particles, a device for post-acceleration of the detected particles by up to 10 keV were inserted directly before the MCP detector. The detection efficiency of positive secondary ions was determined for different post-acceleration voltages for the example of sputtered indium cluster ions. In addition, a new method was developed for the quantitative determination of the spectral ionization probability {alpha}{sup +}({nu}) of sputtered particles as a function of the emission velocity. The next application of the TOF mass spectrometer is the analysis of complicated organic molecules in solid state surfaces. During measurements of the photo-ionization behaviour of neutral tryptophan molecules, it was found out that a stable molecular ion signal is generated in the SNMS spectrum with h{nu}=7.9 eV can only be observed by the use of a continuous ion beam or very long (ms range) ion pulses. (orig.)

  16. Laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF: performance, reference spectra and classification of atmospheric samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH is able to identify the chemical composition and mixing state of individual aerosol particles, and thus is a tool for elucidating their impacts on human health, visibility, ecosystem, and climate. The overall detection efficiency (ODE of the instrument we use was determined to range from  ∼  (0.01 ± 0.01 to  ∼  (4.23 ± 2.36 % for polystyrene latex (PSL in the size range of 200 to 2000 nm,  ∼  (0.44 ± 0.19 to  ∼  (6.57 ± 2.38 % for ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, and  ∼  (0.14 ± 0.02 to  ∼  (1.46 ± 0.08 % for sodium chloride (NaCl particles in the size range of 300 to 1000 nm. Reference mass spectra of 32 different particle types relevant for atmospheric aerosol (e.g. pure compounds NH4NO3, K2SO4, NaCl, oxalic acid, pinic acid, and pinonic acid; internal mixtures of e.g. salts, secondary organic aerosol, and metallic core–organic shell particles; more complex particles such as soot and dust particles were determined. Our results show that internally mixed aerosol particles can result in spectra with new clusters of ions, rather than simply a combination of the spectra from the single components. An exemplary 1-day ambient data set was analysed by both classical fuzzy clustering and a reference-spectra-based classification method. Resulting identified particle types were generally well correlated. We show how a combination of both methods can greatly improve the interpretation of single-particle data in field measurements.

  17. Rapid high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with pulsed laser source and time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, K.; Hussain, Z.; Bostwick, A.; Lanzara, A.; Jozwiak, C.

    2013-09-01

    A high-efficiency spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) spectrometer is coupled with a laboratory-based laser for rapid high-resolution measurements. The spectrometer combines time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements with low-energy exchange scattering spin polarimetry for high detection efficiencies. Samples are irradiated with fourth harmonic photons generated from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser that provides high photon flux in a narrow bandwidth, with a pulse timing structure ideally matched to the needs of the TOF spectrometer. The overall efficiency of the combined system results in near-EF spin-resolved ARPES measurements with an unprecedented combination of energy resolution and acquisition speed. This allows high-resolution spin measurements with a large number of data points spanning multiple dimensions of interest (energy, momentum, photon polarization, etc.) and thus enables experiments not otherwise possible. The system is demonstrated with spin-resolved energy and momentum mapping of the L-gap Au(111) surface states, a prototypical Rashba system. The successful integration of the spectrometer with the pulsed laser system demonstrates its potential for simultaneous spin- and time-resolved ARPES with pump-probe based measurements.

  18. Modelling the line shape of very low energy peaks of positron beam induced secondary electrons measured using a time of flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, A J; Chirayath, V A; Gladen, R W; Chrysler, M D; Koymen, A R; Weiss, A H

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of numerical modelling of the University of Texas at Arlington’s time of flight positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometer (UTA TOF-PAES) using SIMION® 8.1 Ion and Electron Optics Simulator. The time of flight (TOF) spectrometer measures the energy of electrons emitted from the surface of a sample as a result of the interaction of low energy positrons with the sample surface. We have used SIMION® 8.1 to calculate the times of flight spectra of electrons leaving the sample surface with energies and angles dispersed according to distribution functions chosen to model the positron induced electron emission process and have thus obtained an estimate of the true electron energy distribution. The simulated TOF distribution was convolved with a Gaussian timing resolution function and compared to the experimental distribution. The broadening observed in the simulated TOF spectra was found to be consistent with that observed in the experimental secondary electron spectra of Cu generated as a result of positrons incident with energy 1.5 eV to 901 eV, when a timing resolution of 2.3 ns was assumed. (paper)

  19. Testing flight software on the ground: Introducing the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method to the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenhao, E-mail: wenhao_sun@126.com [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cai, Xudong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Meng, Qiao [Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-04-11

    Complex automatic protection functions are being added to the onboard software of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation method has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of ground testing that are brought by hardware and environmental limitations. We invented a time-saving approach by reusing the flight data as the data source of the simulation system instead of mathematical models. This is easy to implement and it works efficiently. This paper presents the system framework, implementation details and some application examples.

  20. Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, E. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J. T.; Kimmel, J.; Yu, X.-Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first single particle results obtained using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The instrument was operated as a standard AMS from 12-30 March, acquiring average chemical composition and size distributions for the ambient aerosol, and in single particle mode from 27-30 March. Over a 75-h sampling period, 12 853 single particle mass spectra were optically triggered, saved, and analyzed. The correlated optical and chemical detection allowed detailed examination of single particle collection and quantification within the LS-ToF-AMS. The single particle data enabled the mixing states of the ambient aerosol to be characterized within the context of the size-resolved ensemble chemical information. The particulate mixing states were examined as a function of sampling time and most of the particles were found to be internal mixtures containing many of the organic and inorganic species identified in the ensemble analysis. The single particle mass spectra were deconvolved, using techniques developed for ensemble AMS data analysis, into HOA, OOA, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4Cl fractions. Average single particle mass and chemistry measurements are shown to be in agreement with ensemble MS and PTOF measurements. While a significant fraction of ambient particles were internal mixtures of varying degrees, single particle measurements of chemical composition allowed the identification of time periods during which the ambient ensemble was externally mixed. In some cases the chemical composition of the particles suggested a likely source. Throughout the full sampling period, the ambient ensemble was an external mixture of combustion-generated HOA particles from local sources (e.g. traffic), with number concentrations peaking

  1. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  2. Qualification study of LiF flight crystals for the objective crystal spectrometer on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Rasmussen, I.; Schnopper, Herbert W.

    1992-01-01

    The Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite will carry these types of natural crystals LiF(220), Ge(111) and RAP(001). They will be used to study, among others, the H- and the He-like emission from the cosmically important elements Fe, S, Ar and O. More than 300 Li...

  3. Combined proton-recoil and neutron time-of-flight spectrometer for 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosshoeg, G.; Aronsson, D.; Arvidsson, E.; Beimer, K.-H.; Pekkari, L.-O.; Rydz, R.; Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1983-05-01

    The main effort put into this work is the foundation of a reliable physical basis for a 12-16 MeV neutron-spectrometer at JET. The essential problem is the amount of scatterer that can be incorporated without losing resolution. We have found two possible methods, the use of a pure hydrogen scatterer and the use of a polyethylene foil scatterer. The pure hydrogen solution gives a very complicated spectrometer with large detectors. The polyethylene solution is limited by the thickness and the width of the foil. We judge the solution with the polyethylene foil to be the most promising one for a reliable spectrometer. However, a large foil area is needed. This gives a spectrometer design with an annular foil, an annular neutron detection system, and a central proton-detector. An efficiency of 10 - 6 counts/s per n/cm 2 ,s at the foil can be obtained with a resolution in the order of 100 keV for 14 MeV neutrons. Following the General Requirements given in the contract of this work, we concluded that an instrument with the desired properties can be made. The instruments is able to give useful information about the plasma from plasma temperatures of about 5 keV. (Authors)

  4. The SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; O'Neill, G. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    2018-03-01

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of γ rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  5. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...

  6. Calibration of scintillation-light filters for neutron time-of-flight spectrometers at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, D. B., E-mail: sayre4@llnl.gov; Barbosa, F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); DiPuccio, V. N.; Weber, F. A. [National Security Technologies, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Sixty-four neutral density filters constructed of metal plates with 88 apertures of varying diameter have been radiographed with a soft x-ray source and CCD camera at National Security Technologies, Livermore. An analysis of the radiographs fits the radial dependence of the apertures’ image intensities to sigmoid functions, which can describe the rapidly decreasing intensity towards the apertures’ edges. The fitted image intensities determine the relative attenuation value of each filter. Absolute attenuation values of several imaged filters, measured in situ during calibration experiments, normalize the relative quantities which are now used in analyses of neutron spectrometer data at the National Ignition Facility.

  7. A real-time neutron-gamma discriminator based on the support vector machine method for the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, ZHANG; Tongyu, WU; Bowen, ZHENG; Shiping, LI; Yipo, ZHANG; Zejie, YIN

    2018-04-01

    A new neutron-gamma discriminator based on the support vector machine (SVM) method is proposed to improve the performance of the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The neutron detector is an EJ-299-33 plastic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) property. The SVM algorithm is implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA) to carry out the real-time sifting of neutrons in neutron-gamma mixed radiation fields. This study compares the ability of the pulse gradient analysis method and the SVM method. The results show that this SVM discriminator can provide a better discrimination accuracy of 99.1%. The accuracy and performance of the SVM discriminator based on FPGA have been evaluated in the experiments. It can get a figure of merit of 1.30.

  8. Compact Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for in Situ Analyses of Aromatic Organics on Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Brickerhoff, William; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Floyd, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE A miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been adapted to demonstrate two-step laser desorption-ionization (LOI) in a compact instrument package for enhanced organics detection. Two-step LDI decouples the desorption and ionization processes, relative to traditional laser ionization-desorption, in order to produce low-fragmentation conditions for complex organic analytes. Tuning UV ionization laser energy allowed control ofthe degree of fragmentation, which may enable better identification of constituent species. METHODS A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer prototype measuring 20 cm in length was adapted to a two-laser configuration, with IR (1064 nm) desorption followed by UV (266 nm) postionization. A relatively low ion extraction voltage of 5 kV was applied at the sample inlet. Instrument capabilities and performance were demonstrated with analysis of a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, representing a class of compounds important to the fields of Earth and planetary science. RESULTS L2MS analysis of a model PAH standard, pyrene, has been demonstrated, including parent mass identification and the onset o(tunable fragmentation as a function of ionizing laser energy. Mass resolution m/llm = 380 at full width at half-maximum was achieved which is notable for gas-phase ionization of desorbed neutrals in a highly-compact mass analyzer. CONCLUSIONS Achieving two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) in a highly-miniature instrument enables a powerful approach to the detection and characterization of aromatic organics in remote terrestrial and planetary applications. Tunable detection of parent and fragment ions with high mass resolution, diagnostic of molecular structure, is possible on such a compact L2MS instrument. Selectivity of L2MS against low-mass inorganic salt interferences is a key advantage when working with unprocessed, natural samples, and a mechanism for the observed selectivity is presented.

  9. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, N.G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Simeoni, G.G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) and Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lefmann, K. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-04-21

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (adjustable supermirror curvature) and the compact size (only 0.5 m long). We have simulated the neutron transport across the entire guide system. We present a detailed computer characterization of the existing device, along with the study of the factors mostly influencing the future improvement. We have optimized the simulated prototype as a function of the neutron wavelength, accounting also for all relevant features of a real instrument like the non-reflecting side edges. The results confirm the “chromatic” displacement of the focal point (flux density maximum) at fixed supermirror curvature, and the ability of a variable curvature to keep the focal point at the sample position. Our simulations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the experimentally measured beam profile. With respect to the possibility of a further upgrade, we find that supermirror coatings with m-values higher than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum.

  10. Implementation of dipolar direct current (DDC) collision-induced dissociation in storage and transmission modes on a quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ian K; Londry, Frank A; McLuckey, Scott A

    2011-09-15

    Means for effecting dipolar direct current collision-induced dissociation (DDC CID) on a quadrupole/time-of-flight in a mass spectrometer have been implemented for the broadband dissociation of a wide range of analyte ions. The DDC fragmentation method in electrodynamic storage and transmission devices provides a means for inducing fragmentation of ions over a large mass-to-charge range simultaneously. It can be effected within an ion storage step in a quadrupole collision cell that is operated as a linear ion trap or as ions are continuously transmitted through the collision cell. A DDC potential is applied across one pair of rods in the quadrupole collision cell of a QqTOF hybrid mass spectrometer to effect fragmentation. In this study, ions derived from a small drug molecule, a model peptide, a small protein, and an oligonucleotide were subjected to the DDC CID method in either an ion trapping or an ion transmission mode (or both). Several key experimental parameters that affect DDC CID results, such as time, voltage, low mass cutoff, and bath gas pressure, are illustrated with protonated leucine enkephalin. The DDC CID dissociation method gives a readily tunable, broadband tool for probing the primary structures of a wide range of analyte ions. The method provides an alternative to the narrow resonance conditions of conventional ion trap CID and it can access more extensive sequential fragmentation, depending upon conditions. The DDC CID approach constitutes a collision analog to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. In-flight performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer detector system on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kilbourne, Caroline Anne; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Daniel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Sato, Kosuke; Seta, Hiromi; Sawada, Makoto; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya

    2018-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS is based on a high-sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and suborbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In preflight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous bandpass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 μs. In addition, a solid-state anticoincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain stability and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7-eV FWHM at 6-keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here, we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in preflight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  12. High precision mass measurements of thermalized relativistic uranium projectile and fission fragments with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayet San Andres, Samuel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI, a relativistic beam of {sup 238}U at 1GeV/u was used to produce fission and projectile fragments on a beryllium target. The ions were separated in-flight at the FRS, thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell and transferred to a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) where high precision mass measurements were performed. The masses of several fission and projectile fragments were measured (including short-lived nuclei with half-lives down to 18 ms) and the possibility of tailoring an isomerically clean beam for other experiments was demonstrated. With the demonstrated performance of the MR-TOF-MS and the expected production rates of exotic nuclei far from stability at the next-generation facilities such as FAIR, novel mass measurements of nuclei close to the neutron drip line will be possible and key information for understanding the r-process will be available. The results from the last experiment and an outlook of possible future mass measurements close to the neutron drip line at FAIR with the MR-TOF-MS are presented.

  13. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G.J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  14. Concept design of a time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of the energy of alpha particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Toraño, E

    2018-04-01

    The knowledge of the energies of the alpha particles emitted in the radioactive decay of a nuclide is a key factor in the construction of its decay scheme. Virtually all existing data are based on a few absolute measurements made by magnetic spectrometry (MS), to which most other MS measurements are traced. An alternative solution would be the use of time-of-flight detectors. This paper discusses the main aspects to be considered in the design of such detectors, and the performances that could be reasonably expected. Based on the concepts discussed here, it is estimated that an energy resolution about 2.5keV may be attainable with a good quality source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First records of thermal neutrons with the spectrometer for time of flight (TOF) in the RP-10 Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, M.; Baltuano, O; Soto, C; Ravello, Y

    2002-01-01

    To obtain the first spectrum of an emergent beam of neutrons of a nuclear reactor is the main parameter of the characterization in the use of this reactor; one of ways to get this spectrum is for the technique of time of flight, TOF, which registers the time that a neutron need to cover a certain distance, associating this time then to the kinetic energy of the neutron. The kinetic study of the beam of neutrons is carried out on neutron pulses that are generated by a revolving choke called Chopper; and the analysis in the time of the detected pulses is carried out for a system MCS. Using this technique it is achieved the record of the spectra in energy, or in wavelength , of the irradiation facilities No 2 and 4, and of the exit N o 5 of the thermal column of the Nuclear Reactor RP-10 of the Nuclear Center Oscar de la Guerra RACSO, Peru (au)

  16. New design for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a liquid beam laser desorption ion source for the analysis of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charvat, A.; Lugovoj, E.; Faubel, M.; Abel, B.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel liquid beam mass spectrometer, based on a recently discovered nanosecond laser desorption phenomenon, [W. Kleinekofort, J. Avdiev, and B. Brutschy, Int. J. Mass Ion. Processes 152, 135 (1996)] which allows the liquid-to-vacuum transfer, and subsequent mass analysis of pre-existing ions and ionic associates from liquid microjets of aqueous solutions. The goal of our novel technical approach is to establish a system with good mass resolution that implements improvements on critical components that make the system more reliable and easier to operate. For laser desorption pulsed dye-laser difference frequency mixing is used that provides tunable infrared light near the absorption maximum of liquid water around 3 μm. Different types of liquid beam glass nozzles (convergent capillary and aperture plate nozzles) are investigated and characterized. Starting from theoretical considerations of hydrodynamic drag forces on micrometer size droplets in supersonic rarefied gas flows we succeeded in capturing efficiently the liquid beam in a liquid beam recycling trap operating at the vapor pressure of liquid water. For improving the pollution resistance, the liquid jet high vacuum ion source region is spatially separated from the reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) working behind a gate valve in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. A simple (simulation optimized) ion optics is employed for the ion transfer from the source to the high vacuum region. This new feature is also mostly responsible for the improved mass resolution. With the present tandem-TOF-MS setup a resolution of m/Δm≅1800 for the low and m/Δm≅700 in the high mass region has been obtained for several biomolecules of different mass and complexity (amino acids, insulin, and cytochrome c)

  17. Applicability of a two-step laser desorption-ionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer for determination of chemical composition of ultrafine aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, T.

    2013-11-01

    This thesis is based on the construction of a two-step laser desorption-ionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (laser AMS), which is capable of measuring 10 to 50 nm aerosol particles collected from urban and rural air at-site and in near real time. The operation and applicability of the instrument was tested with various laboratory measurements, including parallel measurements with filter collection/chromatographic analysis, and then in field experiments in urban environment and boreal forest. Ambient ultrafine aerosol particles are collected on a metal surface by electrostatic precipitation and introduced to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with a sampling valve. Before MS analysis particles are desorbed from the sampling surface with an infrared laser and ionized with a UV laser. The formed ions are guided to the TOF-MS by ion transfer optics, separated according to their m/z ratios, and detected with a micro channel plate detector. The laser AMS was used in urban air studies to quantify the carbon cluster content in 50 nm aerosol particles. Standards for the study were produced from 50 nm graphite particles, suspended in toluene, with 72 hours of high power sonication. The results showed the average amount of carbon clusters (winter 2012, Helsinki, Finland) in 50 nm particles to be 7.2% per sample. Several fullerenes/fullerene fragments were detected during the measurements. In boreal forest measurements, the laser AMS was capable of detecting several different organic species in 10 to 50 nm particles. These included nitrogen-containing compounds, carbon clusters, aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated hydrocarbons. A most interesting event occurred during the boreal forest measurements in spring 2011 when the chemistry of the atmosphere clearly changed during snow melt. On that time concentrations of laser AMS ions m/z 143 and 185 (10 nm particles) increased dramatically. Exactly at the same time, quinoline concentrations

  18. Quantitative analysis of a brass alloy using CF-LIBS and a laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar; Abdullah, M.; Ahmed, Rizwan; Piracha, N. K.; Aslam Baig, M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of a brass alloy using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-MS). The emission lines of copper (Cu I) and zinc (Zn I), and the constituent elements of the brass alloy were used to calculate the plasma parameters. The plasma temperature was calculated from the Boltzmann plot as (10 000  ±  1000) K and the electron number density was determined as (2.0  ±  0.5)  ×  1017 cm-3 from the Stark-broadened Cu I line as well as using the Saha-Boltzmann equation. The elemental composition was deduced using these techniques: the Boltzmann plot method (70% Cu and 30% Zn), internal reference self-absorption correction (63.36% Cu and 36.64% Zn), EDX (61.75% Cu and 38.25% Zn), and LA-TOF (62% Cu and 38% Zn), whereas, the certified composition is (62% Cu and 38% Zn). It was observed that the internal reference self-absorption correction method yields analytical results comparable to that of EDX and LA-TOF-MS.

  19. Analysis of psychoactive substances in water by information dependent acquisition on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-08-26

    Emerging drugs of abuse, belonging to many different chemical classes, are attracting users with promises of "legal" highs and easy access via internet. Prevalence of their consumption and abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology can only be realized if a suitable analytical screening procedure exists to detect and quantify them in water. Solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS/MS) was applied for rapid suspect screening as well as for the quantitative determination of 42 illicit drugs and metabolites in water. Using this platform, we were able to identify amphetamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, arylcyclohexylamines, cocainics, opioids and cannabinoids. Additionally, paracetamol, carbamazepine, ibersartan, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole, terbumeton, diuron, etc. (including degradation products as 3-hydroxy carbamazepine or deethylterbuthylazine) were detected. This method encompasses easy sample preparation and rapid identification of psychoactive drugs against a database that cover more than 2000 compounds that ionized in positive mode, and possibility to identify metabolites and degradation products as well as unknown compounds. The method for river water, influent and effluents samples was fully validated for the target psychoactive substances including assessment of matrix effects (-88-67.8%), recovery (42-115%), precision (psychoactive drugs biomarkers and other water contaminants is demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In-beam test of the Boron-10 Multi-Grid neutron detector at the IN6 time-of-flight spectrometer at the ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J; Hultman, L; Höglund, C [Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Buffet, J-C; Clergeau, J-F; Correa, J; Van Esch, P; Ferraton, M; Guerard, B; Halbwachs, J; Khaplanov, A; Koza, M; Piscitelli, F; Zbiri, M [Institute Laue Langevin, Rue Jules Horowitz, FR-38000 Grenoble (France); Hall-Wilton, R [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-07-24

    A neutron detector concept based on solid layers of boron carbide enriched in {sup 10}B has been in development for the last few years as an alternative for {sup 3}He by collaboration between the ILL, ESS and Linköping University. This Multi-Grid detector uses layers of aluminum substrates coated with {sup 10}B{sub 4}C on both sides that are traversed by the incoming neutrons. Detection is achieved using a gas counter readout principle. By segmenting the substrate and using multiple anode wires, the detector is made inherently position sensitive. This development is aimed primarily at neutron scattering instruments with large detector areas, such as time-of-flight chopper spectrometers. The most recent prototype has been built to be interchangeable with the {sup 3}He detectors of IN6 at ILL. The {sup 10}B detector has an active area of 32 x 48cm{sup 2}. It was installed at the IN6 instrument and operated for several weeks, collecting data in parallel with the regularly scheduled experiments, thus providing the first side-by-side comparison with the conventional {sup 3}He detectors. Results include an efficiency comparison, assessment of the in-detector scattering contribution, sensitivity to gamma-rays and the signal-to-noise ratio in time-of-flight spectra. The good expected performance has been confirmed with the exception of an unexpected background count rate. This has been identified as natural alpha activity in aluminum. New convertor substrates are under study to eliminate this source of background.

  1. Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M P; Barbee, T W; Heidemann, K F; Gursky, H; Rife, J C; Hunter, W R; Fritz, G G; Cruddace, R G

    1999-11-01

    We have fabricated the four flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer using a holographic ion-etching technique. The gratings are spherical (4000-mm radius of curvature), large (160 mm x 90 mm), and have a laminar groove profile of high density (3600 grooves/mm). They have been coated with a high-reflectance multilayer of Mo/Si. Using an atomic force microscope, we examined the surface characteristics of the first grating before and after multilayer coating. The average roughness is approximately 3 A rms after coating. Using synchrotron radiation, we completed an efficiency calibration map over the wavelength range 225-245 A. At an angle of incidence of 5 degrees and a wavelength of 234 A, the average efficiency in the first inside order is 10.4 +/- 0.5%, and the derived groove efficiency is 34.8 +/- 1.6%. These values exceed all previously published results for a high-density grating.

  2. Introduction of a 20 kHz Nd:YVO4 laser into a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for MALDI-MS imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, Paul J; Djidja, Marie-Claude; Atkinson, Sally J; Oakes, Keith; Cole, Laura M; Anderson, David M G; Hart, Philippa J; Francese, Simona; Clench, Malcolm R

    2010-08-01

    A commercial hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been modified for high-speed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) imaging using a short-pulse optical technology Nd:YVO(4) laser. The laser operating in frequency-tripled mode (lambda = 355 nm) is capable of delivering 1.5-ns pulses of energy at up to 8 microJ at 5-10 kHz and 3 microJ at 20 kHz. Experiments to improve beam homogeneity and reduce laser speckle by mechanical vibration of the fibre-optic laser delivery system are reported along with data from trial and tissue imaging experiments using the modified instrument. The laser appeared to yield best results for MALDI-MS imaging experiments when operating at repetition rates 5-10 kHz. Combining this with raster imaging allowed images of rat brain sections to be recorded in 37 min. Similarly, images of the distribution of peptides in "on-tissue" digest experiments from tumour tissues were recorded in 1 h and 30 min rather than the 8-h acquisition time previously used. A brief investigation of targeted protein analysis/imaging by multiple reaction monitoring experiments "on-tissue" is reported. A total of 26 transitions were recorded over a 3-s cycle time and images of abundant proteins were successfully recorded.

  3. Depth profiling of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2} nanolaminates by means of a time-of-flight energy spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, M., E-mail: mikko.i.laitinen@jyu.fi [Dept. of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sajavaara, T., E-mail: timo.sajavaara@jyu.fi [Dept. of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rossi, M., E-mail: mikko.rossi@jyu.fi [Dept. of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Julin, J., E-mail: jaakko.julin@jyu.fi [Dept. of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Puurunen, R.L., E-mail: riikka.puurunen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Suni, T., E-mail: tommi.suni@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, ew304, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); Ishida, T., E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, ew304, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, H., E-mail: fujita@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, ew304, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, 153-8505 Tokyo (Japan); Arstila, K., E-mail: kai.arstila@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven 3001 (Belgium); Brijs, B., E-mail: bert.brijs@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven 3001 (Belgium); Whitlow, H.J., E-mail: harry.j.whitlow@jyu.fi [Dept. of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is currently a widespread method to grow conformal thin films with a sub-nm thickness control. By using ALD for nanolaminate oxides, it is possible to fine tune the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of thin films. In this study the elemental depth profiles and surface roughnesses were determined for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2} nanolaminates with nominal single-layer thicknesses of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 nm and total thickness between 40 nm and 60 nm. The depth profiles were measured by means of a time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) spectrometer recently installed at the University of Jyvaeskylae. In TOF-E measurements {sup 63}Cu, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 12}C and {sup 4}He ions with energies ranging from 0.5 to 10 MeV, were used and depth profiles of the whole nanolaminate film could be analyzed down to 5 nm individual layer thickness.

  4. Development of a Robust, High Current, Low Power Field Emission Electron Gun for a Spaceflight Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Adrian E.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Feng, Steven; Glavin, Daniel P.; Auciello, Orlando; Sumant, Anirudha

    2012-01-01

    Carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD), have been of considerable interest for field emission applications for over a decade. In particular, robust field emission materials are compelling for space applications due to the low power consumption and potential for miniaturization. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) under development for in situ measurements on the Moon and other Solar System bodies uses a field emitter to generate ions from gaseous samples, using electron ionization. For these unusual environments, robustness, reliability, and long life are of paramount importance, and to this end, we have explored the field emission properties and lifetime of carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) thin films, the latter developed and patented by Argonne National Laboratory. We will present recent investigations of N-UNCD as a robust field emitter, revealing that this material offers stable performance in high vacuum for up to 1000 hours with threshold voltage for emission of about 3-4 V/lJm and current densities in the range of tens of microA. Optimizing the mass resolution and sensitivity of such a mass spectrometer has also been enabled by a parallel effort to scale up a CNT emitter to an array measuring 2 mm x 40 mm. Through simulation and experiment of the new extended format emitter, we have determined that focusing the electron beam is limited due to the angular spread of the emitted electrons. This dispersion effect can be reduced through modification of the electron gun geometry, but this reduces the current reaching the ionization region. By increasing the transmission efficiency of the electron beam to the anode, we have increased the anode current by two orders of magnitude to realize a corresponding enhancement in instrument sensitivity, at a moderate cost to mass resolution. We will report recent experimental and

  5. The total column of CO2 and CH4 measured with a compact Fourier transform spectrometer at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center and Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Kuze, A.; Hillyard, P. W.; Tanaka, T.; Podolske, J. R.; Iraci, L. T.; Albertson, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The total columns of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) were measured with a compact Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) and Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA (RRV) during a vicarious calibration campaign in June 2014. The campaign was performed to estimate changes in the radiometric response of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) aboard Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). TANSO-FTS measures spectra of radiance scattered by the Earth surface with high- and medium-gain depending on the surface reflectance. At high reflectance areas, such as deserts over north Africa and Australia, TANSO-FTS collects spectra with medium-gain. There was differences on atmospheric pressure and XCO2 retrieved from spectra obtained between high-gain and medium-gain. Because the retrieved products are useful for evaluating the difference of spectral qualities between high- and medium-gain, this work is an attempt to collect validation data for spectra with medium-gain of TANSO-FTS at remote and desert area with a compact and medium-spectral resolution instrument. As a compact FTS, EM27/SUN was used. It was manufactured and newly released on April 1, 2014 by Bruker. It is robust and operable in a high temperature environment. It was housed in a steel box to protect from dust and rain and powered by Solar panels. It can be operated by such a remote and desert area, like a RRV. Over AFRC and RRV, vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) of ARC, NASA. The values were calibrated to standard gases. To make the results comparable to WMO (World Meteorological Organization) standards, the retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 values are divided by a calibration factor. This values were determined by comparisons with in situ profiles measured by

  6. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  7. Trace metal analysis in arctic aerosols by an inductively coupled plasma-time of flight-mass spectrometer combined with an inductively heated vaporizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedke, Christian; Skole, Jochen; Taubner, Kerstin; Kriews, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Two newly developed instruments were combined to analyze the trace metal content in size separated arctic aerosols during the measurement campaign ASTAR 2004 (Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosols, Clouds and Radiation 2004) at Spitsbergen in May-June 2004. The aim of this extensive aerosol measurement campaign was to obtain a database for model-calculations of arctic aerosol, which play an important role in the global climate change. The ASTAR project was centered on two aircraft measurement campaigns, scheduled from 2004 to 2005, addressing both aerosol and cloud measurements, combined with ground-based and satellite observations. In the present paper one example for the analysis of ground-based aerosol particles is described. The sampling of aerosol particles was performed in a well-known manner by impaction of the particles on cleaned graphite targets. By means of a cascade impactor eight size classes between 0.35 and 16.6 μm aerodynamic diameters were separated. To analyze the metal content in the aerosol particles the targets were rapidly heated up to 2700 deg. C in an inductively heated vaporizer system (IHVS). An argon flow transports the vaporized sample material into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) used as ionization source for the time of flight-mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The simultaneous extraction of the ions from the plasma, as realized in the TOF instrument, allows to obtain the full mass spectrum of the sample during the vaporization pulse without any limitation in the number of elements detected. With optimized experimental parameters the element content in arctic aerosol particles was determined in a mass range between 7 Li and 209 Bi. Comparing the size distribution of the elemental content of the aerosol particles, two different meteorological situations were verified. For calibration acidified reference solutions were placed on the cleaned target inside the IHVS. The limits of detection (LOD) for the element mass on the target range

  8. Deployment of the FIGAERO Iodide Time of flight (ToF)-Chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) using X-ray ionisation in Manaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, T.; Bacak, A.; Priestley, M.; Adelstein, E.; Worrall, S.; Artaxo, P.; Carbone, S.; Topping, D. O.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Percival, C.

    2017-12-01

    Here the deployment of the The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled with the Aerodyne High Resolution (HR)-Time of flight (ToF)-Chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) in Manaus is presented. This project utilised the Tofwerk X-ray ionisation source in the tropical rainforest in close proximity to Manaus, Brazil, at the ZF2 measurement site. The FIGAERO is a filter based technique that provides simultaneous molecular information of both the gas and particle phase. When analysing particles that have been collected the evolution of the MS signals from different compounds change independently as a function of temperature; creating a thermogram that is m/z specific. The temperature for which the desorbed signal shows a maximum for each compound has been used previously to extract vapour pressure information in laboratory characterisatio. Krieger et al. (2017) defined the homologous series of polyethylene glycols as a series of compounds that showed a very good agreement over a wide range of atmospherically relevant vapour pressures between different experimental setups. PEG samples therefore provide an ideal bench mark for characterising individual FIGAERO inlets to give vapour pressure information essential for partitioning characterisation. The PEG calibration curve has been used to validate vapour pressure measurements in a well-defined single component bases and in simple chamber experiments, results of which are presented. With a high reactivity and large ubiquitous global source, isoprene has a profound effect upon atmospheric chemistry and composition. Despite this there are still significant gaps in the understanding of the processes that lead to isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This project aims to provide insights into the role of isoprene in the mechanisms of production of SOA and its importance in the particulate mass budgets in the tropics and the fundamental chemical processes. The volatility and composition of

  9. Detection of atmospheric gaseous amines and amides by a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer with protonated ethanol reagent ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Amines and amides are important atmospheric organic-nitrogen compounds but high time resolution, highly sensitive, and simultaneous ambient measurements of these species are rather sparse. Here, we present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6 and amides (C1 to C6. This method possesses sensitivities of 5.6–19.4 Hz pptv−1 for amines and 3.8–38.0 Hz pptv−1 for amides under total reagent ion signals of  ∼  0.32 MHz. Meanwhile, the detection limits were 0.10–0.50 pptv for amines and 0.29–1.95 pptv for amides at 3σ of the background signal for a 1 min integration time. Controlled characterization in the laboratory indicates that relative humidity has significant influences on the detection of amines and amides, whereas the presence of organics has no obvious effects. Ambient measurements of amines and amides utilizing this method were conducted from 25 July to 25 August 2015 in urban Shanghai, China. While the concentrations of amines ranged from a few parts per trillion by volume to hundreds of parts per trillion by volume, concentrations of amides varied from tens of parts per trillion by volume to a few parts per billion by volume. Among the C1- to C6-amines, the C2-amines were the dominant species with concentrations up to 130 pptv. For amides, the C3-amides (up to 8.7 ppb were the most abundant species. The diurnal and backward trajectory analysis profiles of amides suggest that in addition to the secondary formation of amides in the atmosphere, industrial emissions could be important sources of amides in urban Shanghai. During the campaign, photo-oxidation of amines and amides might be a main loss pathway for them in daytime, and wet deposition was also an important sink.

  10. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  11. Mass measurements of {sup 238}U-projectile fragments for the first time with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Mass measurements of short-lived uranium projectile fragments were performed for the first time with a Multiple-Reflexion-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). A major part of this doctoral work was a novel development of a data analysis method for the MR-TOF-MS mass measurements of exotic nuclei at the fragment separator FRS at GSI. The developed method was successfully applied to the data obtained from two pilot experiments with the MR-TOF-MS at the FRS in 2012 and 2014. A substantial upgrade of the experimental setup of the MR-TOF-MS was also performed in the frame work of this doctoral thesis after the first run. In the experiments projectile fragments were created with 1000 MeV/u {sup 238}U ions in a Be/Nb target at the entrance of the in-flight separator FRS. The exotic nuclei were spatially separated, energy bunched and slowed down with the ion-optical system of the FRS combined with monoenergetic and homogeneous degraders. At the final focal plane of the FRS the fragments were completely slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) filled with 3-5 mg/cm{sup 2} pure helium gas. The exotic nuclei were fast extracted from the CSC to enable mass measurements of very short-lived fragments with the MR-TOF-MS. The achievement of this goal was successfully demonstrated with the mass measurement of {sup 220}Ra ions with a half-life of 17.9 ms and 11 detected events. The mass measurements of the isobars {sup 211}Fr, {sup 211}Po and {sup 211}Rn have clearly demonstrated the scientific potential of the MR-TOF-MS for the investigation of exotic nuclei and the power of the data analysis system. Difficult measurements with overlapping mass distributions with only a few counts in the measured spectra were the challenge for the new data analysis method based on the maximum likelihood method. The drifts during the measurements were corrected with the developed time-resolved calibration method. After the improvements of the setup as a consequence of

  12. A Time of flight spectrometer for measurements of double differential neutron scattering cross sections; Montaje de un espectrometro por tiempo de vuelo para la medicion de secciones doble diferenciales de dispersion de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padron, I; Dominguez, O; Sarria, P. Sandin, C. [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-05-01

    The time -of-Flight neutron spectrometry technique by associated particle method was improved using a D-T neutron generator at Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis. This technique was implemented for double differential cross section measurements and supported by the IAEA Project CUB/01/005. An stilbene scintillation detector (dia=100 mm, length=50 mm) was used as principal neutron detector detector and was situated outside a hole in the concrete wall. This way the fligth path was extended and the scattered neutron cone accurate collimated throught the 2 m concrete wall. For the associated particle {alpha} detection a thin plastic NE-102 scint illator was used, as well as, two scintilation detectors and a long counter for the neutron flux monitoring. In this TOF neutron spectrometer (3.40 m flight path) a 1.7 nseg. temporal resolution was obtained.

  13. Investigations of primary and secondary particulate matter of different wood combustion appliances with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Heringa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of photo-oxidation smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation from two different log wood burners and a residential pellet burner under different burning conditions: starting and flaming phase. Emissions were sampled from the chimney and injected into the smog chamber leading to primary organic aerosol (POA concentrations comparable to ambient levels. The composition of the aerosol was measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS and black carbon (BC instrumentation. The primary emissions were then exposed to xenon light to initiate photo-chemistry and subsequent secondary organic aerosol (SOA production. After correcting for wall losses, the average increase in organic matter (OM concentrations by SOA formation for the starting and flaming phase experiments with the two log wood burners was found to be a factor of 4.1±1.4 after five hours of aging. No SOA formation was observed for the stable burning phase of the pellet burner. The startup emissions of the pellet burner showed an increase in OM concentration by a factor of 3.3. Including the measured SOA formation potential, average emission factors of BC+POA+SOA, calculated from CO2 emission, were found to be in the range of 0.04 to 3.9 g/kg wood for the stable burning pellet burner and an old log wood burner during startup respectively. SOA contributed significantly to the ion C2H4O2+ at mass to charge ratio m/z 60, a commonly used marker for primary emissions of wood burning. This contribution at m/z 60 can overcompensate for the degradation of levoglucosan leading to an overestimation of the contribution of wood burning or biomass burning to the total OM. The primary organic emissions from the three different burners showed a wide range in O:C atomic ratio (0.19−0.60 for the starting and flaming

  14. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  15. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  16. Investigation of the electron dynamics of Si(111) 7 x 7 and development of a time-of-flight spectrometer for time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of two main parts. The first one reports about recent investigations of the electron dynamics on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface employing time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The second part describes the construction and demonstration of the capabilities of a new electron time-of-flight spectrometer. It is shown that the electron dynamics of this surface are governed by adatom and bulk states. Variation of different experimental parameters leads to the suggestion that electrons scatter from the adatom states into the conduction band of Silicon. The localization in real space can be estimated from the distribution of the photoemission intensity in momentum space to be within one 7 x 7 unit cell. The electron population in the conduction band as well as those in the adatom band show a very long-living component. In addition to recombination through defect states, these electrons can undergo radiative recombination with holes in the valence band. The second part of this thesis reports about the design, construction and demonstration of the capabilities of a new electron time-of-flight spectrometer for applications in time- and angle-resolved 2PPE experiments. The new spectrometer is designed in a flexible manner to maximize either the energy resolution or the acceptance angle, respectively. By employing a position-sensitive electron detector it is possible for the first time to measure the energy as well as all components of the parallel momentum of the photoemitted electrons and thereby to fully characterize electrons from surface states. The time-resolution can be estimated from the width of a peak induced by photons scattered from the sample to be better than 150 ps. At the minimum of about 40 mm of the adjustable drift distance this leads to a energy resolution below 5 meV for electrons with kinetic energies of 1 eV. Thereby, the parallel momentum resolution is below 5 mA -1 for parallel momentum values k parallel ≤1A -1

  17. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-07-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp{yields}d{pi}{sup +} data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  18. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-01-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp→dπ + data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  19. Construction of a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer for reaction angles 000 and study of the reaction 65Cu(p,xn) 65Zn for Esub(p)=26.7 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, Y.

    1984-01-01

    At the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron a novel time-of-flight neutron spectrometer was designed, constructed, and tested by means of a for the planned application typical nuclear reaction. The apparature was optimized for the measurement of continuous, structure-deficient neutron spectra in a wide angular range at a reproducible, as low as possible scattering neutron background. Such a facility is fitted to the strengths of the Hamburg cyclotron and allows to study questions on the precompound emission and on the inelastic projectile ( 3 He) breakup. The final test was performed with the reaction 65 Cu(p,xn) 65 Zn at Esub(p)=26.7 MeV for which already comparable data over a smaller angular range were present. In the analysis of the measurement results performed regarding the precompound effects the hybrid-exciton model calculations let recognize essential deviations at high neutron energies in the range of the extreme reaction angles. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. Analysis of rocking curve measurements of LiF flight crystals for the objective crystal spectrometer on SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halm, I.; Wiebicke, H.-J.; Geppert, U.R.M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite will use three types of natural crystals LiF(220), Si(111), RAP(001), and a multilayer structure providing high-resolution X- ray spectroscopy of Fe, S, O, and C line regions of bright cosmic X-ray sources. 330 - 360 LiF(220......) crystals of dimensions approximately 23 × 63 mm2 are required to cover one side of a large (1000 × 600 mm2) panel, which is to be mounted in front of one of two high throughput X- ray telescopes. Rocking curves of 441 LiF(220) crystals measured by using an expanded Cu - Kα2 beam were analyzed to select...... the main parameters of the rocking curve averaged over all crystals can be improved at least by a factor of 1.6 both in full width half maximum and peak reflectivity....

  1. A Compact Tandem Two-Step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for In Situ Analysis of Non-Volatile Organics on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Li, Xiang; Elsila, Jamie; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Two-step laser desorption mass spectrometry is a well suited technique to the analysis of high priority classes of organics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, present in complex samples. The use of decoupled desorption and ionization laser pulses allows for sensitive and selective detection of structurally intact organic species. We have recently demonstrated the implementation of this advancement in laser mass spectrometry in a compact, flight-compatible instrument that could feasibly be the centerpiece of an analytical science payload as part of a future spaceflight mission to a small body or icy moon.

  2. Characterization of a Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Electron Gun for the VAPoR Miniaturized Pyrolysis-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Li, Mary; Costen, Nicholas; Hess, Larry; Feng, Steve; King, Todd; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Glavin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the VAPoR (Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) instrument towards studying soil composition, volatiles, and trapped noble gases in the polar regions of the Moon. VAPOR will ingest a soil sample and conduct analysis by pyrolysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS). Here, we describe miniaturization efforts within this development, including a carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron gun that is under consideration for use as the electron impact ionization source for the ToF-MS.

  3. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid 4 He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer

  4. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head; Conception et realisation d'un spectrometre de masse a temps de vol spatialisable de type 'reflectron' electronique et tete de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoto, P

    2006-03-15

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  5. HISS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented

  6. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  7. Simulations and measurements of the performance of a channeled neutron guide for a time-of-flight spectrometer at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jeremy C.; Copley, John R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the identification and analysis of the principal sources of intensity loss within the five-channeled neutron guide tube that was originally installed in the chopper section of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. (The purpose of the five channels was to optimize intensity and resolution in three different modes of operation known as ''resolution modes.'') By combining measurements, Monte Carlo simulations, and analytical calculations, we have developed a model that successfully explains performance losses in the original guide. We have used this model to quantify expected returns in performance using a replacement guide in which the principal contributions to the intensity loss are reduced to the minimum achievable with current technology. We have also estimated the intensity gains that would be achieved if one of the limited number of options were adopted for modifying the original guide in a manner likely to produce such gains. We describe factors that affect the performance of the original guide and compare the measured and predicted performance of the modified guide against predictions for the optimal replacement guide. The simulations indicate that the modified guide (which has three channels rather than the original five) produces greater intensity gains over a large incident wavelength band for the low and medium resolution modes, whereas a high quality replacement guide greatly improves performance in the high resolution mode of operation. Because the low and medium resolution modes are most heavily demanded, we opted to modify the guide rather than replace it. We describe the nature of this modification and present intensity measurements that meet or exceed predictions in all resolution modes with no detectable change in the energy resolution nor increase in the instrumental background

  8. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  9. Development of a 'chronotron' for time of flight fast neutron spectrometer; Realisation d'un chronotron pour spectrometre a neutrons rapides par temps de vol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclos, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-10-15

    A chronotron using storage circuits of a 100 channels amplitude analyser has been developed in order to measure the time of flight of fast neutrons. A time dilatation is obtained by a distribution of 20 6BN6 tubes. The width at half maximum of prompt coincidences curve is 1,6.10{sup -9} s for {beta}-{gamma} coincidences from An{sup 198} and 2.10{sup -9} s for n-{alpha} coincidences from (d, t) reaction. (author) [French] En vue de realiser un spectrometre a neutrons rapides par temps de vol, un chronotron utilisant les circuits d'enregistrement d'un selecteur d'amplitude de 100 canaux a ete construit. Une dilatation du temps est obtenue a l'aide d'une distribution de 20 lampes 6BN6. La largeur a mi-hauteur de la courbe de resolution est 1,6.10{sup -9} s pour les coincidences {beta}-{gamma} de Au{sup 198} et 2.10{sup -9} s pour les coincidences n-{alpha} de la reaction (d, t). (auteur)

  10. Evaluation of a High Resolving Power Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Drug Analysis in Terms of Resolving Power and Acquisition Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelander, Anna; Decker, Petra; Baessmann, Carsten; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) is applied increasingly to various fields of small molecule analysis. The moderate resolving power (RP) of standard TOFMS instruments poses a risk of false negative results when complex biological matrices are to be analyzed. In this study, the performance of a high resolving power TOFMS instrument (maXis by Bruker Daltonik, Bremen, Germany) was evaluated for drug analysis. By flow injection analysis of critical drug mixtures, including a total of 17 compounds with nominal masses of 212-415 Da and with mass differences of 8.8-23.5 mDa, RP varied from 34,400 to 51,900 (FWHM). The effect of acquisition rate on RP, mass accuracy, and isotopic pattern fit was studied by applying 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 Hz acquisition rates in a 16 min gradient elution LC separation. All three variables were independent of the acquisition rate, with an average mass accuracy and isotopic pattern fit factor (mSigma) of 0.33 ppm and 5.9, respectively. The average relative standard deviation of RP was 1.8%, showing high repeatability. The performance was tested further with authentic urine extracts containing a co-eluting compound pair with a nominal mass of 296 Da and an 11.2 mDa mass difference. The authentic sample components were readily resolved and correctly identified by the automated data analysis. The average RP, mass accuracy, and isotopic pattern fit were 36,600, 0.9 ppm, and 7.3 mSigma, respectively.

  11. Application of FIGAERO (Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to field and chamber organic aerosol: Implications for carboxylic acid formation and gas-particle partitioning from monoterpene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Thornton, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase carboxylic acid containing compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. A prototype operated with acetate negative ion proton transfer chemistry was deployed on the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study a-pinene oxidation, and a modified version was deployed at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and SOAS, in Brent Alabama. We focus here on results from JPAC and Hyytiälä, where we utilized the same ionization method most selective towards carboxylic acids. In all locations, 100's of organic acid compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same composition acids detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. Particulate organics detected by FIGAERO are highly correlated with organic aerosol mass measured by an AMS, providing additional volatility and molecular level information about collected aerosol. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. Moreover the detailed structure in the thermal desorption signals reveals a contribution from thermal decomposition of large molecular weight organics and or oligomers with implications for partitioning measurements and model validation

  12. Design, simulations and test of a Time-of-Flight spectrometer for mass measurement of exotic beams from SPIRAL1/SPIRAL2 and γ-ray spectroscopy of N=Z nuclei close to 100Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of nuclear facilities calls for new technological developments to produce, accelerate, manipulate and analyse exotic nuclei. The main topic of this thesis work was the simulation, design and test of a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass spectrometer (MR-ToFMS) for fast mass separation and fast mass measurement of radioactive ions in the installations S3 and DESIR at SPIRAL2. Such a device could separate isobaric nuclei and provide SPIRAL2 with high purity beams. Also, its mass measurement capabilities would help to determine binding energies of exotic and superheavy nuclei with a high precision. This apparatus has been simulated with the SIMION 8.1 software and designed accordingly. First offline tests have been performed with a stable ion source at LPC Caen. In addition a low-aberration electrostatic deflector has been simulated and designed to operate with this MR-ToF-MS without spoiling its performances. This work also describes the analysis and results of the first online tests of a FEBIAD-type ion source intended to provide SPIRAL1 and SPIRAL2 radioactive beams of competitive intensities. Finally, we describe the analysis of a nuclear physics experiment, including the calibration of the different detectors and the gamma-spectroscopy of nuclei in the vicinity of the doubly magic 100 Sn. (author) [fr

  13. Emission and chemistry of organic compounds from biomass burning: measurements from an iodide time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (I- ToF-CIMS) during the FIREX FireLab 2016 intensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Krechmer, J. E.; Warneke, C.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Lim, C. Y.; Selimovic, V.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Stark, H.; Kang, H.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Liggio, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Kroll, J. H.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning can emit large amounts of many different organic compounds to the atmosphere. The emission strengths of these emitted organic compounds and their subsequent atmospheric chemistry are not well known. In this study, we deployed a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer using iodide as reagent ions (Iodide ToF-CIMS) to measure direct emissions of organic compounds during the FIREX laboratory 2016 intensive in the USDA Fire Sciences Lab in Missoula, MT. An interpretation of the I­- TOF-CIMS mass spectra from biomass burning emissions will be presented. The dependence of the emissions of selected organic compounds with fuel types, combustion efficiency and fuel chemical compositions will be discussed. The I- TOF-CIMS also measured aged biomass burning smoke from a small smog chamber and an oxidative flow reactor (OFR). The I- TOF-CIMS consistently observed much higher signals of highly oxygenated organic compounds in the aged biomass burning smoke than in fresh emissions, indicative of strong secondary formation of these organic compounds in biomass burning plumes.

  14. Comparison of Time-of-flight and Multicollector ICP Mass Spectrometers for Measuring Actinides in Small Samples using single shot Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.S. Houk; D.B. Aeschliman; S.J. Bajic; D. Baldwin

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these experiments is to evaluate the performance of two types of ICP-MS device for measurement of actinide isotopes by laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS. The key advantage of ICP-MS compared to monitoring of radioactive decay is that the element need not decay during the measurement time. Hence ICP-MS is much faster for long-lived radionuclides. The LA process yields a transient signal. When spatially resolved analysis is required for small samples, the laser ablation sample pulse lasts only ∼10 seconds. It is difficult to measure signals at several isotopes with analyzers that are scanned for such a short sample transient. In this work, a time-of-flight (TOF) ICP-MS device, the GBC Optimass 8000 (Figure 1) is one instrument used. Strictly speaking, ions at different m/z values are not measured simultaneously in TOF. However, they are measured in very rapid sequence with little or no compromise between the number of m/z values monitored and the performance. Ions can be measured throughout the m/z range in single sample transients by TOF. The other ICP-MS instrument used is a magnetic sector multicollector MS, the NU Plasma 1700 (Figure 2). Up to 8 adjacent m/z values can be monitored at one setting of the magnetic field and accelerating voltage. Three of these m/z values can be measured with an electron multiplier. This device is usually used for high precision isotope ratio measurements with the Faraday cup detectors. The electron multipliers have much higher sensitivity. In our experience with the scanning magnetic sector instrument in Ames, these devices have the highest sensitivity and lowest background of any ICP-MS device. The ability to monitor several ions simultaneously, or nearly so, should make these devices valuable for the intended application: measurement of actinide isotopes at low concentrations in very small samples for nonproliferation purposes. The primary sample analyzed was an urban dust pellet reference material, NIST 1648. The

  15. Development of a new corona discharge based ion source for high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to measure gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Yang, Dongsen; Ma, Yan; Chen, Mindong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Shizheng; Wang, Ming

    2015-10-01

    A new corona discharge (CD) based ion source was developed for a commercial high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) (Aerodyne Research Inc.) to measure both gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and aerosol sulfate after thermal desorption. Nitrate core ions (NO3-) were used as reagent ions and were generated by a negative discharge in zero air followed by addition of excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to convert primary ions and hydroxyl radicals (OH) into NO3- ions and nitric acid (HNO3). The CD-HRToF-CIMS showed no detectable interference from hundreds parts per billion by volume (ppbv) of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Unlike the atmospheric pressure ionization (API) ToF-CIMS, the CD ion source was integrated onto the ion-molecule reaction (IMR) chamber and which made it possible to measure aerosol sulfate by coupling to a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO). Moreover, compared with a quadrupole-based mass spectrometer, the desired HSO4- signal was detected by its exact mass of m/z 96.960, which was well resolved from the potential interferences of HCO3-ṡ(H2O)2 (m/z 97.014) and O-ṡH2OṡHNO3 (m/z 97.002). In this work, using laboratory-generated standards the CD-HRToF-CIMS was demonstrated to be able to detect as low as 3.1 × 105 molecules cm-3 gaseous H2SO4 and 0.5 μg m-3 ammonium sulfate based on 10-s integration time and two times of the baseline noise. The CD ion source had the advantages of low cost and a simple but robust structure. Since the system was non-radioactive and did not require corrosive HNO3 gas, it can be readily field deployed. The CD-HRToF-CIMS can be a powerful tool for both field and laboratory studies of aerosol formation mechanism and the chemical processes that were critical to understand the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere.

  16. Time-of-flight spectrometer for slow neutrons in use at the reactor in Saclay. Its application for the study of the inelastic diffusion of cold neutrons; L'appareillage de spectrometrie a temps-de-vol pour neutrons lents en service a la pile de Saclay. Son application a l'etude de la diffusion inelastique des neutrons froids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacsot, B; Netter, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Galula, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1955-07-01

    The time-of-flight spectrometers is constituted of a mechanic swivel obturator which absorbs neutrons until energies above 1 KeV, a mechanic filter which allow to retain only high wave length components and a delayed pulses selector with 100 channels. Its main application field is the thermic region where it allowed to measure the inelastic scattering of neutrons using various materials as H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, Be, BeO, etc... (M.P.)

  17. Evaluation of the ROTAX spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietze-Jaensch, H.; Schmidt, W.; Geick, R.

    1997-01-01

    After installation of the new-type rotating crystal analyser spectrometer ROTAX at ISIS, we report on practical experience and describe its current status. The rotating analyser technique works feasibly and reliably and provides an ultimate scan flexibility on a pulsed time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The spinning analyser achieves a mulitplex advantage factor of ca. 50 without compromising the resolution of the instrument. Despite these instrument merits its individual beam position at ISIS has only an unsatisfactorily weak flux, thus hindering this instrument yet to become fully competitive with other high-performance neutron spectrometers based at high-flux reactors. However, we strongly recommend a ROTAX-type instrument to be emphasized when the instrumentation suite of the future European spallation source ESS will come under scrutiny. (orig.)

  18. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, E.; Wilken, B.; Richer, K.; Umlauft, G.; Fischer, K.; Winterhoff, H.P.

    1976-10-01

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  19. Charged particle scintillation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Zhuravlev, E.E.; Nafikov, A.A.; Osadchi , A.I.; Raevskij, V.G.; Smirnov, P.A.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Yanulis, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation mass-spectrometer for charged particle identification by the measured values of time-of-flight and energy operating on line with the D-116 computer is described. Original time detectors with 100x100x2 mm 3 and 200x2 mm 2 scintillators located on the 1- or 2 m path length are used in the spectrometer. The 200x200x200 mm 3 scintillation unit is used as a E-counter. Time-of-flight spectra of the detected particles on the 2 m path length obtained in spectrometer test in the beam of charged particles escaping from the carbon target at the angle of 130 deg under 1.2 GeV bremsstrahlung beam of the ''Pakhra'' PIAS synchrotron are presented. Proton and deuteron energy spectra as well as mass spectrum of all the particles detected by the spectrometer are given. Mass resolution obtained on the 2 m path length for π-mesons is +-25%, for protons is +-5%, for deuterons is +-3%

  20. Application of targeted quantitative proteomics analysis in human cerebrospinal fluid using a liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (LC MALDI TOF/TOF) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sheng; Rush, John; Peskind, Elaine R; Galasko, Douglas; Chung, Kathryn; Quinn, Joseph; Jankovic, Joseph; Leverenz, James B; Zabetian, Cyrus; Pan, Catherine; Wang, Yan; Oh, Jung Hun; Gao, Jean; Zhang, Jianpeng; Montine, Thomas; Zhang, Jing

    2008-02-01

    Targeted quantitative proteomics by mass spectrometry aims to selectively detect one or a panel of peptides/proteins in a complex sample and is particularly appealing for novel biomarker verification/validation because it does not require specific antibodies. Here, we demonstrated the application of targeted quantitative proteomics in searching, identifying, and quantifying selected peptides in human cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (MALDI TOF/TOF)-based platform. The approach involved two major components: the use of isotopic-labeled synthetic peptides as references for targeted identification and quantification and a highly selective mass spectrometric analysis based on the unique characteristics of the MALDI instrument. The platform provides high confidence for targeted peptide detection in a complex system and can potentially be developed into a high-throughput system. Using the liquid chromatography (LC) MALDI TOF/TOF platform and the complementary identification strategy, we were able to selectively identify and quantify a panel of targeted peptides in the whole proteome of CSF without prior depletion of abundant proteins. The effectiveness and robustness of the approach associated with different sample complexity, sample preparation strategies, as well as mass spectrometric quantification were evaluated. Other issues related to chromatography separation and the feasibility for high-throughput analysis were also discussed. Finally, we applied targeted quantitative proteomics to analyze a subset of previously identified candidate markers in CSF samples of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at different stages and Alzheimer's disease (AD) along with normal controls.

  1. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  2. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Mims, Forrest M.; Parisi, Alfio V.

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades. PMID:29342899

  3. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.S. McGonigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  4. Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The system generates superior quality mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data from both atmospheric pressure ionization (API) and...

  5. Time-of-flight laser spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izosimov, I.N.; Naumov, Yu.V.; Shishunov, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    A new method of laser spectroscopy with a multichannel way of recording is proposed. In the above method the beam of laser carrying out resonance excitation of studied atoms at the first stage, is directed along the atom beam. It the generation line width of this laser is much less than doppler broadening of spectral line caused by the atom velocities scattering in the beam, the selection of atoms according to velocities will take place, i. e. only atoms, having a definite projection of velocity on laser beam direction, will be excited. If laser line has several components, concealed in doppler circuit, the spectrum of velocities of excited atoms will also include several components. Spectrum of ion velocities obtained as a result of photoionization of excited atoms, reproduces within the limits of doppler circuit the structure of spectral line, corresponding to atom transition into the given excited state, as laser frequency at the dye is fixed in the process, of measurement. The method, proposed, is characterized not only by the property of multichannel but by a new way of atomic beam collimation. Analysis of ion velocities permits to carry out the regime of non-doppler spectroscopy at weakly collima-- ted atomic beams with collimation degree of 1:3. It gives a gain in sensitivity of about one order in comparison with one-channel methods while operating with high resolution (of 30 MHz order) [ru

  6. High intensity TOF spectrometer for cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.; Abd El-Kawy, A.; Habib, N.; Adib, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents a neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer developed specially for total neutron cross-section measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV and sample's temperature varying from the liquid nitrogen one and up to 500 0 K. The spectrometer is equipped by remote control unit, designed especially, in order to move the sample in and out of the beam during the experimental measurements. The spectrometer has proved to be useful for transmission measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV. It has a reasonable energy resolution (4.4%) and high effect to background ratio (11.1) at 5 MeV

  7. A Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer /SUMS/ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Duckett, R. J.; Hinson, E. W.

    1982-01-01

    A magnetic mass spectrometer is currently being adapted to the Space Shuttle Orbiter to provide repeated high altitude atmosphere data to support in situ rarefied flow aerodynamics research, i.e., in the high velocity, low density flight regime. The experiment, called Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), is the first attempt to design mass spectrometer equipment for flight vehicle aerodynamic data extraction. The SUMS experiment will provide total freestream atmospheric quantitites, principally total mass density, above altitudes at which conventional pressure measurements are valid. Experiment concepts, the expected flight profile, tradeoffs in the design of the total system and flight data reduction plans are discussed. Development plans are based upon a SUMS first flight after the Orbiter initial development flights.

  8. Development of cold neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Lee, C. H.; So, J. Y.; Park, S.; Han, Y. S.; Cho, S. J.; Moon, M. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Sun, G. M.

    2012-03-01

    □ Cold Neutron Triple Axsis Spectrometer (Cold-TAS) Development Ο Fabrication and Installation of the Major Cold-TAS Components Ο Performance Test of the Cold-TAS □ Cold Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectrometer(DC-TOF) Development Ο Fabrication of the Major DC-TOF Components Ο Development DC-TOF Data Reduction Software □ Expected Contribution The two world-class inelastic neutron scattering instruments measure atomic or molecular scale dynamics of meV energy range. This unprecedented measurement capability in the country will enable domestic and international scientists to observe new phenomena in their materials research to obtain world class results. Especially those who work in the fields of magnetic properties of superconductors and multiferroics, molecular dynamics, etc. will get more benefit from these two instruments

  9. Contribution to the study of 14 MeV neutron scattering by {sup 12}C using a time-of-flight spectrometer (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la diffusion des neutrons de 14 MeV par {sup 12}C, a l'aide d'un spectrometre a temps de vol (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, P [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-15

    Experimental measurements of 14 MeV fast neutrons scattering by {sup 12}C by time-flight spectrometer, with a 1.7 n. sec over-all resolution. The excitation of the 7.65 MeV level is observed. (author) [French] Etude experimentate de la diffusion par {sup 12}C des neutrons rapides de 14 MeV a l'aide d'un spectrometre de resolution totale de 17 n/s. Observation de l'excitation du niveau 0+ de 7,65 MeV. (auteur)

  10. ISLA: An Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D., E-mail: bazin@nscl.msu.edu; Mittig, W.

    2013-12-15

    A novel type of recoil mass spectrometer and separator is proposed for the future secondary radioactive beams of the ReA12 accelerator at NSCL/FRIB, inspired from the TOFI spectrometer developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for online mass measurements. The Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances (ISLA) is able to achieve superior characteristics without the compromises that usually plague the design of large acceptance spectrometers. ISLA can provide mass-to-charge ratio (m/q) measurements to better than 1 part in 1000 by using an optically isochronous time-of-flight independent of the momentum vector of the recoiling ions, despite large acceptances of 20% in momentum and 64 msr in solid angle. The characteristics of this unique design are shown, including requirements for auxiliary detectors around the target and the various types of reactions to be used with the re-accelerated radioactive beams of the future ReA12 accelerator.

  11. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odorico, D' P.; Alberti, E.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption

  12. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    2000-04-01

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  13. A proposed neutron spectrometer system for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Hellbom, G.; Scheffel, J.; Malmskog, S.

    1979-12-01

    A neutron spectrometer system is proposed primarily for measurements of ion temperature and density and ion beam energy distribution in extended fusion plasmas like e.g. in JET. Three different spectrometers are involved: time of flight, proton recoil and 3 He. Energy resolutions of a few percent both for DD and DT neutrons are provided. Six order of magnitudes in flux ranges will be covered by the system when employing multi-target systems. A neutron collimator and shielding system will be desirable in order to obtain relevant information. Due to the entire differences in energy and fluxes for DD and DT plasmas a flexible collimator-shielding system is recommended

  14. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  15. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  16. The Harwell back-scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, C.G.; Bunce, L.J.; Borcherds, P.H.; Cole, I.; Fitzmaurice, M.; Johnson, D.A.G.; Sinclair, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron diffraction spectra in which both high resolution (Δ Q/Q approximately equal to 0.003) and high intensity are maintained up to scattering vectors as high as 30A -1 (sin theta/lambda = 2.5) have been obtained with the back-scattering spectrometer (BSS) recently installed on the Harwell electron linac. The theory behind the spectrometer design is described, and it is shown how the above resolution requirement leads to its basic features of a 12m incident flight path, a 2m scattering flight path and a scattering angle (2theta) acceptance from 165 0 to 175 0 . Examples of the resolution, intensity and background are given. It is shown that the problem of frame overlap may be overcome by using an absorbing filter. (author)

  17. AMS, a particle spectrometer in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Ren, Z.L.; Santos, D.; Thuillier, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed for extraterrestrial study of anti-matter, matter and dark matter. A precursor flight and on the STS-91 flight of the shuttle is planned to take place on May 1998. AMS will be installed on the International Space Station in January 2002 where it will be operated next, for three to five years. The contributions of the ISN to the project on the shuttle (aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter) as well as the steps to build a RICH detector for AMS on the ISSA are explained here below. (authors)

  18. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  19. The Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, B W

    1976-01-01

    It is intended to build a spectrometer with a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance at the reconstructed synchrocyclotron at CERN. This spectrometer will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c.

  20. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  1. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J., E-mail: hwoerner@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brown, M. A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bokhoven, J. A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Catalysis and Sustainable Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  2. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J.; Brown, M. A.; Bokhoven, J. A. van

    2015-01-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup

  3. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Brown, M. A.; van Bokhoven, J. A.; Wörner, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  4. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Flight Get Involved Events Shop Miles Contact Miracle Flights Blog Giving Tuesday 800-359-1711 Thousands of children have been saved, but we still have miles to go. Request a Flight Click Here to Donate - Your ...

  5. The SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  6. The SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  7. The MEG positron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    We have been developing an innovative spectrometer for the MEG experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. This experiment searches for a lepton flavour violating decay μ + →e + γ with a sensitivity of 10 -13 in order to explore the region predicted by supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The MEG positron spectrometer consists of a specially designed superconducting solenoidal magnet with a highly graded field, an ultimate low-mass drift chamber system, and a precise time measuring counter system. This innovative positron spectrometer is described here focusing on the drift chamber system

  8. Inficon Transpector MPH Mass Spectrometer Random Vibration Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Bond, Jo; Captain, Janine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this test report is to summarize results from the vibration testing of the INFICON Transpector MPH100M model Mass Spectrometer. It also identifies requirements satisfied, and procedures used in the test. As a payload of Resource Prospector, it is necessary to determine the survivability of the mass spectrometer to proto-qualification level random vibration. Changes in sensitivity of the mass spectrometer can be interpreted as a change in alignment of the instrument. The results of this test will be used to determine any necessary design changes as the team moves forward with flight design.

  9. Design and Test of Portable Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We design and implement a portable hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, which has high spectral resolution, high spatial resolution, small volume, and low weight. The flight test has been conducted, and the hyperspectral images are acquired successfully. To achieve high performance, small volume, and regular appearance, an improved Dyson structure is designed and used in the hyperspectral imaging spectrometer. The hyperspectral imaging spectrometer is suitable for the small platform such as CubeSat and UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, and it is also convenient to use for hyperspectral imaging acquiring in the laboratory and the field.

  10. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  11. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  12. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  13. Laser ablation synthesis of arsenic-phosphide Asm Pn clusters from As-P mixtures. Laser desorption ionisation with quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry: The mass spectrometer as a synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubáček, Pavel; Prokeš, Lubomír; Pamreddy, Annapurna; Peña-Méndez, Eladia María; Conde, José Elias; Alberti, Milan; Havel, Josef

    2018-05-30

    Only a few arsenic phosphides are known. A high potential for the generation of new compounds is offered by Laser Ablation Synthesis (LAS) and when Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) is coupled with simultaneous Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS), immediate identification of the clusters can be achieved. LAS was used for the generation of arsenic phosphides via laser ablation of phosphorus-arsenic mixtures while quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QIT-TOFMS) was used to acquire the mass spectra. Many new As m P n ± clusters (479 binary and 369 mono-elemental) not yet described in the literature were generated in the gas phase and their stoichiometry determined. The likely structures for some of the observed clusters arbitrary selected (20) were computed by density functional theory (DFT) optimization. LAS is an advantageous approach for the generation of new As m P n clusters, while mass spectrometry was found to be an efficient technique for the determination of cluster stoichiometry. The results achieved might inspire the synthesis of new materials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of a multidimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry dataset acquired on a quadrupole selecting, quadrupole collision cell, time-of-flight mass spectrometer: I. How much of the data is theoretically interpretable by search engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, Robert J; Baker, Peter R; Hansen, Kirk C; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Allen, Nadia P; Rexach, Michael; Burlingame, Alma L

    2005-08-01

    An in-depth analysis of a multidimensional chromatography-mass spectrometry dataset acquired on a quadrupole selecting, quadrupole collision cell, time-of-flight (QqTOF) geometry instrument was carried out. A total of 3269 CID spectra were acquired. Through manual verification of database search results and de novo interpretation of spectra 2368 spectra could be confidently determined as predicted tryptic peptides. A detailed analysis of the non-matching spectra was also carried out, highlighting what the non-matching spectra in a database search typically are composed of. The results of this comprehensive dataset study demonstrate that QqTOF instruments produce information-rich data of which a high percentage of the data is readily interpretable.

  15. The role of vacuum in the quality of TOF mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, A.; Gadkari, S.C.; Yakhmi, J.V.; Sahni, V.C.

    2005-01-01

    The art in the designing of time-of-flight mass spectrometers has come across a long course of development. The present day state-of-the-art machines are essentially the outcome of knowledge from the advances in different other areas of technology. This article discusses exclusively the role of UHV to enhance the quality of the TOF mass spectrometers and its application to the recently developed high resolution TOF mass spectrometer at TP and PED-BARC. (author)

  16. Current instrument status of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Porter, Wallace M.

    1991-01-01

    An upgraded version of AVIRIS, an airborne imaging spectrometer based on a whiskbroom-type scanner coupled via optical fibers to four dispersive spectrometers, that has been in operation since 1987 is described. Emphasis is placed on specific AVIRIS subsystems including foreoptics, fiber optics, and an in-flight reference source; spectrometers and detector dewars; a scan drive mechanism; a signal chain; digital electronics; a tape recorder; calibration systems; and ground support requirements.

  17. Berkeley extreme-ultraviolet airglow rocket spectrometer - BEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D. M.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV airglow rocket spectrometer (BEARS) instrument is described. The instrument was designed in particular to measure the dominant lines of atomic oxygen in the FUV and EUV dayglow at 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 A, which is the ultimate source of airglow emissions. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument, the detector, electronics, calibration, flight operations, and results are examined.

  18. Low power ion spectrometer for high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.W.; Dullenkopf, P.; Glasmachers, A.; Melbert, J.; Winkelnkemper, W.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes in detail the electronic concept for a time-of-flight (TOF) ion spectrometer for high counting rates and high dynamic range which can be used as a satellite instrument. The detection principle of the spectrometer is based on a time-of-flight and energy measurement for each incident ion. The ionmass is related to these two quantities by a simple equation. The described approach for the mass identification systems is using an analog fast-slow concept: The fast TOF-signal preselects the gainstep in the much slower energy channel. The conversion time of the mass identifier is approximately 10 -6 s and the dynamic range of the energy channel is better than 10 3 (20 keV to 25 MeV). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a TOF-spectrometer capable to measure the ion composition in planetary magnetospheres. (orig.) [de

  19. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  20. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  1. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  2. Microprocessor monitored Auger spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Michel; Ghaleb, Dominique; Pernot, Bernard.

    1982-05-01

    The operation of an Auger spectrometer, used for studying surface impurity diffusion, has been fully automatized with the help of a microprocessor. The characteristics, performance and practical use of the system are described together with the main advantage for the experimentator [fr

  3. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  4. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  5. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  6. Prismatic analyzer concept for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas O.; Marko, M.; Freeman, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype...... inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor...

  7. Recent progress in the chopper spectrometer, INC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Arai, Masatoshi; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2001-01-01

    A guide tube comprising supermirrors, of which the critical wavenumber is three times as large as that of natural nickel, was installed in the primary flight path of the chopper spectrometer, INC, at KENS. Also, the characteristics of the ambient-temperature H 2 O moderator, which INC is facing, was changed by renewal construction of the neutron source at KENS. We discuss here an improvement in the performance of INC by a comparison with the previous performance. We also report on the development on a goniometer for single-crystal experiments at low temperatures. (author)

  8. Electron volt neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ≤E≤100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born–Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics. - Highlights: ► Neutron spectrometers at eV energies. ► Methods and techniques for eV neutrons counting at spallation sources. ► Scattering, imaging and radiation hardness tests with multi-eV neutrons.

  9. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  10. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  11. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  12. The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Dusini, S; Dulach, B; Fanin, C; Felici, G; Corso, F D; Garfagnini, A; Grianti, F; Gustavino, C; Monacelli, P; Paoloni, A; Stanco, L; Spinetti, M; Terranova, F; Votano, L

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Final...

  13. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  14. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  15. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  16. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  17. Large acceptance spectrometers for invariant mass spectroscopy of exotic nuclei and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Large acceptance spectrometers at in-flight RI separators have played significant roles in investigating the structure of exotic nuclei. Such spectrometers are in particular useful for probing unbound states of exotic nuclei, using invariant mass spectroscopy with reactions at intermediate and high energies. We discuss here the key characteristic features of such spectrometers, by introducing the recently commissioned SAMURAI facility at the RIBF, RIKEN. We also investigate the issue of cross talk in the detection of multiple neutrons, which has become crucial for exploring further unbound states and nuclei beyond the neutron drip line. Finally we discuss future perspectives for large acceptance spectrometers at the new-generation RI-beam facilities.

  18. MONSTER: a TOF Spectrometer for beta-delayed Neutron Spetroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, T; Castilla, J; Garcia, A R; Marin, J; Martinez, G; Mendoza, E; Santos, C; Tera, F; Jordan, M D; Rubio, B; Tain, J L; Bhattacharya, C; Banerjee, K; Bhattacharya, S; Roy, P; Meena, J K; Kundu, S; Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K; Rana, T K; Pandey, R; Saxena, A; Behera, B; Penttila, H; Jokinen, A; Rinta-Antila, S; Guerrero, C; Ovejero, M C; Villamarin, D; Agramunt, J; Algora, A

    2014-01-01

    Beta-delayed neutron (DN) data, including emission probabilities, P-n, and energy spectrum, play an important role in our understanding of nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear technologies. A MOdular Neutron time-of-flight SpectromeTER (MONSTER) is being built for the measurement of the neutron energy spectra and branching ratios. The TOF spectrometer will consist of one hundred liquid scintillator cells covering a significant solid angle. The MONSTER design has been optimized by using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. The response function of the MONSTER cell has been characterized with mono-energetic neutron beams and compared to dedicated MC simulations.

  19. Users guide to the inelastic rotor spectrometer (IRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, L.J.

    1987-11-01

    The paper is a users guide to the inelastic rotor spectrometer installed on the Harwell 136 Mev electron linear accelerator HELIOS. The spectrometer is designed to measure neutron inelastic scattering for energy transfers from 50 meV to 400 meV and covering a range of Q values from 1 to 15 A 0-1 . The guide contains a description of:- time-of-flight scales, run and sample changer control units, sample environment, detectors, rotor system, 600 Hz operation of rotor, a run, and data processing. (U.K.)

  20. Triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  1. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  2. Intermediate PT jet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons

  3. HISS spectrometer at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1980-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame but, instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. The beam can be brought into the magnet at a variable position and the magnet can be rotated

  4. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  5. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  6. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Stephen; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production (ship effect), (a, n) reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  7. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  8. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  9. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hauschild, K. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-06-15

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  10. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.; Hauschild, K.

    2015-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  11. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  12. Flight Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  13. MARS. Inverted time-of flight backscattering spectrometer at SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, P.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Very recently MARS entered the realization stage as the first second generation instrument at SINQ. Its fundamental design (distance from source, pulse repetition rate and analyzer material) is very similar to that of IRIS (ISIS, UK) but there are some distinct differences mainly to increase the intensity and to adapt it to SINQ. The whole guide will be supermirror coated (m = 2) and the five coppers will provide a very clean beam at the sample. In addition all analyzer banks will be covered with mica crystals pointing to single 3 He-detectors (a total of 12 banks and detectors). This arrangement enables a very flexible adaptation of the secondary to the primary energy resolution - which is depending on the incident energy - by adjusting the analyzer's 2Θ-angle. A by-product of this discrete number of analyzer banks (in contrast to IRIS' continuous bank) is the possibility to place additional diffraction detectors at various angles in-between the analyzer banks and hence cover a wider d-range. MARS is planned to become operational in 2001. (author)

  14. DNS: Diffuse scattering neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixi Su

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DNS is a versatile diffuse scattering instrument with polarisation analysis operated by the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, outstation at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ. Compact design, a large double-focusing PG monochromator and a highly efficient supermirror-based polarizer provide a polarized neutron flux of about 107 n cm-2 s-1. DNS is used for the studies of highly frustrated spin systems, strongly correlated electrons, emergent functional materials and soft condensed matter.

  15. BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both on-line and off-line operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed

  16. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  17. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  18. Wide-range scintillation spectrometer of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Ivannikova, L.L.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Saidgareev, V.M.; Tyurin, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer of fast neutrons developed on the base of stilbene crystas and permitting to detect neutrons simultaneously by time-of-flight and recoil protons with analysis of pulse shape in the 0.5-50 MeV energy range is described. The detecting part is performed in the CAMAC standard. The ''Minsk-32'' computer was used for data storage and preliminary processing

  19. Users guide to the HELIOS backscattering spectrometer (BSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, L.J.

    1986-10-01

    The BSS is a backscattering spectrometer installed on the Harwell 136 Mev electron linear accelerator, HELIOS. A general description of the instrument is given, along with the time of flight scales, and the run and sample changer control units. The sample environment, vacuum system and detectors of the BSS are described, as well as the preparation, starting and running of an experiment using the BSS. (UK)

  20. MEMS based digital transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Yariv; Ramani, Mouli

    2005-09-01

    Earlier this year, a new breed of Spectrometers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) engines has been introduced to the commercial market. The use of these engines combined with transform mathematics, produces powerful spectrometers at unprecedented low cost in various spectral regions.

  1. JWST-MIRI spectrometer main optics design and main results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ramón; Schoenmaker, Ton; Kroes, Gabby; Oudenhuysen, Ad; Jager, Rieks; Venema, Lars

    2017-11-01

    MIRI ('Mid InfraRed Instrument') is the combined imager and integral field spectrometer for the 5-29 micron wavelength range under development for the James Webb Space Telescope JWST. The flight acceptance tests of the Spectrometer Main Optics flight models (SMO), part of the MIRI spectrometer, are completed in the summer of 2008 and the system is delivered to the MIRI-JWST consortium. The two SMO arms contain 14 mirrors and form the MIRI optical system together with 12 selectable gratings on grating wheels. The entire system operates at a temperature of 7 Kelvin and is designed on the basis of a 'no adjustments' philosophy. This means that the optical alignment precision depends strongly on the design, tolerance analysis and detailed knowledge of the manufacturing process. Because in principle no corrections are needed after assembly, continuous tracking of the alignment performance during the design and manufacturing phases is important. The flight hardware is inspected with respect to performance parameters like alignment and image quality. The stability of these parameters is investigated after exposure to various vibration levels and successive cryogenic cool downs. This paper describes the philosophy behind the acceptance tests, the chosen test strategy and reports the results of these tests. In addition the paper covers the design of the optical test setup, focusing on the simulation of the optical interfaces of the SMO. Also the relation to the SMO qualification and verification program is addressed.

  2. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  3. Angle-resolved ion TOF spectrometer with a position sensitive detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Norio [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Heiser, F; Wieliczec, K; Becker, U

    1996-07-01

    A angle-resolved ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a position sensitive anode has been investigated. Performance of this spectrometer has been demonstrated by measuring an angular distribution of a fragment ion pair, C{sup +} + O{sup +}, from CO at the photon energy of 287.4 eV. The obtained angular distribution is very close to the theoretically expected one. (author)

  4. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  5. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  6. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  7. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  8. Single-pion production in pp collisions at 0.95 GeV/c (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Samad, S.; Bilger, R.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Kress, J.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G.J.; Weidlich, U.; Zhang, G.; Brinkmann, K.T.; Freiesleben, H.; Jaekel, R.; Jakob, B.; Karsch, L.; Kuhlmann, E.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Sun, G.Y.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Eyrich, W.; Hauffe, J.; Schroeder, W.; Stinzing, F.; Waechter, J.; Wagner, M.; Wirth, S.; Filippi, A.; Marcello, S.; Fritsch, M.; Geyer, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Hesselbarth, D.; Kilian, K.; Marwinski, S.; Morsch, H.P.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Moeller, K.; Naumann, L.; Schoenmeier, P.; Wilms, A.

    2009-01-01

    The single-pion production reactions pp→dπ + , pp→npπ + and pp→ppπ 0 were measured at a beam momentum of 0.95GeV/c (T p ∼400 MeV) using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The central calorimeter provided particle identification, energy determination and neutron detection in addition to time-of-flight and angle measurements from other detector parts. Thus all pion production channels were recorded with 1-4 overconstraints. The main emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of the npπ + channel, since the results on the other channels have already been published previously. The total and differential cross-sections obtained are compared to theoretical calculations. In contrast to the ppπ 0 channel we observe in the npπ + channel a strong influence of the Δ excitation. In particular, the pion angular distribution exhibits a (3 cos 2 Θ+1)-dependence, typical for a pure s-channel Δ excitation and identical to that observed in the dπ + channel. Since the latter is understood by a s-channel resonance in the 1 D 2 pn partial wave, we discuss an analogous scenario for the pnπ + channel. (orig.)

  9. VIRTIS-M flight lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiorri, R.; Piccioni, G.; Mazzoni, A.

    2003-01-01

    VIRTIS-M is a visible-infrared (VIS-IR) image spectrometer designed for the Rosetta mission; it intends to provide detailed informations on the physical, chemical, and mineralogical nature of comets and asteroids. The in-flight performances of VIRTIS-M are expected to be influenced by various disturbances, like the initial strong vibrations of the rocket, the long duration of the experiment (from 2003 to 2010), as well as other possible environmental changes; therefore, an in-flight recalibration procedure is mandatory. Quite often in such kinds of missions, a light emission diode (LED) is employed to calibrate the on-board spectrometers by taking advantage of the relative small dimensions, stability, and hardness of these sources. VIRTIS-M is the first image spectrometer that will use a new generation of lamps for internal calibrations. These new lamps are characterized by a wide spectral range with a blackbody-like emission with an effective temperature of about (2400-2600 K), thereby covering the whole VIRTIS-M's spectral range (0.2-5 μm); i.e., they offer the possibility of a wider spectral calibration in comparison with the quasimonochromatic LED emission. A precise spectral calibration is achieved by adding special filters for visible and infrared ranges in front of the window source, containing many narrow absorption lines. In the present article, we describe the calibration and tests of some flight prototypes of these lamps (VIS and IR), realized by the Officine Galileo and calibrated by the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica

  10. Methyl methacrylate released from autopolymerized denture base polymers at different polymerization temperature during processing-monitoring by time-of-flight mass spectrometer%飞行时间质谱仪监测不同聚合温度下义齿基托树脂中甲基丙烯酸甲酯释放量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸宏鸣; 马玉娟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨使用飞行时间质谱仪监测不同聚合温度下自凝树脂反应时释放的甲基丙烯酸甲酯(methylmethacrylate,MMA)的量,分析MMA释放量的变化趋势,研究聚合温度对MMA释放量的影响.方法 按生产厂家要求的比例把自凝仿生义齿基托树脂粉2 g和液1 g调拌40 s后,立即用飞行时间质谱仪连续监测MMA释放量,待释放量的变化稳定后停止监测.室温20℃和40℃、60℃水浴下各监测5个样本,每分钟记录1次监测结果,并加以比较.结果 不同聚合温度下自凝树脂反应时释放的MMA的量的变化趋势相像:在反应初期20℃、40℃和60℃时MMA释放量低,变化不明显,而分别在11 min、(46.2±3.5)mg/L;6 min、(6.4±0.5)mg/L;2 min、(7.2±1.2)mg/L时开始快速升高,之后分别在13 min、(225.4±23.1) mg/L;7 min、(57.7±5.4) mg/L;4 min、(38.1±4.9) mg/L时到达最高,然后由快速下降到缓慢下降并分别在23 min、(9.4±1.6) mg/L;12 min、(1.3 ±0.1) mg/L;6min、(1.3±0.2)mg/L时趋于稳定.40℃与20℃、60℃与20℃相比MMA释放量小,并且到达稳定期的时间短(P<0.05),40℃与60℃相比MMA的释放量无明显差异(P>0.05).结论 把聚合温度从室温20℃升高到40℃或60℃时可以降低自凝树脂反应过程中释放的MMA的量,但从40℃继续升高到60℃时MMA的释放量无显著变化.%Objective Time - of - flight mass spectrometer was investigated for monitoring methyl methacrylate (MMA) released from autopolymerized denture base polymer (self - curing resin) at different polymerization temperature during processing. The effect of the polymerization temperature on the amount of MMA was analyzed. Methods Self - curing resin was mixed in the container at room temperature (20℃) using a ratio of 2 g of powder to 1 g of liquid in accordance with the manufacturer' s instructions for 40s as a specimen. The amount of MMA released from the specimen was on line analyzed and simultaneously

  11. A multi-analyzer crystal spectrometer (MAX) for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kanai, K.; Windsor, C.G.; Tomiyoshi, S.

    1982-03-01

    The paper describes the principle and initial performance of a multi-analyzer crystal spectrometer (MAX) recently installed at the KENS spallation neutron source at Tsukuba. The spectrometer is able to make time of flight scans along a desired direction in reciprocal space, covering a wide range of the energy transfers corresponding to the fifteen analyzer crystals. The constant Q or constant E modes of operation can be performed. The spectrometer is particularly suited for studying collective excitations such as phonons and magnons to high energy transfers using single crystal samples. (author)

  12. Application of MSS-neutron spin echo spectrometer to pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Hino, M.; Kawai, T.

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer spin splitter (MSS) is a neutron device that gives phase difference between field-parallel and -antiparallel spin component of a superposing state. Since the phase difference is equivalent to the Larmor precession angle, MSS enables us to construct a new type of neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer. The new NSE spectrometer has its properties that 1. since the phase shift is neutron flight path length, the spectrometer can be drastically small, 2. the neutron spin echo time is proportional to the neutron wavelength. (author)

  13. Software for mass spectrometer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Anghel, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Trancota, Dan; Kaucsar, Martin; Oprea, Cristiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a software application for the MAT 250 mass spectrometer control, which was refurbished. The spectrometer was bring-up-to-date using a hardware structure on its support where the software application for mass spectrometer control was developed . The software application is composed of dedicated modules that perform given operations. The instructions that these modules have to perform are generated by a principal module. This module makes possible the change of information between the modules that compose the software application. The use of a modal structure is useful for adding new functions in the future. The developed application in our institute made possible the transformation of the mass spectrometer MAT 250 into a device endowed with other new generation tools. (authors)

  14. The Lise spectrometer at Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE is available at the french national heavy ion accelerator GANIL. Experimental results, obtained in radioactive beam production and search for new exotic nuclei are briefly reported

  15. Frequency-Modulation Correlation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, J. S.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    New type of correlation spectrometer eliminates need to shift between two cells, one empty and one containing reference gas. Electrooptical phase modulator sinusoidally shift frequencies of sample transmission spectrum.

  16. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Fast neutron scintillation spectrometer in a heavy ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Ivannikova, L.L.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Tyurin, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Scintillation fast neutron spectrometer in a heavy ion accelerator is described in short. The spectrometer is used to measure characteristics of neutrons emitted in heavy ion interaction with different nuclei. Experiment was performed on the base of particle flight from 0.7 up to 2 m. Within the angle range of 0-150 deg. The technique is based on recording of two-dimensional neutron spectra obtained due to combination of the time-of-flight method and the method of recoil proton energy detection. Two measuring channels were used in the spectrometer. Each channel comprise both amplitude and time tracks. Detector on the base microchannel plates (MCP) generated a signal in passing the next ion bunch was used in order to obtain the time mark. Data from the scintillation block are recorded with respect to three parameters: recoil proton amplitude, time of neutron or γ-quantum arrival in respect of MCP-sensor pulse. Apparatus is carried out within the CAMAC standard. The spectrometer calibration within the 1-20 MeV neutron range was conducted in the Van-de-Graaf accelerator, and for higher energies - with the use of lightguides. Spectrometer time resolution for neutron energies of 0.5-50 MeV constituted 1.5-1.8 ns. The above measuring of neutron spectra from 1 /H2C+ 181 Ta and sup(20, 22)Ne+sup(181)Ta reaction have revealed a possibility of the experiment organization in heavy ion accelerators in the presence of strong neutron and γ-fields. Organization of multi-dimensional analysis combining two methods allows one to separate accelerator cycle, a region of the most reliable information, free of a low-energy gamma background and limited both by a dynamic threshold and a region of permissible energy values

  18. In-flight Diagnostic capability for Crew Health by DESI-mass spectrometry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop a flight-compatible, direct analysis mass spectrometer that can enable in situ diagnostic analyses for crew health and...

  19. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  20. Proposal for a forward spectrometer at the 4π detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdermann, E.; Luehning, J.; Lynen, U.; Milkau, U.; Mueller, K.; Sann, H.; Stelzer, H.; Trautmann, W.; Kreutz, P.; Kuehmichel, A.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pochodzalla, J.; Moretto, L.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Wozniak, G.; Imme, G.; Raciti, G.; Adloff, G.C.; Bilwes, B.; Bilwes, R.; Michel, M.; Masse, C.; Rudolf, G.; Scheibling, F.; Stuttge, L.

    1988-03-01

    We propose to complement the 4π detector to be installed at the SIS-ESR facility with a forward spectrometer (ALADiN) capable of detecting and identifying nuclear fragments up to the largest masses and momenta expected at SIS. Positioned behind the time-of-flight wall of the 4π detector the spectrometer should subtend an angular range of approximately ±5 0 in horizontal and at least ±2 0 in vertical direction and thus cover a sufficiently large part of the forward region. In order to satisfy these requirements and to obtain the necessary resolution in mass and momentum the dipole magnet needs, at least, a gap height of 0.5 m, a horizontal acceptance of 1.5 m and a bending power of 2 Tm. The following sections of this proposal start out with a more detailed presentation of the physics motivation which will concentrate on multifragmentation as a new and hitherto unexplored decay mode of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The description of the spectrometer divides into three sections containing the description of the magnet and the vacuum system, of the detectors needed to track and to identify the fragments, and of the performance of the spectrometer. (orig./HSI)

  1. SHMS Hodoscopes and Time of Flight System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craycraft, Kayla; Malace, Simona

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (Jefferson Lab) upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV, a new magnetic focusing spectrometer, the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS), was installed in experimental Hall C. The detector stack consists of horizontal drift chambers for tracking, gas Cerenkov and Aerogel detectors and a lead glass calorimeter for particle identification. A hodoscope system consisting of three planes of scintillator detectors (constructed by James Madison University) and one plane of quartz bars (built by North Carolina A&T State University) is used for triggering and time of flight measurements. This presentation consists of discussion of the installation, calibration, and characterization of the detectors used in this Time of Flight system. James Madison University, North Carolina A&T State University.

  2. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  3. Magnetic spectrometer of the DEUTERON-2 set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajvazyan, R.V.; Alanakyan, K.V.; Amaryan, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A magnetic spectrometer of the two-arm DEUTERON-2 set-up of the Erevan Physical Institute is described. It is shown that the rejection factor for electrons and pions is 10 -2 - 10 -3 . The positively charged particles in the momentum range up to 1.5 GeV/c are identified by momentum and time-of-flight measurements. The main characteristics of the spectrometer are: momentum and angular acceptance δp/p = 46%, Δθ = 4 deg, solid angle ΔΩ = 2.75 msr, momentum resolution δp/p = 1.5%, angular resolutions δθ = 0.6 deg, δφ = 2 deg. The intervals of measured momentum and the polar scattering anlge are 0.5-3 GeV/c and 10-30 deg, 68-90 deg respectively. 7 refs.; 11 figs

  4. Forward spectrometers at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Most of SSC phase space and a great deal of physics potential is in the forward/backward region (absolute value of theta < 100 mrad). Comprehensive open-geometry spectrometers are feasible and very cost effective. Examples of such devices are sketched. Because such spectrometers are very long and may operate at high β and longer bunch spacing, they impact now on SSC interaction - region design. The data acquisition load is as heavy as for central detectors, although there may be less emphasis on speed and more emphasis on sophisticated parallel and/or distributed processing for event selection, as well as on high-capacity buffering

  5. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate

  6. Simulations of chopper jitter at the LET neutron spectrometer at the ISIS TS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenø, Kaspar Hewitt; Lefmann, Kim; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2014-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty in chopper phasing (jitter) has been investigated for the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer LET at the ISIS second target station. The investigation is carried out using virtual experiments, with the neutron simulation package McStas, where the chopper jitter i...

  7. Implement of a magnetic spectrometer at the CERN intersecting stockage rings (900 spectrometer in the R608 experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyrolle, M.

    1985-01-01

    By adding a new spectrometer at 90 0 in the R608 experiment at CERN (ISR) we can search correlations between some systems of particles fully measured in the forward and transverse directions. The corresponding new electronic trigger, which selects events with momentum above a chosen threshold, is mixed or not to the forward trigger, in order to record correlated or inclusive data from the collisions p-p, p-anti-p, α-α. In the 90 0 spectrometer, we build drift chambers, set before the dipolar magnet. We studied the spatial resolution and the methods to associate tracks before and after this magnet. We developed the method to determine the momenta, by taking account of the variations of the deflecting power: the accuracy of this method is better than O.3%, and the global resolution is about 0.01 P 2 . We proposed also how to identify the particles from time of flight measurements and aerogel cerenkov counters [fr

  8. Small angle single arm spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.Y.

    1976-01-01

    A study is given of an experiment described in the 1975 Summer Study to review the adequacy of the apparatus for its physics goals, equipment needs, logistic needs, vacuum chambers, compatibility with other experiments and to summarize its impacts on ISABELLE. The spectrometer is designed to study single particle inclusive spectra near x = 1 with particle identification and good momentum resolution

  9. The story of a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.; Uhrberg, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development and design of a photoelectron spectrometer for use by researchers using synchrotron radiation. Originally developed for a new beam line at the MAXI Synchrotron at Lund in Sweden, the device has many research applications where its high level of performance is required. (UK)

  10. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  11. Inside the ETH spectrometer magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The ETH spectrometer magnet being prepared for experiment S134, which uses a frozen spin polarized target to study the associated production of a kaon and a lambda by negative pions interacting with protons (CERN-ETH, Zurich-Helsinki-Imperial College, London-Southampton Collaboration). (See Photo Archive 7406316)

  12. VESPA: The vibrational spectrometer for the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrigo, Anna, E-mail: anna.fedrigo@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Colognesi, Daniele; Grazzi, Francesco; Zoppi, Marco [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bertelsen, Mads; Strobl, Markus [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hartl, Monika; Deen, Pascale P. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    VESPA, Vibrational Excitation Spectrometer with Pyrolytic-graphite Analysers, aims to probe molecular excitations via inelastic neutron scattering. It is a thermal high resolution inverted geometry time-of-flight instrument designed to maximise the use of the long pulse of the European Spallation Source. The wavelength frame multiplication technique was applied to provide simultaneously a broad dynamic range (about 0-500 meV) while a system of optical blind choppers allows to trade flux for energy resolution. Thanks to its high flux, VESPA will allow the investigation of dynamical and in situ experiments in physical chemistry. Here we describe the design parameters and the corresponding McStas simulations.

  13. A spectrometer using one or two superconducting coaxial solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Gales, S.; Laurent, J.P.

    1979-06-01

    A set of two superconducting solenoidal coils which are presently under construction at the Orsay I.P.N. is described. Because of its optical properties, the system can be used as spectrometer: focusing properties with small geometrical aberrations allowing large solid angles to be used together with good transmission and isochronism. Various types of experiments can be envisaged with such a device: angular correlation at zero degree, study of rare events like exotic reactions, time of flight for mass identification and rapid (much less than 1 μs) and efficient collection of radioactive nuclei for subsequent spectroscopy measurements [fr

  14. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,ω). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating

  15. Electron optics development for photo-electron spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannberg, Bjoern [VG Scienta AB, P.O. Box 15120, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); BW Particle Optics AB, P.O. Box 55, SE-822 22 Alfta (Sweden)], E-mail: bjorn@particleoptics.se

    2009-03-21

    The demand for simultaneous observation of photo-electron distributions in several dimensions has made the hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA) and the time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer the dominating spectrometer types. Some common limiting factors for resolution and sensitivity are considered. Recent developments of the HDA and its lens system which increase the energy range and angular acceptance are described. The properties of a recently developed angle-resolving TOF system (AR-TOF) are also described. The possibility to avoid integration losses in energy or angular resolution by applying non-linear mappings of the primary data is discussed.

  16. Electron optics development for photo-electron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannberg, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    The demand for simultaneous observation of photo-electron distributions in several dimensions has made the hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA) and the time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer the dominating spectrometer types. Some common limiting factors for resolution and sensitivity are considered. Recent developments of the HDA and its lens system which increase the energy range and angular acceptance are described. The properties of a recently developed angle-resolving TOF system (AR-TOF) are also described. The possibility to avoid integration losses in energy or angular resolution by applying non-linear mappings of the primary data is discussed.

  17. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  18. A neutron spectrometer for studying giant resonances with (p,n) reactions in inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhl, L.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csatlós, M.; Algora, A.; Gulyás, J.; Kalinka, G.; Timár, J.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Rigollet, C.; Bagchi, S.; Najafi, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer, the European Low-Energy Neutron Spectrometer (ELENS), has been constructed to study exotic nuclei in inverse-kinematics experiments. The spectrometer, which consists of plastic scintillator bars, can be operated in the neutron energy range of 100 keV–10 MeV. The neutron energy is determined using the time-of-flight technique, while the position of the neutron detection is deduced from the time-difference information from photomultipliers attached to both ends of each bar. A novel wrapping method has been developed for the plastic scintillators. The array has a larger than 25% detection efficiency for neutrons of approximately 500 keV in kinetic energy and an angular resolution of less than 1°. Details of the design, construction and experimental tests of the spectrometer will be presented

  19. Effect of the size of experimental channels of the lead slowing-down spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the moderation constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latysheva, L. N.; Bergman, A. A.; Sobolevsky, N. M., E-mail: sobolevs@inr.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ilic, R. D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia)

    2013-04-15

    Lead slowing-down (LSD) spectrometers have a low energy resolution (about 30%), but their luminosity is 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} times higher than that of time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers. A high luminosity of LSD spectrometers makes it possible to use them to measure neutron cross section for samples of mass about several micrograms. These features specify a niche for the application of LSD spectrometers in measuring neutron cross sections for elements hardly available in macroscopic amounts-in particular, for actinides. A mathematical simulation of the parameters of SVZ-100 LSD spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow) is performed in the present study on the basis of the MCNPX code. It is found that the moderation constant, which is the main parameter of LSD spectrometers, is highly sensitive to the size and shape of detecting volumes in calculations and, hence, to the real size of experimental channels of the LSD spectrometer.

  20. Effect of the size of experimental channels of the lead slowing-down spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the moderation constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latysheva, L. N.; Bergman, A. A.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Ilić, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Lead slowing-down (LSD) spectrometers have a low energy resolution (about 30%), but their luminosity is 10 3 to 10 4 times higher than that of time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers. A high luminosity of LSD spectrometers makes it possible to use them to measure neutron cross section for samples of mass about several micrograms. These features specify a niche for the application of LSD spectrometers in measuring neutron cross sections for elements hardly available in macroscopic amounts—in particular, for actinides. A mathematical simulation of the parameters of SVZ-100 LSD spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow) is performed in the present study on the basis of the MCNPX code. It is found that the moderation constant, which is the main parameter of LSD spectrometers, is highly sensitive to the size and shape of detecting volumes in calculations and, hence, to the real size of experimental channels of the LSD spectrometer.

  1. Compact Spectrometers Based on Linear Variable Filters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate a linear-variable spectrometer with an H2RG array. Linear Variable Filter (LVF) spectrometers provide attractive resource benefits – high optical...

  2. Scintillation forward spectrometer of the SPHERE setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, Yu.S.; Afanas'ev, S.V.; Bondarev, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of the forward spectrometer for the 4π SPHERE setup to study multiple production of particles in nucleus-nucleus interactions is described. The measured parameters of the spectrometer detectors are presented. 7 refs.; 14 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Combined raman spectrometer/laser-induced breakdown spectrometer design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Gregory; Ahlers, Berit; Boslooper, Erik; Rull-Perez, Fernando; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-11-01

    Amongst the different instruments that have been preselected to be on-board the Pasteur payload on ExoMars is the Raman/ Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities. An international team under the lead of TNO has been gathered to produce a design concept for a combined Raman Spectrometer/ LIBS Elegant Bread-Board (EBB). The instrument is based on a specifically designed extremely compact spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. Low mass, size and resources are the main drivers of the instrument's design concept. The proposed design concept, realization and testing programme for the combined Raman/ LIBS EBB is presented as well as background information on Raman and LIBS.

  4. OLYMPEX Counterflow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Counterflow Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Olympic Mountain Experiment (OLYMPEX). The field campaign took place from November 12 through December 19, 2015, over the Olympic Mountains and coastal waters of Washington State as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the NASA Aerosol-Cloud Ecosystem (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA Lockheed Earth Resources (ER-2) aircraft. ACE funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program.

  5. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A.; Adams, G.; Ahmad, S.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.P.; Barbosa, F.J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Berman, B.L.; Bianchi, N.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Briscoe, W.J.; Brooks, W.K.; Burkert, V.D.; Carman, D.S.; Carstens, T.; Cetina, C.; Christo, S.B.; Cole, P.L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cuevas, R.C.; Degtyarenko, P.V.; Dennis, L.; DeSanctis, E.; DeVita, R.; Distelbrink, J.; Dodge, G.E.; Dodge, W.; Doolittle, G.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Duncan, W.S.; Dytman, S.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Feuerbach, R.J.; Ficenec, J.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Giovanetti, K.L.; Golovatch, E.; Gram, J.; Guidal, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heddle, D.; Hemler, P.; Hersman, F.W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R.S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Insley, D.; Ito, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joyce, D.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Koubarovski, V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Lake, A.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Lachniet, J.; Magahiz, R.A.; Major, W.; Manak, J.J.; Marchand, C.; Martin, C.; Matthews, S.K.; McMullen, M.; McNabb, J.W.C.; Mestayer, M.D.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L.Y.; Mutchler, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Nozar, M.; O' Brien, J.T.; Opper, A.K.; O' Meara, J.E.; Pasyuk, E.; Philips, S.A.; Polli, E.; Price, J.W.; Pozdniakov, S.; Qin, L.M.; Raue, B.A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Riggs, C.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B.G.; Robb, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Roudot, F.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R.A.; Serov, V.S.; Sharabian, Y.G.; Smith, E.E.S. E-mail: elton@jlab.org; Smith, L.C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D.I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, W.M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D.J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tilles, D.; Todor, L. [and others

    2003-05-11

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10{sup 34} nucleon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

  6. The high-acceptance dielectron spectrometer HADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakichiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Lehnert, J.; Lichtblau, C.; Lins, E.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Novotny, R.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Petri, M.; Ritman, J.; Salz, C.; Schaefer, D.; Skoda, M.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Toia, A.; Agodi, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Vassiliev, D.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez, C.; Fuentes, B.; Garzon, J.A.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Rodriguez-Prieto, G.; Sabin-Fernandez, J.; Sanchez, M.; Vazquez, A.; Atkin, E.; Volkov, Y.; Badura, E.; Bertini, D.; Bielcik, J.; Bokemeyer, H.; Dahlinger, M.; Daues, H.W.; Galatyuk, T.; Garabatos, C.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Hehner, J.; Heinz, T.; Hoffmann, J.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Kopf, U.; Lang, S.; Leinberger, U.; Magestro, D.; Muench, M.; Niebur, W.; Ott, W.; Pietraszko, J.; Rustamov, A.; Schicker, R.M.; Schoen, H.; Schoen, W.; Schroeder, C.; Schwab, E.; Senger, P.; Simon, R.S.; Stelzer, H.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S.; Zovinec, D.; Zumbruch, P.; Balanda, A.; Kozuch, A.; Przygoda, W.; Bassi, A.; Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Bartolotti, A.; Brambilla, S.; Bellia, G.; Migneco, E.; Belyaev, A.V.; Chepurnov, V.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.V.; Ierusalimov, A.P.; Smykov, L.; Troyan, A.Yu.; Zanevsky, Y.V.; Benovic, M.; Hlavac, S.; Turzo, I.; Boehmer, M.; Christ, T.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Gilg, H.; Homolka, J.; Jurkovic, M.; Kastenmueller, A.; Kienle, P.; Koerner, H.J.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Maier-Komor, P.; Sailer, B.; Schroeder, S.; Ulrich, A.; Wallner, C.; Weber, M.; Wieser, J.; Winkler, S.; Zeitelhack, K.; Boyard, J.L.; Genolini, B.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J.C.; Moriniere, E.; Pouthas, J.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Sudol, M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Diaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dressler, R.; Enghardt, W.; Heidel, K.; Hutsch, J.; Kanaki, K.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Sobiella, M.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zhou, P.; Dybczak, A.; Jaskula, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kidon, L.; Korcyl, K.; Kulessa, R.; Malarz, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Ploskon, M.; Prokopowicz, W.; Salabura, P.; Szczybura, M.; Trebacz, R.; Walus, W.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Froehlich, I.; Lippmann, C.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Rosenkranz, K.; Stroebele, H.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Wang, Y.; Zentek, A.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Lapidus, K.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Shileev, K.; Tiflov, V.; Grosse, E.; Kaempfer, B.; Iori, I.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Marek, T.; Novotny, J.; Pleskac, R.; Pospisil, V.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Suk, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tikhonov, A.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V.; Mousa, J.; Parpottas, Y.; Tsertos, H.; Nekhaev, A.; Smolyankin, V.; Palka, M.; Roche, G.; Schmah, A.; Stroth, J.

    2009-01-01

    HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion-induced collisions. Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a multiplicity and electron trigger array for additional electron-hadron discrimination and event characterization. A two-stage trigger system enhances events containing electrons. The physics program is focused on the investigation of hadron properties in nuclei and in the hot and dense hadronic matter. The detector system is characterized by an 85% azimuthal coverage over a polar angle interval from 18 to 85 , a single electron efficiency of 50% and a vector meson mass resolution of 2.5%. Identification of pions, kaons and protons is achieved combining time-of-flight and energy loss measurements over a large momentum range (0.1< p< 1.0 GeV/c). This paper describes the main features and the performance of the detector system. (orig.)

  7. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  8. Acquisition of HPLC-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    31-Jan-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer The views, opinions and/or findings...published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer Report Title The acquisition of the mass spectrometer has been a

  9. Lessons learned with the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J; Greenlees, P T; Jones, P; Julin, R; Konki, J; Pakarinen, J; Rahkila, P; Sandzelius, M; Uusitalo, J; Papadakis, P; Cox, D M; Herzberg, R D

    2012-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a high-efficiency γ-ray detection system with an electron spectrometer. Some of the design features have been known to be problematic and surprises have come up during the early implementation of the spectrometer. Tests related to bismuth germanate Compton-suppression shields, electron detection efficiency and an improved cooling system are discussed in the paper. (paper)

  10. Rocket-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses are made of planar, cylindrical and spherical-electrode two-field time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A method is introduced which can improve the resolving power of these instruments by a factor of 7.5. Potential barrier gating in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is also analyzed. Experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical-electrode and a hemispherical-electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer are presented. Their sensitivity and ability to operate at D-region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D-region ion composition measurements. A sounding rocket experiment package carrying a cylindrical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer was launched. The data indicate that essentially 100% of the positive electric charge on positive ions is carried by ions with mass-to-charge ratios greater than 500 below an altitude of 92 km. These heavy charge carriers were present at altitudes up to about 100 km.

  11. Rocket-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.F.

    1976-08-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses are made of planar-, cylindrical- and spherical-electrode two-field time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A method is introduced which can improve the resolving power of these instruments by a factor of 7.5. Potential barrier gating in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is also analyzed. Experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical-electrode and a hemispherical-electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer are presented. Their sensitivity and ability to operate at D-region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D-region ion composition measurements. A sounding rocket experiment package carrying a cylindrical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometer was launched. The data indicate that essentially 100% of the positive electric charge on positive ions is carried by ions with mass-to-charge ratios greater than 500 below an altitude of 92 km. These heavy charge carriers were present at altitudes up to about 100 km

  12. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  14. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics

  15. QQDDQ magnet spectrometer 'BIG KARL'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S A; Hardt, A; Meissburger, J; Berg, G P.A.; Hacker, U; Huerlimann, W; Roemer, J G.M.; Sagefka, T; Retz, A; Schult, O W.B.

    1983-09-01

    A magnet spectrometer consisting of two quadrupoles, two dipole magnets and another larger quadrupole in front of the detector was designed and installed at the nuclear research institute of the KFA Juelich. It has been used for charged-particle spectroscopy at the isochronous cyclotron since early 1979. Special features of the spectrometer are variable and high dispersion, coils for higher order field corrections in the dipole magnets and a focal plane perpendicular to the optical axis. A large mass-energy product of mE/q/sup 2/ < 540 u x MeV, an angular acceptance of d..cap omega..<12.5 msr, a high resolving power of p/..delta..p up to 3 x 10/sup 4/ and the possibility of kinematical corrections up to K=0.8 make the instrument a very versatile tool for many experiments in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics. 51 references.

  16. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures

  17. The HISS spectrometer at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame, but instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. (orig.)

  18. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

  19. A spectrometer for submicron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourprix, M.

    1995-01-01

    The electrostatic spectrometer for aerosol particles, is composed of two coaxial parallel conductive disks between which an electric field is established; an annular slot in the first disk allows for the atmosphere air intake. Suction and injection systems, and a third intermediate conductive disk are used to carry out a dynamic confinement that allows for the separation of particles having various electronic mobility and the determination of the suspended particle size distribution. Application to aerosol size spectrum determination and air quality monitoring

  20. The fast slow TDPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Manasijevic, M.; Ivanovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.; Radisavljevic, I.; Cavor, J.; Novakovic, N.; Marjanovic, D.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-BaF 2 detector - fast slow time spectrometer for time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) experiments is described. This apparatus has been developed in the Group for Hyperfine Interactions in the Institute for Nuclear Sciences in VINCA. The excellent time resolution combined with high efficiency offered by these detectors enables one high counting rate performance and is operating in the wide temperature range 78-1200 K. (author)

  1. The RISC-spectrometer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Gy.

    1981-01-01

    The RISC (Relativistic Ionising Streamer Chamber) spectrometer (situated at Protvino, joining the accelerator) is discussed, and the experiment carried out in international cooperation is presented. The beam monitor, the trigger system and the control and data recording system as well as the streamer spark chamber are detailed (the latter is the largest of our time). Examples of the main experiments as well as the work carried out in Budapest are discussed briefly. (Sz.J.)

  2. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  3. TOF spectrometer with improved sensitivity for ERDA of light isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siketic, Z.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Jaksic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF ERDA) is a well established and powerful ion beam analytical technique. It is used for simultaneous and quantitative analysis of elemental depth distributions of light and medium mass elements in both light and heavy matrices. Contrary to silicon particle detectors, the efficiency of the carbon-foil MCP time detectors in TOF system depends on energy and electronic stopping power of analyzing recoil atoms in the C foil and it is often less than 100% for light elements (H, He, Li). This is particularly critical for hydrogen isotopes where detection efficiency can be drastically reduced (∼ 10%). Therefore, TOF ERDA spectrometers were so far not the best choice for depth profiling and quantification of light elements. To improve the detection efficiency of TOF ERDA, the electron emission of C foils (∼ 0.3 μg/cm 2 ) has been enhanced by evaporating a thin LiF layer on the foil. That procedure improved significantly detection efficiency of hydrogen and other light elements, making TOF ERDA spectrometer more suitable for multielemental analysis applications. The capabilities of upgraded spectrometer were demonstrated on samples with well known as well as unknown concentration and depth distribution of H and D.(author)

  4. Study of preshower in the PANDA target spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Kamal; Kalita, Kushal; Suzuki, K.; Steinschaden, D.; Roy, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstdt) is one of the major projects at FAIR, GSI, Germany. The main objective of this experiment is to study the fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD in pp¯ annihilation using high intensity cooled anti-proton beams with momenta between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c. To achieve high momentum resolution and full solid angle coverage, the PANDA detector is split in to two parts: target spectrometer and forward spectrometer. The target spectrometer is a complex detector consisting of several subsystems surrounding the interaction point. It is surrounded by a 2 T superconducting solenoid magnet. A Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), close to interaction point, detects secondary vertices of D and Hyperon decays. The Straw Tube Tracker (STT) is the central tracking system around the MVD. A cherenkov counter named DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light), provides π/K separation for particle momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c. The barrel Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector, consists of plastic scintillator tiles with a time resolution of 100 ps. It is used to identify particles of momentum below cherenkov threshold

  5. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina; Bocos-Bintintan, V

    2009-01-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  6. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bocos-Bintintan, V, E-mail: cornel.cuna@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, 3 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  7. On-board aircrew dosimetry using a semiconductor spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Spurny, F

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fields on board aircraft contain particles with energies up to a few hundred MeV. Many instruments have been tested to characterise these fields. This paper presents the results of studies on the use of an Si diode spectrometer to characterise these fields. The spectrometer has been in use since spring 2000 on more than 130 return flights to monitor and characterise the on-board field. During a Czech Airlines flight from Prague to New York it was possible to register the effects of an intense solar flare, (ground level event, GLE 60), which occurred on 15 April 2001. It was found that the number of deposition events registered was increased by about 70% and the dose in Si by a factor of 2.0 when compared with the presence of galactic cosmic rays alone. Directly measured data are interpreted with respect to on-earth reference field calibration (photons, CERN high-energy particles); it was found that this approach leads to encouraging results and should be followed up. (7 refs).

  8. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  9. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka, Deborah E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Austin, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).

  10. Mechanical and thermal design of an experiment aboard the space shuttle: the Spacelab spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrometer designed by ONERA and IASB (Belgium Space Aeronomy Institute) to measure atmospheric trace constituents was flown aboard Spacelab 1 during the 9 th mission of the American Space Shuttle from November 28 to December 8, 1983. After a brief summary of the history of the project related to Spacelab, the mechanical and thermal design of the spectrometer is described. Some methods, calculations and characteristic tests are detailed as examples. The behaviour of the experiment during the mission and the results of the post-flight tests are shortly analyzed in order to prepare the qualification for a reflight [fr

  11. Precise mass measurements of exotic nuclei--the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Eliseev, S.; Hessberger, F.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Rauth, C.; Vorobjev, G.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Neidherr, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Neumayr, J.

    2007-01-01

    The SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer has been designed and constructed to measure the mass of short-lived, radioactive nuclei. The radioactive nuclei are produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated in flight with the velocity filter SHIP at GSI in Darmstadt. They are captured in a gas cell and transfered to a double Penning trap mass spectrometer. There, the cyclotron frequencies of the radioactive ions are determined and yield mass values with uncertainties ≥4.5·10 -8 . More than 50 nuclei have been investigated so far with the present overall efficiency of about 0.5 to 2%

  12. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  13. Ion Mobility Spectrometer Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; McLain, Derek [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Steeb, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-12-20

    The Morpho Saffran Itemizer 4DX Ion Mobility Spectrometer previously used to detect uranium signatures in FY16 was used at the former New Brunswick Facility, a past uranium facility located on site at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was chosen in an attempt to detect safeguards relevant signatures and has a history of processing uranium at various enrichments, chemical forms, and purities; various chemicals such as nitric acid, uranium fluorides, phosphates and metals are present at various levels. Several laboratories were sampled for signatures of nuclear activities around the laboratory. All of the surfaces that were surveyed were below background levels of the radioanalytical instrumentation and determined to be radiologically clean.

  14. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.; Shoumilov, E.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, S.C.C.Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Tr umper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Usoskin, I.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, D.; Gunten, H. Von; Wicki, S.W.S. Waldmeier; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m 2 ) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  15. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  16. Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Gupta, Satish C.; Jyoti, G.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2003-02-01

    The time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample submicrometer-diameter ring particles and impact ejecta from Saturn's satellites. The CDA measures a mass spectrum of each particle that impacts the chemical analyzer sector of the instrument. Particles impact a Rh target plate at velocities of 1-100 km/s and produce some 10-8 to 10-5 times the particle mass of positive valence, single-charged ions. These are analyzed via a TOF MS. Initial tests employed a pulsed N2 laser acting on samples of kamacite, pyrrhotite, serpentine, olivine, and Murchison meteorite induced bursts of ions which were detected with a microchannel plate and a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). Pulses from the N2 laser (1011 W/cm2) are assumed to simulate particle impact. Using aluminum alloy as a test sample, each pulse produces a charge of ~4.6 pC (mostly Al+1), whereas irradiation of a stainless steel target produces a ~2.8 pC (Fe+1) charge. Thus the present system yields ~10-5% of the laser energy in resulting ions. A CSA signal indicates that at the position of the microchannel plate, the ion detector geometry is such that some 5% of the laser-induced ions are collected in the CDA geometry. Employing a multichannel plate detector in this MS yields for Al-Mg-Cu alloy and kamacite targets well-defined peaks at 24 (Mg+1), 27(Al+1), and 64 (Cu+1) and 56 (Fe+1), 58 (Ni+1), and 60 (Ni+1) dalton, respectively.

  17. Crystal-diffraction spectrometer of increased efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukov, A.I.; Gornitsyn, G.A.; Morozov, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The geometry of the spectrometer is illustrated in this paper. An attempt is made to achieve optimal design of the spectrometer by finding the coefficient of reflection of the gamma radiation from the various Ge planes. In these experiments, the Du Mond design was used in the spectrometer. Illustrations are provided to explain dependence of the relative efficiency upon the energy of the gamma quanta

  18. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  19. Intracavity Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer with High Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrayana; Muslim; Wasono, M.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    A photo acoustic spectrometer set-up has been upgraded from an extra cavity into an intracavity configuration using a sealed-off CO 2 laser as the spectrometer's radiation source. The detection level of the upgrade Intracavity Photoacoustic Spectrometer (IPS) reached (200 ± 50) ppt for C 2 H 4 and (20 ± 5) ppt for SF 6 with response time (6.6 ± 0.2) s. (author)

  20. Functional Enhancements in Used Oil Analysis Spectrometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lukas, Malte

    1998-01-01

    Spark emission spectrometers using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique have become the workhorses and primary analytical tool of most machine condition monitoring programs based on oil analysis...

  1. Photoionization mass spectrometer for studies of flame chemistry with a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Terrill A.; McIlroy, Andrew; Qi, Fei; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Poisson, Lionel; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2005-01-01

    A flame-sampling molecular-beam photoionization mass spectrometer, recently designed and constructed for use with a synchrotron-radiation light source, provides significant improvements over previous molecular-beam mass spectrometers that have employed either electron-impact ionization or vacuum ultraviolet laser photoionization. These include superior signal-to-noise ratio, soft ionization, and photon energies easily and precisely tunable [E/ΔE(FWHM)≅250-400] over the 7.8-17-eV range required for quantitative measurements of the concentrations and isomeric compositions of flame species. Mass resolution of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer is m/Δm=400 and sensitivity reaches ppm levels. The design of the instrument and its advantages for studies of flame chemistry are discussed

  2. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  3. The feasibility of using a Fourier RTOF spectrometer at a low-power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Priesmeyer, H.G.; Kudryashev, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present situation of Fourier time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry is discussed using the FSS spectrometer as example. The use of the Fourier reverse TOF spectrometry, as an efficient tool for studying condensed matter, at a 2 MW (WWR-S type) reactor is also assessed. The arrangement of the RTOF spectrometer, which could be successfully used at such type of reactor, is introduced. The suggested arrangement applies a neutron guide tube of 24 m length and allows for effective luminosity 2.4.10 6 at a flight path distance of 3.6 m. The number of neutrons scattered from a sample (5 cm 3 in volume) and incident on the detector system, as estimated for the suggested arrangement, is ∝1.6.10 3 n/sec. Such high counting rate allows to measure a diffraction spectrum within less than an hour. (orig.) With 12 figs [de

  4. Imaging spectrometers for atmosphere monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Thido; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Münzenmayer, Ralf; Weiss, Stefan; Posselt, Winfried

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric monitoring missions aim at products like O3, H2O, NO2, SO2, BrO, CH4, CO, CO2 as well as aerosols and cloud information. Depending on the application area (Ozone Monitoring, Green House Gas Monitoring, Tropospheric Composition and Air Quality, Chemistry Climate Interaction etc.) total or tropospheric columns as well as profile information is required. The user community of these data as well as their central requirements w.r.t. the payload aspects will be described. A large range of relevant passive instrument types is available, in particular imaging spectrometer, sounder and polarisation measuring systems in the UV-VIS, SWIR and TIR spectral range. Differences between instruments for dedicated missions are highlighted and evolution of requirements is explained, also in comparison with relevant existing instrumentation partly in orbit today. Aspects of technology roadmaps for instrument implementation as well as synergetic effects of instrument combinations and according mission scopes are discussed.

  5. Neutron measurement by transportable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Two levels of neutron spectrometry are in regular use at nuclear power plants: some techniques used in the laboratory produce detailed spectra but require specialist operators, while simple instruments used by non-specialists to measure the neutron dose-rate to operators provide little spectral information. The standard portable instruments are therefore of no use when anomalous readings are obtained which require further investigation. AEA Technology at Winfrith has developed a Transportable Neutron Spectrometer (TNS) which is designed to produce reasonable spectra in routine use by staff with no specialist skill in spectroscopy, and high-quality spectra in the hands of skilled staff. The TNS provides a level of information intermediate between those currently available, and is also designed to solve the problem of imperfect dose response which is common in portable dosimeters. The TNS system consists of a power supply, a probe and a signal processing and data acquisition unit. (author)

  6. The BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the programm controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both ''on-line'' and ''off-line'' operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed. (orig.)

  7. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  8. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  9. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; Azzollini, R.; Bailey, J.; Beard, S.; Dicken, D.; García-Marín, M.; Geers, V.; Glasse, A.; Glauser, A.; Gordon, K.; Justtanont, K.; Klaassen, P.; Lahuis, F.; Law, D.; Morrison, J.; Müller, M.; Rieke, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wright, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments,

  10. Polarized epithermal neutron spectrometer at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohgi, M.

    1983-01-01

    A spectrometer employing a white, epithermal, polarized neutron beam is under construction at KENS. The neutron polarization is achieved by passage through a dynamically polarized proton filter (DPPF). The results of the test experiments show that the DPPF method is promising in obtaining polarized epithermal neutron beam. The basic design of the spectrometer is described

  11. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  12. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  13. Rapid tryptic mapping using enzymatically active mass spectrometer probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogruel, D.; Williams, P.; Nelson, R.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A method has been developed for rapid, sensitive, and accurate tryptic mapping of polypeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass analysis. The technique utilizes mass spectrometer probe tips which have been activated through the covalent immobilization of trypsin. The enzymatically active probe tips were used for the tryptic mapping of chicken egg lysozyme and the results compared with those obtained using either free trypsin or agarose-immobilized trypsin. A significant increase in the overall sensitivity of the process was observed using the active probe tips, as well as the production of more characteristic proteolytic fragments and the elimination of background signals due to the autolysis of the trypsin. Further, probe tip digestions were found to be rapid and convenient. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A non-invasive online photoionization spectrometer for FLASH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Markus; Brenner, Günter; Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Juranić, Pavle; Sorokin, Andrey; Tiedtke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process of free-electron lasers (FELs) effects pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the radiation properties, such as the photon energy, which are determinative for processes of photon-matter interactions. Hence, SASE FEL sources pose a great challenge for scientific investigations, since experimenters need to obtain precise real-time feedback of these properties for each individual photon bunch for interpretation of the experimental data. Furthermore, any device developed to deliver the according information should not significantly interfere with or degrade the FEL beam. Regarding the spectral properties, a device for online monitoring of FEL wavelengths has been developed for FLASH2, which is based on photoionization of gaseous targets and the measurements of the corresponding electron and ion time-of-flight spectra. This paper presents experimental studies and cross-calibration measurements demonstrating the viability of this online photoionization spectrometer.

  15. On the design of the NIF Continuum Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, D. B.; MacPhee, A.; Ayers, J.; Galbraith, J.; Hardy, C. M.; Izumi, N.; Bradley, D. K.; Pickworth, L. A.; Bachmann, B.; Kozioziemski, B.; Landen, O.; Clark, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Nagel, S.; Bell, P. M.; Person, S.; Khater, H. Y.; Smith, C.; Kilkenny, J.

    2017-08-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), measurements of average ion temperature using DT neutron time of flight broadening and of DD neutrons do not show the same apparent temperature. Some of this may be due to time and space dependent temperature profiles in the imploding capsule which are not taken into account in the analysis. As such, we are attempting to measure the electron temperature by recording the free-free electron-ion scattering-spectrum from the tail of the Maxwellian temperature distribution. This will be accomplished with the new NIF Continuum Spectrometer (ConSpec) which spans the x-ray range of 20 keV to 30 keV (where any opacity corrections from the remaining mass of the ablator shell are negligible) and will be sensitive to temperatures between ˜ 3 keV and 6 keV. The optical design of the ConSpec is designed to be adaptable to an x-ray streak camera to record time resolved free-free electron continuum spectra for direct measurement of the dT/dt evolution across the burn width of a DT plasma. The spectrometer is a conically bent Bragg crystal in a focusing geometry that allows for the dispersion plane to be perpendicular to the spectrometer axis. Additionally, to address the spatial temperature dependence, both time integrated and time resolved pinhole and penumbral imaging will be provided along the same polar angle. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument is presented along with estimates for the dispersion, solid angle, photometric sensitivity, and performance.

  16. Atom-probe field-ion-microscope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu

    1983-01-01

    The titled analyzer, called simply atom-probe, has been developed by combining a field ion microscope (FIM) and a mass spectrometer, and is divided into the time-of-flight type, magnetic sector type, and quadrupole type depending on the types of mass spectrometers. In this paper, the author first describes on the principle and construction of a high resolution, time-of-flight atom-probe developed and fabricated in his laboratory. The feature of the atom-probe lies in the analysis of atoms and molecules in hyper-fine structure region one by one utilizing the high resolution of FIM. It also has the advantages of directly determining the composition by a ratio of the numbers of respective ions because of a constant detection sensitivity regardless of mass numbers, of the resolution as high as single atom layer in depth direction, and of detecting the positional relationship among detected ions by the order of detection in a sample. To determine the composition in a hyperfine structure region, the limited small number of atoms and molecules in the region must be identified distinctly one by one. In the analyzed result of Ni-silicide formed by heating Si evaporated on a Ni tip at 1000 K for 5 minutes, each isotope was not only clearly separated, but also their abundance ratio was very close to the natural abundance ratio. The second half of the paper reports on the analysis of TiC promising for a cold cathode material, adsorption of CO and alcohol, and the composition and structure of silicides, as a few application examples. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. The design of the Spectrometer Ring at the HIAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B.; Yang, J. C.; Xia, J. W.; Yan, X. L.; Hu, X. J.; Mao, L. J.; Sheng, L. N.; Wu, J. X.; Yin, D. Y.; Chai, W. P.; Shen, G. D.; Ge, W. W.; Wang, G.; Zhao, H.; Ruan, S.; Ma, X. W.; Wang, M.; Litvinov, S.; Wen, W. Q.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, R. J.; Tang, M. T.; Wu, W.; Luo, C.; Zhao, T. C.; Shi, C. F.; Fu, X.; Liu, J.; Liang, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Spectrometer Ring (SRing) is an essential part of the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility project (HIAF) in China. It is designed as a multi-functional experimental storage ring, which will be able to operate in three ion optical operation modes. The SRing will be used as a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for short-lived, especially neutron-rich nuclei. It will also be used to collect and cool Rare Isotope Beams (RIBs) or highly-charged stable ion beams for nuclear and atomic physics experiments. The design magnetic rigidity is in the range 1.5 to 15 Tm. The beam cooling system consists of stochastic cooling and electron cooling devices. With a help of an electron cooler, stored ions will be decelerated to a minimum energy of 30 MeV/u by RF cavities. The extraction system of the SRing will allow cooled ion beams to be extracted to an external target for further ion manipulations or reaction experiments. The general ion optics design and technical requirements of SRing subsystems are presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. Graphite analyser upgrade for the IRIS spectrometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.I.; Telling, M.T.F.; Carlile, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The pyrolytic graphite (PG) analyser bank on the IRIS high resolution inelastic spectrometer [1] at ISIS is to be upgraded. At present the analyser consists of 1350 graphite pieces (6 rows by 225 columns) cooled to 25K [2]. The new analyser array, however, will provide a three-fold increase in area and employ 4212 crystal pieces (18 rows by 234 columns). In addition, the graphite crystals will be cooled close to liquid helium temperature to further reduce thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) and improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer [2]. For an instrument such as IRIS, with its analyser in near back-scattering geometry, optical aberration and variation in the time-of-flight of the analysed neutrons is introduced as one moves out from the horizontal scattering plane. To minimise such effects, the profile of the analyser array has been redesigned. The concept behind the design of the new analyser bank and factors that effect the overall resolution of the instrument are discussed. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the expected resolution and intensity of the complete instrument are presented and compared to the current instrument performance. (author) [1] C.J. Carlile et al, Physica B 182 (1992) 431-440.; [2] C.J. Carlile et al, Nuclear Instruments and Methods In Physics Research A 338 (1994) 78-82

  19. Design of a pulsed angular selective electron gun for the KATRIN main spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzen, Daniel; Hannen, Volker; Ortjohann, Hans-Werner; Zacher, Michael; Weinheimer, Christian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino mass) experiment will study the tritium {beta}-spectrum near the endpoint of 18.6 keV, aiming to measure the mass of the electron antineutrino. Using an electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E-Filter), the projected sensitivity for m{sub ve} is 200 meV/c{sup 2} at 90% C.L. In order to map out the electric and magnetic fields in the main spectrometer, an angular selective electron gun is currently being developed. The e-gun uses an UV-Laser to produce electrons via the photo-electric effect from a copper substrate which are then accelerated electrostatically. It features a small energy spread of approx. 0.1 eV, a sharp emission angle and will be able to cover the whole magnetic flux tube of KATRIN. Using a pulsed laser it is also possible to investigate the time of flight (TOF) of electrons through the spectrometer, offering enhanced sensitivity to spectrometer properties far away from the analysing plane. By comparing information from transmission function measurements and TOF data with Monte Carlo simulations of the setup, one will be able to achieve a detailed understanding of the spectrometer properties.

  20. The OVIRS Visible/IR Spectrometer on the OSIRIS-Rex Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, D. C.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer) Mission is a planetary science mission to study, and return a sample from, the carbonaceous asteroid 1999 RQ-36. The third mission selected under NASA's New Frontiers Program, it is scheduled to be launched in 2016. It is led by PI Dante Lauretta at the University of Arizona and managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The spacecraft and the asteroid sampling mechanism, TAGSAM (Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism) will be provided by Lockheed Martin Space Systems. Instrumentation for studying the asteroid include: OCAMS (the OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite), OLA (the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter, a scanning LIDAR), OTES (The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer, a 4-50 micron point spectrometer) and OVIRS (the OSIRIS-REx Visible and IR Spectrometer, a 0.4 to 4.3 micron point spectrometer). The payload also includes REXIS (the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer) a student provided experiment. This paper presents a description of the OVIRS instrument.

  1. Scientific Payload Of The Emirates Mars Mission: Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (Emirs) Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunaiji, E. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Smith, M. D.; Badri, K. M., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The Emirates Mars Mission (EMM) will launch in 2020 to explore the dynamics in the atmosphere of Mars on a global scale. EMM has three scientific instruments to an improved understanding of circulation and weather in the Martian lower and middle atmosphere. Two of the EMM's instruments, which are the Emirates eXploration Imager (EXI) and Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS) will focus on the lower atmosphere observing dust, ice clouds, water vapor and ozone. On the other hand, the third instrument Emirates Mars Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EMUS) will focus on both the thermosphere of the planet and its exosphere. The EMIRS instrument, shown in Figure 1, is an interferometric thermal infrared spectrometer that is jointly developed by Arizona State University (ASU) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC). It builds on a long heritage of thermal infrared spectrometers designed, built, and managed, by ASU's Mars Space Flight Facility, including the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES). EMIRS operates in the 6-40+ µm range with 5 cm-1 spectral sampling, enabled by a Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) diamond beamsplitter and state of the art electronics. This instrument utilizes a 3×3 detector array and a scan mirror to make high-precision infrared radiance measurements over most of a Martian hemisphere. The EMIRS instrument is optimized to capture the integrated, lower-middle atmosphere dynamics over a Martian hemisphere and will capture 60 global images per week ( 20 images per orbit) at a resolution of 100-300 km/pixel. After processing through an atmospheric retrieval algorithm, EMIRS will determine the vertical temperature profiles to 50km altitude and measure the column integrated global distribution and abundances of key atmospheric parameters (e.g. dust, water ice (clouds) and water vapor) over the Martian day, seasons and year.

  2. Properties of a large NaI(Tl) spectrometer for the energy measurement of high-energy gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.B.; Finman, L.C.; Hofstadter, R.; Lepetich, J.E.; Lin, Y.C.; Mattox, J.R.; Nolan, P.L.; Parks, R.; Walker, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    A large NaI(T1) spectrometer is expected to play a crucial role in the measurement of the energy spectra from an all-sky survey of high-energy celestial gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory. The crystal size and requirements of space flight have resulted in a novel crystal-packaging and optics combination. The structure of this spectrometer and the operating characteristics determined in a test program using high energy positrons are described

  3. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  4. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. RITA: The reinvented triple axis spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Clausen, K.N.; Aeppli, G.; McMorrow, D.R.; Kjems, J.K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1995-11-01

    Risoe National Laboratory was reported to be in the process of developing a new spectrometer design, RITA, based on the triple axis design. The spectrometer will attempt to incorporate more recent innovations such as multilayer supermirrors and microstrip proportional counters into a rethinking of the triple-axis spectrometer. By optimizing the beam optics, using supermirrors and extending the analyser to map regions of (Q, {omega}) space using an array of independently controllable pyrolytic graphite crystals focussed on an area detector, it was hoped that the efficiency of single-crystal inelastic experiments could be increased by as much as a factor of 20. 7 figs., 20 refs.

  6. Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R.

    1994-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of 239 Pu, 187 Re, and 238 U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis

  7. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  8. Computer control in a compton scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ningzhuo; Chen Tao; Gong Zhufang; Yang Baozhong; Mo Haiding; Hua Wei; Bian Zuhe

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduced the hardware and software of computer autocontrol of calibration and data acquisition in a Compton Scattering spectrometer which consists of a HPGe detector, Amplifiers and a MCA

  9. Electrostatic Spectrometer for Mars Rover Wheel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a simple electrostatic spectrometer that can be mounted on the wheels of a Mars rover to continuously and unobtrusively determine the mineral composition and...

  10. Low Power FPGA Based Spectrometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a general purpose reconfigurable wide bandwidth spectrometer for use in NASA's passive microwave missions, deep space network and radio...

  11. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  12. Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver to NASA an innovative, portable, and power efficient Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer...

  13. The electronic system of Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1990-01-01

    Beijing Spectrometer (BES) in an experimental facility of high energy physics on Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). A brief description including the global design, the read out circuits, the performances and the recent status of its electronic system is presented

  14. RITA-type triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennow, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The RITA spectrometer at Risoe National Laboratory was the first to incorporate a complete re-thinking of the neutron-path from source, through detector to analysis. Since then, other RITA-type spectrometers such as SPINS at NIST, RITA-II at PSI have been built, and several new spectrometers around the world are adapting the same philosophy. The main novelty of RITA was the introduction of a single back-end tank featuring both an analyser block with multiple individually turnable analyser blades and a 2D position sensitive detector. Several new triple-axis spectrometers are presently being built at existing and future sources, and almost all of them have learnt from the experience with RITA. (R.P.)

  15. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcala-Riveira, J M; Fernandez-Marron, J L; Molero-Menendez, F; Navarrete-Marin, J J; Oller-Gonzalez, J C

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  16. Silicon spectrometer with a Peltier refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcarz, E.; Chwaszczewska, J.; Hahn, G.; Nowicki, W.; Sawicka, B.; Skoczek, K.; Slapa, M.; Szymczak, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a spectrometer with a Si(Li) detector cooled by a Peltier refrigerator. The spectrometer is able to analyse samples of practically all most frequently encountered emitters of alpha, beta and low energy gamma radiation. The energy resolution were about 1.3-1.5 keV for 14 keV gamma radiation. The system can also operate in field conditions in the fluorescence analysis. (author)

  17. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs

  18. 1987 calibration of the TFTR neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1989-12-01

    The 3 He neutron spectrometer used for measuring ion temperatures and the NE213 proton recoil spectrometer used for triton burnup measurements were absolutely calibrated with DT and DD neutron generators placed inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. The details of the detector response and calibration are presented. Comparisons are made to the neutron source strengths measured from other calibrated systems. 23 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Fast-response personal Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskij, A.L.; Mashlan, M.; Misevich, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.A.; Lopatik, A.R.; Zhak, D.; Fedorov, A.A.; Snashel, V.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrometer design to record transmission Moessbauer spectra is described. The spectrometer consists of PC/AT computer with 1 mb memory and 40 mb hard disk, of EPSON LX 850 printer, of color monitor with VGA graphical adapter, of data accumulation system, of speed generator, of motion system with minivibrator, of scintillation detector with YA10 3 :Ce scintillator, of single-channel amplitude analyzer, of measuring bench and of 57 Co(Rh) source. 1 ref.; 1 fig

  20. The BTeV main spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    BTeV is a second generation B-factory experiment that will use a double-arm, forward spectrometer in the C0 experimental hall at the Fermilab Tevatron. I will describe the motivation and design of the 'main spectrometer', consisting of a ring-imaging Cherenkov system for charged particle identification, an electromagnetic calorimeter of lead-tungstate crystals, a proportional tube muon system with magnetized filtering steel, and a straw-tube and silicon strip charged particle tracking system

  1. Flight code validation simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Brent A.

    1996-05-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which Inertial Measurement Unit data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System in January of 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  2. Flight control actuation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  3. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  4. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC, organic aerosol (OA, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, a thermal–optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC. ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67–0.78, and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the

  5. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  6. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Recent ion optics and mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    1976-01-01

    The establishment of the third order approximation method for computing the orbit of the ion optical system for mass spectrometers and the completion of its computer program are reported. A feature of this orbit computation is in that the effect of the fringing field can be considered with the accuracy of third order approximation. Several new ion optical systems for mass spectrometers have been proposed by using such orbit computing programs. Brief explanation and the description on the future prospect and problems are made on the following items: the vertual image double focusing mass spectrometer, the second order double focusing mass spectrometer, the E x B superposed field mass spectrometer, and the apparatus with a cylindrical electric field and Q-lens. In the E x B superposed field with Matsuda plates, if the magnetic field is generated by an electromagnet instead of a permanent magnet, the dispersion of mass and energy can be changed at will. The Matsuda plates are known as the auxiliary electrodes positioned at the top and bottom of a cylindrical capacitor. Utilizing those characteristics, a zoom spectrometer can be made, with which only a necessary part of mass spectra can be investigated in detail, but the whole spectra are investigated roughly. In addition, the distribution of energy can be investigated simultaneously after the separation of ionic mass similarly to the parabola apparatus. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Study of neutron spectrometers for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellne, Jan

    2005-11-15

    A review is presented of the developments in the field of neutron emission spectrometry (NES) which is of relevance for identifying the role of NES diagnostics on ITER and selecting suitable instrumentation. Neutron spectrometers will be part of the ITER neutron diagnostic complement and this study makes a special effort to examine which performance characteristics the spectrometers should possess to provide the best burning plasma diagnostic information together with neutron cameras and neutron yield monitors. The performance of NES diagnostics is coupled to how much interface space can be provided which has lead to an interest to find compact instruments and their NES capabilities. This study assesses all known spectrometer types of potential interest for ITER and makes a ranking of their performance (as demonstrated or projected), which, in turn, are compared with ITER measurement requirements as a reference; the ratio of diagnostic performance to interface cost for different spectrometers is also discussed for different spectrometer types. The overall result of the study is an assessment of which diagnostic functions neutron measurements can provide in burning plasma fusion experiments on ITER and the role that NES can play depending on the category of instrument installed. Of special note is the result that much higher quality diagnostic information can be obtained from neutron measurements with total yield monitors, profile flux cameras and spectrometers when the synergy in the data is considered in the analysis and interpretation.

  9. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  10. Theseus in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher propeller-driven engines of the Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken during a 1996 research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  11. Flight research and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  12. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  13. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  14. LVGEMS Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry on Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico

    2013-01-01

    NASA fs investigations of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere require measurements of composition of the neutral air and ions. NASA is able to undertake these observations, but the instruments currently in use have their limitations. NASA has extended the scope of its research in the atmosphere and now requires more measurements covering more of the atmosphere. Out of this need, NASA developed multipoint measurements using miniaturized satellites, also called nanosatellites (e.g., CubeSats), that require a new generation of spectrometers that can fit into a 4 4 in. (.10 10 cm) cross-section in the upgraded satellites. Overall, the new mass spectrometer required for the new depth of atmospheric research must fulfill a new level of low-voltage/low-power requirements, smaller size, and less risk of magnetic contamination. The Low-Voltage Gated Electrostatic Mass Spectrometer (LVGEMS) was developed to fulfill these requirements. The LVGEMS offers a new spectrometer that eliminates magnetic field issues associated with magnetic sector mass spectrometers, reduces power, and is about 1/10 the size of previous instruments. LVGEMS employs the time of flight (TOF) technique in the GEMS mass spectrometer previously developed. However, like any TOF mass spectrometer, GEMS requires a rectangular waveform of large voltage amplitude, exceeding 100 V -- that means that the voltage applied to one of the GEMS electrodes has to change from 0 to 100 V in a time of only a few nanoseconds. Such electronic speed requires more power than can be provided in a CubeSat. In the LVGEMS, the amplitude of the rectangular waveform is reduced to about 1 V, compatible with digital electronics supplies and requiring little power.

  15. The LASS [Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid] spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K + and K - interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K - p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly

  16. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  17. Miniature, Low-Power, Waveguide Based Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Spacecraft Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagama, TIlak; Aslam, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen; Allen, John E., Jr.; Annen, John N.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers have a venerable heritage as flight instruments. However, obtaining an accurate spectrum exacts a penalty in instrument mass and power requirements. Recent advances in a broad class of non-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) devices, generally called spatial heterodyne spectrometers, offer distinct advantages as flight optimized systems. We are developing a miniaturized system that employs photonics lightwave circuit principles and functions as an FTS operating in the 7-14 micrometer spectral region. The inteferogram is constructed from an ensemble of Mach-Zehnder interferometers with path length differences calibrated to mimic scan mirror sample positions of a classic Michelson type FTS. One potential long-term application of this technology in low cost planetary missions is the concept of a self-contained sensor system. We are developing a systems architecture concept for wide area in situ and remote monitoring of characteristic properties that are of scientific interest. The system will be based on wavelength- and resolution-independent spectroscopic sensors for studying atmospheric and surface chemistry, physics, and mineralogy. The self-contained sensor network is based on our concept of an Addressable Photonics Cube (APC) which has real-time flexibility and broad science applications. It is envisaged that a spatially distributed autonomous sensor web concept that integrates multiple APCs will be reactive and dynamically driven. The network is designed to respond in an event- or model-driven manner or reconfigured as needed.

  18. X-43A Flight Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  19. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  20. Digital spectrometer for coincidence measurement of Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J.; Vlcek, M.; Prochazka, I.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution digital coincidence Doppler broadening spectrometer equipped with two high-purity Ge detectors and two-channel 12-bit fast digitizer was developed and tested in this work. Two configurations were compared: (i) semi-digital setup which uses active analogue shaping of detector pulses prior to digitization to improve signal-to-noise ratio, and (ii) pure-digital setup which samples detector pulses directly. Software procedure developed for analysis of sampled waveforms, i.e. precise determination of energy of detected photon and rejection of distorted pulses, is described. Performance of digital coincidence spectrometer was compared with traditional analogue setup connected to the same detectors. It was found that digital spectrometer enables to achieve better energy resolution than in traditional analogue setup. Moreover, in digital configuration one has better control over shape of the signal. This allows efficient elimination of undesired distorted or damaged waveforms and to obtain spectrum of better clarity. The superior parameters of new digital coincidence Doppler broadening spectrometer are demonstrated by benchmark measurements of well defined Fe and Al specimens and also by the detection of rare annihilation in flight events.

  1. First results from the new double velocity-double energy spectrometer VERDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, M. O.; Oberstedt, S.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Vidali, M.

    2016-05-01

    The VERDI spectrometer (VElocity foR Direct mass Identification) is a two arm time-of-flight spectrometer built at the European Commission Joint Research Centre IRMM. It determines fragment masses and kinetic energy distributions produced in nuclear fission by means of the double velocity and double energy (2v-2E) method. The simultaneous measurement of pre- and post neutron fragment characteristics allows studying the share of excitation energy between the two fragments. In particular, the evolution of fission modes and neutron multiplicity may be studied as a function of the available excitation energy. Both topics are of great importance for the development of models used in the evaluation of nuclear data, and also have important implications for the fundamental understanding of the fission process. The development of VERDI focus on maximum geometrical efficiency while striving for highest possible mass resolution. An innovative transmission start detector, using electrons ejected from the target itself, was developed. Stop signal and kinetic energy of both fragments are provided by two arrays of silicon detectors. The present design provides about 200 times higher geometrical efficiency than that of the famous COSI FAN TUTTE spectrometer [Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research 219 (1984) 569]. We report about a commissioning experiment of the VERDI spectrometer, present first results from a 2v-2E measurement of 252Cf spontaneous fission and discuss the potential of this instrument to contribute to the investigation prompt fission neutron characteristics as a function of fission fragment properties.

  2. Adaptive Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Gregory; Keymeulen, Didier

    2010-01-01

    An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Our digital hardware/firmware/software platform is both reconfigurable at design time as well as autonomously adaptive in real-time for both post-integration and post-launch situations. The design expands the range of viable target environments and enhances tunable laser spectrometer performance in extreme and even unpredictable environments. Through rapid prototyping with a commercial RTOS/FPGA platform, we have implemented a fully operational tunable laser spectrometer (using a highly sensitive second harmonic technique). With this prototype, we have demonstrated autonomous real-time adaptivity in the lab with simulated extreme environments.

  3. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  4. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  5. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra

  6. Gas-dust-impact mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Semkin, N D; Myasnikov, S V; Pomelnikov, R A

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes design of a mass spectrometer to study element composition of micro meteorite and man-made particles in space. Paper describes a way to improve resolution of mass spectrometer based on variation of parameters of accelerating electric field in time. The advantage of the given design of mass spectrometer in comparison with similar ones is its large operating area and higher resolution at the comparable weight and dimensions. Application of a combined design both for particles and for gas enables to remove space vehicle degassing products from the spectrum and, thus, to improve reliability of the acquired information, as well as, to acquire information on a gas component of the external atmosphere of a space vehicle

  7. Miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Goldsten, John; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband

  8. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  9. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T e e > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (∼2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ∼45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  10. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  11. Residual stress analysis by neutron time-of-flight at a reactor source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priesmeyer, H.G.; Schroder, J.

    1990-01-01

    Non-destructive neutron diffractometry for stress analysis will be a powerful experimental tool in material science research performed at the GKSS 5 MW reactor FRG-1. Arguments which show the advantages of the time-of-flight method are given and a suitable high-resolution neutron-efficient type of spectrometer is introduced. First results derived from this method are presented

  12. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korngut, P. M.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Renbarger, T.; Keating, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Hristov, V.; Lanz, A.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Smith, A. W. [Sensor Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu [Materion Barr Precision Optics and Thin Film Coatings, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

  13. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2005-11-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1∘500 meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20 Å-11 eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.

  14. Sun and aureole spectrometer for airborne measurements to derive aerosol optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, Hagen; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen

    2004-04-01

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct Sun irradiance and aureole radiance. The instrument is based on diffraction grating spectrometers with linear image sensors. It is robust, lightweight, compact, and reliable, characteristics that are important for airborne applications. The multispectral radiation measurements are used to derive optical properties of tropospheric aerosols. We extract the altitude dependence of the aerosol volume scattering function and of the aerosol optical depth by using flight patterns with descents and ascents ranging from the surface level to the top of the boundary layer. The extinction coefficient and the product of single scattering albedo and phase function of separate layers can be derived from the airborne measurements.

  15. Upgrade of an old Raman Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of a conventional Jeol Raman spectrometer with a single channel photo multiplier detector is described. New optical components (fibres, mirror, lens and CCD detector) have been chosen to design a high quality and easy-to-use instrument. Tests have shown that with this modified...... spectrometer Raman spectra can be acquired of a quality comparable to the spectra obtained previously, but the time needed to obtain a spectrum is markedly reduced. Selected test spectra and a simple calibration procedure to obtain the wavenumber values from the band CCD pixel position are presented....

  16. Beam analysis spectrometer for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Subramanian, T.S.; McDonald, W.J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Sadoff, A.; Gabor, G.

    1983-01-01

    A versatile spectrometer useful for measuring the mass, charge, energy, fluence and angular distribution of primaries and fragments associated with relativistic heavy ion beams is described. The apparatus is designed to provide accurate physical data for biology experiments and medical therapy planning as a function of depth in tissue. The spectrometer can also be used to measure W, the average energy to produce an ion pair, range-energy, dE/dx, and removal cross section data of interest in nuclear physics. (orig.)

  17. Electron-ion-x-ray spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.H.; Deslattes, R.D.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a spectrometer system developed for electron, ion, and x-ray spectroscopy of gas-phase atoms and molecules following inner-shell excitation by tunable synchrotron radiation. The spectrometer has been used on beamline X-24A at the National Synchrotron Light Source for excitation-dependent studies of Ar L-shell and K-shell photoexcitation and vacancy decay processes. The instrumentation and experimental methods are discussed, and examples are given of electron spectra and coincidence spectra between electrons and fluorescent x-rays

  18. Single spectrometer station for neutrino-tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedyalkov, I.P.

    1984-01-01

    A neutrino tagging station built with respect to the following scheme is proposed. A beam of muons and kaons passes through a magnetic spectrometer, where the energy of each particle is measured. There are coordinate detectors behind the spectrometer in several planes, where the direction of the trajectory of a given particle is determined. Thus, mesons enter the decay point wth the known 4-momentum. Behind the decay point the direction of μ-meson generated by the decay of parent mesons is measured. It is shown that information is sufficient for determining the kind of parent particle (pion or kaon), the energy and the direction of trajectory of the neutrino

  19. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  20. Ion transmission in a linear radiofrequency spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomet, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A linear radiofrequency spectrometer is used for the purpose of experimental determination of the absolute ionization cross sections of various ions obtained by electron impact on polyatomic molecules. The transmission of the apparatus is studied: it does not only depend on the mass resolution of the spectrometer, but also on the nature of ions. It is affected by charge transfers, especially for the parent ions. An empiric way of correction of the apparatus function is given which allows the use at 10 -6 Torr [fr

  1. Noise considerations in millimeter-wave spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, W.D.; Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1978-12-01

    An improved version of a microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 70 GHz is described. The spectrometer, which incorporates a Fabry-Perot resonator and superheterodyne detection for high sensitivity is designed for the detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents. The instrument is capable of detecting polar molecules with absorption coefficients as small as 2 x 10 -9 cm -1 . For sulphur dioxide diluted in air, this sensitivity corresponds to a detection limit of 1.2 ppm without preconcentration and with a time constant of 1 second. Measurements and analysis of the noise contributions limiting the sentivity are presented

  2. A driving system for Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslan, M.; Cholmeckij, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Misevic, O.; Fedorov, A.; Zak, D.

    1993-01-01

    The driving system of a Moessbauer spectrometer is described. The system comprises a minivibrator, a digital generator of the reference velocity signal, and circuits for controlling the vibrator. The reference velocity signal is stored by the control computer in an intermediate storage. The feedback in the control circuits includes correction for nonlinearity of the driving facility. A Moessbauer spectrometer which is equipped with this driving system exhibits a velocity scale nonlinearity below 0.1%. The resonance line width for sodium nitroprusside is 0.27 ± 0.01 mm/s. (author). 6 figs., 8 refs

  3. Large acceptance spectrometers for π0 mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Obenshain, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer composed of lead-oxide loaded glass blocks has been constructed for detection of neutral pi mesons emitted in low energy heavy ion reactions. The spectrometer detects the Cerenkov radiation emitted when the high energy photons (Eγ approx. 70 MeV) resulting from π 0 decay create electron-position pairs in the glass, initiating electromagnetic showers. A geometric acceptance of better than 5% of 4π is possible; the π 0 detection efficiency varies between this value at T/sub π/ = 0 MeV and 1% for T/sub π/ approx. 100 MeV

  4. Streaked, x-ray-transmission-grating spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Roth, M.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A free standing x-ray transmission grating has been coupled with a soft x-ray streak camera to produce a time resolved x-ray spectrometer. The instrument has a temporal resolution of approx. 20 psec, is capable of covering a broad spectral range, 2 to 120 A, has high sensitivity, and is simple to use requiring no complex alignment procedure. In recent laser fusion experiments the spectrometer successfully recorded time resolved spectra over the range 10 to 120 A with a spectral resolving power, lambda/Δlambda of 4 to 50, limited primarily by source size and collimation effects

  5. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhou; Qiu-Nan Tong; Zhang Cong-Cong; Hu Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are performed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Compared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible. (paper)

  6. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  7. New components for the neutron spectrometer SV5c at the 10H channel of the research reactor FRJ2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmeyer, R.

    1991-02-01

    The following new components have been installed at the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer SV5c: 1. Monochromator with devices for tilting and rotating 10 crystal. The fine-adjustment of the crystal orientation can be done with a computer program which maximizes the neutron intensity at the sample position. 2. 128 x 512 multi-channel time-of-flight electronic 3. Computerized equipment for measuring thermal properties of a sample (adsorption isotherm, sample transmission) 4. Data aquisition, data handling and experiment control software coded in ASYST. (orig.)

  8. Measuring and acquisition unit of the polarized neutron spectrometer SPN-1; Izmeritel`no0nakopitel`nyj modul` spektrometra na polyarizovannykh nejtronakh SPI-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, V V; Korneev, D A; Litvinenko, E I; Lyapin, D I

    1996-12-31

    SPN-1 polarized neutron time-of-flight spectrometer operates on IBR-2 reactor in JINR LNF. It is used to investigate into micromagnetism in ferromagnetics and superconductors as well as to investigate into mono and multilayer magnetic and superconducting thin films. 14 refs.; 3 figs.

  9. Mass Spectrometer Sounding of the Turbopause Region on Commercial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairajah, B.; Bailey, S. M.; Syrstad, E. A.; Fish, C. S.; Siskind, D. E.; Russell, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The turbopause region near 100 km remains one of the most poorly explored yet crucial regions of the upper atmosphere. In the vicinity of this altitude, the atmosphere reaches its lowest temperature and changes from being well mixed to being in diffusive equilibrium. Dynamical energy in the form of tides as well as gravity and planetary waves propagate from the lower atmosphere up to the ionosphere and thermosphere. Some energy and reactive chemical species are transported down across the turbopause to lower altitudes where the impact is significant. There is a significant dearth of composition observations near the turbopause. Few measurement techniques work well at this altitude, and it is too low for satellite orbits. Amazingly, major species with relatively large abundances such as O2, O, and CO2 are all poorly understood at these attitudes. While there are several experiments that measure temperature, the uncertainties in the temperature measurements are large because the techniques that are used rely on knowledge of CO2 or sometimes of O2. The lack of composition information thus hinders those observations that do occur near the turbopause and mesopause and leaves us with an overall poor understanding of this altitude region. We are soon to enter a new era in space exploration. Routine visits to the 100km region by commercial vehicles are on the verge of becoming a reality. The relevant organizations have expressed a willingness and even enthusiasm for including scientific instrumentation with their tourism and related commercial goals. We propose a major step forward in understanding the turbopause region by developing a mass spectrometer capable of being manifested on these commercial vehicles. Such an implantation could ultimately result in daily sounding of the turbopause region and greatly expand the database of measurements there. Our suggested instrument is a cryogenic time-of-flight mass Spectrometer. This technique has heritage, and our

  10. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  11. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  12. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  13. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  14. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  16. A 4-PI DILEPTON SPECTROMETER - PEPSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUDA, A; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; VANKLINKEN, J; SUJKOWSKI, Z; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1993-01-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 pi magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response

  17. Calculational approach to ionization spectrometer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1974-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the design and overall performance of an ionization spectrometer. These factors include the conditions under which the spectrometer is to be used, the required performance, the development of the hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, leakage and binding energies, saturation effects of densely ionizing particles, nonuniform light collection, sampling fluctuations, etc. The calculational procedures developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that have been applied to many spectrometer designs and that include many of the influencing factors in spectrometer design are discussed. The incident-particle types which can be considered with some generality are protons, neutrons, pions, muons, electrons, positrons, and gamma rays. Charged kaons can also be considered but with less generality. The incident-particle energy range can extend into the hundreds of GeV range. The calculations have been verified by comparison with experimental data but only up to approximately 30 GeV. Some comparisons with experimental data are also discussed and presented so that the flexibility of the calculational methods can be demonstrated. (U.S.)

  18. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  19. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W; Keller, P [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  20. COMPASS course to future computing [CERN spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    A major new spectrometer that is being installed at CERN will be a flagship fixed-target experiment for the millennium. Its voracious appetite for data requires new computing solutions, opening the door for subsequent 2lst-century studies. (0 refs).

  1. Calibration method for ion mobility spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Valery

    2011-01-01

    The new method for the calibration of the ion mobility spectrometer has been developed. This article describes the working principle, advantages and disadvantages of the calibration method operating in the mode of explosives detection. This method is most suitable for use in portable detectors, due to the small weight, small size parameters and low power consumption.

  2. A superheterodyne spectrometer for electronic paramagnetic. Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, J.L.

    1963-12-01

    After a few generalities about electron paramagnetic resonance, a consideration of different experimental techniques authorises the choice of a particular type of apparatus. An EPR superheterodyne spectrometer built in the laboratory and having a novel circuit is described in detail. With this apparatus, many experimental results have been obtained and some of these are described as example. (author) [fr

  3. Wide-angle NSE and TOF the spectrometer SPAN at BENSC

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, C; Kischnik, R; Mezei, F

    2002-01-01

    The cylindrical symmetry of the magnetic field configuration of SPAN allows for simultaneous neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements over the whole range of scattering angles accessible by a spectrometer. The open construction also allows for time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, which can be performed under the same conditions as NSE, in particular with polarization analysis. TOF and NSE spectra are then directly comparable with each other, without any adjustable parameters, covering a dynamic range of more than four orders of magnitude at a single wavelength. (orig.)

  4. The DEIS high energy muon spectrometer. II. The data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Dau, W.D.; Faehnders, E.; Jokisch, H.; Kaleschke, G.P.; Klemke, G.; Sauerland, K.; Schmidtke, G.; Uhr, R.C.; Bella, G.; Oren, Y.; Virni, U.; Seidman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The whole spectrometer is read out and controlled on-line via a CAMAC-system by a minicomputer. The magnetostrictive read out signals of 66 magnetostrictive read out wands of the wire spark chambers are digitized by 20-MHz-scalers which can store up to 8 sparks per chamber. The time-of-flight of the muon, the pulse heights of the scintillation counters, the time of event are also recorded. The on-line-computer makes reliability checks of the data and stores them together with monitor data about magnetic field, gas and high voltage system, etc. on magnetic tape for off-line analysis. (author)

  5. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpat, Behcet E-mail: behcet.alpat@pg.infn.it

    2001-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to operate in space to search for antimatter components in cosmic ray, the annihilation products of darkmatter and to study the antiprotons, positrons and light nuclei. A 'baseline' version of the experiment has successfully completed the precursor flight on Space Shuttle Discovery (June 2-12, 1998). The complete AMS is programmed for installation on International Space Station in year 2003 for an operational period of 3 years. In this contribution we report on the experimental configuration of AMS that will be installed on International Space Station.

  6. Influence of the interaction volume on the kinetic energy resolution of a velocity map imaging spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Feng Zheng-Peng; Luo Si-Qiang; Wang Zhe

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the interaction volume on the energy resolution of a velocity map imaging spectrometer. The simulation results show that the axial interaction size has a significant influence on the resolution. This influence is increased for a higher kinetic energy. We further show that the radial interaction size has a minor influence on the energy resolution for the electron or ion with medium energy, but it is crucial for the resolution of the electron or ion with low kinetic energy. By tracing the flight trajectories we show how the electron or ion energy resolution is influenced by the interaction size. (paper)

  7. Virtual design of the neutron guide for the TOF spectrometer NEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaola, Zunbeltz; Russina, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a virtual design study based on Monte-Carlo neutron ray tracing techniques for the neutron guide of the time of flight (TOF) spectrometer NEAT. We studied several configurations with linearly or elliptically tapered compressors with different degrees of focusing and different guide coatings. The calculations were performed and crosschecked using two software packages which produced similar results. The geometrical arrangement of selected guide components was optimised with the Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations confirm an expected intensity gain factor of approximately 5, that can be achieved by the optimal configuration.

  8. Virtual design of the neutron guide for the TOF spectrometer NEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaola, Zunbeltz; Russina, Margarita

    2010-11-01

    We present the results of a virtual design study based on Monte-Carlo neutron ray tracing techniques for the neutron guide of the time of flight (TOF) spectrometer NEAT. We studied several configurations with linearly or elliptically tapered compressors with different degrees of focusing and different guide coatings. The calculations were performed and crosschecked using two software packages which produced similar results. The geometrical arrangement of selected guide components was optimised with the Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations confirm an expected intensity gain factor of approximately 5, that can be achieved by the optimal configuration.

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Aberdeen quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Aberdeen, South Dakota map area. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  10. Wide-angle NSE and TOF: the spectrometer SPAN at BENSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, C.; Triolo, A.; Kischnik, R.; Mezei, F.

    2002-01-01

    The cylindrical symmetry of the magnetic field configuration of SPAN allows for simultaneous neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements over the whole range of scattering angles accessible by a spectrometer. The open construction also allows for time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, which can be performed under the same conditions as NSE, in particular with polarization analysis. TOF and NSE spectra are then directly comparable with each other, without any adjustable parameters, covering a dynamic range of more than four orders of magnitude at a single wavelength. (orig.)

  11. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  12. Wavevector and energy resolution of the polarized diffuse scattering spectrometer D7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, T., E-mail: tom.fennell@psi.ch [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mangin-Thro, L., E-mail: mangin-throl@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156 - 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mutka, H., E-mail: mutka@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156 - 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Nilsen, G.J., E-mail: goran.nilsen@stfc.ac.uk [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Wildes, A.R., E-mail: wildes@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156 - 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2017-06-11

    The instrumental divergence parameters and resolution for the D7 neutron diffuse scattering spectrometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin, France, are presented. The resolution parameters are calibrated against measurements of powders, single crystals, and the incoherent scattering from vanadium. We find that the powder diffraction resolution is well described by the Cagliotti function, the single crystal resolution function can be parameterized using the Cooper-Nathans formalism, and that in time-of-flight mode the energy resolution is consistent with monochromatic focussing.

  13. Position sensitive detection coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Imaging for molecular beam deflection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Arnaud, L.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Clavier, Ch.; Compagnon, I.; Dugourd, Ph.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed and tested a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a position sensitive detector for molecular beam deflection experiments. The major achievement of this new spectrometer is to provide a three-dimensional imaging (X and Y positions and time-of-flight) of the ion packet on the detector, with a high acquisition rate and a high resolution on both the mass and the position. The calibration of the experimental setup and its application to molecular beam deflection experiments are discussed

  14. Eddy covariance emission and deposition flux measurements using proton transfer reaction – time of flight – mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS): comparison with PTR-MS measured vertical gradients and fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, J.H.; Goldstein, A.H.; Timkovsky, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330541676; Fares, S.; Weber, R.; Karlik, J.; Holzinger, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337989338

    2013-01-01

    During summer 2010, a proton transfer reaction – time of flight – mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and a quadrupole proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) were deployed simultaneously for one month in an orange orchard in the Central Valley of California to collect continuous data

  15. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  16. Portable spectrometer monitors inert gas shield in welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable spectrometer using photosensitive readouts, monitors the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in the inert gas shield of a tungsten-inert gas welding process. A fiber optic bundle transmits the light from the welding arc to the spectrometer.

  17. Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment Counter-Flow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [University of North Dakota

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerial Facility (ARM AAF) counter-flow spectrometer and impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX). The field campaign took place during May and June of 2014 over North Carolina and its coastal waters as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the involvement of Jay Mace through the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft, which is a civilian version of the Air Force’s U2-S reconnaissance platform. The ACE program funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the Atmospheric System Research program sponsored by DOE.

  18. A non-invasive online photoionization spectrometer for FLASH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Markus, E-mail: markus.braune@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Brenner, Günter [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dziarzhytski, Siarhei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Juranić, Pavle [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sorokin, Andrey; Tiedtke, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    A description of the design of an instrument for FEL wavelength monitoring based on photoionization of rare gases is given, as well as a report on calibration and characterization studies. The stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process of free-electron lasers (FELs) effects pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the radiation properties, such as the photon energy, which are determinative for processes of photon–matter interactions. Hence, SASE FEL sources pose a great challenge for scientific investigations, since experimenters need to obtain precise real-time feedback of these properties for each individual photon bunch for interpretation of the experimental data. Furthermore, any device developed to deliver the according information should not significantly interfere with or degrade the FEL beam. Regarding the spectral properties, a device for online monitoring of FEL wavelengths has been developed for FLASH2, which is based on photoionization of gaseous targets and the measurements of the corresponding electron and ion time-of-flight spectra. This paper presents experimental studies and cross-calibration measurements demonstrating the viability of this online photoionization spectrometer.

  19. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE LOW RESOLUTION SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, S.; Lykke, K.; Smith, A. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I., E-mail: tsumura@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

  20. Calibration and experiment of an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitaroff, A.; Mayer, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Atominstitut der TU-Wien, Vienna (Austria); Dimovasili, E.; Silari, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Birattari, C. [Univ. of Milan, LASA, Segrate (Italy); Wiegel, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Aiginger, H. [Atominstitut der TU-Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    High-energy neutrons dominate the dose equivalent outside the shielding of hadron accelerators (protons, heavy ions). Nowadays these accelerators are not only used or foreseen in high- and intermediate energy physics but in other fields like medicine or waste transmutation, too. In addition it was shown that at commercial flight altitudes a large fraction of the exposure of aircraft personnel is due to neutrons with a comparable energy spectrum to that along hadron accelerators. For this reason in radiation protection the exact knowledge of the neutron spectrum and the relevant dose quantities is very important. The neutrons of these radiation fields extend over more than 14 orders of magnitude up to 1 GeV, thus making the measurement of the spectrum difficult. A newly developed Bonner sphere spectrometer with extended range shall evaluate spectra with a high-energy neutron component. This contribution shows the FLUKA simulated response functions of the two new spheres - Stanlio and Ollio - dedicated for high energies. These simulations should be verified by calibration with quasi monoenergetic neutrons. These took place at PTB with neutron beams of 144 keV, 1.2 MeV, 5 MeV and 14.8 MeV. Additionally experiments at the CERF (CERN-EU Reference Field) facility, which provides a broad neutron spectrum with two pronounced maxima at around 1 MeV and 70 MeV, are shown and compared to the Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  1. Calibration and experiment of an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitaroff, A.; Mayer, S.; Dimovasili, E.; Silari, M.; Birattari, C.; Wiegel, B.; Aiginger, H.

    2001-01-01

    High-energy neutrons dominate the dose equivalent outside the shielding of hadron accelerators (protons, heavy ions). Nowadays these accelerators are not only used or foreseen in high- and intermediate energy physics but in other fields like medicine or waste transmutation, too. In addition it was shown that at commercial flight altitudes a large fraction of the exposure of aircraft personnel is due to neutrons with a comparable energy spectrum to that along hadron accelerators. For this reason in radiation protection the exact knowledge of the neutron spectrum and the relevant dose quantities is very important. The neutrons of these radiation fields extend over more than 14 orders of magnitude up to 1 GeV, thus making the measurement of the spectrum difficult. A newly developed Bonner sphere spectrometer with extended range shall evaluate spectra with a high-energy neutron component. This contribution shows the FLUKA simulated response functions of the two new spheres - Stanlio and Ollio - dedicated for high energies. These simulations should be verified by calibration with quasi monoenergetic neutrons. These took place at PTB with neutron beams of 144 keV, 1.2 MeV, 5 MeV and 14.8 MeV. Additionally experiments at the CERF (CERN-EU Reference Field) facility, which provides a broad neutron spectrum with two pronounced maxima at around 1 MeV and 70 MeV, are shown and compared to the Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  2. Installation of a tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushima, Toshihiko; Togawa, Orihiko; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi

    2000-02-01

    Tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer (hereinafter referred to as Tandetron) was installed at the Ominato Facility of Mutsu Establishment, JAERI in April, 1997. The objective of its installation is to investigate the mechanism of the mixing and circulation of seawater in the ocean, by collecting seawater samples around Japan and analyzing the horizontal and vertical distributions of 14 C contained in the samples. The Tandetron consists of two lines to measure isotopic ratios of carbon and those of heavier iodine. The adjustment for the carbon line was finished and the measurements of seawater samples were started. The iodine line, on the other hand, is on the final step of its adjustment and performance tests are being carried out with a TOF (Time of Flight) detector. The iodine line will be used to analyze 129 I released from a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and other nuclear facilities. In this report, we summarize the status of installation of the carbon and iodine lines for the Tandetron. The report describes the situations of their adjustments until now, the outline of the Tandetron, tests of measurement performance, evaluation and inspection of shielding performance, problems and their solutions, and so on. (author)

  3. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  4. Recent estimates of capital flight

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David

    1993-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...

  5. The TRIUMF low energy pion spectrometer and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobie, R.J.; Drake, T.E.; Barnett, B.M.; Erdman, K.L.; Gyles, W.; Johnson, R.R.; Roser, H.W.; Tacik, R.; Blackmore, E.W.; Gill, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    A low energy pion spectrometer has been developed for use with the TRIUMF M13 pion channel. The combined channel and spectrometer resolution is presently 1.1 MeV at T = 50 MeV. This is limited by the amount of gas and detector material in the spectrometer in addition to the inherent resolution of the channel. Improvements to both the spectrometer and channel are discussed

  6. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which is consisted of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for filed geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  7. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which consists of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for field geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  8. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Wang Huanyu; Peng Wenxi; Liang Xiaohua; Zhang Chunlei; Cao Xuelei; Jiang Weichun; Zhang Jiayu; Cui Xingzhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed. A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics, a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit. A ground test system is also developed to test SOX. The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved. (authors)

  9. RADIO-FREQUENCY MASS SPECTROMETERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Jr., A. S.

    1963-08-15

    The operation of three common radio-frequency mass spectrometers is described, and their performances are compared. Their limitations are pointed out. It is concluded that the quadrupole spectrometer has fewer limitations and is more generally useful in space probes than the other devices. Some present and proposed uses of spectrometers in space are discussed, and the problem of contamination of the atmosphere being sampled by the spectrometer is reviewed. (auth)

  10. Perseus Post-flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Crew members check out the Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a test flight in 1991. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved

  11. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  12. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  13. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  14. A magnetic-lens - mini-orange coincidence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargholtz, C.; Holmberg, L.; Ruus, N.; Tegner, P.E.; Weiss, G.

    1997-04-01

    A coincidence spectrometer consisting of a Gerholm type magnetic lens and a permanent magnet mini-orange spectrometer is described. Electron-electron or electron-positron coincidences may be registered in various angular settings. The spectrometer has been developed mainly to search for anomalous contributions to Bhabha scattering or positrons and is at present used for such studies. 6 refs

  15. Spectrometer for neutron inelastic scattering investigations of microsamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, A.M.; Kozlenko, D.P.; Platonov, S.L.; Savenko, B.N.; Glazkov, V.P.; Krasnikov, Yu.M.; Naumov, I.V.; Pukhov, A.V.; Somenkov, V.A.; Syrykh, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    A new neutron spectrometer for investigation of inelastic neutron scattering on polycrystal microsamples under high pressure in sapphire and diamond anvils cells is described. The spectrometer is operating at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in JINR. Parameters and methodical peculiarities of the spectrometer and the examples of experimental studies are given. (author)

  16. Performance of the Chicago Water Isotope Spectrometer in the UTLS during the Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, D. C.; Clouser, B.; Sarkozy, L.; Singer, C. E.; Moyer, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    The preferential condensation of water vapor isotopologues makes the isotopic composition of water vapor a useful tracer of the processes responsible for the distribution of water in the UTLS, but the UTLS also offers particular challenges for its measurement. We report here on the field performance of a new instrument designed for measurement of HDO and H2O in the UTLS region: the Chicago Water Isotope Spectrometer (Chi-WIS). Chi-WIS is a laser-based infrared absorption spectrometer at 2.65 μm that uses a high-reflectivity optical cavity to obtain 6 km of effective path length, allowing sensitive measurements of scarce molecules. During the 2017 StratoClim aircraft campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal, Chi-WIS flew aboard the M-55 Geophysica high-altitude research aircraft in a series of flights to probe the Asian Monsoon. Preliminary results show in-flight performance consistent with laboratory performance and the achievement of design targets necessary to reach UTLS science goals. Residual noise on spectra is stable across flights at 4-5x10-4 with 1 second averaging (i.e. absorption depth of .04-.05%); the instrument is robust in terms of alignment and shows no evidence of optical resonances. The resulting measurement precision is as expected from these characteristics. Because we use a relatively strong water line, the water vapor measurement is extremely precise: constant-altitude flight legs in the stratosphere at 4 ppm H2O show 1 s standard deviation 0.03 ppmv for 1 s averaging, and 0.08 ppbv for HDO with 10 s averaging. We show comparisons with other StratoClim instruments and examples of how these measurements resolve scientifically relevant atmospheric features.

  17. Perseus in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle flies over Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test basic design concepts for the remotely-piloted, high-altitude vehicle. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA

  18. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  19. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P-barANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ψ(4040) → DD-bar decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed. (paper)

  20. Sample changer for X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaestner, F.; Bisch, H.

    1977-01-01

    A sample planchette with several samples in a spectrometer is rotated so as to position each sample in succession in a counting position. To change the planchette, the cover of the spectrometer raises together with the planchette and rotates to the side into a vertical magazine. The planchette is unhooked onto a tray which rapidly moves to a position above the cover, and the next planchette in the magazine stack moves upwards on a tray and is hooked to the cover and taken to the counting station. Three chains ensure the movement of the planchette trays in the magazine, one for raising the uncounted samples up the magazine, one for shifting the counted ones to the upper stack, and one to move the counted planchettes higher up the magazine. The movement of the chains is controlled by microswitches. (ORU) [de