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Sample records for flight oral physiology

  1. Study to define and verify the personal oral hygiene requirements for extended manned space flight: Oral physiology and microbiology in Skylab manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for metabolic fingerprinting of pathogenic oral bacteria were developed and the effects of Skylab missions on salivary electrolyte levels were studied. High resolution gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) and pyrolysis-GLC procedures were used to obtain metabolic profiles of closely related bacteria associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. It was found that the GLC procedures provide a practical and reproducible means of obtaining metabolic markers for identifying closely related strains of these organisms. Fractions of stimulated whole saliva samples from the prime and back-up crews of the three Skylab missions were used to measure salivary electrolyte concentrations. All the electrolytes previously reported as having increased in urine and feces during the missions were assessed. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and chloride were studied. A decrease in sodium and an increase in magnesium were observed, but the mineral imbalances attributable to the mission-related increases in urinary electrolytes were not detected.

  2. The physiological basis of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2016-09-26

    Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher. Species like bar-headed geese migrate at high altitudes, where the availability of oxygen is reduced and the energy cost of flapping flight increased compared with those at sea level. Physiological adaptations to these conditions include haemoglobin with a higher affinity for oxygen than that in lowland birds, a greater effective ventilation of the gas-exchange surface of the lungs and a greater capillary-to-muscle fibre ratio. Migrating birds use fatty acids as their source of energy, so they have to be transported at a sufficient rate to meet the high demand. Since fatty acids are insoluble in water, birds maintain high concentrations of fatty acid-binding proteins to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane and within the cytoplasm. The concentrations of these proteins, together with that of a key enzyme in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, increase before migration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach. c2003 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  5. Musing over Microbes in Microgravity: Microbial Physiology Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickart, Randolph; McGinnis, Michael; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New York City, the most populated city in the United States, is home to over 8 million humans. This means over 26,000 people per square mile! Imagine, though, what the view would be if you peeked into the world of microscopic organisms. Scientists estimate that a gram of soil may contain up to 1 billion of these microbes, which is as much as the entire human population of China! Scientists also know that the world of microbes is incredibly diverse-possibly 10,000 different species in one gram of soil - more than all the different types of mammals in the world. Microbes fill every niche in the world - from 20 miles below the Earth's surface to 20 miles above, and at temperatures from less than -20 C to hotter than water's boiling point. These organisms are ubiquitous because they can adapt quickly to changing environments, an effective strategy for survival. Although we may not realize it, microbes impact every aspect of our lives. Bacteria and fungi help us break down the food in our bodies, and they help clean the air and water around us. They can also cause the dark, filmy buildup on the shower curtain as well as, more seriously, illness and disease. Since humans and microbes share space on Earth, we can benefit tremendously from a better understanding of the workings and physiology of the microbes. This insight can help prevent any harmful effects on humans, on Earth and in space, as well as reap the benefits they provide. Space flight is a unique environment to study how microbes adapt to changing environmental conditions. To advance ground-based research in the field of microbiology, this STS-107 experiment will investigate how microgravity affects bacteria and fungi. Of particular interest are the growth rates and how they respond to certain antimicrobial substances that will be tested; the same tests will be conducted on Earth at the same times. Comparing the results obtained in flight to those on Earth, we will be able to examine how microgravity induces

  6. Physiological approaches to the control of oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D; Bradshaw, D J

    1997-04-01

    Evidence that physiological strategies may be potential routes for oral biofilm control has come from (i) observations of the variations in the intra-oral distribution of members of the resident oral microflora, (ii) changes in plaque composition in health and disease, and (iii) data from laboratory model systems. Key physiological factors that were identified as significant in modulating the microflora included the local pH, redox potential (Eh), and nutrient availability. Increases in mutans streptococci and lactobacilli occur at sites with caries; growth of these species is selectively enhanced at low pH. In contrast, periodontal diseases are associated with plaque accumulation, followed by an inflammatory host response. The increases in Gram-negative, proteolytic, and obligately anaerobic bacteria reflect a low redox potential and a change in nutrient status due to the increased flow of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Consequently, physiological strategies for oral biofilm control should focus on reducing the frequency of low pH in plaque by (i) inhibiting acid production, (ii) using sugar substitutes, and (iii) promoting alkali generation from arginine or urea supplements. Similarly, strategies to make the pocket environment less favorable to periodonto-pathogens include (i) anti-inflammatory agents to reduce the flow of (and hence nutrient supply by) GCF, (ii) bacterial protease inhibitors, and (iii) redox agents to raise the Eh locally. Most laboratory and clinical findings support the concept of physiological control. However, some data suggest that the ordered structure and metabolically interactive organization of mature dental plaque could generate a community with a high level of homeostasis that is relatively resistant to deliberate external manipulation.

  7. Physiological parameters for oral delivery and in vitro testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2010-10-04

    Pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms must undergo dissolution in the intestinal fluids of the gastrointestinal tract before they can be absorbed and reach the systemic circulation. Therefore, dissolution is a critical part of the drug-delivery process. The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption depend on the characteristics of the active ingredient as well as properties of the dosage form. Just as importantly, characteristics of the physiological environment such as buffer species, pH, bile salts, gastric emptying rate, intestinal motility, and hydrodynamics can significantly impact dissolution and absorption. While significant progress has been made since 1970 when the first compendial dissolution test was introduced (USP apparatus 1), current dissolution testing does not take full advantage of the extensive physiologic information that is available. For quality control purposes, where the question is one of lot-to-lot consistency in performance, using nonphysiologic test conditions that match drug and dosage form properties with practical dissolution media and apparatus may be appropriate. However, where in vitro-in vivo correlations are desired, it is logical to consider and utilize knowledge of the in vivo condition. This publication critically reviews the literature that is relevant to oral human drug delivery. Physiologically relevant information must serve as a basis for the design of dissolution test methods and systems that are more representative of the human condition. As in vitro methods advance in their physiological relevance, better in vitro-in vivo correlations will be possible. This will, in turn, lead to in vitro systems that can be utilized to more effectively design dosage forms that have improved and more consistent oral bioperformance.

  8. Rodent growth, behavior, and physiology resulting from flight on the Space Life Sciences-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, G.; Meylor, J.; Fast, T.; Hawes, N.; Zarow, G.

    1992-01-01

    A rodent-based spaceflight study is conducted to investigate physiological changes in rats vs humans and the effects of changes in the design of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM). Rats were housed in the AEM and the RAHF, and controls were kept in identical flight hardware on earth subjected to the same flight-environmental profile. Biosamples and organ weights are taken to compare the rats before and after flight, and food/water intake are also compared. Weight gain, body weight, and food consumptions in the flight rats are significantly lower than corresponding values for the control subjects. Flight rats tend to have smaller postexperiment spleens and hearts, and flight rats consumed more water in the AEM than in the RAHF. The rodents' behavior is analogous to humans with respect to physiological and reconditioning effects, showing that the rat is a good model for basic research into the effects of spaceflight on humans.

  9. Physiological modelling of oxygen consumption in birds during flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop; Butler

    1995-01-01

    This study combines data on changes in cardiovascular variables with body mass (Mb) and with exercise intensity to model the oxygen supply available to birds during flight. Its main purpose is to provide a framework for identifying the factors involved in limiting aerobic power input to birds during flight and to suggest which cardiovascular variables are the most likely to have been influenced by natural selection when considering both allometric and adaptive variation. It is argued that natural selection has acted on heart rate (fh) and cardiac stroke volume (Vs), so that the difference in the arteriovenous oxygen content (CaO2-Cv¯O2) in birds, both at rest and during flight, is independent of Mb. Therefore, the Mb exponent for oxygen consumption (V(dot)O2) during flight can be estimated from measurements of heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke volume is likely to be directly proportional to heart mass (Mh) and, using empirical data, values for the Mb coefficients and exponents of various cardiovascular variables are estimated. It is concluded that, as found for mammals, fh is the main adaptive variable when considering allometric variation, although Mh also shows a slight scaling effect. Relative Mh is likely to be the most important when considering adaptive specialisations. The Fick equation may be represented as: (V(dot)O2)Mbz = (fh)Mbw x (Vs)Mbx x (CaO2 - Cv¯O2)Mby , where w, x, y, z are the body mass exponents for each variable and the terms in parentheses represent the Mb coefficients. Utilising this formula and data from the literature, the scaling of minimum V(dot)O2 during flight for bird species with a 'high aerobic capacity' (excluding hummingbirds) is calculated to be: 166Mb0.77±0.09 = 574Mb-0.19±0.02 x 3.48Mb0.96±0.02 x 0.083Mb0.00±0.05 , and for hummingbirds (considered separately owing to their unique wing kinematics) it is: 314Mb0.90±0.22 = 617Mb-0.10±0.06 x 6.13Mb1.00±0.11 x 0.083Mb0.00±0.05 . These results are largely dependent on the

  10. Civilian Training in High-Altitude Flight Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    wequote the following. and above. This concern is escalated by the follow- ing quote from an article entitled "HYPOXIA: the Bioastronautics Data Book NASA ...decrementwhen Air Force or Navy Base or NASA facility. In the altitude is combined with stress, age, sleep dep- event the chamber training is not possible...required fordifferent A-8 situations in flight. A familia ;zation with 3. Aging: regulators and masks, equipment checks, and other general rules is

  11. Unusual extensive physiologic melanin pigmentation of the oral cavity: A clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the oral cavity. Oral pigmentations may be physiological or pathological in nature. It may represent as a localized anomaly of limited significance or the presentation of potentially life threatening multisystem disease. Oral pigmentation has a multifactorial etiology. Most of the oral pigmentations are physiologic. Evaluation of a patient with pigmented lesions should include a full medical and dental history, extraoral and intraoral examinations. In this article, we report a case of extensive physiologic pigmentation of the oral cavity in a 12 year old female patient, posing a diagnostic challenge.

  12. Civilian Training in High-Altitude Flight Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    A survey was conducted to determine if training in high-altitude physiology should : be required for civilian pilots; what the current status of such training was; and, : if required, what should be included in an ideal curriculum. The survey include...

  13. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  14. Subjective and physiological reactivity to flight in people with fear of flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    The empirical research in this thesis focused on individual differences in subjective- and physiological reactivity to flight-related stimuli. The results of these studies are mixed, making them difficult to fit into existing theoretical models. The relationship between emotional response systems is

  15. Physiological oral melanin pigmentation in a South African sample: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Lemmer, Johan; Feller, Liviu

    2017-11-01

    Physiological oral melanin pigmentation is genetically determined, more frequently affecting people with darker skin. It can involve any oral mucosal site, but predominantly the gingiva. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and to characterize the clinical features of physiological oral melanin pigmentation in a South African population sample. A trainee in the discipline of periodontology and oral medicine interviewed all participants and examined the oral soft tissues. The diagnosis of physiological oral melanin pigmentation was based on clinical findings and on the history reported by the patient. A predetermined list of exclusion criteria was applied. The study population comprised 430 participants, of whom 319 (74%) were black, 55 (13%) Indian, 54 (12.5%) white, and two (0.5%) were mixed race. A total of 182 participants were diagnosed with physiological oral melanin pigmentation. The overall prevalence of physiological oral melanin pigmentation in the ethnically-mixed study population was 42%: 54% of blacks were affected, 16% of Indians, and 21% of whites. The female (101): male (81) ratio was 1.2:1; the gingiva was the site most frequently affected (73%). The total number of oral mucosal sites with physiological oral melanin pigmentation in the study population was 263; 68% of participants had one, 22% had two, 7% had three, and 3% had four sites affected. There was no significant association between the number of sites affected and sex or age. In this study of a South African population sample, the prevalence of physiological oral melanin pigmentation was higher in blacks than in Indians or whites, and the gingiva was the oral mucosal site most frequently affected. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Predicting Oral Drug Absorption: Mini Review on Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most marketed drugs are administered orally, despite the complex process of oral absorption that is difficult to predict. Oral bioavailability is dependent on the interplay between many processes that are dependent on both compound and physiological properties. Because of this complexity, computational oral physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models have emerged as a tool to integrate these factors in an attempt to mechanistically capture the process of oral absorption. These models use inputs from in vitro assays to predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs in the human body. The most common oral PBPK models are compartmental approaches, in which the gastrointestinal tract is characterized as a series of compartments through which the drug transits. The focus of this review is on the development of oral absorption PBPK models, followed by a brief discussion of the major applications of oral PBPK models in the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Physiological response of a spinosad-producing strain saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiheng

    This study explored the physiological response of spinosad-producing strain Saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight environment. The production strain was carried into space by a manned spaceship, `Shenzhou VII' (Divine Vessel VII) and compared with identical ground control strains. The results showed that space flight could induce a significant response in the phys-iological characteristics of S. spinosa, including change of productivity and morphology. The spinosad yield of the mutants increased more than 95% comparing to the original strains. And in the mutant library, a peculiar morphologic strain, F-200, was found. F-200 produced no spinosad, and was much larger than normal ones and spores were lilac, while the others remain white. During fermentation, the color of the entire broth of F-200 had completely changed to purple, whereas the broth of the ground control Zu8 remained yellow. The results demonstrated that the space flight can induce physiological changes of S. spinosa and could potentially serve as mutagenesis tools to improve commercial-significant microbial metabolites.

  18. Analysis of selective constraints on mitochondrial DNA, flight ability and physiological index on avian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanxin; Han, Jiuqiang; Zhong, Dexing; Wang, Tuo

    2013-01-01

    For most of the birds in the word, they can be divided into two main groups, i.e. resident birds and migratory ones. Most of the energy required for long-distance migration is supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the evolutionary constraints acted on the mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) are considered to vary with the locomotive abilities and flight speed. The flight speed is assumed to increase with mass and wing loading according to the fundamental aerodynamic theories, which is common between aves and aircrafts. We compared 148 avian mitochondrial genomes and main physiological parameters. More nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions than synonymous ones are accumulated in low-speed and flightless birds rather than high-speed flying birds. No matter how the speed is obtained, directly measured or estimated through physiological index. Our results demonstrated that, besides artificial and environmental factors, selective constraints relevant to flight ability play an essential role in the evolution of mtDNA, even it might cause the extinction of avian species.

  19. A physiologically based pharmacokinetics model for florfenicol in crucian carp and oral-to-intramuscular extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Sun, Y X; Shan, Q; Zhao, H Y; Zeng, D P; Zeng, Z L

    2013-04-01

    In this study, an oral physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed for florfenicol in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Subsequently, oral-to-intramuscular extrapolation was performed and the two models were used to predict florfenicol concentrations in the edible tissues of crucian carp. The oral model gave good predictions in most tissues, except for kidney and liver in which the florfenicol concentrations were underestimated at the later time points. In contrast, using the intramuscular model, the concentrations in the kidney were overestimated at the later time points. Both models had the best predictive ability in the main edible tissue, the muscle. The oral model also accurately predicted the florfenicol concentrations in the muscle after multiple doses. The present study demonstrated the feasibility of predicting florfenicol concentrations in the edible tissues of crucian carp using a route-to-route extrapolation method. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Crickets in space: morphological, physiological and behavioral alterations induced by space flight and hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, E.; Agricola, H.; Böser, S.; Förster, S.; Kämper, G.; Riewe, P.; Sebastian, C.

    "Crickets in Space" was a Neurolab experiment by which the balance between genetic programs and the gravitational environment for the development of a gravity sensitive neuronal system was studied. The model character of crickets was justified by their external gravity receptors, identified position-sensitive interneurons (PSI) and gravity-related compensatory head response, and by the specific relation of this behavior to neuronal arousal systems activated by locomotion. These advantages allowed to study the impact of modified gravity on cellular processes in a complex organism. Eggs, 1st, 4th and 6th stage larvae of Acheta domesticus were used. Post-flight experiments revealed a low susceptibility of the behavior to micro- and hypergravity while the physiology of the PSI was significantly affected. Immunocytological investigations revealed a stage-dependent sensitivity of thoracic GABAergic motoneurons to 3g-conditions concerning their soma sizes but not their topographical arrangement. The morphology of neuromuscular junctions was not affected by 3g-hypergravity. Peptidergic neurons from cerebral sensorimotor centers revealed no significant modifications by microgravity (μg). The contrary physiological and behavioral results indicate a facilitation of 1g-readaptation originating from accessory gravity, proprioceptive and visual sense organs. Absence of anatomical modifications point to an effective time window of μg- or 3g-expo-sure related to the period of neuronal proliferation. The analysis of basic mechanisms of how animals and man adapt to altered gravitational conditions will profit from a continuation of the project "Crickets in Space".

  1. Colon cancer mimicking physiologic FDG uptake: with using of negative oral contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young

    2006-01-01

    A 64-year-old female with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was assigned to our department for whole body PET/CT scan. She ingested 1 liter of pure water as negative oral contrast just before PET/CT examination. FDG-PET/CT images showed a very intense hypermetabolic, focal lesion in the abdominal cavity around descending colon. The SUVmax of the lesion was 17.2. But there was no abnormal lesion corresponded to the area of PET scan in the combined contrast enhanced CT scan. We suggested considering a malignant lesion due to very intense glycolytic activity. Conventional abdominal CT scan and colonoscopy were accomplished within one week after PET/CT evaluation. There was no abnormality in both examinations. We executed follow-up PET/CT evaluation after 1 month and couldn't find any abnormality around the corresponding area. So we concluded the hypermetabolism was colonic physiologic uptake. A colonic physiologic uptake is a well known cause of false positive finding. Nuclear physicians should be considered the possibility of malignancy when interpret focal colonic uptake, especially incidental finding. 1-3) There are a few reports that using of negative oral contrast is able to reduce gastrointestinal physiologic uptakes. 4,5) But as we can see in this case, although we used negative oral contrast, intense physiologic uptake is detected and maxSUV is able to up to 17.2. So, it is important to keep a fact in mind. Even though there is a colonic physiologic uptake in PET/CT image, it may be able to show very intense hypermetabolism regardless of using negative oral contrast

  2. Oral pigmentations in physiologic conditions, post inflammatory affections and systemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Martina; Patrizi, Annalisa; Ravaioli, Giulia M; Dika, Emi

    2017-04-19

    Melanocytes are found throughout the oral mucosa but usually go unnoticed because of their relatively low level of pigment production. When focally or generally active in pigment production or proliferation they may be responsible for several affections in the oral mucosae ranging from physiologic pigmentation, systemic diseases to malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis of oral pigmentations (OP) is usually challenging for the physician, but a careful examination of the oral cavity may reveal the first manifestation of underlying systemic diseases. Therefore, a full medical history (including drug assumption and smoking) together with a general dermatological examination are mandatory and represent the first approach to OPs. When the diagnosis cannot be reached clinically with enough certainty, a biopsy for histological examination is needed, also in order to exclude possible life threatening conditions such as melanoma. Dermoscopy is another reliable diagnostic tool to make a differential diagnosis between melanocytic lesions and other conditions and then to manage the follow-up of patients. Few papers on the subject have been published in the dermatological literature and the oral cavity is often poorly investigated during routine dermatological examinations. We therefore decided to perform a review of benign OPs, classifying them into diffuse (physiological/racial pigmentations, smoker's melanosis, drug induced hyperpigmentations, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentations, black hairy tongue, OPs associated to systemic diseases) and localized (amalgam tattoo, melanocytic nevi, melanoacanthoma, melanosis) lesions.

  3. Simulation of physiological systems in order to evaluate and predict the human condition in a space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verigo, V. V.

    1979-01-01

    Simulation models were used to study theoretical problems of space biology and medicine. The reaction and adaptation of the main physiological systems to the complex effects of space flight were investigated. Mathematical models were discussed in terms of their significance in the selection of the structure and design of biological life support systems.

  4. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  5. Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral bacteria in blood pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Vikas; Haydar, Syed M.A.; Pearl, Vanessa; Lundberg, Jon O.; Weitzberg, Eddie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2013-01-01

    Circulating nitrate (NO3−), derived from dietary sources or endogenous nitric oxide production, is extracted from blood by the salivary glands, accumulates in saliva, and is then reduced to nitrite (NO2−) by the oral microflora. This process has historically been viewed as harmful, because nitrite can promote formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent research, however, suggests that nitrite can also serve as a precursor for systemic generation of vasodilatory nitric oxide, and exogenous administration of nitrate reduces blood pressure in humans. However, whether oral nitrate-reducing bacteria participate in “setting” blood pressure is unknown. We investigated whether suppression of the oral microflora affects systemic nitrite levels and hence blood pressure in healthy individuals. We measured blood pressure (clinic, home, and 24-h ambulatory) in 19 healthy volunteers during an initial 7-day control period followed by a 7-day treatment period with a chlorhexidine-based antiseptic mouthwash. Oral nitrate-reducing capacity and nitrite levels were measured after each study period. Antiseptic mouthwash treatment reduced oral nitrite production by 90% (p < 0.001) and plasma nitrite levels by 25% (p = 0.001) compared to the control period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2–3 .5 mm Hg, increases correlated to a decrease in circulating nitrite concentrations (r2 = 0.56, p = 0.002). The blood pressure effect appeared within 1 day of disruption of the oral microflora and was sustained during the 7-day mouthwash intervention. These results suggest that the recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria plays an important role in determination of plasma nitrite levels and thereby in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:23183324

  6. Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral bacteria in blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Vikas; Haydar, Syed M A; Pearl, Vanessa; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2013-02-01

    Circulating nitrate (NO(3)(-)), derived from dietary sources or endogenous nitric oxide production, is extracted from blood by the salivary glands, accumulates in saliva, and is then reduced to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) by the oral microflora. This process has historically been viewed as harmful, because nitrite can promote formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent research, however, suggests that nitrite can also serve as a precursor for systemic generation of vasodilatory nitric oxide, and exogenous administration of nitrate reduces blood pressure in humans. However, whether oral nitrate-reducing bacteria participate in "setting" blood pressure is unknown. We investigated whether suppression of the oral microflora affects systemic nitrite levels and hence blood pressure in healthy individuals. We measured blood pressure (clinic, home, and 24-h ambulatory) in 19 healthy volunteers during an initial 7-day control period followed by a 7-day treatment period with a chlorhexidine-based antiseptic mouthwash. Oral nitrate-reducing capacity and nitrite levels were measured after each study period. Antiseptic mouthwash treatment reduced oral nitrite production by 90% (p nitrite levels by 25% (p = 0.001) compared to the control period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2-3 .5mmHg, increases correlated to a decrease in circulating nitrite concentrations (r(2) = 0.56, p = 0.002). The blood pressure effect appeared within 1 day of disruption of the oral microflora and was sustained during the 7-day mouthwash intervention. These results suggest that the recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria plays an important role in determination of plasma nitrite levels and thereby in the physiological control of blood pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral absorption and oxidative metabolism of atrazine in rats evaluated by physiological modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, Tami S.; Hanneman, William H.; Cranmer, Brian K.; Tessari, John D.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2007-01-01

    Atrazine (ATRA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450s to the chlorinated metabolites, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-1,3,5-triazine (ETHYL), 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine (ISO), and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT). Here, we develop a set of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that describe the influence of oral absorption and oxidative metabolism on the blood time course curves of individual chlorotriazines (Cl-TRIs) in rat after oral dosing of ATRA. These models first incorporated in vitro metabolic parameters to describe time course plasma concentrations of DACT, ETHYL, and ISO after dosing with each compound. Parameters from each individual model were linked together into a final composite model in order to describe the time course of all 4 Cl-TRIs after ATRA dosing. Oral administration of ISO, ETHYL and ATRA produced double peaks of the compounds in plasma time courses that were described by multiple absorption phases from gut. An adequate description of the uptake and bioavailability of absorbed ATRA also required inclusion of additional oxidative metabolic clearance of ATRA to the mono-dealkylated metabolites occurring in GI a tract compartment. These complex processes regulating tissue dosimetry of atrazine and its chlorinated metabolites likely reflect limited compound solubility in the gut from dosing with an emulsion, and sequential absorption and metabolism along the GI tract at these high oral doses

  8. Maximizing the Impact of Physiologically Based Oral Absorption Modeling and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, John I; Kelly, Ron C; Wahlstrom, Jan; Wu, Benjamin; Wu, Tian; Alvarez-Nunez, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    The challenge of bringing innovative medicines to patients in combination with intense competition within the pharmaceutical industry has induced companies to develop quality medicines more efficiently and cost-effectively. State-of-the-art approaches to advance drug development have never been so urgent. One such approach that has been gaining traction within the industry is the application of modeling and simulation. In this commentary, the benefits of physiologically based oral absorption modeling and simulation in drug development are highlighted and suggestions for maximizing its impact are provided. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: insights into physiological and pathological aspects of oral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the human biological system, the individual cells divide and form tissues and organs. These tissues are hetero-cellular. Basically any tissue consists of an epithelium and the connective tissue. The latter contains mainly mesenchymally-derived tissues with a diversified cell population. The cell continues to grow and differentiate in a pre-programmed manner using a messenger system. The epithelium and the mesenchymal portion of each tissue have two different origins and perform specific functions, but there is a well-defined interaction mechanism, which mediates between them. Epithelial mesenchymal interactions (EMIs are part of this mechanism, which can be regarded as a biological conversation between epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations involved in the cellular differentiation of one or both cell populations. EMIs represent a process that is essential for cell growth, cell differentiation and cell multiplication. EMIs are associated with normal physiological processes in the oral cavity, such as odontogenesis, dentino-enamel junction formation, salivary gland development, palatogenesis, and also pathological processes, such as oral cancer. This paper focuses the role EMIs in odontogenesis, salivary gland development, palatogenesis and oral cancer.

  10. The epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: insights into physiological and pathological aspects of oral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra; Jones, Thaon Jon

    2014-03-17

    In the human biological system, the individual cells divide and form tissues and organs. These tissues are hetero-cellular. Basically any tissue consists of an epithelium and the connective tissue. The latter contains mainly mesenchymally-derived tissues with a diversified cell population. The cell continues to grow and differentiate in a pre-programmed manner using a messenger system. The epithelium and the mesenchymal portion of each tissue have two different origins and perform specific functions, but there is a well-defined interaction mechanism, which mediates between them. Epithelial mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) are part of this mechanism, which can be regarded as a biological conversation between epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations involved in the cellular differentiation of one or both cell populations. EMIs represent a process that is essential for cell growth, cell differentiation and cell multiplication. EMIs are associated with normal physiological processes in the oral cavity, such as odontogenesis, dentino-enamel junction formation, salivary gland development, palatogenesis, and also pathological processes, such as oral cancer. This paper focuses the role EMIs in odontogenesis, salivary gland development, palatogenesis and oral cancer.

  11. Effects of oral rehydration and external cooling on physiology, perception, and performance in hot, dry climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C X; Carney, K R; Schick, M K; Coburn, J W; Becker, A J; Judelson, D A

    2012-12-01

    Only limited research evaluates possible benefits of combined drinking and external cooling (by pouring cold water over the body) during exercise. Therefore, this study examined cold water drinking and external cooling on physiological, perceptual, and performance variables in hot, dry environments. Ten male runners completed four trials of walking 90 min at 30% VO(2max) followed by running a 5-km time trial in 33 ± 1 °C and 30 ± 4% relative humidity. Trials examined no intervention (CON), oral rehydration (OR), external cooling (EC), and oral rehydration plus external cooling (OR + EC). Investigators measured rectal temperature, skin temperatures, heart rate, thirst, thermal sensation, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Oral rehydration (OR and OR + EC) significantly lowered heart rate (P External cooling (EC and OR + EC) significantly reduced chest and thigh temperature (P external cooling (CON and OR) during low-intensity exercise. Performance exhibited no differences (CON = 23.86 ± 4.57 min, OR = 22.74 ± 3.20 min, EC = 22.96 ± 3.11 min, OR + EC = 22.64 ± 3.73 min, P = 0.379). Independent of OR, pouring cold water on the body benefited skin temperature, thermal sensation, and RPE during low-intensity exercise in hot, dry conditions but failed to influence high-intensity performance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  13. Forecasting oral absorption across biopharmaceutics classification system classes with physiologically based pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Simone; Darwich, Adam; Margolskee, Alison; Aarons, Leon; Dressman, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to determine how closely physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can predict oral bioavailability using a priori knowledge of drug-specific properties and (2) to examine the influence of the biopharmaceutics classification system class on the simulation success. Simcyp Simulator, GastroPlus ™ and GI-Sim were used. Compounds with published Biowaiver monographs (bisoprolol (BCS I), nifedipine (BCS II), cimetidine (BCS III), furosemide (BCS IV)) were selected to ensure availability of accurate and reproducible data for all required parameters. Simulation success was evaluated with the average fold error (AFE) and absolute average fold error (AAFE). Parameter sensitivity analysis (PSA) to selected parameters was performed. Plasma concentration-time profiles after intravenous administration were forecast within an AAFE biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class. The reliability of literature permeability data was identified as a key issue in the accuracy of predicting oral drug absorption. For the four drugs studied, it appears that the forecasting accuracy of the PBPK models is related to the BCS class (BCS I > BCS II, BCS III > BCS IV). These results will need to be verified with additional drugs. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. An oral multiparticulate, modified-release, hydrocortisone replacement therapy that provides physiological cortisol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Martin; Debono, Miguel; Huatan, Hiep; Merke, Deborah; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    It is not possible with current hydrocortisone replacement to mimic the diurnal cortisol profile in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Previous attempts with modified-release technology were unsuccessful. Our objective was to develop hydrocortisone formulations that recreate the diurnal cortisol profile using multiparticulate technology. Screening by in vitro dissolution profiles, pharmacokinetic (PK) testing in dexamethasone-suppressed dogs and humans, and comparison with a reference population. Field laboratories and clinical research facility. Formulations were generated using an enteric (delayed release) design configuration with an extended (sustained release) dissolution profile. In vitro dissolution confirmed delayed and sustained hydrocortisone release. However, in dogs and humans, sustained release resulted in reduced bioavailability. A formulation, DIURF-006, was developed that maintained delayed release but omitted the sustained-release functionality. PK characterization of DIURF-006 showed that, despite absence of a sustained-release component, absorption was sufficiently sustained to deliver extended hydrocortisone absorption. In dexamethasone-suppressed volunteers (n = 16) receiving a twice-daily 'toothbrush' regimen (20 mg at 23:00 h and 10 mg at 07:00 h), DIURF-006 gave a similar cortisol profile to physiological cortisol levels: DIURF-006 vs physiological, Geomean AUC 5610 vs 4706 h * nmol/l, Geomean Cmax 665 vs 594 nmol/l and Median Tmax 8·5 h vs clock time 08:12 h for peak cortisol. The relative bioavailability of DIURF-006 vs hydrocortisone was 89%, and cortisol levels increased linearly with doses between 5 and 30 mg. A multiparticulate oral hydrocortisone formulation with only an enteric coat provides delayed and sustained absorption and when given in a 'toothbrush' regimen provides physiological cortisol exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An oral multi-particulate, modified release, hydrocortisone replacement therapy that provides physiological cortisol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huatan, Hiep; Merke, Deborah; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is not possible with current hydrocortisone replacement to mimic the diurnal cortisol profile in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Previous attempts with modified release technology were unsuccessful. Our objective was to develop hydrocortisone formulations that recreate the diurnal cortisol profile using multi-particulate technology. Design and Measurements Screening by in-vitro dissolution profiles, pharmacokinetic testing in dexamethasone suppressed dogs and humans, and comparison to a reference population. Setting Field laboratories and clinical research facility. Results Formulations were generated using an enteric (delayed-release) design configuration with an extended (sustained-release) dissolution profile. In-vitro dissolution confirmed delayed and sustained hydrocortisone release. However, in dogs and humans, sustained release resulted in reduced bioavailability. A formulation, DIURF-006, was developed that maintained delayed release but omitted the sustained release functionality. Pharmacokinetic characterisation of DIURF-006 showed that, despite absence of a sustained release component, absorption was sufficiently sustained to deliver extended hydrocortisone absorption. In dexamethasone-suppressed volunteers (n=16) receiving a twice daily ‘toothbrush’ regimen (20mg at 23:00h and 10mg at 07:00h), DIURF-006 gave a similar cortisol profile to physiological cortisol levels: DIURF-006 vs physiological, Geomean AUC 5610 vs 4706 hr*nmol/l, Geomean Cmax 665 vs 594 nmol/l and Median Tmax 8.5h vs clock time 08:12 hours for peak cortisol. The relative bioavailability of DIURF-006 vs hydrocortisone was 89% and cortisol levels increased linearly with doses between 5 and 30mg. Conclusion A multi-particulate oral hydrocortisone formulation with only an enteric coat provides delayed and sustained absorption and when given in a ‘toothbrush’ regimen provides physiological cortisol exposure. PMID:23980724

  16. A dynamic artificial gastrointestinal system for studying the behavior of orally administered drug dosage forms under various physiological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquet, S.; Zeijdner, E.; Beyssac, E.; Meunier, J.-P.; Denis, S.; Havenaar, R.; Alric, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of a dynamic, multicompartmental in vitro system simulating the human stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) for studying the behavior of oral drug dosage forms under various physiological gastrointestinal conditions. Methods. Two

  17. Endocrine responses to the oral ingestion of a physiological dose of essential amino acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschl, M; Knerr, I; Topf, H-G; Schmid, P; Rascher, W; Rauh, M

    2003-11-01

    The response of insulin, human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol, leptin and ghrelin, in addition to various metabolic parameters, was measured at 10 minute intervals following the oral ingestion of a standardised physiological dose of essential amino acids (AA). Twenty-eight healthy male, fasted volunteers (aged 18-40 yrs, BMI 18.0-24.5 kg/m(2)) took part in the study; 13 volunteers in the AA group, nine subjects in an iso-caloric control group, and a further six subjects served as fasting controls. Twenty minutes after ingestion, insulin reached peak concentrations that were up to 500% higher than basal values (PhGH secretion with maximum concentrations being 2100+/-1013% higher than the basal values (PhGH concentrations were observed in the iso-caloric controls; in the fasting controls only a slight increase in hGH was found towards the end of the fasting period. While cortisol decreased significantly (Pfasting group, and no effect at all in the iso-caloric control group. There was no significant correlation between the concentrations or the area under curve of the hormones measured in any of the groups. The endocrine data provided in this study indicate that a single bolus of essential AA in fasted individuals is associated with both anabolic and catabolic hormonal responses.

  18. Vigilance on the civil flight deck: incidence of sleepiness and sleep during long-haul flights and associated changes in physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; McGown, A

    2001-01-15

    The study investigated sleepiness and sleep in aircrew during long-haul flights. The objectives were to identify loss of alertness and to recommend a practical approach to the design of an alerting system to be used by aircrew to prevent involuntary sleep. The flights were between London and Miami, covering both day- and night-time sectors, each with a duration of approximately 9 h. The subjects were 12 British Airways pilots. Various physiological variables were measured that could potentially be used to indicate the presence of drowsiness and involuntary sleep: brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram, EEG), eye movements via the electro-oculogram (EOG), wrist activity, head movements and galvanic skin resistance. The EEG and EOG identified sleepiness and sleep, as well as being potential measures on which to base an alarm system. Ten pilots either slept or showed evidence of sleepiness as assessed by the EEG and EOG. Many of the episodes of sleepiness lasted sleep, although only the EEG and EOG were modified by sleepiness. During sleep, skin resistance was increased, and wrist activity and head movements were absent for long periods. The study indicated that the measurement of eye movements (either alone or in combination with the EEG), wrist activity or head movement may be used as the basis of an alarm system to prevent involuntary sleep. Skin resistance is considered to be unsuitable, however, being related in a more general way to fatigue rather than to sleep episodes. The optimal way to monitor the onset of sleep would be to measure eye movements; however, this is not feasible in the flight deck environment at the present time due to the intrusive nature of the recording methodology. Wrist activity is therefore recommended as the basis of an alertness alarm. Such a device would alert the pilot after approximately 4-5 min of wrist inactivity, since this duration has been shown by the present study to be associated with sleep. The possibility that

  19. Oral physiology, nutrition and quality of life in diabetic patients associated or not with hypertension and beta-blockers therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L J; Foureaux, R C; Pereira, C V; Alves, M C; Campos, C H; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M; Andrade, E F; Gonçalves, T M S V

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between type 2 diabetes oral physiology, nutritional intake and quality of life has not been fully elucidated. We assessed the impact of type 2 diabetes - exclusive or associated with hypertension with beta-blockers treatment - on oral physiology, mastication, nutrition and quality of life. This cross-sectional study was performed with 78 complete dentate subjects (15 natural teeth and six masticatory units minimum; without removable or fixed prostheses), divided into three groups: diabetics (DM) (n = 20; 45·4 ± 9·5 years), diabetics with hypertension and receiving beta-blockers treatment (DMH) (n = 19; 41·1 ± 5·1 years) and controls (n = 39; 44·5 ± 11·7 years) matched for gender, age and socioeconomic status. Blood glucose, masticatory performance, swallowing threshold, taste, food intake, stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity of saliva were assessed. Glycemia was higher in DM than in controls (P quality of life. Both stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate were lower in DMH (P diabetes did not alter oral physiology, nutrition or quality of life. However, when hypertension and beta-blockers treatment were associated with diabetes, the salivary flow rate, chewing cycles and number of teeth decreased. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMAN POWERED FLIGHT: FROM PHYSIOLOGY TO PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Enrico di Prampero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a scientific theory (T can be separated into successive phases: i Fantasy, to conceive T ii Analysis to couch T into formal language iii Action, to apply in practice the predictions of T. The history of human powered flight, in which case the three phases are stretched over several thousand years, allow us to better appreciate their intrinsic characteristics. Fantasy, dating back to the myth of Ikarus, must be experimentally testable, as indeed were Daedalus’ wings. Analysis must state in quantitative terms the laws governing the matter at stake. Action, from Leonardo’s unsuccessful attempts to the crossings of the British Channel in 1979 and of the arm of the sea separating Crete from mainland Greece in 1988, has the aim of shaping the world according to our will. The kernel of any “proper” T is a formal system wherein a set of operational rules allows us to manipulate a set of symbols, representing the objects of T, on the bases of a limited number of axioms. In such formal systems, “theorem” is a string of symbols that can be arrived at in a finite number of steps from the axioms, applying the canonical operational rules. However, as Kurt Gödel showed in 1931, it is possible to demonstrate that, within a sufficiently powerful formal system, there exists demonstrably true strings of symbols that are not theorems. Thus, even in an ultra-powerful theory of everything, there will still be truths that can not be arrived at within the theory.

  1. [Clinical and physiological evaluation of bone changes among astronauts after long-term space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Oganov, V. S.; Bakulin, A. V.; Poliakov, V. V.; Voronin, L. I.; Morgun, V. V.; Shnaider, V. S.; Murashko, L. V.; Novikov, V. E.; LeBlank, A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Results of the joint Russian/US studies of the effect of microgravity on bone tissues in 18 cosmonauts on return from 4.5- to 14.5-month long missions are presented. Dual-energy x-ray gamma-absorbtiometry (QDR-1000 W, Hologic, USA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and mineral content (BMC, g) in the whole body, the scalp including cervical vertebra, arms, ribs, sternal and lumbar regions of the spinal column, pelvis and legs. A clearly defined dependence of topography of changes upon the position of a skeletal segment in the gravity vector was established. The greatest BMD losses have been observed in the skeleton of the lower body, i.e. in pelvic bones (-11.99 +/- 1.22%), lumbar vertebra (-5.63 +/- 0.817%), and in proximal femur, particularly in the femoral neck (-8.17 +/- 1.24%). Bones of the upper skeleton were either unchanged (insignificant) or showed a positive trend. Overall changes in bone mass of the whole skeleton of male cosmonauts during the period of about 6 months on mission made up -1.41 +/- 0.406% and suggest the mean balance of calcium over flight equal to -227 +/- 62.8 mg/day. Reasoning is given to qualify these states of cosmonauts' bone tissues as local osteopenia. On the literature and results of authors' clinical evidence, discussed is availability of the densitometric data for predicting risk of trauma. A biological nature of the changes under observation is hypothesized.

  2. Application of Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling to Characterize the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Oral Extended Release Methylphenidate Products in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Yang

    Full Text Available A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR methylphenidate (MPH was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH. A Weibull function was implemented to describe the dissolution of different ER formulations. A variety of mathematical functions can be utilized to account for the engineered release/dissolution technologies to achieve better model performance. The physiological absorption model tracked well the plasma concentration profiles in adults receiving a multilayer-release MPH formulation or Metadate CD, while some degree of discrepancy was observed between predicted and observed plasma concentration profiles for Ritalin LA and Medikinet Retard. A local sensitivity analysis demonstrated that model parameters associated with the GI tract significantly influenced model predicted plasma MPH concentrations, albeit to varying degrees, suggesting the importance of better understanding the GI tract physiology, along with the intestinal non-specific loss of MPH. The model provides a quantitative tool to predict the biphasic plasma time course data for ER MPH, helping elucidate factors responsible for the diverse plasma MPH concentration profiles following oral dosing of different ER formulations.

  3. Oral tolerance is inefficient in neonatal mice due to a physiological vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfkruyer, M; Rekima, A; Macchiaverni, P; Le Bourhis, L; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Tulic, M K; Verhasselt, V

    2016-03-01

    Increased risk of allergy during early life indicates deficient immune regulation in this period of life. To date, the cause for inefficient neonatal immune regulation has never been elucidated. We aimed to define the ontogeny of oral tolerance and to identify necessary conditions specific for this stage of life. Ovalbumin (OVA) was administered orally to mice through breast milk and efficiency of systemic tolerance to OVA was assessed in adulthood using a model of allergic airway inflammation. Oral tolerance induction was fully efficient starting third week of life. Inefficiency in neonates was a consequence of abnormal antigen transfer across the gut barrier and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase expression by mesenteric lymph node CD103(+) neonatal dendritic cells, resulting in inefficient T-cell activation. Neonates' serum retinol levels were three times lower than in adult mice, and vitamin A supplementation was sufficient to rescue neonatal defects and allow tolerance induction from birth. The establishment of oral tolerance required the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes in both vitamin A-supplemented neonates and 3-week-old unsupplemented mice. This knowledge should guide the design of interventions for allergy prevention that are adapted to the neonatal stage of life such as vitamin A supplementation.

  4. Oral tolerance is inefficient in neonatal mice due to a physiological vitamin A deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turfkruyer, M.; Rekima, A.; Macchiaverni, P.; Le Bourhis, L.; Muncan, V.; van den Brink, G. R.; Tulic, M. K.; Verhasselt, V.

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of allergy during early life indicates deficient immune regulation in this period of life. To date, the cause for inefficient neonatal immune regulation has never been elucidated. We aimed to define the ontogeny of oral tolerance and to identify necessary conditions specific for this

  5. In vitro oral drug permeation models: the importance of taking physiological and physico-chemical factors into consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Ruan; Steyn, Johan Dewald; Heystek, Hendrik Jacobus; Steenekamp, Jan Harm; Du Preez, Jan Lourens; Hamman, Josias Hendrik

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of intestinal membrane permeability properties of new chemical entities is a crucial step in the drug discovery and development process and a variety of in vitro models, methods and techniques are available to estimate the extent of oral drug absorption in humans. However, variations in certain physiological and physico-chemical factors are often not reflected in the results and the complex dynamic interplay between these factors is sometimes oversimplified with in vitro models. Areas covered: In vitro models to evaluate drug pharmacokinetics are briefly outlined, while both physiological and physico-chemical factors that may have an influence on these techniques are critically reviewed. The shortcomings identified for some of the in vitro techniques are discussed in conjunction with novel ways to improve and thereby overcome some challenges. Expert opinion: Although conventional in vitro methods and theories are used as basic guidelines to predict drug absorption, critical evaluations have identified some shortcomings. Advancements in technology have made it possible to investigate and understand the role of physiological and physico-chemical factors in drug delivery more clearly, which can be used to improve and refine the techniques to more closely mimic the in vivo environment.

  6. Physiological trade-off between cellular immunity and flight capability in the wing-dimorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand cricket, Gryllus firmus, is a wing-dimorphic species with long-wing (LW) and short wing (LW) morphs. The LW forms have very well developed wings and flight muscles and their SW counterparts have reduced wings and flight muscles, coupled with greater resource allocations to reproduction. Thi...

  7. Effect of Propolis Oral Intake on Physiological Condition of Young Worker Honey Bees, Apis Mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees collect resin from various plant species and transform it into propolis that is incorporated into the nest. The role of resins in the bee health field is poorly understood. The aim was to evaluate the effects of forced consumption of propolis on the physiological condition and short-term survival of Apis mellifera worker bees. It was tested if the number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph, the abdominal fat bodies and the hypopharyngeal glands development were affected by the feeding with propolis extracts in laboratory conditions during the warm and the cold seasons. Propolis added to sugar candy was consumed by workers for fourteen days without affecting the bee survival. The number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph remained constant despite the differential diet during the experiment. However, the development of fat bodies and hypopharyngeal glands was altered by propolis ingestion. The abdominal fat body development in winter bees diminished after fourteen days of propolis consumption, while it increased in summer bees. The hypopharyngeal gland development decreased for the assayed period in workers from both seasons. Our results encourage us to continue exploring this research field and learn how long-term forced ingestion of a plant-derived compound, a non-nutritive substance, can modify physiological bee parameters. A broader understanding of the multiple roles of propolis in the health of the honey bee colonies could be obtained by studying the ways in which it is processed and metabolized and the effect that generates in another physiological responses.

  8. Physiological recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria regulates gastric mucus thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Joel; Jädert, Cecilia; Phillipson, Mia; Borniquel, Sara; Lundberg, Jon O; Holm, Lena

    2015-12-01

    Inorganic nitrate from exogenous and endogenous sources is accumulated in saliva, reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria and further converted to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides in the acidic gastric lumen. To further explore the role of oral microbiota in this process we examined the gastric mucus layer in germ free (GF) and conventional mice given different doses of nitrate and nitrite. Mice were given either nitrate (100mg/kg/d) or nitrite (0.55-11 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water for 7 days, with the lowest nitrite dose resembling the levels provided by swallowing of fasting saliva. The gastric mucus layer was measured in vivo. GF animals were almost devoid of the firmly adherent mucus layer compared to conventional mice. Dietary nitrate increased the mucus thickness in conventional animals but had no effect in GF mice. In contrast, nitrite at all doses, restored the mucus thickness in GF mice to the same levels as in conventional animals. The nitrite-mediated increase in gastric mucus thickness was not inhibited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ. Mice treated with antibiotics had significantly thinner mucus than controls. Additional studies on mucin gene expression demonstrated down regulation of Muc5ac and Muc6 in germ free mice after nitrite treatment. Oral bacteria remotely modulate gastric mucus generation via bioactivation of salivary nitrate. In the absence of a dietary nitrate intake, salivary nitrate originates mainly from NO synthase. Thus, oxidized NO from the endothelium and elsewhere is recycled to regulate gastric mucus homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma concentrations, analgesic and physiological assessments in horses with chronic laminitis treated with two doses of oral tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Knych, H; Hood, D

    2016-07-01

    Laminitis is a painful disease for which adequate pain management remains a challenging and largely unmet medical need. To investigate plasma concentrations, analgesic and physiological effects of 2 doses of tramadol in horses with chronic laminitis. Nonrandomised trial. Four horses with naturally occurring chronic laminitis received 5 mg/kg bwt and then 10 mg/kg bwt tramadol orally every 12 h for one week with a one-week washout between. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, intestinal sounds and forelimb off-loading frequency were evaluated before and during treatments. Plasma tramadol and metabolite (M1 and M2) concentrations were measured on predetermined days and times after the morning dosing. Forelimb off-loading frequency decreased significantly with 10 mg/kg bwt (40%, P = 0.02) but not with 5 mg/kg bwt (9%, P = 0.4). Physiological variables did not change significantly with either treatment. For 5 and 10 mg/kg bwt treatments, respectively, individual maximum plasma concentrations (μg/l) ranged from 329 to 728 and 628 to 1330 (tramadol), 12-24 and 32-80 (M1), and 90-157 and 239-362 (M2). Respective median area under the concentration vs. time curves (h μg/l) were 727 and 1426, 33 and 88, 303 and 1003. Twice daily oral tramadol at 10 mg/kg bwt may produce analgesic plasma levels in horses with chronic laminitis. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Patients' experience of care and treatment outcome at the Department of Clinical Oral Physiology, Dental Public Service in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Smedberg, Erica; Hägglund, Helene; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain conditions in the craniofacial region are common in the adult population with a prevalence of approximately 10%. They are included in the generic term temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and accompanied by restricted mouth opening capacity, chewing difficulties, headache and neck pain. These pain conditions cause psychological suffering, impaired social relations, and recurrent sick leave, subsequently leading to frequent use of health care, medication and consequently to a decreased quality of life. Approximately 25% of children have signs of TMD and girls are shown to be more affected than boys. These signs increase with age and in the adult population the prevalence is approximately 38-40%, also here with a higher frequency in women than in men. This study comprised 198 patients who answered an anonymous questionnaire after termination of their treatment. The study aimed to investigate the activity at the department of clinical oral physiology at the Folktandvården Eastman Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, regarding the patients and their cause of care-seeking, as well as the patients' subjective experiences of the specialist care and the treatment outcome. As a secondary aim the purpose was to investigate how/if the clinicians at the department of clinical oral physiology reached their intention of being "curious", "considerate" and "accessible". The results from this study show that the majority of the patients (57.1%) were referred from the dental public service in Stockholm. 71.7% of the patients were young women between the ages of 11 and 20. The main causes of care-seeking were temporomandibular joint clickings, followed by limited jaw movement, headache and orofacial pain. Further, an immense majority of the patients (89.9%) were very satisfied with their treatment as well as the treatment outcome. These results indicate that the clinicians at the department reached their intention of being "curious", "considerate"and "accessible", which also

  11. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract attenuates psychological and physiological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaoka, Isao; Yasue, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2012-06-01

    Dried rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), which are known as black cohosh, have been widely used as herbal dietary supplements to treat menopausal symptoms. The present study examined the effect of CR extracts on human psychological and physiological responses to acute stress induced by mental arithmetic tests, by measuring the subjective stress intensity, the brain-wave patterns according to electroencephalography, and the concentrations of salivary chromogranin-A and cortisol. The experiments were performed double-blind and their order was counterbalanced. Treatment with CR significantly attenuated the elevated subjective perception of stress and the increased salivary chromogranin-A levels compared with placebo treatment. CR extract also rapidly recovered the decrease in alpha waveband induced by performing the mental arithmetic task. We therefore propose that CR extracts might be suitable for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders.

  12. oral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorhexidine 0,2% gluconate is used as a mouth rinse and is an effective antibacterial agent. Its primary side- effects are staining of the teeth and the oral mucosa, particularly the dorsal surface of the tongue. However, this is transient. It has been shown to be effective as a prophylactic agent in preventing oral candidosis in ...

  13. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intawongse, Marisa; Dean, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables

  14. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Abulseoud, Osama A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-06-01

    Although smoking is the most common cannabis administration route, vaporization and consumption of cannabis edibles are common. Few studies directly compare cannabis' subjective and physiological effects following multiple administration routes. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) were evaluated in frequent and occasional cannabis users following placebo (0.001% Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis (6.9% THC, ∼54mg). Participants' subjective ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after smoking and vaporization, while only occasional smokers' ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after oral dosing. Frequent smokers' maximum ratings were significantly different between inhaled and oral routes, while no differences in occasional smokers' maximum ratings between active routes were observed. Additionally, heart rate increases above baseline 0.5h after smoking (mean 12.2bpm) and vaporization (10.7bpm), and at 1.5h (13.0bpm) and 3h (10.2bpm) after oral dosing were significantly greater than changes after placebo, with no differences between frequent and occasional smokers. Finally, smoking produced significantly increased expired CO concentrations 0.25-6h post-dose compared to vaporization. All participants had significant elevations in subjective effects after smoking and vaporization, but only occasional smokers after oral cannabis, indicating partial tolerance to subjective effects with frequent exposure. There were no differences in occasional smokers' maximum subjective ratings across the three active administration routes. Vaporized cannabis is an attractive alternative for medicinal administrations over smoking or oral routes; effects occur quickly and doses can be titrated with minimal CO exposure. These results have strong implications for safety and abuse liability assessments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Behavioural, physiological and psychological responses of passengers to the thermal environment of boarding a flight in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Cheng, Yong; Mmereki, Daniel; Kong, Deyu

    2018-06-01

    In practice, passengers actively respond to the thermal environment when they board an aircraft in winter, which is not considered in the current standards. In this study, the behavioural, physiological and psychological responses to the thermal environment were examined at 22 °C (with 68 subjects), 20 °C and 26 °C (with 32 subjects). The results showed that the three air temperature levels had significant effect on nozzle usage and clothing adjustment behaviours, surface skin temperature, and thermal sensation vote (TSV). The walking/waiting states prior to boarding the aircraft cabin had a significant effect on the proportion of jacket removal, TSV and thermal comfort vote. After 10 min in the aircraft cabin, the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins. Practitioner Summary: Experimental investigation of human responses was conducted in an aircraft cabin. Analysis showed that the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins.

  16. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  17. Radiation induced muscositis as space flight risk. Model studies on X-ray and heavy ion irradiated typical oral mucosa models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschachojan, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    Humans in exomagnetospheric space are exposed to highly energetic heavy ion radiation which can be hardly shielded. Since radiation-induced mucositis constitutes a severe complication of heavy ion radiotherapy, it would also implicate a serious medical safety risk for the crew members during prolonged space flights such as missions to Moon or Mars. For assessment of risk developing radiation-induced mucositis, three-dimensional organotypic cultures of immortalized human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with a 12 C particle beam at high energies or X-Rays. Immunofluorescence stainings were done from cryosections and radiation induced release of cytokines and chemokines was quantified by ELISA from culture supernatants. The major focuses of this study were on 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation. The conducted analyses of our mucosa model showed many structural similarities with the native oral mucosa and authentic immunological responses to radiation exposure. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed about twice as many DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X-rays at definite doses and time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. Nuclear factor κB activation was observed after treatment with X-rays or 12 C particles. An activation of NF κB p65 in irradiated samples could not be detected. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 levels after irradiation with X-rays and 12 C particles compared to non-irradiated controls. However, only X-rays induced significantly higher levels of interleukin 1β. Analyses of TNF-α and IFN-γ showed no radiation-induced effects. Further analyses revealed a radiation-induced reduction in proliferation and loss of compactness in irradiated oral mucosa model, which would lead to local lesions in vivo. In this study we revealed that several pro-inflammatory markers and structural changes are induced by X-rays and heavy-ion irradiation

  18. Temporary forced oral breathing affects neonates oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide elimination, diaphragm muscles structure and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padzys, Guy Stéphane; Omouendze, Linda Priscillia

    2014-11-01

    We studied adaptation of diaphragm, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination to forced oral breathing (lasting for only 4 days) following reversible bilateral nasal obstruction performed on day 8 post-natal male rats. Diaphragm myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide elimination and hormones level were analysed during nasal obstruction period. Diaphragm muscle showed significant increases in adult isoforms (MHC 1, 2a) in oral breathing group versus control. Reversible nasal obstruction was associated with a decrease of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. Nasal obstruction period was associated with reduced growth of the olfactory bulbs and an initial decrease in lung growth. One day after implementing nasal obstruction, basal corticosterone levels had increased (by over 1000). Oral breathing was also associated with a lower level of thyroid hormone. We conclude that a 4 day nasal obstruction period in young rats leads to hormonal changes and to Diaphragm myosin heavy chain structural adaptation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Development of an ex vivo retention model simulating bioadhesion in the oral cavity using human saliva and physiologically relevant irrigation media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine D.; Sander, Camilla; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a particular interest in bioadhesive formulations for oromucosal drug delivery as this may promote prolonged local therapy and enhanced systemic effect. Saliva plays a vital role in oromucosal drug absorption by dissolving the drug and presenting it to the mucosal...... in the oral cavity. Thus we aimed at developing an advanced ex vivo buccal retention model, with focus on choosing a physiologically relevant irrigation media closely resembling human saliva. Spray dried chitosan microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride as an example of a small hydrophilic drug, were...... gum possessed a higher viscosity than phosphate buffer, which led to longer retention of the drug due to better hydration of the mucosa and the spray dried microparticles. Metformin retention profiles were comparable when human saliva, Saliva Orthana(®), or PGM3 were used as irrigation media. Moreover...

  20. Improved physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for oral exposures to chromium in mice, rats, and humans to address temporal variation and sensitive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Suh, M; Proctor, D M; Hays, S M

    2017-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in mice, rats, and humans developed previously (Kirman et al., 2012, 2013), was updated to reflect an improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of the gastrointestinal tract following oral exposures. Improvements were made to: (1) the reduction model, which describes the pH-dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the gastrointestinal tract under both fasted and fed states; (2) drinking water pattern simulations, to better describe dosimetry in rodents under the conditions of the NTP cancer bioassay; and (3) parameterize the model to characterize potentially sensitive human populations. Important species differences, sources of non-linear toxicokinetics, and human variation are identified and discussed within the context of human health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  2. The Effects of 37 Hours of Continuous Wakefulness on the Physiological Arousal, Cognitive Performance, Self-Reported Mood, and Simulator Flight Performance of F-117A Pilots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John

    2003-01-01

    .... This study assessed F-117A pilots during a 37-hour period of continuous wakefulness. Although none of the pilots crashed, substantial decrements were found in flight-skills, reaction times, mood, and brain activation as early as after the...

  3. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  4. Physiologic actions of zinc related to inhibition of acid and alkali production by oral streptococci in suspensions and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T-N; Buckner, T; Sheng, J; Baldeck, J D; Marquis, R E

    2004-02-01

    Zinc is a known inhibitor of acid production by mutans streptococci. Our primary objective was to extend current knowledge of the physiologic bases for this inhibition and also for zinc inhibition of alkali production by Streptococcus rattus FA-1 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419. Zinc at concentrations as low as 0.01-0.1 mm not only inhibited acid production by cells of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 in suspensions or in biofilms but also sensitized glycolysis by intact cells to acidification. Zinc reversibly inhibited the F-ATPase of permeabilized cells of S. mutans with a 50% inhibitory concentration of about 1 mm for cells in suspensions. Zinc reversibly inhibited the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system with 50% inhibition at about 0.3 mm ZnSO4, or about half that concentration when the zinc-citrate chelate was used. The reversibility of these inhibitory actions of zinc correlates with findings that it is mainly bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. Zinc inhibited alkali production from arginine or urea and was a potent enzyme inhibitor for arginine deiminase of S. rattus FA-1 and for urease of S. salivarius. In addition, zinc citrate at high levels of 10-20 mm was weakly bactericidal.

  5. Development of an ex vivo retention model simulating bioadhesion in the oral cavity using human saliva and physiologically relevant irrigation media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Katrine D; Sander, Camilla; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-05-20

    In recent years, there has been a particular interest in bioadhesive formulations for oromucosal drug delivery as this may promote prolonged local therapy and enhanced systemic effect. Saliva plays a vital role in oromucosal drug absorption by dissolving the drug and presenting it to the mucosal surface. However, the rheological, chemical, and interfacial properties of this complex biological fluid may strongly affect the adhesion of bioadhesive formulations. There is a need for well characterized in vitro models to assess the bioadhesive properties of oral dosage forms for administration in the oral cavity. Thus we aimed at developing an advanced ex vivo buccal retention model, with focus on choosing a physiologically relevant irrigation media closely resembling human saliva. Spray dried chitosan microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride as an example of a small hydrophilic drug, were employed as bioadhesive formulations. Chewing-stimulated human whole saliva was collected and characterized for use in retention studies in comparison with four artificial irrigation media; phosphate buffer, Saliva Orthana(®), porcine gastric mucin base media (PGM3), and xanthan gum based media (XG2). Retention of metformin, applied as spray dried microparticles on porcine buccal mucosa, greatly depended on the characteristics of the irrigation media. When rheology of the irrigation media was examined, changes in retention profiles could be interpreted, as irrigation media containing mucin and xanthan gum possessed a higher viscosity than phosphate buffer, which led to longer retention of the drug due to better hydration of the mucosa and the spray dried microparticles. Metformin retention profiles were comparable when human saliva, Saliva Orthana(®), or PGM3 were used as irrigation media. Moreover, PGM3 displayed physico-chemical properties closest to those of human saliva with regard to pH, protein content and surface tension. Saliva Orthana(®) and PGM3 are therefore

  6. Growth hormone secretion during space flight and evaluation of the physiological responses of animals held in the research animal holding facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Thomas N.; Grindeland, Richard; Mehler, William; Oyama, Jiro

    1987-01-01

    The spaceflight of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) on the Space Laboratory 3 (SL 3) provided the opportunity to evaluate the suitability of the RAHF for housing and maintaining experimental animals during spaceflight, and to determine changes in the secretion of growth hormone during spaceflight. Using ground-based studies the following were investigated: the optimum conditions for creating gravitational force on space flight animals; neural pathways that may play a role in the space flight syndrome; and the time course of muscle atrophy due to hypodynamia and hypokenesia in hindlimb-suspended animals and the role of growth hormone in these processes.

  7. Controlled release of acidic drugs in compendial and physiological hydrogen carbonate buffer from polymer blend-coated oral solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, R; Rappen, G-M; Koziolek, M; Garbacz, G; Leopold, C S

    2015-09-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of "Eudragit® RL/Eudragit® L55" (RL/L55) blend coatings for a pH-independent release of acidic drugs. A coating for ketoprofen and naproxen mini tablets was developed showing constant drug release rate under pharmacopeial two-stage test conditions for at least 300 min. To simulate drug release from the mini tablets coated with RL/L55 blends in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, drug release profiles in Hanks buffer pH 6.8 were recorded and compared with drug release profiles in compendial media. RL/L55 blend coatings showed increased drug permeability in Hanks buffer pH 6.8 compared to phosphate buffer pH 6.8 due to its higher ion concentration. However, drug release rates of acidic drugs were lower in Hanks buffer pH 6.8 because of the lower buffer capacity resulting in reduced drug solubility. Further dissolution tests were performed in Hanks buffer using pH sequences simulating the physiological pH conditions in the GI tract. Drug release from mini tablets coated with an RL/L55 blend (8:1) was insensitive to pH changes of the medium within the pH range of 5.8-7.5. It was concluded that coatings of RL/L55 blends show a high potential for application in coated oral drug delivery systems with a special focus on pH-independent release of acidic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Flight Get Involved Events Shop Miles Contact Miracle Flights Blog Giving Tuesday 800-359-1711 Thousands of children have been saved, but we still have miles to go. Request a Flight Click Here to Donate - Your ...

  9. A combination of representative compounds, metabolism platform and diagnostic extraction strategy for characterization of metabolites of Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid in vivo by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Xiang; Xie, Zhi-Neng; Tang, Xi-Yang; Li, Chang; Li, Min; Yao, Zhi-Hong; Dai, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2018-04-04

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) usually contained a large number of chemical components, which could be transformed into more complex metabolites in vivo. In this work, a "Representative compounds-Metabolism platform-Diagnostic extraction" strategy (RMD strategy) was proposed for comprehensively identification or characterization of xenobiotics in rat after oral administration of TCMs. Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid (SHL), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine preparation, was used as an example. The metabolic pathways of six representative compounds, bearing five different core structures in SHL, were elucidated and their metabolic reactions were employed for exploring metabolites of homologous components in metabolism platform. Meanwhile, diagnostic ions extraction were also used for screening more structural analogues in biofluids. All this work was completed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Qtof MS) and UNIFI metabolism platform. As a result, a total of 254 xenobiotics were identified or tentatively characterized in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of SHL and six representative compounds. The metabolism reaction included phase I reaction (hydroxylation, hydrolysis reaction, deglycosylation, hydrogenation, demethylation, dehydroxylation and ring opening reaction) and phase II reaction (glucuronidation, sulfation and methylation). This research provided useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of SHL in vivo. It also demonstrated that RMD strategy was an efficient approach for facilitate screening-out and rapid identification of xenobiotics in biological samples after oral administration of TCMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of oral pharmacokinetics of cMet kinase inhibitors in humans: physiologically based pharmacokinetic model versus traditional one-compartment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shinji; Skaptason, Judith; Romero, David; Vekich, Sylvia; Jones, Hannah M; Tan, Weiwei; Wilner, Keith D; Koudriakova, Tatiana

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for predicting plasma concentration-time profiles of orally available cMet kinase inhibitors, (R)-3-[1-(2,6-dichloro-3-fluoro-phenyl)-ethoxy]-5-(1-piperidin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-pyridin-2-ylamine (PF02341066) and 2-[4-(3-quinolin-6-ylmethyl-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazin-5-yl)-pyrazol-1-yl]-ethanol (PF04217903), in humans. The prediction accuracy of pharmacokinetics (PK) by PBPK modeling was compared with that of a traditional one-compartment PK model based on allometric scaling. The predicted clearance values from allometric scaling with the correction for the interspecies differences in protein binding were used as a representative comparison, which showed more accurate PK prediction in humans than the other methods. Overall PBPK modeling provided better prediction of the area under the plasma concentration-time curves for both PF02341066 (1.2-fold error) and PF04217903 (1.3-fold error) compared with the one-compartment PK model (1.8- and 1.9-fold errors, respectively). Of more importance, the simulated plasma concentration-time profiles of PF02341066 and PF04217903 by PBPK modeling seemed to be consistent with the observed profiles showing multiexponential declines, resulting in more accurate prediction of the apparent half-lives (t(1/2)): the observed and predicted t(1/2) values were, respectively, 10 and 12 h for PF02341066 and 6.6 and 6.3 h for PF04217903. The predicted t(1/2) values by the one-compartment PK model were 17 h for PF02341066 and 1.9 h for PF04217903. Therefore, PBPK modeling has the potential to be more useful and reliable for the PK prediction of PF02341066 and PF04217903 in humans than the traditional one-compartment PK model. In summary, the present study has shown examples to indicate that the PBPK model can be used to predict PK profiles in humans.

  11. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D

  12. Determination of Functional Capabilities, the Level of Physical Performance and the State of Main Physiological Body Systems in the First Hours after the Accomplishment of Long-term Space Flights ("Field Test")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Inesa; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Kitov, Vladimir; Reschke, Millard; Kofman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Long-term stay in weightlessness is accompanied by alterations in the activity of main physiological body systems including sensory-motor, skeletal-muscular disturbances and cardiovascular deconditioning. However, up to now, there are no data on the state and level of functional performance of cosmonauts/astronauts directly after flight, nor are there data to help define the dynamic recovery of functional characteristics and work efficiency which are greatly needed to provide the safety and planning of their activity once they reach space objects. The Russian and American scientists are currently engaged in a joint experiment known as the "Field Test" with the goal of studying the functional performance and the state of main physiological body systems directly after landing and their temporal recovery dynamics. The functional performance is identified during the test by temporal characteristics of the movements of spatial translation, the stability of the vertical stance for 3.5 min, and the kinematic characteristics of walking - non-complicated and complicated. The following characteristics are identified as physiological characteristics of the test: a) orthostatic tolerance during stand test, b) back muscle tone; c) vertical stability - by characteristics of the correction responses to unexpected perturbations of the vertical stance, and d) support reactions during the performance of the full battery of tests. To date, a pilot version of the "Field Test" has been conducted with participation from four Russian cosmonauts. The results of studies have shown that in 1 - 5 hours after landing the functional abilities of the cosmonauts are considerably reduced. All the test movements at this time are considerably slower than preflight and the more complicated the task is, the greater significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance: during the first test that occurs 1 - 5 hours after landing. two of four cosmonauts declined to continue the task after the orthostatic test

  13. Radiation induced muscositis as space flight risk. Model studies on X-ray and heavy ion irradiated typical oral mucosa models; Strahlungsinduzierte Mukositis als Risiko der Raumfahrt. Modelluntersuchungen an Roentgen- und Schwerionen-bestrahlten organotypischen Mundschleimhaut-Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschachojan, Viktoria

    2014-07-29

    Humans in exomagnetospheric space are exposed to highly energetic heavy ion radiation which can be hardly shielded. Since radiation-induced mucositis constitutes a severe complication of heavy ion radiotherapy, it would also implicate a serious medical safety risk for the crew members during prolonged space flights such as missions to Moon or Mars. For assessment of risk developing radiation-induced mucositis, three-dimensional organotypic cultures of immortalized human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with a {sup 12}C particle beam at high energies or X-Rays. Immunofluorescence stainings were done from cryosections and radiation induced release of cytokines and chemokines was quantified by ELISA from culture supernatants. The major focuses of this study were on 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation. The conducted analyses of our mucosa model showed many structural similarities with the native oral mucosa and authentic immunological responses to radiation exposure. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed about twice as many DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X-rays at definite doses and time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. Nuclear factor κB activation was observed after treatment with X-rays or {sup 12}C particles. An activation of NF κB p65 in irradiated samples could not be detected. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 levels after irradiation with X-rays and {sup 12}C particles compared to non-irradiated controls. However, only X-rays induced significantly higher levels of interleukin 1β. Analyses of TNF-α and IFN-γ showed no radiation-induced effects. Further analyses revealed a radiation-induced reduction in proliferation and loss of compactness in irradiated oral mucosa model, which would lead to local lesions in vivo. In this study we revealed that several pro-inflammatory markers and structural changes are induced by X-rays and heavy

  14. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  15. Current concepts of oral and maxillofacial rehabilitation and treatment in aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Esra; Koçer, Gulperi; Çini, Turan Atila

    2016-01-01

    Aerospace medicine is the medical discipline responsible for assessing and conserving the health, safety, and performance of individuals involved in air and space travel. With the upward trend in airline travel, flight-related oral conditions requiring treatment have become a source of concern for aircrew members. Awareness and treatment of any potential physiological problems for these aircrews have always been critical components of aviation safety. In a flight situation, oral and maxillofacial problems may in fact become life-threatening clinical conditions. The unusual nature of aerospace medicine requires practitioners to have unique expertise. Special attention to aerospace medicine will open the way for professionals to develop and apply their skills and capabilities. Both dentists and aviators should be aware of the issues involved in aviation dentistry. This article presents the principles of prevention, treatment guidelines, and dental-related flight restrictions.

  16. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Nasal Physiology Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Noam Cohen, MD, ... control the inflammation. CONCLUSION An understanding of the physiology of the nose is critical to understand nasal ...

  17. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  18. Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... section Home A-Z Health Topics Oral health Oral health > A-Z Health Topics Oral health (PDF, 154 ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Oral health Women have unique oral health concerns. Changing hormone ...

  19. Oral care of hospitalized children

    OpenAIRE

    Machalová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with the care of oral cavity for hospitalized children and compares the standards of oral cavity care for children hospitalized in standard pediatric wards with those for children hospitalized in the pediatric bone marrow transplant unit. The thesis provides the anatomical and physiological beckground information on oral care, describes the most common pathological issues, stresses the importance of proper mouth care and explains how to practise oral hygiene and s...

  20. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  1. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...... preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake....

  3. Nutrition in Space Flight: Some Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Space flight causes physiological changes related to microgravity and on which nutrition has a bearing. Examples are: muscle atrophy-protein; bone atrophy-calcium; phosphorus, and vitamin D; space sickness-fat; cardiovascular deconditioning-sodium; water, and potassium. The physiological changes are discussed which relate to living in space.

  4. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  5. Challenges of physiological monitoring in a Navy operational setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Guy R.

    1988-01-01

    Challenges to physiological monitoring in the Navy include environmental extremes, acceptance of use by test subjects, data transfer, data interpretation, and capability of relating collected data to valid operational relevant criterion measures. These problems are discussed with respect to diving, electrophysiological monitoring, in-flight monitoring, aircrew fatigue, in-flight cardiac stress, and in-flight monitoring devices.

  6. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  7. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bente...

  8. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  9. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  10. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  11. The foundations of space biology and medicine. Volume 2: Ecological and physiological bases of space biology and medicine. Part 3: Effect on the organism of dynamic flight factors. Chapter 1: Principles of gravitational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The physical principles of gravitation are discussed, such as gravitational and intertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as a biogenic factor. The behavior of the accelerative force gravitation, is described. This law proposes and quantifies the mutual gravitational attraction existing between all bodies of matter, the force being proportional to the product of masses, and inversely related to the square of the distance separating them. Gravity orientation, chronic acceleration, and hematology are examined. Systematic responses, such as circulation and renal functions, are also considered, along with animal response to a decreased acceleration field and physiology of hyper- and hypodynamic fields.

  12. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  13. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  14. Physiological Factors Analysis in Unpressurized Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrao, Luis; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Amateur and sports flight is an activity with growing numbers worldwide. However, the main cause of flight incidents and accidents is increasingly pilot error, for a number of reasons. Fatigue, sleep issues and hypoxia, among many others, are some that can be avoided, or, at least, mitigated. This article describes the analysis of psychological and physiological parameters during flight in unpressurized aircraft cabins. It relates cerebral oximetry and heart rate with altitude, as well as with flight phase. The study of those parameters might give clues on which variations represent a warning sign to the pilot, thus preventing incidents and accidents due to human factors. Results show that both cerebral oximetry and heart rate change along the flight and altitude in the alert pilot. The impaired pilot might not reveal these variations and, if this is detected, he can be warned in time.

  15. High temperature and performance in a flight task simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    The effects of high cockpit temperature on physiological responses and performance were determined on pilots in a general aviation simulator. The pilots (all instrument rated) 'flew' an instrument flight while exposed to each of three cockpit tempera...

  16. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  17. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  18. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  19. Serum metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Gokul; Ramani, Pratibha; Patankar, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is a core discipline of system biology focusing on the study of low molecular weight compounds in biological system. Analysis of human metabolome, which is composed of diverse group of metabolites, can aid in diagnosis and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study is to analyze and identify serum metabolites in oral leukoplakia and OSCC as a potential diagnostic biomarker and a predictor for malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Serum metabolomic profile of patients diagnosed with oral leukoplakia (n = 21) and OSCC (n = 22) was compared with normal controls (n = 18) using quadrupole time of flight-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. MassHunter profile software was used for metabolite identification, and statistical analysis to assess the variation of the metabolites was performed using Mass Profiler Professional software. Statistical significance between the three groups was expressed using ANOVA (P oral leukoplakia and OSCC than in normal controls. Furthermore, significant upregulation of 5,6-dihydrouridine, 4-hydroxypenbutolol glucuronide, 8-hydroxyadenine, and putrescine was evident in OSCC group than in oral leukoplakia. Upregulation of L-carnitine, lysine, 2-methylcitric acid, putrescine; 8-hydroxyadenine; 17-estradiol; 5,6-dihydrouridine; and MTA suggests their diagnostic potential in oral leukoplakia and OSCC. Further, a significant upregulation of putrescine, 8-hydroxyadenine, and 5,6-dihydrouridine in OSCC than in oral leukoplakia indicates their potential role in predicting the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

  20. Swimming physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmér, I

    1992-05-01

    Swimming takes place in a medium, that presents different gravitational and resistive forces, respiratory conditions and thermal stress compared to air. The energy cost of propulsion in swimming is high, but a considerable reduction occurs at a given velocity as result of regular swim training. In medley swimmers the energy cost is lowest for front crawl, followed by backstroke, butterfly and breast-stroke. Cardiac output is probably not limiting for performance since swimmers easily achieve higher values during running. Maximal heart rate, however, is lowered by approx. 10 beats/min during swimming compared to running. Most likely active muscle mass is smaller and rate of power production lesser in swimming. Local factors, such as peripheral circulation, capillary density, perfusion pressure and metabolic capacity of active muscles, are important determinants of the power production capacity and emphasize the role of swim specific training movements. Improved swimming technique and efficiency are likely to explain much of the continuous progress in performance. Rational principles based on improved understanding of the biomechanics and physiology of swimming should be guidelines for swimmers and coaches in their efforts to explore the limits of human performance.

  1. Lessons learned from an in-flight medical event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Mumbi Melody

    2017-09-01

    Air transportation, although safe, exposes passengers to distinct physical, psychological, and physiological stressors that may be well tolerated in a healthy passenger but may trigger or exacerbate a medical event in a passenger with underlying medical problems. This article describes how a medical provider on the flight assisted with a medical emergency on a transatlantic flight.

  2. Food, physiology and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, F J O; Hatton, G B; Basit, A W

    2013-12-05

    Gastrointestinal physiology is dynamic and complex at the best of times, and a multitude of known variables can affect the overall bioavailability of drugs delivered via the oral route. Yet while the influences of food and beverage intake as just two of these variables on oral drug delivery have been extensively documented in the wider literature, specific information on their effects remains sporadic, and is not so much contextually reviewed. Food co-ingestion with oral dosage forms can mediate several changes to drug bioavailability, yet the precise mechanisms underlying this have yet to be fully elucidated. Likewise, the often detrimental effects of alcohol (ethanol) on dosage form performance have been widely observed experimentally, but knowledge of which has only moderately impacted on clinical practice. Here, we attempt to piece together the available subject matter relating to the influences of both solid and liquid foodstuffs on the gastrointestinal milieu and the implications for oral drug delivery, with particular emphasis on the behaviour of modified-release dosage forms, formulation robustness and drug absorption. Providing better insight into these influences, and exemplifying cases where formulations have been developed or modified to circumvent their associated problems, can help to appropriately direct the design of future in vitro digestive modelling systems as well as oral dosage forms resilient to these effects. Moreover, this will help to better our understanding of the impact of food and alcohol intake on normal gut behaviour and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues after Space Flight and Otolith Assessment during Post-Flight Re-Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation and perceptual illusions following Gtransitions. These studies are designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short duration space flights.

  4. Computational Modeling of Space Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Griffin, Devon W.

    2016-01-01

    The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within NASAs Human Research Program, develops and implements computational modeling for use in the mitigation of human health and performance risks associated with long duration spaceflight. Over the past decade, DAP developed models to provide insights into space flight related changes to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system. Examples of the models and their applications include biomechanical models applied to advanced exercise device development, bone fracture risk quantification for mission planning, accident investigation, bone health standards development, and occupant protection. The International Space Station (ISS), in its role as a testing ground for long duration spaceflight, has been an important platform for obtaining human spaceflight data. DAP has used preflight, in-flight and post-flight data from short and long duration astronauts for computational model development and validation. Examples include preflight and post-flight bone mineral density data, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength measurements. Results from computational modeling supplement space physiology research by informing experimental design. Using these computational models, DAP personnel can easily identify both important factors associated with a phenomenon and areas where data are lacking. This presentation will provide examples of DAP computational models, the data used in model development and validation, and applications of the model.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Mequindox and Its Marker Residue 1,4-Bisdesoxymequindox in Swine Following Multiple Oral Gavage and Intramuscular Administration : An Experimental Study Coupled with Population Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Dongping; Lin, Zhoumeng; Fang, Binghu; Li, Miao; Gehring, Ronette; Riviere, Jim E; Zeng, Zhenling

    2017-01-01

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a quinoxaline-N,N-dioxide antibiotic used in food-producing animals. MEQ residue in animal-derived foods is a food safety concern. The tissue distribution of MEQ and its marker residue 1,4-bisdesoxymequindox (M1) were determined in swine following oral gavage or intramuscular

  6. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health.

  7. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  9. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  10. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  11. Oral Exposure and Absorption of Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of the toxicokinetics of orally absorbed xenobiotics. This includes a description of the basic anatomy and physiology of the digestive tract most relevant to the absorption process. In addition, differences in anatomy and physiology between human...

  12. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  13. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    , plasma and extracellular volume, balance function, and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Bowel preparation led to a significant decrease in exercise capacity (median, 9 percent) and weight (median, 1.2 kg). Plasma osmolality was significantly increased from 287 to 290 mmol kg(-1), as well......PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...

  14. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  15. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: X-40A Flight Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.

  16. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  17. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  18. [Space physiology and psychology: long missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazorthes, G

    1989-06-01

    Until now spatial physiology and medicine concern mainly disturbances caused by life in microgravity during short stay (days, weeks). Neuro-sensorial, cardiovascular, osteo-muscular manifestations are well known; their prophylaxis is in great part established. It is shortly speak of them. Consequence of long stay (months or years) are not so well known; they are physiologic and psychologic. These long flights are now rare but they would probably be more numerous in next future. Authors present successively physics dangers: radiations, meteorites, composition of screw, number and selective tests, alimentation, fry time, habitation, biologic rhythms, psychism... We meet the same psychologic problems as great explorations have known.

  19. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... phenomenological approach of Dahlberg, Dahlberg, and Nyström. The essence of the phenomenon, oral hygiene, is described as a challenge: a mixture of ability and assigning priority; a challenge in which significant others, for better or worse, play an important role. We recommend a systematic cooperation between...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  20. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... phenomenological approach of Dahlberg, Dahlberg, and Nyström. The essence of the phenomenon, oral hygiene, is described as a challenge: a mixture of ability and assigning priority; a challenge in which significant others, for better or worse, play an important role. We recommend a systematic cooperation between...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  1. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-12-01

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  2. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. [Stages of development of flight medical expertise in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplyuk, A L; Vovkodav, V S; Churilov, Yu K; Klepikov, A N

    2015-07-01

    Flight medical expertise (FME) in military aviation is one of the most important areas of medical support of flight crews manning, maintaining of aircrew health and flight safety. The authors analyse the main stages of development of this area of medical practice. The priority in creation of FME system belongs to our country. Domestic scientists, prominent organizers of military medicine and a large group of aviation physicians developed organizational and methodological basis for studying different impacts of flight factors on the health of flight personnel, development of criteria for admission to flight operations, principles of organization of the examination, implementation of effective methods of disease diagnosis. At the present stage FME development is determined by the needs of medical, technical and psycho-physiological support of supersonic aircraft, the need to adjust to the requirements of aircrew health, advanced diagnostics of the functional state and the search for means to improve the stability of his body to flight factors. The main principles of the FME remains the complexity of the study of the human body in terms of its professional and individual approach to a medical examination, a thorough clinical, clinical and physiological and psychological examinations, regular medical supervision of the health of flight crews.

  4. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  5. Changeability of oral cavity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka A, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. 24 healthy individuals aged 20-30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O'Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca(2+), Pi, Na(+), Cl(-), total protein, albumins, F(-) and Sr(2+) were determined. The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca(2+) (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K(+) (P<.04), Sr(2+) (P<.03), Na(+) (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters.

  6. Circadian clock and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirvani, Minou; Khuu, Cuong; Utheim, Tor Paaske; Sand, Lars Peter; Sehic, Amer

    2018-02-01

    The circadian clock is comprised of a master component situated in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and subordinate clock genes in almost every cell of the body. The circadian clock genes and their encoded proteins govern the organism to follow the natural signals of time, and adapt to external changes in the environment. The majority of physiological processes in mammals exhibit variable circadian rhythms, which are generated and coordinated by an oscillation in the expression of the clock genes. A number of studies have reported that alteration in the expression level of clock genes is correlated with several pathological conditions, including cancer. However, little is known about the role of clock genes in homeostasis of the oral epithelium and their disturbances in oral carcinogenesis. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the implications of clock genes in oral cancer. It has been demonstrated that the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma undergoes circadian oscillation in relation to tumor volume and proliferation rate. The circadian clock gene period ( PER)1 has been associated with oral cancer pathogenesis and it is suggested that changes in the expression of PER1 may exhibit an important role in the development, invasion, and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, its role remains elusive and there is a need for further research in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the clock genes in oral cancer pathogenesis.

  7. [Oral contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, H

    1976-10-23

    The author presents an alphabetical list of oral contraceptives. To classify the commercial names of oral contraceptives all over the world is practically impossible for the following reasons: some agents are discontinued without the medical profession being aware of it; the same product can have various names depending on the country and the laboratory. Some products exist in different forms (21 pills including 7 inactive tablets). Finally, some laboratories change the posology of a product without changing its name.

  8. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  9. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  10. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  11. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  12. Long migration flights of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight.

  13. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  14. Pharmacokinetics and physiologic effects of intramuscularly administered xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride-butorphanol tartrate alone or in combination with orally administered sodium salicylate on biomarkers of pain in Holstein calves following castration and dehorning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Sarah L; Coetzee, Johann F; Dritz, Steve S; Reinbold, James B; Gehring, Ronette; Havel, James; Kukanich, Butch

    2011-10-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of xylazine, ketamine, and butorphanol (XKB) administered IM and sodium salicylate (SAL) administered PO to calves and to compare drug effects on biomarkers of pain and distress following sham and actual castration and dehorning. 40 Holstein bull calves from 3 farms. Calves weighing 108 to 235 kg (n = 10 calves/group) received one of the following treatments prior to sham (period 1) and actual (period 2) castration and dehorning: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM (placebo); SAL administered PO through drinking water at concentrations from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL from 24 hours prior to period 1 to 48 hours after period 2; butorphanol (0.025 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), and ketamine (0.1 mg/kg) coadministered IM immediately prior to both periods; and a combination of SAL and XKB (SAL+XKB). Plasma drug concentrations, average daily gain (ADG), chute exit velocity, serum cortisol concentrations, and electrodermal activity were evaluated. ADG (days 0 to 13) was significantly greater in the SAL and SAL+XKB groups than in the other 2 groups. Calves receiving XKB had reduced chute exit velocity in both periods. Serum cortisol concentrations increased in all groups from period 1 to period 2. However, XKB attenuated the cortisol response for the first hour after castration and dehorning and oral SAL administration reduced the response from 1 to 6 hours. Administration of XKB decreased electrodermal activity scores in both periods. SAL administered PO through drinking water decreased cortisol concentrations and reduced the decrease in ADG associated with castration and dehorning in calves.

  15. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  16. Physiologic time: A hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Damien; West, Bruce J.

    2013-06-01

    The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. One apparent consequence of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. Physiologic time is manifest in allometry relations for lifespans, cardiac cycles, blood volume circulation, respiratory cycle, along with a number of other physiologic phenomena. Herein we present a theory of physiologic time that explains the allometry relation between time and total body mass averages as entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the total body mass are described by a scaling probability density.

  17. Energy metabolism during endurance flight and the post-flight recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    Migrating birds are known to fly non-stop for thousands of kilometres without food or water intake and at a high metabolic rate thereby relying on energy stores which were built up preceding a flight bout. Hence, from a physiological point of view the metabolism of a migrant has to switch between an active fasting phase during flight and a fuelling phase during stopover. To meet the energetic and water requirements of endurance flight, migratory birds have to store an optimal fuel composition and they have to be able to quickly mobilize and deliver sufficient energy to the working flight muscles. After flight, birds have to recover from a strenuous exercise and sleeplessness, but, at the same time, they have to be alert to escape from predators and to prepare the next flight bout. In this overview, metabolic adaptations of free-ranging migrants to both phases will be presented and compared with results from windtunnel studies. The questions whether migratory strategy (long distance versus short distance) and diet composition influence the metabolic pathways will be discussed.

  18. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  20. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  1. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  2. Toward intelligent flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Flight control systems can benefit by being designed to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories: declarative, procedural, and reflexive. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are more-or-less spontaneous and are similar to inner-loop control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems will contain a hierarchy of expert systems, procedural algorithms, and computational neural networks, each expanding on prior functions to improve mission capability to increase the reliability and safety of flight and to ease pilot workload.

  3. Effects of Strong CYP3A Inhibition and Induction on the Pharmacokinetics of Ixazomib, an Oral Proteasome Inhibitor: Results of Drug-Drug Interaction Studies in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma and a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeraj; Hanley, Michael J; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Bessudo, Alberto; Rasco, Drew W; Sharma, Sunil; O'Neil, Bert H; Wang, Bingxia; Liu, Guohui; Ke, Alice; Patel, Chirag; Rowland Yeo, Karen; Xia, Cindy; Zhang, Xiaoquan; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Nemunaitis, John

    2018-02-01

    At clinically relevant ixazomib concentrations, in vitro studies demonstrated that no specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme predominantly contributes to ixazomib metabolism. However, at higher than clinical concentrations, ixazomib was metabolized by multiple CYP isoforms, with the estimated relative contribution being highest for CYP3A at 42%. This multiarm phase 1 study (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01454076) investigated the effect of the strong CYP3A inhibitors ketoconazole and clarithromycin and the strong CYP3A inducer rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled across the 3 drug-drug interaction studies; the ixazomib toxicity profile was consistent with previous studies. Ketoconazole and clarithromycin had no clinically meaningful effects on the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib. The geometric least-squares mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 264 hours postdose ratio (90%CI) with vs without ketoconazole coadministration was 1.09 (0.91-1.31) and was 1.11 (0.86-1.43) with vs without clarithromycin coadministration. Reduced plasma exposures of ixazomib were observed following coadministration with rifampin. Ixazomib area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration was reduced by 74% (geometric least-squares mean ratio of 0.26 [90%CI 0.18-0.37]), and maximum observed plasma concentration was reduced by 54% (geometric least-squares mean ratio of 0.46 [90%CI 0.29-0.73]) in the presence of rifampin. The clinical drug-drug interaction study results were reconciled well by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that incorporated a minor contribution of CYP3A to overall ixazomib clearance and quantitatively considered the strength of induction of CYP3A and intestinal P-glycoprotein by rifampin. On the basis of these study results, the ixazomib prescribing information recommends that patients should avoid concomitant administration of

  4. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers tend to spread quickly. Smoking and other tobacco use are linked to most cases of oral cancer. Heavy alcohol use also increases the risk for ... cancer greatly increases the chance of survival. Prevention ... Avoiding smoking or other tobacco use Having dental problems corrected Limiting or avoiding alcohol ...

  5. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  6. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard Larsen, Marie; Sorensen, J. A.; Godballe, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a common premalignant lesion. The possible benefits of specific interventions in preventing a malignant transformation of OL are not well understood. This review assesses different invasive treatment techniques for OL and evaluate the optimal treatment...

  7. Oral medicine and the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCreary, Christine

    2011-03-15

    A focus often exists in dental practice on the maintenance and management of the dentition and the periodontium, however, conditions of the oral mucosa and orofacial pain can cause significant problems for older patients. Oral mucosal conditions are more prevalent in older patients and many orofacial pain disorders, such as burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia, are more common in patients over the age of 50 years. Although these conditions may not be routinely managed in general practice, identification of these patients in primary care and appropriate referral will lead to more prompt and effective treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental practitioners need to be able to identify what is considered to be within the normal physiological limits of the ageing oral tissue and hence what is abnormal and requires further investigation to facilitate appropriate referral.

  8. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  9. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  10. Oral or nasal breathing? Real-time effects of switching sampling route onto exhaled VOC concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Trefz, Phillip

    2017-03-21

    There is a need for standardisation in sampling and analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in order to minimise ubiquitous confounding effects. Physiological factors may mask concentration changes induced by pathophysiological effects. In humans, unconscious switching of oral and nasal breathing can occur during breath sampling, which may affect VOC patterns. Here, we investigated exhaled VOC concentrations in real-time while switching breathing routes. Breath from 15 healthy volunteers was analysed continuously by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry during paced breathing (12 breaths min -1 ). Every two minutes breathing routes were switched (Setup-1: Oral → Nasal → Oral → Nasal; Setup-2: Oral in Nasal out  → Nasal in Oral out  → Oral in Nasal out  → Nasal in Oral out ). VOCs in inspiratory and alveolar air and respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were monitored quantitatively in parallel. Changing of the breathing routes and patterns immediately affected exhaled VOC concentrations. These changes were reproducible in both setups. In setup-1 cardiac output and acetone concentrations remained constant, while partial pressure of end-tidal CO 2 (pET-CO 2 ), isoprene and furan concentrations inversely mirrored tidal-volume and minute-ventilation. H 2 S (hydrogen-sulphide), C 4 H 8 S (allyl-methyl-sulphide), C 3 H 8 O (isopropanol) and C 3 H 6 O 2 increased during oral exhalation. C 4 H 10 S increased during nasal exhalations. CH 2 O 2 steadily decreased during the whole measurement. In setup-2 pET-CO 2 , C 2 H 6 S (dimethyl-sulphide), isopropanol, limonene and benzene concentrations decreased whereas, minute-ventilation, H 2 S and acetonitrile increased. Isoprene and furan remained unchanged. Breathing route and patterns induced VOC concentration changes depended on respiratory parameters, oral and nasal cavity exposure and physico-chemical characters of the compounds. Before using breath VOC concentrations

  11. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  12. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  13. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  14. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue countermeasure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  15. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  16. Human Requirements of Flight. Aviation and Spaceflight. Aerospace Education III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, deals with the general nature of human physiology during space flights. Chapter 1 begins with a brief discussion of the nature of the atmosphere. Other topics examined in this chapter include respiration and circulation, principles and problems of vision, noise and vibration, and…

  17. Oral Histoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Folk, Gillian A.; Nelson, Brenda L.

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the...

  18. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  19. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  20. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  1. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  2. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  3. The Graphical Representation of the Digital Astronaut Physiology Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Demarcus

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes my internship project with the NASA Digital Astronaut Project to analyze the Digital Astronaut (DA) physiology backbone model. The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) applies integrated physiology models to support space biomedical operations, and to assist NASA researchers in closing knowledge gaps related to human physiologic responses to space flight. The DA physiology backbone is a set of integrated physiological equations and functions that model the interacting systems of the human body. The current release of the model is HumMod (Human Model) version 1.5 and was developed over forty years at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). The physiology equations and functions are scripted in an XML schema specifically designed for physiology modeling by Dr. Thomas G. Coleman at UMMC. Currently it is difficult to examine the physiology backbone without being knowledgeable of the XML schema. While investigating and documenting the tags and algorithms used in the XML schema, I proposed a standard methodology for a graphical representation. This standard methodology may be used to transcribe graphical representations from the DA physiology backbone. In turn, the graphical representations can allow examination of the physiological functions and equations without the need to be familiar with the computer programming languages or markup languages used by DA modeling software.

  4. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  5. Similarities and differences in gastrointestinal physiology between neonates and adults: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo; Zheng, Qing-Shan; Li, Guo-Fu

    2014-11-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling holds great promise for anticipating the quantitative changes of pharmacokinetics in pediatric populations relative to adults, which has served as a useful tool in regulatory reviews. Although the availability of specialized software for PBPK modeling has facilitated the widespread applications of this approach in regulatory submissions, challenges in the implementation and interpretation of pediatric PBPK models remain great, for which controversies and knowledge gaps remain regarding neonatal development of the gastrointestinal tract. The commentary highlights the similarities and differences in the gastrointestinal pH and transit time between neonates and adults from a PBPK modeling prospective. Understanding the similarities and differences in these physiological parameters governing oral absorption would promote good practice in the use of pediatric PBPK modeling to assess oral exposure and pharmacokinetics in neonates.

  6. X-37 Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The photograph depicts the X-37 neutral buoyancy simulator mockup at Dryden Flight Research Center. The X-37 experimental launch vehicle is roughly 27.5 feet (8.3 meters) long and 15 feet (4.5 meters) in wingspan. Its experiment bay is 7 feet (2.1 meters) long and 4 feet (1.2 meters) in diameter. Designed to operate in both the orbital and reentry phases of flight, the X-37 will increase both safety and reliabiltiy, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the boeing Company, the X-37 is scheduled to fly two orbital missions in 2002/2003 to test the reusable launch vehicle technologies.

  7. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...

  8. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  9. In-flight angina pectoris; an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Firas; Mammen, Regina; Karamasis, Grigoris; Davies, John; Keeble, Thomas

    2018-04-05

    An unusual case of typical angina which occurred on a long haul flight is presented. This case is notable as this was the index presentation, with no previous symptoms prior to this. Physiological changes at altitude can be marked, and include hypoxia, tachycardia and an increase in cardiac output. These changes were enough to expose underlying angina in our patient. A 68 year old man presented with typical cardiac chest pain on a long haul flight. His symptoms first started 10-15 min after take-off and resolved on landing. This was his index presentation, and there were no similar symptoms in the past. Background history included hypercholesterolaemia and benign prostatic hypertrophy only. He led a rather sedentary lifestyle. A CT coronary angiogram showed significant disease in the proximal left anterior descending artery and proximal right coronary artery. He went on to have a coronary angiogram with invasive physiological measurements, which determined both lesions were physiologically significant. Both arteries were treated with drug eluting stents. Since treatment, he once again embarked on a long haul flight, and was completely asymptomatic. The presentation of symptoms in this individual was rather unusual, but clearly caused by significant coronary artery disease. Potentially his sedentary lifestyle was not enough in day-to-day activities to promote anginal symptoms. When his cardiovascular system was physiologically stressed during flight, brought about by hypoxia, raised sympathetic tone and increased cardiac output, symptoms emerged. In turn, when landing, with atmospheric conditions normalised, physiological stress was removed, and symptoms resolved. Clinically therefore, one should not exclude symptoms that occur with differing physiological states, such as stress and altitude, as they are also potential triggers for myocardial ischaemia, despite absence of day-to-day symptoms.

  10. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  11. Space Flight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Mader, Thomas H; Gibson, C Robert; Tarver, William

    2017-09-01

    New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts. The clinical findings of SANS have been correlated with structural changes on intraorbital and intracranial magnetic resonance imaging and in-flight and terrestrial ultrasonographic studies and ocular optical coherence tomography. Further study of SANS is ongoing for consideration of future manned missions to space, including a return trip to the moon or Mars.

  12. Intense flight and endotoxin injection elicit similar effects on leukocyte distributions but dissimilar effects on plasma-based immunological indices in pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Kevin D.; Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Haase, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined

  13. Intense flight and endotoxin injection elicit similar effects on leukocyte distributions but dissimilar effects on plasma-based immunoplogical indices in pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, K.D.; Horrocks, N.P.C.; Tieleman, B.I.; Haase, E.

    2012-01-01

    Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically taxing and physiologically integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined

  14. Oral comfort: A new concept to assess the acceptance of food by elderly people suffering from oral health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Descamps, Mathilde; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Septier, Chantal; Feron, Gilles; Labouré, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of physiological aging, diseases and drugs often impair food oral processing (mastication, salivation and swallowing), which is the most important point where foods organoleptic properties can be perceived and elicit sensory pleasure. The aim of the present study was to explore the concept of “oral comfort” when eating a food in the elderly. Firstly, three focus groups were conducted with elderly people to develop concepts linked to oral comfort when eating. Result...

  15. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  16. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  17. Autonomous Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  18. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  19. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...... to describing the stages of development from embryogenesis to senescence and the many physiological and environmental factors that regulate them. The result provides students with an improved understanding of the integration of hormones and other signaling agents in developmental regulation...

  20. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents / Oral Thrush Print en español Muguet (candidiasis oral) What Is Oral Thrush? Oral thrush is a ... Candida overgrowth also causes diaper rash and vaginal yeast infections . Babies can have oral thrush and a diaper rash at the same ...

  1. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  2. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  4. The importance of oral hygiene on adults with the focus on preventive measures resulting in the reduction of oral cavity diseases frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    KÁPLOVÁ, Hana

    2015-01-01

    The Dissertation work presented herein monitors the significance of oral hygiene in adults, while aiming at preventive measures leading to lowering mouth cavity illness occurrences. Within the theoretical part, I focus on the delineation of important terms relating to preventive care for oral cavity, information concerning anatomy, physiology of oral cavity, influence of foods and other problems within the oral cavity, among which there are tooth cavities and diseases of gingiva. In the pract...

  5. Oral transmucosal drug delivery for pediatric use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jenny K W; Xu, Yingying; Worsley, Alan; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-06-01

    The formulation of medicines for children remains a challenge. An ideal pediatric formulation must allow accurate dose administration and be in a dosage form that can be handled by the target age group. It is also important to consider the choices and the amount of excipients used in the formulation for this vulnerable age group. Although oral formulations are generally acceptable to most pediatric patients, they are not suitable for drugs with poor oral bioavailability or when a rapid clinical effect is required. In recent years, oral transmucosal delivery has emerged as an attractive route of administration for pediatric patients. With this route of administration, a drug is absorbed through the oral mucosa, therefore bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism and thus avoiding drug degradation or metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. The high blood flow and relatively high permeability of the oral mucosa allow a quick onset of action to be achieved. It is a simple and non-invasive route of drug administration. However, there are several barriers that need to be overcome in the development of oral transmucosal products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current development of oral transmucosal delivery specifically for the pediatric population in order to achieve systemic drug delivery. The anatomical and physiological properties of the oral mucosa of infants and young children are carefully examined. The different dosage forms and formulation strategies that are suitable for young patients are discussed. © 2013.

  6. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  7. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...

  8. Biological and physiological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strughold, H.; Hale, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, particularly that of sleep and wakefulness, are discussed. The sleep-wakefulness experiences of astronauts during several space missions are described, and predictions are made for future space activities, including Mars missions, interstellar flight, and life on permanent space stations.

  9. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; hide

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  10. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and ...

  13. Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

    Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

  14. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  15. In-Flight Personalized Medication Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletskaya, E.; Griko, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    Current medication selection for treatment of astronauts during spaceflight missions is primarily dictated by the task of efficiently treating the widest possible range of physiological conditions and illnesses with a limited set of medications. Dosage and recommendations on the combination of drugs are based on the assumption of genetically equal drug sensitivity and unchanged metabolism. To our knowledge, there was no pre-flight drug sensitivity testing on a genetic level for any of the previous manned NASA space missions. Although many of the common, binary drug-drug interactions are, most likely, already considered in the ISS Medical kit composition, multi-drug and multi-drug-gene factors are not incorporated in the medication selection or prescription. Furthermore, due to the physiological changes occurring in microgravity environments, astronauts might be susceptible to potential increased drug toxicity as a result of decreased clearance of numerous drugs. In particular, perturbation of CYP450 enzymes which contribute to the hepatic metabolism of the majority of drugs may have significant effects on therapeutic efficacy and increase treatment-related toxicity5. The genes encoding the CYP450 enzymes are highly variable in humans. Inheritable variations of CYP450 hepatic metabolizer enzymes and transport proteins play a crucial role in the inter-individual variability of drug efficiency and risks of adverse drug reactions5. Additionally, there are some reports that document changes in the levels of production of drug-metabolizing enzymes in microgravity. These data can be extrapolated to provide reasonable assumptions of decreased levels of expression for most CYP450 enzymes in human body during prolonged space travel. If the prescribed medication regiment is not fully effective or causes undesirable side effects, the ability of the astronauts to function and maintain peak performance levels during space flight could be seriously compromised. Therefore

  16. FMS flight plans in synthetic vision primary flight displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wyatt, Sandy

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes display concepts and flight tests evaluations of flight management system (FMS) flight plan integration into Honeywell's synthetic vision (SV) integrated primary flight display systems (IPFD). The prototype IPFD displays consist of primary flight symbology overlay with flight path information and flight director guidance cues on the SV external 3D background scenes. The IPFD conformal perspective-view background displays include terrain and obstacle scenes generated with Honeywell's enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) databases, runway displays generated with commercial FMS databases, and 3D flight plan information coming directly from on-board FMS systems. The flight plan display concepts include 3D waypoint representations with altitude constraints, terrain tracing curves and vectors based on airframe performances, and required navigation performance (RNP) data. The considerations for providing flight crews with intuitive views of complex approach procedures with minimal display clutter are discussed. The flight test data on-board Honeywell Citation Sovereign aircraft and pilot feedback are summarized with the emphasis on the test results involving approaches into terrainchallenged air fields with complex FMS approach procedures.

  17. Effect of high intensive football match on selected physiological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINAY PAWAR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out the effect of high intensive football match on selected physiologicalvariables. For this purpose 20 male football players with the mean age 24.6 ± 1.74 year were acted as a subject.Oral body temperature, body weight & blood pressure were the selected as physiological variables, which weremeasured by digital thermometer, weight machine and digital blood pressure. All the data were collected fifteenminute prior and instantly after the end of the match. Paired “t” was used as a statically tool which revealedthat there were statistical significant was observed in all the selected physiological variables. The obtained “t”value for oral body temperature was 9.18, for body weight 7.12, for diastolic blood pressure 8.17 & for systolicblood pressure 8.88 was found between all the physiological variables before and after the high intensivefootball match.

  18. ALOFT Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    conditions affecting automatic reversion to the Class II ( cafe MRI) feature. Table C-4 shows the MRI evaluation flights in the form of the MRI weapon...range data and delta values. 28 .^i^^i^i.^.^^,. *»■ " ,II"III"I1J "’ >*H*,II|1 ■ NWC TP 595A AIRCRAFT RANGE OF NWC The aircraft ranges of

  19. Neural Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  20. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  1. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  2. Flight Attendant Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    approximately 1700 and dips at around 0500. Conversely, melatonin levels, which are inversely- related to alertness (Arendt, Deacon, English, Hampton...Seattle to Helsinki) on the salivary melatonin and cortisol levels in 35 female flight atten- dants has shown that the resynchronization rate of these...in both summer and winter. Salivary melatonin and cortisol levels were measured at two-hour intervals for five days before, during, and after the 4

  3. Infrared Thermography Flight Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.

  4. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, Gal; Barkan, Shay; Soroker, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus) in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.

  5. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Astronaut Post Flight Bone Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Myers, Jerry; Licata, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Space flight potentially reduces the loading that bone can resist before fracture. This reduction in bone integrity may result from a combination of factors, the most common reported as reduction in astronaut BMD. Although evaluating the condition of bones continues to be a critical aspect of understanding space flight fracture risk, defining the loading regime, whether on earth, in microgravity, or in reduced gravity on a planetary surface, remains a significant component of estimating the fracture risks to astronauts. This presentation summarizes the concepts, development, and application of NASA's Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) to understanding pre-, post, and in mission astronaut bone fracture risk. The overview includes an assessment of contributing factors utilized in the BFxRM and illustrates how new information, such as biomechanics of space suit design or better understanding of post flight activities may influence astronaut fracture risk. Opportunities for the bone mineral research community to contribute to future model development are also discussed. Methods: To investigate the conditions in which spaceflight induced changes to bone plays a critical role in post-flight fracture probability, we implement a modified version of the NASA Bone Fracture Risk Model (BFxRM). Modifications included incorporation of variations in physiological characteristics, post-flight recovery rate, and variations in lateral fall conditions within the probabilistic simulation parameter space. The modeled fracture probability estimates for different loading scenarios at preflight and at 0 and 365 days post-flight time periods are compared. Results: For simple lateral side falls, mean post-flight fracture probability is elevated over mean preflight fracture probability due to spaceflight induced BMD loss and is not fully recovered at 365 days post-flight. In the case of more energetic falls, such as from elevated heights or with the addition of lateral movement

  6. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  7. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons when— (1) The...

  8. Mucosite oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Spezzia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A mucosite consta de irritação ou inflamação da mucosa bucal, provocada por ação da radioterapia de cabeça e pescoço e da quimioterapia. O objetivo deste artigo foi verificar como a ocorrência de mucosite oral pode influir na saúde bucal dos pacientes com câncer. Para tratamento odontológico o laser de baixa intensidade é o de opção. O emprego do laser de baixa potência tem cunho, tanto preventivo, como curativo para tratamento das lesões causadas. Concluiu-se que se pode evitar intercorrências no transcorrer do tratamento oncológico radioterápico e quimioterápico, fazendo-se uso da terapia laser, o que vai permitir melhores condições e qualidade de vida aos pacientes acometidos por mucosite.

  9. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  10. Animal flight mechanics in physically variable gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley; Chai

    1996-01-01

    Empirical studies of animal flight performance have generally been implemented within the contemporary atmosphere. Experimental alteration of the physical composition of gas mixtures, however, permits construction of novel flight media and the non-invasive manipulation of flight biomechanics. For example, replacement of atmospheric nitrogen with various noble gases results in a tenfold variation in air density at a constant oxygen concentration. Such variation in air density correspondingly elicits extraordinary biomechanical effort from flying animals; hummingbirds and euglossine orchid bees hovering in such low-density but normoxic mixtures have demonstrated exceptionally high values for the mechanical power output of aerobic flight muscle. As with mechanical power, lift coefficients during hovering increase at low air densities in spite of a concomitant decline in the Reynolds number of the wings. The physical effects of variable gas density may also be manifest in morphological and physiological adaptations of animals to flight across altitudinal gradients. Global variation in atmospheric composition during the late Paleozoic may also have influenced the initial evolution and subsequent diversification of ancestral pterygotes. For the present-day experimenter, the use of physically variable flight media represents a versatile opportunity to explore the range of kinematic and aerodynamic modulation available to flying animals.

  11. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  12. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  13. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  14. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    The functional anatomy of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and the neuro-anatomy and neuro-physiology of the systems that are implicated in the co-ordination of cardiac output with ventilation are reviewed in fish, including air-breathing fish, amphibians and reptiles. Recent data...

  16. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  17. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  18. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  19. Flight to America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneli Gün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Güneli Gün’s memoir piece truly combines the excitement of the young traveler with the humor of the mature narrator. Born in Izmir, Turkey, she breaks her engagement to a young but conservative Turkish architect and overcomes her father’s concerns to eventually study at Hollins College, Virginia. Addressing topics such as breaking out of a traditional society, being torn between the home country and the imagined new home, and finding comfort in the arts, “Flight to America” compellingly reflects Güneli Gün’s mastery as a storyteller.

  20. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  1. Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Ross, Andrew N; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-09-26

    One of the defining features of the aerial environment is its variability; air is almost never still. This has profound consequences for flying animals, affecting their flight stability, speed selection, energy expenditure and choice of flight path. All these factors have important implications for the ecology of flying animals, and the ecosystems they interact with, as well as providing bio-inspiration for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. In this introduction, we touch on the factors that drive the variability in airflows, the scales of variability and the degree to which given airflows may be predictable. We then summarize how papers in this volume advance our understanding of the sensory, biomechanical, physiological and behavioural responses of animals to air flows. Overall, this provides insight into how flying animals can be so successful in this most fickle of environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. SLS-1: The first dedicated life sciences shuttle flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences 1 was the first space laboratory dedicated to life science research. It was launched into orbit in early June 1991 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The data from this flight have greatly expanded our knowledge of the effects of microgravity on human physiology as data were collected in-flight, not just pre and post. Principal goals of the mission were the measurement of rapid and semichronic (8 days) changes in the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems during the flight and then to measure the rate of readaptation following return to Earth. Results from the four teams involved in that research will be presented in this panel. In addition to the cardiovascular-cardiopulmonary research, extensive metabolic studies encompassed fluid, electrolyte and energy balance, renal function, hematology and musculoskeletal changes. Finally, the crew participated in several neurovestibular studies. Overall, the mission was an outstanding success and has provided much new information on the lability of human responses to the space environment.

  3. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  4. MABEL Iceland 2012 Flight Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; De Marco, Eugenia L.; Reed, Daniel L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In March and April 2012, NASA conducted an airborne lidar campaign based out of Keflavik, Iceland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet, Iceland ice caps, and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the winter season. Ultimately, the mission, MABEL Iceland 2012, including checkout and transit flights, conducted 14 science flights, for a total of over 80 flight hours over glaciers, icefields, and sea ice.

  5. The Physiology of Glucagon

    OpenAIRE

    Taborsky, Gerald J

    2010-01-01

    This short review outlines the physiology of glucagon in vivo, with an emphasis on its neural control, the author’s area of interest. Glucagon is secreted from alpha cells, which are a minority of the pancreatic islet. Anatomically, they are down stream from the majority islet beta cells. Beta-cell secretory products restrain glucagon secretion. Activation of the autonomic nerves, which innervate the islet, increases glucagon secretion.

  6. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  7. Metabolic and Community Synergy of Oral Bacteria in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin J. Flynn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The oral periodontopathic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum has been repeatedly associated with colorectal tumors. Molecular analysis has identified specific virulence factors that promote tumorigenesis in the colon. However, other oral community members, such as members of the Porphyromonas spp., are also found with F. nucleatum on colonic tumors, and thus, narrow studies of individual pathogens do not take community-wide virulence properties into account. A broader view of oral bacterial physiology and pathogenesis identifies two factors that could promote colonization and persistence of oral bacterial communities in the colon. The polymicrobial nature of oral biofilms and the asaccharolytic metabolism of many of these species make them well suited to life in the microenvironment of colonic lesions. Consideration of these two factors offers a novel perspective on the role of oral microbiota in the initiation, development, and treatment of colorectal cancer.

  8. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  9. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  10. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XIV: Alertness Management in Regional Flight Operations Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  11. X-38 - First Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  12. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  13. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizen, S. (Univ. of Texas Dental Branch, Houston (USA))

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  14. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizen, S.

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references

  15. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  16. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations.Material and Methods: This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.Results: Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless, alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors.Conclusions: Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  17. The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, A. M. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

  18. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk On This Page What are oral contraceptives? What is known about the relationship between oral ...

  19. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  20. A Novel, Ecologically Relevant, Highly Preferred, and Non-invasive Means of Oral Substance Administration for Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolewski, Marissa; Allen, Joshua L.; Morris-Schaffer, Keith; Klocke, Carolyn; Conrad, Katherine; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal stress and nutrition are well-known to alter a broad range of physiological systems, notably metabolic, endocrine and neurobehavioral function. Commonly used methods for oral administration of xenobiotics can, by acting as a stressor or altering normal nutrition intake, alter these physiological systems as well. Taken together, oral administration methods may unintentionally introduce confounding physiological effects that can mask or enhance toxicity of xenobiotics, particularly if ...

  1. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  2. Columbus payload requirements in human physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Juergen

    1993-03-01

    Most of the biological feedback loops in the human body are interrelated. This means that several different parameters have to be recorded simultaneously to understand the interrelationship of different subsystems within the body when fast and slow adaptation processes are to be studied. This determines the requirements for the payload in the Columbus module. In 1988 ESA asked some European scientists in different fields of physiology to provide a 'science study' for the Columbus payload requirements. Their report was the basis of a phase A study completed in December 1991, concerning the 'ANTHROLAB', a laboratory that covers all presently known research challenges in this area. Anthrolab is more or less an improvement of the Anthrorack to be flown on the German Spacelab mission D-2 and on the Columbus precursor flight E-1. Beside the present Anthrorack design, Anthrolab will also provide subelements for vestibular, neurophysiological, and biomechanical research.

  3. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  4. Salivaomics for oral diseases biomarkers detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoulas, Jason; Patsouris, Efstratios; Giaginis, Constantinos; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2016-01-01

    The variation of saliva composition in different physiological and pathological states is well demonstrated. Several saliva constituents (enzymes, hormones, antibodies, cytokines etc.) are up- or down-regulated in respect to benign, premalignant and malignant conditions in the oral cavity, and several patterns of deregulation are associated with specific disorders. Omics technologies have contributed significantly in the identification of alterations in gene expression, transcription, protein coding and small molecules concentration, in biologic systems. In this aspect, salivaomics integrate these technologies in saliva analysis and represent a novel and holistic approach in oral disease management including diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring. This review summarizes the current research in the discovery of biomarkers and molecular signatures with diagnostic or prognostic utility for oral diseases in saliva. The review also focuses on the emerging issues of the salivaomics technology and saliva diagnostics and the translational potential.

  5. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school must...

  6. A Chemopreventive Nanodiamond Platform for Oral Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Albert; Zhang, Kangyi; Daneshgaran, Giulia; Kim, Ho-Joong; Ho, Dean

    2016-02-01

    Standard oral cancer therapy generally includes a combination of surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. This treatment paradigm has not changed in some time. In this paper, we propose a chemopreventive nanodiamond platform for the delivery of celecoxib (Celebrex) to oral cancer lesions. This innovative platform allows for sustained drug release under physiological conditions, potentially enhancing chemopreventive efficacy of celecoxib without the physical and toxicological damage associated with conventional means of drug delivery.

  7. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advancing the nation's oral health through research and innovation Health Info Research Grants & Funding Careers & Training News & ... Advancing the nation's oral health through research and innovation Health Info Research Grants & Funding Careers & Training News & ...

  9. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oral Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Interspecies Interactions within Oral Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Howard K.; He, Xuesong; Lux, Renate; Anderson, Maxwell H.; Shi, Wenyuan

    2007-01-01

    Summary: While reductionism has greatly advanced microbiology in the past 400 years, assembly of smaller pieces just could not explain the whole! Modern microbiologists are learning “system thinking” and “holism.” Such an approach is changing our understanding of microbial physiology and our ability to diagnose/treat microbial infections. This review uses oral microbial communities as a focal point to describe this new trend. With the common name “dental plaque,” oral microbial communities are some of the most complex microbial floras in the human body, consisting of more than 700 different bacterial species. For a very long time, oral microbiologists endeavored to use reductionism to identify the key genes or key pathogens responsible for oral microbial pathogenesis. The limitations of reductionism forced scientists to begin adopting new strategies using emerging concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, polymicrobial disease, etc. These new research directions indicate that the whole is much more than the simple sum of its parts, since the interactions between different parts resulted in many new physiological functions which cannot be observed with individual components. This review describes some of these interesting interspecies-interaction scenarios. PMID:18063722

  11. Intercellular communications in multispecies oral microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity contains more than 700 microbial species that are engaged in extensive cell-cell interactions. These interactions contribute to the formation of highly structured multispecies communities, allow them to perform physiological functions, and induce synergistic pathogenesis. Co-adhesion between oral microbial species influences their colonization of oral cavity and effectuates, to a large extent, the temporal and spatial formation of highly organized polymicrobial community architecture. Individual species also compete and collaborate with other neighboring species through metabolic interactions, which not only modify the local microenvironment such as pH and the amount of oxygen, making it more suitable for the growth of other species, but also provide a metabolic framework for the participating microorganisms by maximizing their potential to extract energy from limited substrates. Direct physical contact of bacterial species with its neighboring co-habitants within microbial community could initiate signaling cascade and achieve modulation of gene expression in accordance with different species it is in contact with. In addition to communication through cell-cell contact, quorum sensing (QS) mediated by small signaling molecules such as competence-stimulating peptides (CSPs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), plays essential roles in bacterial physiology and ecology. This review will summarize the evidence that oral microbes participate in intercellular communications with co-inhabitants through cell contact-dependent physical interactions, metabolic interdependencies, as well as coordinative signaling systems to establish and maintain balanced microbial communities.

  12. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  13. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  14. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  15. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  16. Oral Manifestations of Menopause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manifested in the oral cavity.[9] The teeth and gums are more affected by the hormonal changes occurring before menopause, which decrease the body's ability to fight minor infections or maintain a healthy balance of useful and harmful bacteria within the oral environment.[10] The dentist needs to be aware of oral ...

  17. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  18. Relationship between oral health knowledge, practices and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies have shown that strong knowledge on oral health demonstrates better oral care practice and an association between increased knowledge and better oral health exists. Aim: To assess the influence of oral health knowledge and oral care practices to oral health status of secondary school students in ...

  19. [Adaptive process in Vietnamese military pilots during the flights on modern Russian aircraft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I V; Pham Xuan, Nihn; Bukhtiaiarov, I V; Ushakov, B N

    2013-04-01

    Study on health status of 156 Vietnamese military pilots on Russian modern jet planes (Su-22, Su-27, Su-30, MiG-21B). The results showed that unprofitable factors in working environment (acceleration, radiation, high temperature, humidity, noise) have an impact on the health of pilots during the flight, leading to deterioration of professional health and physiological functions (cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous system) and obesity of pilots after 35 years old. Basing on the studies, we suggested some measures for health protecting, safety of flight and prolonging flight-activity of pilots (training in decompression chamber, vestibular training) and balance in food ration for prevention of professional diseases.

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ...

  2. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  3. Radiations and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  4. Does hyperthermia constrain flight duration in a short-distance migrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Magella; Woakes, Anthony J; Larochelle, Jacques; Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Granbois, Jean-Marc; Butler, Patrick J; Pelletier, David; Frappell, Peter B; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-09-26

    While some migratory birds perform non-stop flights of over 11 000 km, many species only spend around 15% of the day in flight during migration, posing a question as to why flight times for many species are so short. Here, we test the idea that hyperthermia might constrain flight duration (FD) in a short-distance migrant using remote biologging technology to measure heart rate, hydrostatic pressure and body temperature in 19 migrating eider ducks (Somateria mollissima), a short-distance migrant. Our results reveal a stop-and-go migration strategy where migratory flights were frequent (14 flights day(-1)) and short (15.7 min), together with the fact that body temperature increases by 1°C, on average, during such flights, which equates to a rate of heat storage index (HSI) of 4°C h(-1) Furthermore, we could not find any evidence that short flights were limited by heart rate, together with the fact that the numerous stops could not be explained by the need to feed, as the frequency of dives and the time spent feeding were comparatively small during the migratory period. We thus conclude that hyperthermia appears to be the predominant determinant of the observed migration strategy, and suggest that such a physiological limitation to FD may also occur in other species.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  6. IceBridge Mission Flight Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Mission Flight Reports data set contains flight reports from NASA Operation IceBridge Greenland, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alaska missions. Flight reports...

  7. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  8. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  9. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the ... and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the ...

  11. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  12. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  13. Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Blankenship, Kurt; Rieke, William; Brinker, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice. Emphasis was made to acquire data at wing stall and tailplane stall since these events are of primary interest to model accurately in the flight training device. Analyses of several datasets are described regarding wing and tailplane stall. Key findings from these analyses are that the simulated wing ice shapes significantly reduced the C , max, while the simulated tail ice caused elevator control force anomalies and tailplane stall when flaps were deflected 30 deg or greater. This effectively reduced the safe operating margins between iced wing and iced tail stall as flap deflection and thrust were increased. This flight test demonstrated that the critical aspects to be modeled in the icing effects flight training device include: iced wing and tail stall speeds, flap and thrust effects, control forces, and control effectiveness.

  14. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  15. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  16. Evaluation of extended and continuous use oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kristen Page; Johnson, Julia V

    2008-10-01

    Oral contraceptives are classically given in a cyclic manner with 21 days of active pills followed by 7 days of placebo. In the past 4 years, new oral contraceptives have been introduced which either shorten the placebo time, lengthen the active pills (extended cycle), or provide active pills every day (continuous). These concepts are not new; extended and continuous pills were first studied in the 1960s and 1970s and have been provided in an off-label manner by gynecologists to treat menstrual disorders, such as menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea, and gynecologic disorders, such as endometriosis. Now that extended and continuous combined oral contraceptives are available for all patients, it is critical for providers to understand the physiology, dosing, side effects, and benefits of this form of oral contraceptive. This article reviews the history and the potential uses of the new continuous combined oral contraceptive.

  17. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup

    2014-01-01

    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmac......Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary...... and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties...

  18. Flight Systems Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  19. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  20. Aerothermodynamic Reentry Flight Experiments - EXPERT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muylaert, J; Walpot, L; Ottens, H; Cipollini, F

    2005-01-01

    ...) Microaerothermodynamics, and 5) Blackout. Special attention is given to the design of the flight measurement sensors themselves, their integration into the TPS as well as to the measurement of the free stream parameters during re-entry using an Air...

  1. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  2. Flight Data For Tail 676

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 682

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 667

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 681

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 653

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 687

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 652

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 659

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 654

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 663

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 656

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 683

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Local sampling for indoor flight

    OpenAIRE

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver a proof-ofconcept that appearance features can be extracted computationally efficient enough to be used for autonomous flight. In particular, we present a novel height control algorithm that uses ...

  15. Improving oral health and oral health care delivery for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James J

    2011-02-01

    National and state-level evidence has documented ongoing disparities in children's health and utilization of oral health care services, prompting a re-examination of factors associated with poor oral health and low use of oral health services. These efforts have yielded a wide array of proposals for improving children's oral health and oral health care delivery. This paper offers a perspective on the current context of efforts to improve children's oral health and oral health care delivery.

  16. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  17. Analyzing Physiologic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emamie

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, when preserving and restoring the gnathostomatic system the dentist controls tooth morphology to insure proper distribution of stress. So, we restore a portion of a tooth or all the teeth in such a manner as to subject the associated parts of the system to the least stress. We evaluate our diagnosis and control it in our treatment. The treatment should be based on the scientific method. We create optimal occlusion or a desirable functional state of the masticatory system.  Many persons with occlusal imperfections will not have symptoms of functional disorders. This is the psychological adaptive capacity of the neuromuscular system, teeth, dental arches, and periodontal tissues.Recent developments in dental material, technology and instruments however, have simplified the taskaf restoring rebuilding and rehabilitating diseased mouths. So, optimum oral health and function should be the prime objective of all treatment procedures. Because the ultimate aim will always be to restore the mouth to health and preserve this status throughout the life of a patient.

  18. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  19. The physiological role of hormones in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschl, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The assessment of hormones in saliva has gained wide acceptance in clinical endocrinology. To date, there is no hypothesis as to why some hormones can be found in saliva, while others cannot, and whether there is a physiological consequence of this fact. A number of carefully performed studies give examples of important physiological hormonal activity in saliva. Steroids, such as androgens, act as pheromones in olfactory communication of various mammalian species, such as facilitating mating behavior in swine or serving as odor cues for rodent nestlings. Salivary peptide hormones, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and amines such as melatonin, are involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and in the promotion of cell proliferation, and contribute to a rapid wound healing in the oropharyngeal epithelia. Current data provide evidence of the involvement of salivary cytokines, such as interleukin-8 and leptin, in tumorgenesis in the oral cavity and the salivary glands. The tumor tissues express and release significantly more of these cytokines than healthy glands. Consequently, the assessment of salivary hormone profiles may provide promising targets for diagnostic tumor markers.

  20. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  1. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  2. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  3. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  4. Physiology in Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Mateják

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an object-oriented language, in which models can be created and graphically represented by connecting instances of classes from libraries. These connections are not only assignments of values; they can also represent acausal equality. Even more, they can model Kirchhoff’s laws of circuits. In Modelica it is possible to develop library classes which are an analogy of electrical circuit components. The result of our work in this field is Physiolibrary (www.physiolibrary.org – a free, open-source Modelica library for human physiology. By graphical joining instances of Physiolibrary classes, user can create models of cardiovascular circulation, thermoregulation, metabolic processes, nutrient distribution, gas transport, electrolyte regulation, water distribution, hormonal regulation and pharmacological regulation. After simple setting of the parameters, the models are ready to simulate. After simulation, the user can examine variables as their values change over time. Representing the model as a diagram has also great educational advantages, because students are able to better understand physical principles when they see them modeled graphically.

  5. Nonlinear region of attraction analysis for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Chen; Cun Bao Ma; Dong Song

    2017-01-01

    The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by...

  6. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  7. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2016-01-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects—which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls—the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments. PMID:27330173

  8. Managing oral bleeding in children with hereditary bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the patients presented with bleeding gingivae secondary to either physiologic processes of eruption, infective or traumatic dental conditions. The management of the patients was comprehensive with a multidisciplinary approach. The prevention of traumatic and infective dental conditions is an important part of oral health ...

  9. Effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiologic basis of bleeding is a function of normal platelets and coagulation factors. This study is aimed at ascertaining the effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during menstruation. Forty menstruating students between the ages of 18 and 25 from ...

  10. Extensive physiologic melanin pigmentation on the tongue: An unusual clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunira Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the oral cavity. Pigmentation has a multifactorial etiology. Most of the oral pigmentations are physiologic but sometimes it can be a precursor of severe diseases. Evaluation of a patient presented with a pigmented lesion should include a full medical and dental history, extraoral and intraoral examinations and even in some cases biopsy and laboratory investigations are required. In this article, we report a case of extensive physiologic pigmentation on the tongue in a 32-year-old female patient, posing a diagnostic challenge.

  11. Extensive physiologic melanin pigmentation on the tongue: An unusual clinical presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sunira; Keluskar, Vaishali; Bagewadi, Anjana; Sah, Kunal

    2010-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the oral cavity. Pigmentation has a multifactorial etiology. Most of the oral pigmentations are physiologic but sometimes it can be a precursor of severe diseases. Evaluation of a patient presented with a pigmented lesion should include a full medical and dental history, extraoral and intraoral examinations and even in some cases biopsy and laboratory investigations are required. In this article, we report a case of extensive physiologic pigmentation on the tongue in a 32-year-old female patient, posing a diagnostic challenge. PMID:22114419

  12. Heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight in desert populations of the Pacific black duck (Anas superciliosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J F; Ribot, R F H; Wingfield, J C; Bennett, A T D

    2017-12-14

    Understanding of avian nocturnal flight comes mainly from northern hemisphere species in seasonal temperate ecosystems where nocturnal flight is often precisely timed and entrained by annual photoperiod. Here we investigate patterns of nocturnal flight in waterbirds of Australian desert ecosystems that fly considerable distances to find temporary water bodies formed from rainfall which is highly unpredictable seasonally and spatially, and when there is sufficient water, they then breed. How they perform these feats of navigation and physiology remain poorly known. Using GPS tracking of 38 satellite tagged Pacific black ducks (Anas superciliosa) in two contrasting ecosystems, before and after heavy rainfall we revealed a key role for facultative nocturnal flight in the movement ecology of this species. After large rainfall events, birds rapidly increased nocturnal flight activity in the arid aseasonal ecosystem, but not in the mesic seasonal one. Nocturnal flights occurred throughout the night in both ecosystems. Long range flights (>50 km in 2 hours) occurred almost exclusively at night; at night the distance flown was higher than during the day, birds visited more locations, and the locations were more widely dispersed. Our work reveals that heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight activity in desert populations of waterbirds.

  13. F-14 in banked flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    NASA 991, an F-14 Navy Tomcat designated the F-14 (1X), is seen here in banked flight over the desert on a research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The F-14 was used at Dryden between 1979 and 1985 in extensive high-angle-of-attack and spin-control-and-recovery tests. The NASA/Navy program, which included 212 total flights, acheived considerable improvement in the F-14 high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, improved departure and spin resistance, and contributed to substantial improvements in reducing 'wing rock,' (i.e., tilting from one side to another), at high angles of attack. The Navy had been experiencing inadvertant spin entries caused by the F-14's aileron rudder interconnect. The NASA/Navy/Grumman team developed and tested 4 different configurations of the aileron rudder interconnect to address the spin problem. These problems prompted the Navy to ask the manufacturer, Grumman, and NASA to investigate the issue. NASA 991 had numerous special additions for high-angle-of-attack and spin-recovery research. These included a battery-powered auxiliary power unit, a flight test nose boom, and a special spin recovery system, consisting of forward mounted, hydraulically actuated canards and an emergency spin chute. NASA's F-14 was first flown by NASA research pilots, but was later flown by Grumman, and by Navy test pilots from Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS). The Navy test flights with the spin research vehicle constituted the first program that incorporated air combat maneuvering in its test flights at Dryden. The Navy brought F-14s from Point Mugu and Miramar NAS in San Diego to test the new spin control laws in combat situations. Although the new control laws proved valuable, the Navy did not incorporate them into production F-14s until the F-14D, nearly 15 years later.

  14. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  15. Space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Mader, Thomas H; Gibson, C Robert; Brunstetter, Tyson J; Tarver, William J

    2018-03-12

    Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i.e., cotton wool spots). NASA and collaborating researchers continue to study SANS in preparation for future manned missions to space, including continued trips to the ISS, a return to the moon, or perhaps new voyages to the asteroid belt, or the planet, Mars.

  16. Oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion correlate with oral health-related quality of life in elderly communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agustina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life assessment mostly is based on general health. Deterioration of physiologic condition, polypharmacy and the high occurrence of chronic disease in elderly may manifest in oral cavity that can affect oral function, in turn it will affect quality of life of elderly. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the correlation of oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in elderly communities of Yogyakarta city. Method: Seventy three elders were subjects of this study. Data of OHRQoL and oral health status were obtained from modification of questionnaire of Dental Impact of Daily Living (DIDL Index and from intraoral examination, respectively. Intraoral examination comprised oral mucosal lesion amount, oral hygiene, DMFT index and periodontal tissue status. The data then were analyzed statistically using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Result: The results showed that mean of DMFT index was 16.9 and 63% of subjects were found with gingivitis, most subject had moderate oral hygiene and each subject at least had two oral mucosal lesions. Mean score of quality of life was 27.2 and classified as satisfying. Oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion had correlation with OHRQoL with r were -0.236 (Sig. : 0.045 and -0.288 (Sig. : 0.013, respectively. Conclusion: The study suggested that oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion correlate with oral health related-quality of life in elderly communities of Yogyakarta city.Latar belakang: Penilaian kualitas hidup terutama didasarkan pada kesehatan umum. Memburuknya kondisi fisiologis, polifarmasi dan tingginya kejadian penyakit kronis pada lansia dapat termanifestasi di dalam rongga mulut sehingga dapat mempengaruhi fungsi mulut yang pada gilirannya akan mempengaruhi kualitas hidup lansia. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti hubungan antara status kesehatan mulut dan kualitas hidup berdasarkan kesehatan mulut pada masyarakat lanjut

  17. Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Physiological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Buxton, R. E.; De Witt, J. K.; Guilliams, M. E.; Hanson, A. M.; Peters, B. T.; Pandorf, M. M. Scott; Sibonga, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform exercise throughout their missions to counter the health declines that occur as a result of long-term exposure to weightlessness. Although all astronauts perform exercise during their missions, the specific prescriptions, and thus the mechanical loading, differs among individuals. For example, inflight ground reaction force data indicate that subject-specific differences exist in foot forces created when exercising on the second-generation treadmill (T2) [1]. The current exercise devices allow astronauts to complete prescriptions at higher intensities, resulting in greater benefits with increased efficiency. Although physiological outcomes have improved, the specific factors related to the increased benefits are unknown. In-flight exercise hardware collect data that allows for exploratory analyses to determine if specific performance factors relate to physiological outcomes. These analyses are vital for understanding which components of exercise are most critical for optimal human health and performance. The relationship between exercise performance variables and physiological changes during flight has yet to be fully investigated. Identifying the critical performance variables that relate to improved physiological outcomes is vital for creating current and future exercise prescriptions to optimize astronaut health. The specific aims of this project are: 1) To quantify the exercise-related mechanical loading experienced by crewmembers on T2 and ARED during their mission on ISS; 2) To explore relationships between exercise loading variables, bone, and muscle health changes during the mission; 3) To determine if specific mechanical loading variables are more critical than others in protecting physiology; 4) To develop methodology for operational use in monitoring accumulated training loads during crew exercise programs. This retrospective analysis, which is currently in progress, is being conducted using data from astronauts that have flown long

  18. Lipid-based nanocarriers for the oral administration of biopharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidou, Theodora; Bourganis, Vassilis; Kammona, Olga; Kiparissides, Costas

    2016-11-01

    Biopharmaceutics have been recognized as the drugs of choice for the treatment of several diseases, mainly due to their high selectivity and potent action. Nonetheless, their oral administration is a rather challenging problem, since their bioavailability is significantly hindered by various physiological barriers along the GI tract, including their acid-induced hydrolysis in the stomach, their enzymatic degradation throughout the GI tract and their poor mucosa permeability. Lipid-based nanocarriers represent a viable means for enhancing the oral bioavailability of biomolecules while diminishing toxicity-related issues. The present review describes the main physiological barriers limiting the oral bioavailability of macromolecules and highlights recent advances in the field of lipid-based carriers as well as the respective lipid intestinal absorption mechanisms.

  19. Backward flight in hummingbirds employs unique kinematic adjustments and entails low metabolic cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Dudley, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Backward flight is a frequently used transient flight behavior among members of the species-rich hummingbird family (Trochilidae) when retreating from flowers, and is known from a variety of other avian and hexapod taxa, but the biomechanics of this intriguing locomotor mode have not been described. We measured rates of oxygen uptake (V(O2)) and flight kinematics of Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna (Lesson), within a wind tunnel using mask respirometry and high-speed videography, respectively, during backward, forward and hovering flight. We unexpectedly found that in sustained backward flight is similar to that in forward flight at equivalent airspeed, and is about 20% lower than hovering V(O2). For a bird that was measured throughout a range of backward airspeeds up to a speed of 4.5 m s(-1), the power curve resembled that of forward flight at equivalent airspeeds. Backward flight was facilitated by steep body angles coupled with substantial head flexion, and was also characterized by a higher wingbeat frequency, a flat stroke plane angle relative to horizontal, a high stroke plane angle relative to the longitudinal body axis, a high ratio of maximum:minimum wing positional angle, and a high upstroke:downstroke duration ratio. Because of the convergent evolution of hummingbird and some hexapod flight styles, flying insects may employ similar kinematics while engaged in backward flight, for example during station keeping or load lifting. We propose that backward flight behavior in retreat from flowers, together with other anatomical, physiological, morphological and behavioral adaptations, enables hummingbirds to maintain strictly aerial nectarivory.

  20. In-flight sleep of flight crew during a 7-hour rest break: implications for research and flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H; van den Berg, Margo J; Graeber, R Curtis

    2013-01-01

    To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). N/A. Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated.

  1. Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Smith L.

    2010-01-01

    This document establishes the policy and procedures for the HSP and is authorized through the Director, Johnson Space Center (JSC). This document delineates the medical operations requirements for the HSP. The HSP goals are accomplished through an awareness campaign and procedures such as limiting access to flight crewmembers, medical screening, and controlling flight crewmember activities. NASA's Human Space Flight Program uses strategic risk mitigation to achieve mission success while protecting crew health and safety. Infectious diseases can compromise crew health and mission success, especially in the immediate preflight period. The primary purpose of the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program (HSP) is to mitigate the risk of occurrence of infectious disease among astronaut flight crews in the immediate preflight period. Infectious diseases are contracted through direct person-to-person contact, and through contact with infectious material in the environment. The HSP establishes several controls to minimize crew exposure to infectious agents. The HSP provides a quarantine environment for the crew that minimizes contact with potentially infectious material. The HSP also limits the number of individuals who come in close contact with the crew. The infection-carrying potential of these primary contacts (PCs) is minimized by educating them in ways to avoid infections and avoiding contact with the crew if they are or may be sick. The transmission of some infectious diseases can be greatly curtailed by vaccinations. PCs are strongly encouraged to maintain updated vaccinations.

  2. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  3. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  4. Physiology of Alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, R E; Montgomery, D L

    1988-10-01

    Physiological profiles of elite Alpine skiers reveal the importance of muscular strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic endurance, aerobic endurance, coordination, agility, balance, and flexibility. On-hill snow training and dryland training programmes should focus on the elevation of these fitness components. Physical characteristics of elite skiers reveal an average height and body mass. Today, successful skiers are taller and heavier than their predecessors. Slalom skiers tend to be leaner than skiers in other events while the downhill racers are the heaviest. Elite skiers have strong legs when peak torque is measured during isometric and isokinetic conditions involving knee extension, which may be a specific adaptation since the skier is in a crouched position for a prolonged period when racing. Leg strength correlates significantly with performance in the downhill and giant slalom events. The glycolytic contribution in the slalom and giant slalom events is about 40% of the total energy cost. Following a race, blood lactate concentration averages 9 to 13 mmol/L. A muscle lactate concentration of 24 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue has been reported. Elite skiers have higher lactate values than advanced or novice skiers. The aerobic demands of competitive Alpine skiing may approach (90 to 95%) of the athlete's maximal aerobic power. Maximal heart rate is achieved during the latter part of the race. Elite skiers have a high VO2max. This may reflect their training programme and not the actual demands of the sport. When turning, muscular activity acts to impede blood flow and oxygen delivery. As a consequence, anaerobic metabolism is increased. Glycogen studies show significant utilisation from both slow and fast twitch muscle fibres. Skilled and unskilled skiers differ with respect to glycogen utilisation. Skilled skiers have greater glycogen depletion in the slow twitch fibres compared to unskilled skiers. Muscle glycogen decreases by about 32 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue

  5. JetStar in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This 18-second movie clip shows the NASA Dryden Lockheed C-140 JetStar in flight with its pylon-mounted air-turbine-drive system used to gather information on the acoustic characteristics of subscale advanced design propellers. Data was gathered through 28 flush-mounted microphones on the skin of the aircraft. From 1976 to 1987 the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio -- today known as the Glenn Research Center -- engaged in research and development of an advanced turboprop concept in partnership with Hamilton Standard, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, the largest manufacturer of propellers in the United States. The Advanced Turboprop Project took its impetus from the energy crisis of the early 1970's and sought to produce swept propeller blades that would increase efficiency and reduce noise. As the project progressed, Pratt & Whitney, Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors, General Electric, Gulfstream, Rohr Industries, Boeing, Lockheed, and McDonnell Douglas, among others, also took part. NASA Lewis did the much of the ground research and marshaled the resources of these and other members of the aeronautical community. The team came to include the NASA Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (before and after that time, the Dryden Flight Research Center). Together, they brought the propeller to the flight research stage, and the team that worked on the project won the coveted Collier Trophy for its efforts in 1987. To test the acoustics of the propeller the team developed, it mounted propeller models on a C-140 JetStar aircraft fuselage at NASA Dryden. The JetStar was modified with the installation of an air-turbine-drive system. The drive motor, with a test propeller, was mounted on a pylon atop the JetStar. The JetStar was equipped with an array of 28 microphones flush-mounted in the fuselage of the aircraft beneath the propeller. Microphones mounted on the wings and on an accompanying Learjet chase

  6. Effects of flight speed upon muscle activity in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Biewener, Andrew A; Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Powers, Donald R

    2010-07-15

    lengths s(-1). Among species of birds, PECT strain scales proportional to body mass to the 0.2 power (infinityM(b)(0.2)) using species data and infinityM(b)(0.3) using independent contrasts. This positive scaling is probably a physiological response to an adverse scaling of mass-specific power available for flight.

  7. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  8. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...

  9. Calbindins decreased after space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, I N; Rhoten, W B; Carney, M D

    1996-12-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  10. Thermal energy storage flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of an experimental program to study heat transfer, energy storage, fluid movement, and void location under microgravity. Plans for experimental flight packages containing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material applicable for advanced solar heat receivers are discussed. Candidate materials for TES include fluoride salts, salt eutectics, silicides, and metals. The development of a three-dimensional computer program to describe TES material behavior undergoing melting and freezing under microgravity is also discussed. The TES experiment concept and plans for ground and flight tests are outlined.

  11. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.

  12. 5-Fluorouracil sensitivity varies among oral micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlancker, Eline; Vanhoecke, Barbara; Smet, Rozel; Props, Ruben; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2016-08-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, often causes oral mucositis, an inflammation and ulceration of the oral mucosa. Micro-organisms in the oral cavity are thought to play an important role in the aggravation and severity of mucositis, but the mechanisms behind this remain unclear. Although 5-FU has been shown to elicit antibacterial effects at high concentrations (>100 µM), its antibacterial effect at physiologically relevant concentrations in the oral cavity is unknown. This study reports the effect of different concentrations of 5-FU (range 0.1-50 µM) on the growth and viability of bacterial monocultures that are present in the oral cavity and the possible role in the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), an enzyme involved in 5-FU resistance. Our data showed a differential sensitivity among the tested oral species towards physiological concentrations of 5-FU. Klebsiellaoxytoca, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus salivarius appeared to be highly resistant to all tested concentrations. In contrast, Lactobacillusoris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus pyogenes, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Neisseria mucosa showed a significant reduction in growth and viability starting from very low concentrations (0.2-3.1 µM). We can also provide evidence that DPD is not involved in the 5-FU resistance of the selected species. The observed variability in response to physiological 5-FU concentrations may explain why certain microbiota lead to a community dysbiosis and/or an overgrowth of certain resistant micro-organisms in the oral cavity following cancer treatment.

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons ...

  15. What Is an Oral Piercing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? print full article print this chapter email this article Oral piercing can cause pain, swelling, infection, drooling, taste loss, ...

  16. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  17. Oral melanoacanthoma and oral melanotic macule: a report of 8 cases, review of the literature, and immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Bregni, Román; Contreras, Elisa; Netto, Ana Carolina; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Jorge, Jacks; León, Jorge Esquiche; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2007-09-01

    Oral melanoacanthoma (MA) is a rare, benign pigmented lesion, similar to cutaneous MA, characterized by hyperplasia of spinous keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The pathogenesis of oral MA remains uncertain, although its clinical behavior is suggestive of a reactive origin. The most common intraoral sites are the buccal mucosa, lip, palate and gingiva. The average age of presentation is 28 years, mainly in blacks, with a strong female predilection. The oral melanotic macule (MM) is a small, well-circumscribed brown-to-black macule that occurs on the lips and mucous membranes. The etiology is not clear and it may represent a physiologic or reactive process. The average age of presentation is 43 years, with a female predilection. A biopsy is recommended to distinguish these lesions from each other and from other oral melanocytic lesions. We depict four cases each of oral MA and MM, affecting Caucasian and Latin American mestizo patients. The clinicopathological features of these cases reflect its ample spectrum, and to the best of our knowledge, it is the first example of oral MA affecting a Caucasian boy reported in the English literature. Therefore oral MA and MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions in the oral mucosa in these populations.

  18. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  19. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  20. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  1. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  2. Heat dissipation during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Tobalske, Bret W; Wilson, J Keaton; Woods, H Arthur; Corder, Keely R

    2015-12-01

    Flying animals generate large amounts of heat, which must be dissipated to avoid overheating. In birds, heat dissipation is complicated by feathers, which cover most body surfaces and retard heat loss. To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment. Hummingbirds are instructive because they fly at speeds from 0 to more than 12 m s(-1), during which they transit from radiative to convective heat loss. We used infrared thermography and particle image velocimetry to test the effects of flight speed on heat loss from specific body regions in flying calliope hummingbirds (Selasphorus calliope). We measured heat flux in a carcass with and without plumage to test the effectiveness of the insulation layer. In flying hummingbirds, the highest thermal gradients occurred in key heat dissipation areas (HDAs) around the eyes, axial region and feet. Eye and axial surface temperatures were 8°C or more above air temperature, and remained relatively constant across speeds suggesting physiological regulation of skin surface temperature. During hovering, birds dangled their feet, which enhanced radiative heat loss. In addition, during hovering, near-body induced airflows from the wings were low except around the feet (approx. 2.5 m s(-1)), which probably enhanced convective heat loss. Axial HDA and maximum surface temperature exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern across speeds, revealing a localized relationship with power production in flight in the HDA closest to the primary flight muscles. We conclude that hummingbirds actively alter routes of heat dissipation as a function of flight speed.

  3. Preadaptive Stage for Flight Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich I. A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism as a preadaptive stage for bird’s flight is considered. We attribute the formation of full bipedalism in bird ancestors with pelvic limbs transition from segmental to parasagittal position. This transition was fast enough. We can assume that the pectoral limbs freed from the support remained while laterally spaced and gave set of transformations with different degrees of reduction. Thus morphologically “winglike” version of the thoracic limbs could appear. Parasagittal pelvic limbs allowed birds ancestors fast and maneuverable running, while the movements of free and highly movable thoracic limbs (feathered unrelated to flight provided dynamic stability of the animal. In addition, their fluttering movements facilitate hopping from one branch to another and the descent from the trees. On the bottom branches protobirds could jump with perching just by the pelvic anisodactyl limbs, not by thoracic as had supposed earlier. Active interaction of the primary simple feathers with air as well as its protective function could become an impetus for their transformation into differentiated structures. Unlike gliding (as preadaptive stage for active flight bipedalism with free feathered forelimbs provides per se parallel development of two autonomous enough locomotor systems of birds (flight and terrestrial locomotion and extensive adaptive radiation of representatives of the class.

  4. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  5. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  6. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One day out of the great wilderness of the water there came an albatross. Circling the ship on .... and mathematicians. Conventional aerodynamic ... suspended in air has inspired over a dozen aerodynamic models. GENERAL I ARTICLE scaling concepts fail to explain subtle features of bird flight, as debated by over fifty ...

  7. Local sampling for indoor flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver

  8. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  9. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    business opportunities for universities, laboratories and corpo- rations. Modern scientists seem to be getting increasingly ob- sessed with seasonal and sensational .... around SHAR and the Nelapattu Sanctuary, Professor Dhawan distilled the essence of bird flight for the expert and the neo- phyte alike. The sheer biometric ...

  10. In-flight turbulence benefits soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Julie M.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.

  11. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  12. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  13. Oral melanoma and other pigmentations: when to biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, M; Patrizi, A; Fanti, P A; Melotti, B; Caliceti, U; Magnoni, C; Misciali, C; Baraldi, C; Ravaioli, G M; Dika, E

    2018-02-01

    Oral pigmentations (OPs) are often neglected, although a meticulous examination of the oral cavity is important not only in the diagnosis of oral melanoma, but also for the detection of important clinical findings that may indicate the presence of a systemic disease. OPs may be classified into two major groups on the basis of their clinical appearance: focal and diffuse pigmentations, even though this distinction may not appear so limpid in some cases. The former include amalgam tattoo, melanocytic nevi, melanoacanthoma and melanosis, while the latter include physiological/racial pigmentations, smoker's melanosis, drug-induced hyperpigmentations, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations and OPs associated with systemic diseases. We will discuss the most frequent OPs and the differential diagnosis with oral mucosal melanoma (OMM), underlining the most frequent lesions that need to undergo a bioptic examination and lesions that could be proposed for a sequential follow-up. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Why most oral insulin formulations do not reach clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marlene; Simões, Susana; Veiga, Francisco; Seiça, Raquel; Ribeiro, António

    2015-01-01

    Oral insulin able to induce an efficient antihyperglycemic effect either to replace or complement diabetes mellitus therapy is the major goal of health providers, governments and diabetic patients. Oral therapy is associated not only with the desire to exclude needles from the daily routine of diabetic patient but also with the physiological provision of insulin they would get. Despite numerous efforts over the past few decades to develop insulin delivery systems, there is still no commercially available oral insulin. The reasons why the formulations developed to administer insulin orally fail to reach clinical trials are critically discussed in this review. The principal features of nanoformulations used so far are also addressed as well as the undergoing clinical trials.

  15. An overview of natural polymers for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, T A; Sharma, Chandra P

    2012-07-01

    Current therapy for diabetes mellitus through oral anti-diabetic drugs and subcutaneous administration of insulin suffers from serious disadvantages, such as patient noncompliance and occasional hypoglycemia. Moreover, these approaches doesn't mimic the normal physiological pattern of insulin release. Oral route would be the most convenient and preferred route if it is available. Polymeric nano and/or microparticles, either natural or synthetic have been used as matrices for oral insulin delivery. Natural polymers are of particular interest due to their nontoxic, biocompatible, biodegradable and hydrophilic nature. Among the natural polymers used for oral insulin delivery, chitosan (CS) is widely explored owing to its ease of chemical modification and favorable biological properties. In addition, many advantages such as safety, biodegradability, widespread availability and low cost justify the continuing development of promising insulin delivery system based on CS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microgravity-Induced Physiological Fluid Redistribution: Computational Analysis to Assess Influence of Physiological Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. G.; Eke, Chika; Werner, C.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Feola, A.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Space flight impacts human physiology in many ways, the most immediate being the marked cephalad (headward) shift of fluid upon introduction into the microgravity environment. This physiological response to microgravity points to the redistribution of blood and interstitial fluid as a major factor in the loss of venous tone and reduction in heart muscle efficiency which impact astronaut performance. In addition, researchers have hypothesized that a reduction in astronaut visual acuity, part of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, is associated with this redistribution of fluid. VIIP arises within several months of beginning space flight and includes a variety of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, distension of the optic nerve sheath, and kinking of the optic nerve. We utilize a suite of lumped parameter models to simulate microgravity-induced fluid redistribution in the cardiovascular, central nervous and ocular systems to provide initial and boundary data to a 3D finite element simulation of ocular biomechanics in VIIP. Specifically, the lumped parameter cardiovascular model acts as the primary means of establishing how microgravity, and the associated lack of hydrostatic gradient, impacts fluid redistribution. The cardiovascular model consists of 16 compartments, including three cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments, three cranial blood compartments, and 10 thoracic and lower limb blood compartments. To assess the models capability to address variations in physiological parameters, we completed a formal uncertainty and sensitivity analysis that evaluated the relative importance of 42 input parameters required in the model on relative compartment flows and compartment pressures. Utilizing the model in a pulsatile flow configuration, the sensitivity analysis identified the ten parameters that most influenced each compartment pressure. Generally, each compartment responded appropriately to parameter variations

  17. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  18. In-Flight Sleep of Flight Crew During a 7-hour Rest Break: Implications for Research and Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, T. Leigh; Gander, Philippa H.; van den Berg, Margo J.; Graeber, R. Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Design: Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Setting: Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Participants: Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. Conclusions: This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated. Citation: Signal TL; Gander PH; van den Berg MJ; Graeber RC. In-flight sleep of flight crew during a 7-hour rest break: implications for research and flight safety. SLEEP 2013;36(1):109–115. PMID:23288977

  19. The status of oral hygiene in cleft lip, palate patients after surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleft lip and palate patients usually present a number of problems viz. altered oral anatomy leading to changes in oral physiology diminishing the self-cleansing ability of individual. The handicapped children are unable to maintain their oral hygiene properly. The present study was formulated with the aim that does normalization of oral anatomy have its effect on improvement of oral hygiene? An assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified was performed between preoperative and postoperative values in the same patient at KGMU and KGDU. A total of 50 cases were recorded in two groups of 25 each: (i < 6 years old and (ii > 6 years. The observations are statistically analyzed by paired ′t′ test to get the significance of results. Results: The data analyzed showed the significant decrease in oral hygiene indices observed in both groups. A relative significance in oral hygiene status following surgery was observed. Both groups expressed greater significance when compared pre and postoperatively which is indicative of considerable improvement of oral hygiene after surgical correction. The study concludes that oral hygiene improves more in older cleft lip-palate cases following reconstruction of palatal vault, premaxilla and anterior lip seal by secondary bone grafting method when compared with oral hygiene indices results in primary periosteoplasty cases. The surgical correction of cleft lip palate enhances self-cleaning ability and better compliance to maintain oral hygiene in children as the age advances.

  20. Prevention of gingival trauma : Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion

  1. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  2. Flight to Safety from European Stock Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte

    This paper investigates flight-to-safety from stocks to bonds in seven European markets. We use quantile regressions to identify flight-to-safety episodes. The simple risk-return trade-off on the stock markets is negative which is caused by flight-to-safety episodes: During normal periods, the risk......-return trade-off is positive and during flight-to-safety episodes it is negative. The effects of flight-to-safety episodes on the risk-return trade-off are qualitatively similar for own country flight-to-safety episodes, for flight from own country stock market to the US bond market, and for US flight...

  3. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  4. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  5. Optimized Lift for Autonomous Formation Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental in-flight evaluations have demonstrated that the concept of formation flight can reduce fuel consumption of trailing aircraft by 10 percent. Armstrong...

  6. Fighter aircraft flight control technology design requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.

  7. GRIP FLIGHT TRACKS AND ANIMATIONS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Flight Tracks and Animations dataset includes both KML files and animation files. The KML files use Google Earth to show the flight tracks on a map. The...

  8. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  9. Amiloidosis oral nodular Oral nodular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La amiloidosis constituye una entidad marcada por el depósito de amiloide en diferentes tejidos. En la cavidad oral se manifiesta habitualmente en forma de macroglosia, y más raramente, como nódulos dispuestos en la superficie. Caso clínico. Varón afecto de Mieloma Múltiple, que comienza con lesiones nodulares en labio inferior y lengua. A raíz de estas lesiones, mediante estudio histológico, es diagnosticado de Amiloidosis Sistémica. Discusión. Los nódulos amiloideos en la cavidad oral, constituyen una manifestación rara de la amiloidosis sistémica. Su aparición conlleva la necesidad de realizar un diagnostico diferencial con otras entidades y el diagnostico de certeza se obtiene mediante el análisis histológico.Introduction. Amyloidosis is a condition characterized by the deposit of amyloid in different tissues. In the oral cavity it is usually manifested as macroglossia and, more rarely, as nodules on the surface. Clinical case. A man had multiple myeloma that began with nodular lesions of the lower lip and tongue. As a result of these lesions, the patient was diagnosed of systemic amyloidosis by histological study. Discussion. Amyloid nodules in the oral cavity are a rare manifestation of systemic amyloidosis. Its appearance entails the necessity to make I diagnose differential with other organizations and I diagnose of certainty is obtained by means of the histological analysis.

  10. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  11. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to NIDCR Contact Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam See a step-by- ... National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. This information is not copyrighted. Make as many copies as ...

  13. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipratropium oral inhalation is used to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways) such as chronic bronchitis (swelling of ...

  14. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an effective treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A custom-fit oral sleep appliance can improve your sleep, restore your alertness and revitalize your health. Here is a guide to help you get ...

  15. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Cromolyn oral inhalation helps to prevent asthma attacks (sudden episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) but will not stop an asthma attack that has already started. Your doctor will prescribe ...

  17. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs

  18. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14T22:05:33+00:00 October, 2016 | This last weekend the OCF 3rd Annual Southern California Oral Cancer Walk for Awareness took place in Fountain Valley at Mile Square Park. The walk is a little different ...

  19. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  20. Comparison of wing morphology in three birds of prey: correlations with differences in flight behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvidae, Elaine L; Bierregaard, Richard O; Peters, Susan E

    2006-05-01

    Flight is the overriding characteristic of birds that has influenced most of their morphological, physiological, and behavioral features. Flight adaptations are essential for survival in the wide variety of environments that birds occupy. Therefore, locomotor structure, including skeletal and muscular characteristics, is adapted to reflect the flight style necessitated by different ecological niches. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) soar to locate their prey, Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) actively chase down avian prey, and ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) soar and hover to locate fish. In this study, wing ratios, proportions of skeletal elements, and relative sizes of selected flight muscles were compared among these species. Oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities of several muscles were also analyzed via assays for citrate synthase (CS) and for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). It was found that structural characteristics of these three raptors differ in ways consistent with prevailing aerodynamic models. The similarity of enzymatic activities among different muscles of the three species shows low physiological differentiation and suggests that wing architecture may play a greater role in determining flight styles for these birds. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Performance assessment in a flight simulator test—Validation of a space psychology methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, B.; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Maschke, Peter; Stelling, Dirk; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk

    2007-02-01

    The objective assessment of operator performance in hand controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station has 30 years of tradition and is well established. In the last years the performance assessment was successfully combined with a psycho-physiological approach for the objective assessment of the levels of physiological arousal and psychological load. These methods are based on statistical reference data. For the enhancement of the statistical power of the evaluation methods, both were actually implemented into a comparable terrestrial task: the flight simulator test of DLR in the selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for civil airlines. In the first evaluation study 134 male subjects were analysed. Subjects underwent a flight simulator test including three tasks, which were evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardised rating scales. The principles of the performance algorithms of the docking training were adapted for the automated flight performance assessment. They are presented here. The increased human errors under instrument flight conditions without visual feedback required a manoeuvre recognition algorithm before calculating the deviation of the flown track from the given task elements. Each manoeuvre had to be evaluated independently of former failures. The expert rated performance showed a highly significant correlation with the automatically calculated performance for each of the three tasks: r=.883, r=.874, r=.872, respectively. An automated algorithm successfully assessed the flight performance. This new method will possibly provide a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  2. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  3. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  4. Characterization of the nasal and oral microbiota of detection dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Anitha; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Kelley, Russ; Mundell, Paul; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9). To understand if the nasal and oral microbiota of detection canines were variable, sample collection was repeated after 7 weeks in a subset of dogs. DNA was extracted from the swabs and used for 454-pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes. Nasal samples had a significantly lower diversity than oral samples (Pdogs, and Sphingobacterium was higher in the P-NDD group. In the oral samples Enterococcus and Capnocytophaga were higher in the P-NDD group. Gemella and Aggregatibacter were higher in S-PE, and Pigmentiphaga, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides amongst others were higher within the VWD-E group. Our initial data also shows that there is a temporal variation in alpha diversity in nasal samples in detection canines.

  5. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  6. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect imm...

  7. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  8. Diabetes and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Kjersti Skjold Rønningen; Morten Enersen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood and abnormalities of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with diabetes, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor metabolic control in subjects with diabetes.Methods: This paper reviews the scientific literature to identify oral conditions that have been proposed and are known to be affect...

  9. Are birds stressed during long-term flights? A wind-tunnel study on circulating corticosterone in the red knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindström, Ake; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    During endurance flight most birds do not feed and have to rely on their body reserves. Fat and protein is catabolised to meet the high energetic demands. Even though the hormonal regulation of migration is complex and not yet fully understood, the adrenocortical hormone corticosterone crystallizes to play a major role in controlling physiological traits in migratory birds during flight. However, results from field studies are partially equivocal, not least because data from birds during endurance flight are hard to get and present mostly a momentary shot. A wind-tunnel experiment offered the possibility to measure repeatedly under controlled conditions the effect of long flights on the stress hormone corticosterone. In a long-distance migrating shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus, we measured plasma concentrations of corticosterone within 3 min and after a restraint time of 30 min directly after 2h and 10h non-stop flights, respectively, and during rest. Baseline corticosterone levels were unchanged directly after the flights, indicating that endurance flight did not affect corticosterone levels. The adrenocortical response to restraint showed the typical rise in birds during rest, while birds after a 2 or 10h flight substantially decreased plasma corticosterone concentrations. We suggest that the negative adrenocortical response to restraint after flight is part of the mechanism to reduce the proteolytic effect of corticosterone to save muscle protein and to avoid muscle damaging effects.

  10. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions.

  11. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    2004 of evaluating the tolerance limits and safe operating bands called for in the Bioastronautics Strategy. Over the next several years, the concept of the "operating bands" were turned into Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS), developed by the technical resources of the SLSD at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These standards were developed and reviewed at the SLSD and then presented to the OCHMO for acceptance. The first set of standards was published in 2007 as the NASA-STD-3001, Volume 1, Crew Health that elaborated standards for several physiological areas such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, radiation exposure and nutrition. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Human Health was published in 2011, along with development guidance in the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH). Taken together, the SFHSS Volumes 1 and 2, and the HIDH replaced the NASA-STD-3000 with new standards and revisions of the older document. Three other changes were also taking place that facilitated the development of the human system risk management approach. In 2005, the life sciences research and development portfolio underwent a comprehensive review through the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) that resulted in the reformulation of the Bioastronautics Program into Human Research Program (HRP) that was focused on appropriate mitigation results for high priority human health risks. The baseline HRP budget was established in August 2005. In addition, the OCHMO formulated the Health and Medical Technical Authority (HMTA) in 2006 that established the position of the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) at the NASA JSC along with other key technical disciplines, and the OCHMO became the responsible office for the SFHSS as noted above. The final change was the establishment in 2008 of the Human System Risk Board (HSRB), chaired by the CMO with representation from the HRP, SLSD management and technical experts. The HSRB then began to review all human system risks

  12. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Alt...

  13. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  14. Prevention of gingival trauma: Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion score. The efficacy of the various oral hygiene devices is measured by the use of dental plaque scores and gingivitis scores. In addition, the prevalence, the short- and long-term effects and the ...

  15. Determinants of Oral Health: Does Oral Health Literacy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Virtanen, Jorma; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 partici...

  16. Space Flight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Ophthalmic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Mader, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although physiologic and pathologic changes associated with microgravity exposure have been studied extensively, the effect of this environment on the eye is largely unknown. Over the last several years, NASA s Space Medicine Division has documented astronauts presenting with varying degrees of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, and hyperopic shifts after long-duration space flight. Methods: Before and after long-duration space flight, six astronauts underwent complete eye examinations to include cycloplegic and/or manifest refraction and fundus photography. Five of these astronauts had Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed following their missions. Results: Following exposure to space flight of approximately 6-months duration, six astronauts had neuro-ophthalmic findings. These consisted of disc edema in four astronauts, globe flattening in four astronauts, choroidal folds in four astronauts, cotton wool spots in three astronauts, nerve fiber layer thickening by OCT in five astronauts, and decreased near vision in five astronauts. Four of the astronauts with near vision complaints had a hyperopic shift equal to or greater than + 0.50D between pre- and post-mission spherical equivalent refraction in one or both eyes (range +0.50D to +1.50D). These same four had globe flattening by MRI. Conclusions: The findings we describe may have resulted from a rise in intracranial pressure caused by microgravity fluid shifts, and could represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity.

  17. Refugee child oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, E; Rajan, S; Casey, S; Kilpatrick, N

    2017-04-01

    The number of people forced to flee their homes and move around the world is increasing rapidly. Such refugee populations are not only more likely to have poor physical, mental and social health outcomes but also to experience difficulties accessing health services in their new country. In particular, children from refugee backgrounds are at increased risk of poor oral health which in time is associated with poor adult oral health and impacts on child health (e.g. growth and development) and well-being. To date, there is little evidence about the nature and extent of their oral health problems nor interventions to improve their oral health status. This article summarises the evidence surrounding the oral health status of children from refugee backgrounds. In addition, a systematic review of the international literature over the past 10 years is presented which identifies interventions to improve the oral health of these vulnerable paediatric populations. Based on this evidence, potential strategies available to dental service providers to optimise provision of responsive dental care are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 14 CFR 121.387 - Flight engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer. 121.387 Section 121.387..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.387 Flight engineer. No... holding a current flight engineer certificate. For each airplane type certificated after January 1, 1964...

  19. 14 CFR 417.107 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 417.107 Section 417.107... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.107 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety... safety system that satisfies subpart D of this part as follows, unless § 417.125 applies. (1) In the...

  20. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's...

  1. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71. ...

  2. Flight Attendants. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the career opportunities of airline flight attendants. General information about airline hiring policies for flight attendants are discussed, and the following information about the flight attendant job classification is provided: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs…

  3. High pressure gas storage system consumable analyses for ALT flights free flight 1 and free flight 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Consumables analyses are presented for the high pressure gas storage oxygen (O2), and hydrogen (H2) reactant systems for orbiter vehicle 101 approach and landing tests, for two flights, free flight 1 and free flight 6 are given. The consumables analyses are based on average power data. The required system and mission data updates were made in order to perform the analyses, notably the thermal environment profiles of the reactant storage cylinders and the power profile for the Electrical power subsystem. No mission-dependent environment profiles were provided; therefore, nominal free flight mission profile was used to generate environment profiles for free flights 1 and 6.

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly from fat body and flight muscles transcripts to identify morph-specific gene expression profiles in Gryllus firmus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal

    Full Text Available Wing polymorphism is a powerful model for examining many aspects of adaptation. The wing dimorphic cricket species, Gryllus firmus, consists of a long-winged morph with functional flight muscles that is capable of flight, and two flightless morphs. One (obligately flightless morph emerges as an adult with vestigial wings and vestigial flight muscles. The other (plastic flightless morph emerges with fully-developed wings but later in adulthood histolyzes its flight muscles. Importantly both flightless morphs have substantially increased reproductive output relative to the flight-capable morph. Much is known about the physiological and biochemical differences between the morphs with respect to adaptations for flight versus reproduction. In contrast, little is known about the molecular genetic basis of these morph-specific adaptations. To address this issue, we assembled a de novo transcriptome of G. firmus using 141.5 million Illumina reads generated from flight muscles and fat body, two organs that play key roles in flight and reproduction. We used the resulting 34,411 transcripts as a reference transcriptome for differential gene expression analyses. A comparison of gene expression profiles from functional flight muscles in the flight-capable morph versus histolyzed flight muscles in the plastic flight incapable morph identified a suite of genes involved in respiration that were highly expressed in pink (functional flight muscles and genes involved in proteolysis highly expressed in the white (histolyzed flight muscles. A comparison of fat body transcripts from the obligately flightless versus the flight-capable morphs revealed differential expression of genes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis, lipid transport, immune function and reproduction. These data provide a valuable resource for future molecular genetics research in this and related species and provide insight on the role of gene expression in morph-specific adaptations for flight

  5. Aerodynamic maneuvering hypersonic flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautel, Dick

    1988-01-01

    The emergence of current high-interest mission involving aeromaneuvering hypersonic flight has given rise to the corresponding need for preliminary design and performance analyses of such vehicles. This need in turn has motivated efforts to develop simplified analytical and computational methods for parametric analysis of maneuvering hypersonic flight under conditions appropriate to the mission involved. The effort included a review of different formulations of the general equations of motion, their associated coordinate frames, various simplifications of the equations, and previously achieved analytical solutions. This study sought to both extend previous solution methods and to develop new ones. In addition, evaluation of the literature and developing a systematic perspective on the knowledge it represents proved to be a major portion of the effort.

  6. Neuroplasticity changes during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.

  7. ALICE Time of Flight Module

    CERN Multimedia

    The Time-Of-Flight system of ALICE consists of 90 such modules, each containing 15 or 19 Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) strips. This detector is used for identification of charged particles. It measures with high precision (50 ps) the time of flight of charged particles and therefore their velocity. The curvature of the particle trajectory inside the magnetic field gives the momentum, thus the particle mass is calculated and the particle is identified The MRPC is a stack of resistive glass plates, separated from each other by nylon fishing line. The mass production of the chambers (~1600, covering a surface of 150 m2) was done at INFN Bologna, while the first prototypes were bult at CERN.

  8. Flight test trajectory control analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1983-01-01

    Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.

  9. Time-of-flight spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The flight time of an ion in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field (IOFE) is an m/e-dependent property of this field and is independent of the initial position and velocity. The d.c. component of the equation of motion for an ion in the IOFE describes a harmonic oscillation of constant period. When ions oscillate for many periods with one species overtaking another the motion may no longer be truly periodic although the resulting period or 'quasi-period' still remains independent of the initial conditions. This period or 'quasi-period' is used in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer described. The principle of operation is also described and both analytical and experimental results are reported. (B.D.)

  10. Bears Show a Physiological but Limited Behavioral Response to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmer, Mark A; Vincent, John B; Werden, Leland K; Tanner, Jessie C; Laske, Timothy G; Iaizzo, Paul A; Garshelis, David L; Fieberg, John R

    2015-08-31

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to revolutionize the way research is conducted in many scientific fields. UAVs can access remote or difficult terrain, collect large amounts of data for lower cost than traditional aerial methods, and facilitate observations of species that are wary of human presence. Currently, despite large regulatory hurdles, UAVs are being deployed by researchers and conservationists to monitor threats to biodiversity, collect frequent aerial imagery, estimate population abundance, and deter poaching. Studies have examined the behavioral responses of wildlife to aircraft (including UAVs), but with the widespread increase in UAV flights, it is critical to understand whether UAVs act as stressors to wildlife and to quantify that impact. Biologger technology allows for the remote monitoring of stress responses in free-roaming individuals, and when linked to locational information, it can be used to determine events or components of an animal's environment that elicit a physiological response not apparent based on behavior alone. We assessed effects of UAV flights on movements and heart rate responses of free-roaming American black bears. We observed consistently strong physiological responses but infrequent behavioral changes. All bears, including an individual denned for hibernation, responded to UAV flights with elevated heart rates, rising as much as 123 beats per minute above the pre-flight baseline. It is important to consider the additional stress on wildlife from UAV flights when developing regulations and best scientific practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual Elements in Flight Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    greater than the earliest simu- lators. Motion capability has been restored becaise a great deal of evidence bolstered by virtually unanimous pilot...March, 1970, Pip ,r No. 70-347. 10. Ganzler, Bruce C. Virtual image display for flight simulation. NASA Technical Memorandum, NASA TM X-2327, July...studies can be conducted. e. John Dusterberry, Asistant Chief, Simulation Sciences Division, presented remarks on "State-of-the-Art in Visual

  12. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-29

    strains at the base of antennae, similar to halteres in Diptera . We are investigating various aspects of these phenomena in greater detail to understand...coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Tanvi Deora): One of the key sensory inputs for flight stability in Diptera comes from the haltere...as they land on visual objects that we provide them. This assay relies on the fact that houseflies are attracted to strong contrast visual cues when

  13. Flight Control in Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    realisation of such aircraft has remained elusive. One of the major challenges has been the development of a control system that is capable of flying...Baird E, Srinivasan M, Zhang S, Lamont R & Cowling A. 2006 Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (eds S Nolfi et al.), 4095 40 4 Srinivasan M...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0038 Flight Control in Complex Environments Emily Baird LUNDS UNIVERSITET Final Report 10/24/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  14. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...... is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work...

  15. Trends in sensorimotor research and countermeasures for exploration-class space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Research in the area of sensorimotor and neurovestibular function has played an important role in enabling human space flight. This role, however, is changing. One of the key aspects of sensorimotor function relevant to this role will build on its widespread connections with other physiological and psychological systems in the body. The firm knowledge base in this area can provide a strong platform to explore these interactions, which can also provide for the development of effective and efficient countermeasures to the deleterious effects of space flight.

  16. Simulating the postprandial stomach: physiological considerations for dissolution and release testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziolek, Mirko; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Neumann, Marco; Weitschies, Werner

    2013-05-06

    Food effects on drug release and absorption from solid oral dosage forms are a common biopharmaceutical problem. The fed state is characterized by different motility and secretory activity of the complete gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared to fasting conditions. Due to long gastric transit times, the postprandial stomach plays an essential role for drug release and the appearance of food effects. Therefore, a concise comprehension of the relationship between food intake and its effect on drug release from solid oral dosage forms is essential to understand their dissolution behavior under fed conditions. This review describes important aspects of stomach physiology occurring after meal ingestion with particular reference to the FDA standard breakfast. A brief overview of oral and gastric food processing and their potential influence on drug release is given. The key factors affecting the intragastric dissolution of solid oral dosage forms and their regional distribution in the stomach are discussed. Additionally, the effects of food properties on gastric emptying kinetics are presented. Mechanical aspects such as intragastric pressures and hydrodynamics caused by gastric peristalsis are defined. The initial state and the dynamic changes of the gastric content during digestion are characterized since the different physicochemical aspects such as pH value, buffer capacity, rheological properties or surface tension may be essential for the in vivo dissolution profiles of oral dosage forms. Possible effects of the discrete interplay of the physiological factors on the in vivo drug delivery behavior of solid oral dosage forms are discussed.

  17. EO framing flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Andre G.

    1995-09-01

    Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) has pioneered the electro-optical (E-O) framing generation of sensors with the CA-260, a KS-87 form/fit camera with a wafer-scale focal plane array (FPA) containing a patented, on-chip, forward motion compensation (FMC) architecture. The technology has now matured to the state where production E-O framing cameras are form/fit replacing their former film counterparts. During this interim production phase, flight demonstrations and tests are continuing to prove that E-O framing produces high-quality imagery, is robust to various platforms and mission tactics, interoperable with existing and planned C3I architectures, affordable and available, and meets the war-fighters needs. This paper discusses flight test results of the CA-260 E-O framing sensor flown in the F-14A TARPS during September 1994. This demonstration provided some unique imagery permitting a comparison of low-light level, in-flight FMC-on versus FMC-off performance. A first-level comparison of the resulting imagery based upon predicted FMC performance and post- processing numerical analysis is presented. The results indicae that the patented FMC architecture performed as predicted, and that for low-light conditions resulting in limited SNR images, on-chip FMC can provide a significant image quality improvement over post- processing alternatives.

  18. Food, gastrointestinal pH, and models of oral drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Williams, Desmond B; Upton, Richard N; Foster, David J R

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and physicochemical principles of the effect of food and gastrointestinal (GI) pH on the absorption and bioavailability of oral drugs, and the various absorption models that are used to describe/predict oral drug absorption. The rate and extent of oral drug absorption is determined by a complex interaction between a drug's physicochemical properties, GI physiologic factors, and the nature of the formulation administered. GI pH is an important factor that can markedly affect oral drug absorption and bioavailability as it may have significant influence on drug dissolution & solubility, drug release, drug stability, and intestinal permeability. Different regions of the GI tract have different drug absorptive properties. Thus, the transit time in each GI region and its variability between subjects may contribute to the variability in the rate and/or extent of drug absorption. Food-drug interactions can result in delayed, decreased, increased, and sometimes un-altered drug absorption. Food effects on oral absorption can be achieved by direct and indirect mechanisms. Various models have been proposed to describe oral absorption ranging from empirical models to the more sophisticated "mechanism-based" models. Through understanding of the physicochemical and physiological rate-limiting factors affecting oral absorption, modellers can implement simplified population-based modelling approaches that are less complex than whole-body physiologically-based models but still capture the essential elements in a physiological way and hence will be more suited for population modelling of large clinical data sets. It will also help formulation scientists to better predict formulation performance and to develop formulations that maximize oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemberger, L.; Bergstrom, R.F.; Wolen, R.L.; Farid, N.A.; Enas, G.G.; Aronoff, G.R.

    1985-03-01

    Fluoxetine (30 mg), administered for 7 days to normal volunteers, produced a 66% inhibition of tritiated serotonin uptake into platelets. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine correlated positively with inhibition of serotonin uptake. Fluoxetine is well absorbed after oral administration in both the fed and fasted states and demonstrates dose proportionality. Fluoxetine disappears from plasma with a half-life of 1-3 days; its metabolite norfluoxetine has a plasma half-life of 7-15 days. After administration of /sup 14/C-fluoxetine, approximately 65% of the administered dose of radioactivity is recovered in urine and about 15% in feces. Fluoxetine, given as a single dose or in multiple doses over 8 days, did not produce significant effects on the plasma disappearance of warfarin, diazepam, tolbutamide, or chlorothiazide. Coadministration of fluoxetine and ethanol did not result in an increase from control values in the blood ethanol levels, nor did it produce significant changes in physiologic, psychometric, or psychomotor activity. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in the elderly and normal volunteers appear to be similar. In addition, pharmacokinetic analyses in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment did not show significant differences from healthy subjects.

  20. Graphite oral tattoo: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more f...

  1. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  2. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  3. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  4. Progress in knowledge-based flight monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Features and applications of the script-based flight monitor SECURE are described. Implemented on an on-board computer, SECURE treats a flight as a regular sequence of contexts (situations) defined in a knowledge base with a hierarchical structure for successively more finely delineated flight phases, i.e., takeoff, cruise and landing. SECURE provides normalcy references for flight monitoring and allows context identification, which allows the presentation of checklists. An implementation of SECURE, written in MACLISP, on a DC-10 flight simulator is described.

  5. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...... been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how...

  6. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Oral care practices for orally intubated critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feider, Laura L; Mitchell, Pamela; Bridges, Elizabeth

    2010-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a major threat to patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospitals. Oral care is a nursing intervention that may help prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. To describe oral care practices performed by critical care nurses for orally intubated critically ill patients and compare these practices with recommendations for oral care in the 2005 AACN Procedure Manual for Critical Care and the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A descriptive, cross-sectional design with a 31-item Web-based survey was used to describe oral care practices reported by 347 randomly selected members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Oral care was performed every 2 (50%) or 4 (42%) hours, usually with foam swabs (97%). Oral care was reported as a high priority (47%). Nurses with 7 years or more of critical care experience performed oral care more often (P=.008) than did less experienced nurses. Nurses with a bachelor's degree in nursing used foam swabs (P=.001), suctioned the mouth before the endotracheal tube (P=.02), and suctioned after oral care (Ptoothpaste (40%), brushing with a foam swab (90%), using chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse (49%), suctioning the oral cavity (84%), and assessing the oral cavity (73%). Oral care practices and policies differed for all those items. Survey results indicate that discrepancies exist between reported practices and policies. Oral care policies appear to be present, but not well used.

  8. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  9. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  10. Representation of the Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance Using Motion Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience changes in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. To understand how changes in physiological function influence functional performance, a testing procedure has been developed that evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. Astronauts complete seven functional and physiological tests. The objective of this project is to use motion tracking and digitizing software to visually display the postflight decrement in the functional performance of the astronauts. The motion analysis software will be used to digitize astronaut data videos into stick figure videos to represent the astronauts as they perform the Functional Tasks Tests. This project will benefit NASA by allowing NASA scientists to present data of their neurological studies without revealing the identities of the astronauts.

  11. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Jr, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that 40-60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yetuncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infect...

  12. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  13. The Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing.

  14. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  15. Probiotics and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour.

  16. Oral health during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.

  17. Physiological responses to unvarying (steady) and 2-2-1 shifts : Miami International Flight Service Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Two types of shift rotation in the same air traffic facility were investigated in order to determine the relative advantages and disadvantages of nonrotating shift work (steady shift) and rotating shift work. The rotating shift work chosen for compar...

  18. A sport-physiological perspective on bird migration : Evidence for flight-induced muscle damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmo, C; Piersma, T; Williams, TD; Williams, Tony D.

    Exercise-induced muscle damage is a well-described consequence of strenuous exercise, but its potential importance in the evolution of animal activity patterns is unknown. We used plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity as an indicator of muscle damage to investigate whether the high intensity,

  19. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  20. The oral microbiome and nitric oxide homoeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, M P; Weitzberg, E

    2015-01-01

    The tiny radical nitric oxide (NO) participates in a vast number of physiological functions including vasodilation, nerve transmission, host defence and cellular energetics. Classically produced by a family of specific enzymes, NO synthases (NOSs), NO signals via reactions with other radicals or transition metals. An alternative pathway for the generation of NO is the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway in which the inorganic anions nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) are reduced to NO and other reactive nitrogen intermediates. Nitrate and nitrite are oxidation products from NOS-dependent NO generation but also constituents in our diet, mainly in leafy green vegetables. Irrespective of origin, active uptake of circulating nitrate in the salivary glands, excretion in saliva and subsequent reduction to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria are all necessary steps for further NO generation. This central role of the oral cavity in regulating NO generation from nitrate presents a new and intriguing aspect of the human microbiome in health and disease. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and specifically highlight the importance of the oral cavity as a hub for its function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  2. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  3. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged ...

  4. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  5. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper some physiological and clinical aspects of paired stimulation are discussed. I) The augmenting effect of paired stimulation on rnyocardial contractility is due to potentiation (increase in speed of restitution) and fusion of two contractions. 2) While using paired stimulation the

  6. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  7. Postembryonic development of centrally generated flight motor patterns in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierk, Ricardo; Duch, Carsten; Pflüger, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the maturation of centrally generated flight motor patterns during metamorphosis of Manduca sexta. Bath application of the octopamine agonist chlordimeform to the isolated central nervous system of adult moths reliably induces fictive flight patterns in wing depressor and elevator motoneurons. Pattern maturation is investigated by chlordimeform application at different developmental stages. Chlordimeform also induces motor patterns in larval ganglia, which differ from fictive flight, indicating that in larvae and adults, octopamine affects different networks. First changes in motoneuron activity occur at the pupal stage P10. Rhythmic motor output is induced in depressor, but not in elevator motoneurons at P12. Adult-like fictive flight activity in motoneurons is observed at P16 and increases in speed and precision until emergence 2 days later. Pharmacological block of chloride channels with picrotoxin also induces fictive flight in adults, suggesting that the pattern-generating network can be activated by the removal of inhibition, and that proper network function does not rely on GABA(A) receptors. Our results suggest that the flight pattern-generating network becomes gradually established between P12 and P16, and is further refined until adulthood. These findings are discussed in the context of known physiological and structural CNS development during Manduca metamorphosis.

  8. Applied physiology of rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim; King, Trish; Jenkins, David

    2008-01-01

    Rugby league football is played in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs), with matches played over two 40-minute halves separated by a 10-minute rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities of rugby league players and the physiological demands of competition, with the physiological capacities of players and the physiological demands of competition increasing as the playing level is increased. However, there is also evidence to suggest that the physiological capacities of players may deteriorate as the season progresses, with reductions in muscular power and maximal aerobic power and increases in skinfold thickness occurring towards the end of the rugby league season, when training loads are lowest and match loads and injury rates are at their highest. Player fatigue and playing intensity have been suggested to contribute to injuries in rugby league, with a recent study reporting a significant correlation (r=0.74) between match injury rates and playing intensity in semi-professional rugby league players. Studies have also reported a higher risk of injury in players with low 10-m and 40-m speed, while players with a low maximal aerobic power had a greater risk of sustaining a contact injury. Furthermore, players who completed injury were at greater risk of sustaining a subsequent injury. These findings provide some explanation for the high incidence of fatigue-related injuries in rugby league players and highlight the importance of speed and endurance training to reduce the incidence of injury in rugby league players. To date, most, but not all, studies have investigated the movement patterns and physiological demands of rugby league competition, with little emphasis on how training activities simulate the competition environment. An understanding of the movement patterns and physiological demands of specific individual positions during training and competition would allow the

  9. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fl uoride, adjusted fl uoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fl uoride in improving oral health...... including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fl uorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision...... of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fi elds of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fl uorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fl uoride...

  10. Oral pregnancy tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh M Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manifesting as small, red erythematous growth on a pedunculated or sometimes sessile base, which is usually hemorrhagic. Although excisional surgery is the treatment of choice , some other treatment protocols such as the use of Nd:YAG laser, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, cryosurgery, intralesional injection of ethanol or corticosteroids, and sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy have been proposed. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman with large oral pyogenic granuloma.

  11. Oral varix: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazos, Jerónimo P; Piemonte, Eduardo D; Panico, René L

    2015-06-01

    Ageing produces several changes on the oral cavity, and oral varix (OV) is among the most common, and they are related with some medical diseases; however, this association is not clear. The aim of this article is to offer a review of OV, regarding aetiology, clinical and histological features, associated factors, treatment and its clinical significance. Except for a higher incidence of OV in elder individuals, there is limited evidence that supports its relationship with medical conditions such us cardiovascular diseases or portal hypertension. Also, there is no consensus regarding its pathogenesis, but the hemodynamic theory embodies the most comprehensive approach. The high prevalence in elderly people stresses the need for regular oral examination, but more detailed studies regarding OV in relation to systemic diseases are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight of the nectar bat, Glossophaga soricina: further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, R K; Welch, K C; Hanna, S K; Herrera M, L G

    2009-06-01

    Given their high metabolic rates, nectarivorous diet, and ability to directly fuel their energetically-expensive flight using recently-ingested sugar, we tested the hypothesis that Pallas long tongued nectar bats (Glossophaga soricina) possess flight muscles similar to those of hummingbirds with respect to enzymatic flux capacities in bioenergetic pathways. In addition, we compared these biochemical capacities with flux rates achieved in vivo during hovering flight. Rates of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) were measured during hover-feeding and used to estimate rates of ATP turnover, glucose and long-chain fatty acid oxidation per unit mass of flight muscle. Enzyme V(max) values at key steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation obtained in vitro from pectoralis muscle samples exceed those found in the locomotory muscles of other species of small mammals and resemble data obtained from hummingbird flight muscles. The ability of nectar bats and hummingbirds to hover in fed and fasted states, fueled almost exclusively by carbohydrate or fat, respectively, allowed the estimation of fractional velocities (v/V(max)) at both the hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation, respectively. The results further support the hypothesis of convergent evolution in biochemical and physiological traits in nectar bats and hummingbirds.

  13. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  14. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section......This textbook is based on the curricula for dental students in the Nordic countries, and the authors teach the subject at three universities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Although primarily for undergraduates, the book may also appeal to Ph.D. students and general practitioners. In addition...

  15. Sclerotherapy for oral hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navadeepak Korvipati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are well-known benign neoplasms of the body most commonly occurring in the head and neck region and less commonly in the oral cavity. The predominant site of occurrence, in the oral cavity, is lips followed by gingiva, tongue and palate. Treatment is primarily dependent on correct diagnosis of the lesion and its anatomic location. Here, we report a case of hemangioma on posterior third of the tongue in 34-year-old male patient, who was treated by sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecylsulphate (setrol sclerosing agent.

  16. Oral lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Katpar, S.; Ali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous dermatological disorder, with intraoral manifestation. Skin lesions prevail with oral mucosal lesions. Prevalence of lichen planus, as an oral pre-malignant lesion, is 1-2 % population. Lateral border, dorsal tongue, gingiva, hard palate and vermilion border are common sites and lesions appear as reticular, plaque-like and papular intraoral types. Skin presents with pururitic, polygonal papules. Atrophic and erosive are the known intraoral pre-malignant types. A case report is presented, which responded well to steroid therapy. (author)

  17. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  18. STS-72 Flight Day 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-72 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Brian Duffy, Pilot Brent W. Jett, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, Daniel T. Barry, Winston E. Scott, and Koichi Wakata (NASDA), awakened to music from the Walt Disney movie, 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.' Chiao and Scott performed the second spacewalk of the mission where they tested equipment and work platforms that will be used in building the planned International Space Station. This spacewalk was almost seven hours long. Wakata conducted an interview with and answered questions from six graders from a Japanese school in Houston, Texas.

  19. F-8 SCW in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing (SCW) reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In this photograph a Vought F-8A Crusader is shown being used as a flying testbed for an experimental Supercritical Wing airfoil. The smooth fairing of the fiberglass glove with the wing is illustrated in this view. This is the configuration of the F-8 SCW aircraft late in the program. The SCW team fitted the fuselage with bulges fore and aft of the wings. This was similar to the proposed shape of a near-sonic airliner. Both the SCW airfoil and the bulged-fuselage design were optimal for cruise at Mach 0.98. Dr. Whitcomb (designer of the SCW) had previously spent about four years working on supersonic transport designs. He concluded that these were impractical due to their high operating costs. The high drag at speeds above Mach 1 resulted in greatly increased costs. Following the fuel-price rises caused by the October 1973 oil embargo, airlines lost interest in near-sonic transports. Rather, they wanted a design that would have lower fuel consumption. Dr. Whitcomb developed a modified supercritical-wing shape that provided higher lift-to-drag ratios at the same speeds. He did this by using thicker airfoil sections and a reduced wing sweepback. This resulted in an increased aspect ratio without an increase in wing weight. In the three decades since the F-8 SCW flew, the use of such airfoils has become common. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the

  20. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  1. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  2. Intraspecific variation in flight metabolic rate in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens: repeatability and functional determinants in workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau, Charles-A; Billardon, Fannie; Bélanger, Kasandra

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of flight energetics requires that phenotypes be variable, repeatable and heritable. We studied intraspecific variation in flight energetics in order to assess the repeatability of flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency, as well as the functional basis of phenotypic variation in workers and drones of the bumblebee species Bombus impatiens. We showed that flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency were highly repeatable in workers, even when controlling for body mass variation using residual analysis. We did not detect significant repeatability in drones, but a smaller range of variation might have prevented us from finding significant values in our sample. Based on our results and previous findings, we associated the high repeatability of flight phenotypes in workers to the functional links between body mass, thorax mass, wing size, wingbeat frequency and metabolic rate. Moreover, differences between workers and drones were as predicted from these functional associations, where drones had larger wings for their size, lower wingbeat frequency and lower flight metabolic rate. We also investigated thoracic muscle metabolic phenotypes by measuring the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and we found positive correlations between mass-independent metabolic rate and the activity of all enzymes measured, but in workers only. When comparing workers and drones that differ in flight metabolic rate, only the activity of the enzymes hexokinase and trehalase showed the predicted differences. Overall, our study indicates that there should be correlated evolution among physiological phenotypes at multiple levels of organization and morphological traits associated with flight.

  3. Evaluation of extended and continuous use oral contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Page Wright

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristen Page Wright, Julia V JohnsonUniversity of Vermont College of Medicine and Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Women’s Health Care Services, Fletcher Allen Health Care, Burlington, VT USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives are classically given in a cyclic manner with 21 days of active pills followed by 7 days of placebo. In the past 4 years, new oral contraceptives have been introduced which either shorten the placebo time, lengthen the active pills (extended cycle, or provide active pills every day (continuous. These concepts are not new; extended and continuous pills were first studied in the 1960s and 1970s and have been provided in an off-label manner by gynecologists to treat menstrual disorders, such as menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea, and gynecologic disorders, such as endometriosis. Now that extended and continuous combined oral contraceptives are available for all patients, it is critical for providers to understand the physiology, dosing, side effects, and benefits of this form of oral contraceptive. This article reviews the history and the potential uses of the new continuous combined oral contraceptive.Keywords: oral contraceptives, administration, dosage, adverse effects, menstrual disturbances

  4. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  5. Physiological effects of stress related to helicopter travel in Federal Emergency Management Agency search-and-rescue canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E; Gulson, N; Liu Cross, T-W; Swanson, K S

    2017-01-01

    Working canines are deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as part of a National Disaster Response Plan. Stress associated with helicopter flight and the resulting physical effects on the dog are unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that (1) helicopter travel affects the physiology and faecal microbiota of working canines, but that (2) physiological consequences of helicopter travel will not negatively affect their work performance. A total of nine FEMA canines were loaded onto helicopters and flown for 30 min in July 2015. Rectal temperature, behavioural stress indicators and saliva swabs (for cortisol) were collected at baseline, loading, mid-flight and post-flight. After flight, canines completed a standardised search exercise to monitor work performance. Faecal samples were collected for microbial DNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. All canines were on a standardised diet (CANIDAE ® Grain Free PURE Land ® ) for 3 weeks prior to the study. Visible indicators of stress were observed at loading and at mid-flight and corresponded with an increase ( P  travel did not affect search performance ( P  > 0·05). We found that α- and β-diversity measures of faecal microbiota were not affected ( P  > 0·05). Our data suggest that although helicopter travel may cause physiological changes that have been associated with stress in working dogs, it does not make an impact on their search performance or the stability of faecal microbiota.

  6. Sunspot Dynamics Are Reflected in Human Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrushesky, William J. M.; Sothern, Robert B.; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Quiton, Dinah Faith T.; Rietveld, Wop; Boon, Mathilde E.

    2011-03-01

    Periodic episodes of increased sunspot activity (solar electromagnetic storms) occur with 10-11 and 5-6 year periodicities and may be associated with measurable biological events. We investigated whether this sunspot periodicity characterized the incidence of Pap smear-determined cervical epithelial histopathologies and human physiologic functions. From January 1983 through December 2003, monthly averages were obtained for solar flux and sunspot numbers; six infectious, premalignant and malignant changes in the cervical epithelium from 1,182,421 consecutive, serially independent, screening Pap smears (59°9"N, 4°29"E); and six human physiologic functions of a healthy man (oral temperature, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and peak expiratory flow), which were measured ∼5 times daily during ∼34,500 self-measurement sessions (44°56"N, 93°8"W). After determining that sunspot numbers and solar flux, which were not annually rhythmic, occurred with a prominent 10-year and a less-prominent 5.75-year periodicity during this 21-year study span, each biological data set was analyzed with the same curve-fitting procedures. All six annually rhythmic Pap smear-detected infectious, premalignant and malignant cervical epithelial pathologies showed strong 10-year and weaker 5.75-year cycles, as did all six self-measured, annually rhythmic, physiologic functions. The phases (maxima) for the six histopathologic findings and five of six physiologic measurements were very near, or within, the first two quarters following the 10-year solar maxima. These findings add to the growing evidence that solar magnetic storm periodicities are mirrored by cyclic phase-locked rhythms of similar period length or lengths in human physiology and pathophysiology.

  7. Stable isotope tracers and exercise physiology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Daniel J; Brook, Matthew S; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotope tracers have been invaluable assets in physiological research for over 80 years. The application of substrate-specific stable isotope tracers has permitted exquisite insight into amino acid, fatty-acid and carbohydrate metabolic regulation (i.e. incorporation, flux, and oxidation, in a tissue-specific and whole-body fashion) in health, disease and response to acute and chronic exercise. Yet, despite many breakthroughs, there are limitations to 'substrate-specific' stable isotope tracers, which limit physiological insight, e.g. the need for intravenous infusions and restriction to short-term studies (hours) in controlled laboratory settings. In recent years significant interest has developed in alternative stable isotope tracer techniques that overcome these limitations, in particular deuterium oxide (D 2 O or heavy water). The unique properties of this tracer mean that through oral administration, the turnover and flux through a number of different substrates (muscle proteins, lipids, glucose, DNA (satellite cells)) can be monitored simultaneously and flexibly (hours/weeks/months) without the need for restrictive experimental control. This makes it uniquely suited for the study of 'real world' human exercise physiology (amongst many other applications). Moreover, using D 2 O permits evaluation of turnover of plasma and muscle proteins (e.g. dynamic proteomics) in addition to metabolomics (e.g. fluxomics) to seek molecular underpinnings, e.g. of exercise adaptation. Here, we provide insight into the role of stable isotope tracers, from substrate-specific to novel D 2 O approaches, in facilitating our understanding of metabolism. Further novel potential applications of stable isotope tracers are also discussed in the context of integration with the snowballing field of 'omic' technologies. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  8. Sunspot dynamics are reflected in human physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrushesky, William J M; Sothern, Robert B; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Rietveld, Wop; Boon, Mathilde E

    2011-03-01

    Periodic episodes of increased sunspot activity (solar electromagnetic storms) occur with 10-11 and 5-6 year periodicities and may be associated with measurable biological events. We investigated whether this sunspot periodicity characterized the incidence of Pap smear-determined cervical epithelial histopathologies and human physiologic functions. From January 1983 through December 2003, monthly averages were obtained for solar flux and sunspot numbers; six infectious, premalignant and malignant changes in the cervical epithelium from 1,182,421 consecutive, serially independent, screening Pap smears (59°9″N, 4°29″E); and six human physiologic functions of a healthy man (oral temperature, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and peak expiratory flow), which were measured ∼5 times daily during ∼34,500 self-measurement sessions (44°56″N, 93°8″W). After determining that sunspot numbers and solar flux, which were not annually rhythmic, occurred with a prominent 10-year and a less-prominent 5.75-year periodicity during this 21-year study span, each biological data set was analyzed with the same curve-fitting procedures. All six annually rhythmic Pap smear-detected infectious, premalignant and malignant cervical epithelial pathologies showed strong 10-year and weaker 5.75-year cycles, as did all six self-measured, annually rhythmic, physiologic functions. The phases (maxima) for the six histopathologic findings and five of six physiologic measurements were very near, or within, the first two quarters following the 10-year solar maxima. These findings add to the growing evidence that solar magnetic storm periodicities are mirrored by cyclic phase-locked rhythms of similar period length or lengths in human physiology and pathophysiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  9. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D 1974: Present status of physiological studies and analysis of calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, J. T., Jr.; Swenson, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    The role of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D in the control of calcium and bone metabolism was studied. Particular emphasis was placed on the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and, as a potential model for this purpose, on the immobilization characteristic of space flight or prolonged bed rest. The biosynthesis, control of secretion, and metabolism of these hormonal agents is considered.

  10. Physiological reactivity and different forms of aggression in girls : Moderating roles of rejection sensitivity and peer rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    Associations between physiological reactivity to exclusion (i.e., heart rate [HRR], respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSAR], and skin conductance [SCR]) and relational and physical aggression were assessed. It was hypothesized that blunted "fight or flight" responses to stress (i.e., blunted HRR, SCR,

  11. Inequalities in oral health and oral health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the problem of inequalities in oral health and discusses strategies for disease prevention and oral health promotion. It shows that oral health is not merely a result of individual biological, psychological, and behavioral factors; rather, it is the sum of collective social conditions created when people interact with the social environment. Oral health status is directly related to socioeconomic position across the socioeconomic gradient in almost all...

  12. Probiotics as oral health biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shyamali; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Prakash, Satya

    2012-09-01

    Oral health is affected by its resident microorganisms. Three prominent oral disorders are dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, with the oral microbiota playing a key role in the initiation/progression of all three. Understanding the microbiota and the diseases they may cause is critical to the development of new therapeutics. This review is focused on probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of oral diseases. This review describes the oral ecosystem and its correlation with oral health/disease. The pathogenesis and current prevention/treatment strategies of periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC) are depicted. An introduction of probiotics is followed by an analysis of their role in PD and DC, and their potential role(s) in oral health. Finally, a discussion ensues on the future research directions and limitations of probiotics for oral health. An effective oral probiotic formulation should contribute to the prevention/treatment of microbial diseases of the oral cavity. Understanding the oral microbiota's role in oral disease is important for the development of a therapeutic to prevent/treat dental diseases. However, investigations into clinical efficacy, delivery/dose optimization, mechanism(s) of action and other related parameters are yet to be fully explored. Keeping this in mind, investigations into oral probiotic therapies are proving promising.

  13. Robust flight control of rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechner, Adam Daniel

    With recent design improvement in fixed wing aircraft, there has been a considerable interest in the design of robust flight control systems to compensate for the inherent instability necessary to achieve desired performance. Such systems are designed for maximum available retention of stability and performance in the presence of significant vehicle damage or system failure. The rotorcraft industry has shown similar interest in adopting these reconfigurable flight control schemes specifically because of their ability to reject disturbance inputs and provide a significant amount of robustness for all but the most catastrophic of situations. The research summarized herein focuses on the extension of the pseudo-sliding mode control design procedure interpreted in the frequency domain. Application of the technique is employed and simulated on two well known helicopters, a simplified model of a hovering Sikorsky S-61 and the military's Black Hawk UH-60A also produced by Sikorsky. The Sikorsky helicopter model details are readily available and was chosen because it can be limited to pitch and roll motion reducing the number of degrees of freedom and yet contains two degrees of freedom, which is the minimum requirement in proving the validity of the pseudo-sliding control technique. The full order model of a hovering Black Hawk system was included both as a comparison to the S-61 helicopter design system and as a means to demonstrate the scaleability and effectiveness of the control technique on sophisticated systems where design robustness is of critical concern.

  14. STS-79 Flight Day 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, continue activities aboard Atlantis/Mir as the nine astronauts and cosmonauts work in their second full day of docked operations. The continuing transfer of logistical supplies and scientific hardware can be seen proceeding smoothly. Apt and Walz once again worked with the Active Rack Isolation System experiment to replace a broken pushrod. With that complete, Apt monitors the ARIS experiment as Readdy and Korzun fire small maneuvering jets on their spacecraft to test the ability of ARIS to damp out any disturbances created by the firings. Walz also is continuing his work with the Mechanics of Granular Materials experiment in Atlantis' double Spacehab module. The astronauts used the large format IMAX camera to conduct a photographic survey of Mir from the Shuttle's flight deck windows while Akers shot IMAX movie scenes of Readdy, Wilcutt, and Korzun in the Spektr module.

  15. DC-10 winglet flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a flight evaluation of winglets on a DC-10 Series 10 aircraft are presented. For sensitive areas of comparison, effects of winglets were determined back-to-back with and without winglets. Basic and reduced-span winglet configurations were tested. After initial encounter with low-speed buffet, a number of acceptable configurations were developed. For maximum drag reduction at both cruise and low speeds, lower winglets were required, having leading edge devices on upper and lower winglets for the latter regime. The cruise benefits were enhanced by adding outboard aileron droop to the reduced-span winglet aircraft. Winglets had no significant impact on stall speeds, high-speed buffet boundary, and stability and control. Flutter test results agreed with predictions and ground vibration data. Flight loads measurement, provided in a concurrent program, also agreed with predictions. It was estimated that a production version of the aircraft, using the reduced-span winglet and aileron droop, would yield a 3-percent reduction in fuel burned with capacity payload. This range was 2% greater than with winglets. A 5% reduction in takeoff distance at maximum takeoff weight would also result.

  16. The Aerodynamics of Bird Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, Geoffrey

    2002-11-01

    The manifest success of birds in flight over small and large distances, in confined quarters and also in gusty conditions has inspired admiration, investigation and sometimes imitation from the earthbound human. Birds occupy a range of scales (2 g - 12 kg in mass, and 0.05 - 3 m in wingspan) that overlaps certain micro air vehicle (MAV) designs and there is interest in whether some bird-like properties (flapping wings, deformable feathers, movable tails) might be useful or even necessary for successful MAVs. A bird with 5 cm mean chord flying at 8 m/s has a nominal Reynolds number of 2 - 3 x 10^4. This is an extremely inconvenient range for design, operation and analysis of lifting surfaces, even in steady motion, because their properties are very sensitive to boundary layer separation. The moderate- to high-amplitude flapping motions, together with the complex surface geometry and mechanical properties of the wings themselves lead to yet further challenges. This talk will review some of the theoretical and practical approaches towards understanding and analyzing the aerodynamics of various types of bird flight, including some recent research results that suggest that this effort is far from complete.

  17. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: stresses of flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-05-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Modern commercial aircraft are very safe and, in most cases, reasonably comfortable. However, all flights, short or long haul, impose stresses on passengers. Preflight stresses include airport commotion on the ground such as carrying baggage, walking long distances, getting to the gate on time, and being delayed. In-flight stresses include acceleration, vibration (including turbulence), noise, lowered barometric pressure, variations of temperature and humidity, and fatigue among others. Healthy passengers normally tolerate these stresses quite well; however, there is the potential for passengers to become ill during or after the flight due to these stresses, especially for those with pre-existing medical conditions and reduced physiological reserves.

  18. Oral biofilms, oral and periodontal infections, and systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Abhiram; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2013-10-01

    Oral biofilms harbor several hundreds of species of bacteria as well as spirochetes, protozoa, fungi and viruses. The composition of the oral biofilm varies from health to disease. It is the source of microorganisms that cause dental and periodontal infections. Oral infections and periodontal disease have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of several important chronic systemic diseases.

  19. Oral hygiene practices and risk of oral leukoplakia | Macigo | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk (RR) of oral ...

  20. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  1. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  2. ORAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND RISK OF ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... Results: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing .... results of the assessment of other oral leukoplakia ... survey of persons aged 15 years and above aimed at identifying the study subjects. The screening yielded 85 oral leukoplakia cases identified on the.

  3. Imaging in oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeta Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

  4. [Oral lymphomas in AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, F; López, G; Asenjo, J A; Martín, C

    1989-05-01

    We present two cases of AIDS in drug-addicts, with mouth lymphoma. The diagnosis was established by a gum biopsy which gave high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma lymphoblastic "B" type. It is very rare that the oral mucous is affected by lymphomas, but in AIDS and immunodeficiencies it is more common.

  5. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  6. Evaluation and Oral Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus primarily on evaluation in the language arts and oral communication. Following an introduction to the two themes, the articles discuss the following: (1) pop quizzes in literature, (2) holistic scoring, (3) self-evaluation strategies in prewriting and rewriting, (4) what not to do in student/teacher…

  7. Choosing an oral contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, E

    1988-10-01

    This article serves as a summary of the principles of prescription, hormone content, minor side effects, prescriptions for atypical individuals and significant drug interactions for oral contraceptives. There are 5 principles for prescribing oral contraceptives: the lowest possible dose should be given that is effective and produces the least side effects: adequate instructions should be given about the mode of action, taking the medication and possible side effects; adequate instructions about managing missed pills should be given; adequate supervision and explanations should be given if side effects occur; remember that each woman is different and idiosyncratic reactions to different formulations can occur. Possible side effects include: breakthrough bleeding, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, breast fullness and tenderness, nausea, chloasma, depression, acne, migraines and weight gain. Certain individuals such as epileptics, diabetics, women over 35 and women who have recently given birth need special care. Rifampicin, the phenytoins and barbiturates can all decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives may effect the action of anticoagulants, antidiabetic agents and imipramine.

  8. Oral heparin (Emisphere).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A

    2000-07-01

    Emisphere (formerly in collaboration with Elan) is developing an oral heparin formulation for the potential treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The formulation uses Emisphere's proprietary carrier molecule, P-414, and had started phase III trials by January 2000 [353372]. The protocol for the trials was finalized in December 1999, and aims to demonstrate the safety and superior efficacy of oral heparin dosed for 30 days post-operatively compared to injectable enoxaparin sodium for 10 days, in the prevention of DVT following hip-replacement surgery. The studies will take place in 95 centers in the US, UK and Canada, and are expected to enroll 2250 patients [350778]. The two trials involved are expected to be completed by mid-2001 [353372]. In May 1998, Emisphere initiated a phase II study for its oral heparin product for the prevention of DVT. The study had three arms of approximately 40 patients each, who had undergone surgery for hip replacement, and was conducted at approximately 20 sites in the US and Canada. Two different doses of oral heparin were compared to subcutaneous heparin. The objective was to demonstrate that the orally administered heparin is well tolerated and comparable to subcutaneous heparin in preventing DVT [288267]. Positive preliminary results were reported in January 1999, showing that the oral formulations were comparable to injectable heparin [311218]. Final results, reported in August 1999, demonstrated that heparin administered orally via a novel carrier system (P-414; SNAC) was comparable, in both safety and activity, to subcutaneous heparin when used to prevent venous thromboembolic events following elective hip arthroplasty [337262,337712]. The heparin formulation was developed as part of a collaboration between Emisphere and Elan investigating oral formulations of heparin and heparinoids. By January 1998, the lead product had completed four phase I trials in patients following knee and hip surgery [274905]. Results from phase I

  9. Oral cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, Pedro Diz; Lestón, Juan Seoane

    2010-06-01

    Pain may be the initial symptom in oral cancer, and is a common complaint both in patients awaiting treatment and in those already in treatment. However, little has been published in the literature on the management of oral cancer pain. Effective pain control requires a multimodal approach in which pharmacological management based on the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder continues to play an essential role. Although different routes are available for the administration of analgesics, oral delivery continues to be the principal route for pain control in the first instance. Interventional approaches include blockade of a peripheral nerve or of the relevant ganglion, and the use of central neuraxial blockade. The intraventricular or intrathecal administration of opioids, with or without local anaesthetics, has been indicated for severe intractable pain. The development of new treatment modalities provides additional options, though further clinical research is required. There is no evidence of the efficacy of non-pharmacological methods such as acupuncture or transcutaneous nerve stimulation in the management of oral cancer pain. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have also been suggested, but their results have not been quantified. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion in oral breathing children

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Hilda; Alarcón, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathing children with maxillary constriction. Material and Methods: Forty-four oral breathing children (mean age 10.57 y) underwent orthodontic RME with a Hyrax screw. Forty-four age-matched children (mean age 10.64 y) with nasal physiological breathing and adequate transverse maxillary dimensions served as the control group. The maxillary widths, nasal air flow assessed via p...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ...

  12. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ... and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  14. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    . In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at risk for oral cancer? Learn the facts. White patches of the oral tissues — leukoplakia Red patches — erythroplakia Red and white patches — erythroleukoplakia A sore that fails to heal ...

  16. Cryogun cryotherapy for oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Pin; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2012-09-01

    Our previous study showed that cotton-swab cryotherapy is an alternative treatment modality for oral leukoplakia. This study used liquid nitrogen spray with a cryogun (cryogun cryotherapy) to treat 60 oral leukoplakia lesions. Complete regression was achieved in all 60 oral leukoplakia lesions after cryogun cryotherapy. We found that 60 oral leukoplakia lesions treated with cryogen cryotherapy needed significantly fewer mean treatments (3.1 ± 1.3) to achieve complete regression than 60 previously reported oral leukoplakia lesions treated with cotton-swab cryotherapy (mean, 6.3 ± 3.8 treatments). Oral leukoplakia lesions on oral mucosal sites other than the tongue, oral leukoplakia, the cryogun cryotherapy needed fewer mean treatments to achieve complete regression of the lesions than the cotton-swab cryotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the expert for diagnosing and surgically treating ... late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As ... finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...