WorldWideScience

Sample records for flight endurance record

  1. Long Endurance Flight Schemes for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A system for autonomous detection and exploitation of weather phenomena for endurance or range enhancement for loitering unmanned air vehicles is presented. The...

  2. Long Endurance Flight Schemes for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method for providing endurance enhancement for unmanned aerial vehicles based on atmospheric phenomena is presented. The proposed method allows the UAV to sense...

  3. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Trappe; Erik Hayes; Andrew Galpin; Leonard Kaminsky; Bozena Jemiolo; William Fink; Todd Trappe; Anna Jansson; Thomas Gustafsson; Per Tesch

    2013-01-01

    ...). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events...

  4. Oxidative stress in endurance flight: an unconsidered factor in bird migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Jenni-Eiermann

    Full Text Available Migrating birds perform extraordinary endurance flights, up to 200 h non-stop, at a very high metabolic rate and while fasting. Such an intense and prolonged physical activity is normally associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS and thus increased risk of oxidative stress. However, up to now it was unknown whether endurance flight evokes oxidative stress. We measured a marker of oxidative damage (protein carbonyls, PCs and a marker of enzymatic antioxidant capacity (glutathione peroxidase, GPx in the European robin (Erithacus rubecula, a nocturnal migrant, on its way to the non-breeding grounds. Both markers were significantly higher in European robins caught out of their nocturnal flight than in conspecifics caught during the day while resting. Independently of time of day, both markers showed higher concentrations in individuals with reduced flight muscles. Adults had higher GPx concentrations than first-year birds on their first migration. These results show for the first time that free-flying migrants experience oxidative stress during endurance flight and up-regulate one component of antioxidant capacity. We discuss that avoiding oxidative stress may be an overlooked factor shaping bird migration strategies, e.g. by disfavouring long non-stop flights and an extensive catabolism of the flight muscles.

  5. 14 CFR 29.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any crash impact; and (6) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are... crash impact. (e) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder are required by the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders. 29.1459 Section...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any crash impact; and (6) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are... crash impact. (e) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder are required by the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders. 27.1459 Section...

  7. Flight Recorders - Alternative Concept for Commercial Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Turiak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of deployable flight data recorders. It gives an insight into pros and cons of this solution based on experience gained in military application. Advantages of such solution are at least worth considering as they may help reduce the number of accidents and save lives in the first place. And should the accident happen the location and extraction of evidence is much easier.

  8. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... recorders and cockpit voice recorders. (a) No holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an operating... applicable flight recorder and cockpit voice recorder requirements of the part under which its certificate...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the recorder does not disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the flight data recorder; and (8) It is in a separate container from the cockpit voice recorder when both are required. If used to... combination unit is installed as a cockpit voice recorder to comply with § 25.1457(e)(2), a combination...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the recorder does not disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the flight data recorder; and (7) It is in a separate container from the cockpit voice recorder when both are required. If used to comply... unit is installed as a cockpit voice recorder to comply with § 23.1457(e)(2), a combination unit...

  11. 75 FR 942 - Extension of the Compliance Date for Cockpit Voice Recorder and Digital Flight Data Recorder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Compliance Date for Cockpit Voice Recorder and Digital Flight Data Recorder Regulations AGENCY: Federal..., the FAA published a final rule titled ``Revisions to Cockpit Voice Recorder and Digital Flight Data Recorder Regulations.'' The rule required certain upgrades of digital flight data recorder and...

  12. Data Mining of NASA Boeing 737 Flight Data: Frequency Analysis of In-Flight Recorded Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ansel J.

    2001-01-01

    Data recorded during flights of the NASA Trailblazer Boeing 737 have been analyzed to ascertain the presence of aircraft structural responses from various excitations such as the engine, aerodynamic effects, wind gusts, and control system operations. The NASA Trailblazer Boeing 737 was chosen as a focus of the study because of a large quantity of its flight data records. The goal of this study was to determine if any aircraft structural characteristics could be identified from flight data collected for measuring non-structural phenomena. A number of such data were examined for spatial and frequency correlation as a means of discovering hidden knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the aircraft. Data recorded from on-board dynamic sensors over a range of flight conditions showed consistently appearing frequencies. Those frequencies were attributed to aircraft structural vibrations.

  13. Flight Test Evaluation of Endurance-Maximizing Periodic Cruise Trajectories for UAV Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The benefits of periodic cruise operation of flight vehicles have been known for three decades. Although a number of papers and doctoral dissertations have studied...

  14. 78 FR 39968 - Flight Data Recorder Airplane Parameter Specification Omissions and Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 121 and 125 RIN 2120-AK27 Flight Data Recorder... for flight data recorders by correcting errors in recording rates in three different appendices. These... when the applicable flight data recorder parameter requirements were adopted, but which have...

  15. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Handel, C.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  16. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification F.... F Appendix F to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification The recorded values must meet the... voice recorder. 31. Air/ground sensor (primary airplane system reference nose or main gear)...

  17. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-04-01

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  18. Record Endurance for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube–Based Memory Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We study memory devices consisting of single-walled carbon nanotube transistors with charge storage at the SiO2/nanotube interface. We show that this type of memory device is robust, withstanding over 105 operating cycles, with a current drive capability up to 10−6 A at 20 mV drain bias, thus competing with state-of-the-art Si-devices. We find that the device performance depends on temperature and pressure, while both endurance and data retention are improved in vacuum.

  19. Enduring Risk? Old Criminal Records and Predictions of Future Criminal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Megan C.; Brame, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.

    2007-01-01

    It is well accepted that criminal records impose collateral consequences on offenders. Such records affect access to public housing, student financial aid, welfare benefits, and voting rights. An axiom of these policies is that individuals with criminal records--even old criminal records--exhibit significantly higher risk of future criminal…

  20. Record and around the world flights through Singapore by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dille, J R

    1999-10-01

    Women's efforts to fly as military pilots during World War I were unsuccessful. However, their numbers and achievements increased and, in 1929, they formed the Ninety-Nines and held the first Women's Air Derby, where male pilots escorted them and mechanics were available. In May 1930, England's Amy Johnson became the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia. She was flying for the Air Transport Auxiliary in England when she was killed in an aircraft accident in 1941. New Zealander Jean Batten set new records over the same course in May 1934, from England to New Zealand in Oct. 1936 and from Australia to England in Oct. 1937. Routes were typically via Singapore as were round-the-world efforts by Amelia Earhart (1937), Joan Merriam Smith (1964), Sheila Scott (1966), and Ann Pellegreno (1967). Accounts frequently mention severe weather including monsoon storms. Adequacy of flight planning has been questioned for some. Jerrie Mock, the first woman to fly around the world alone, in 1964, was asked by Saigon Radio if she had a man aboard. Further successes and independence for women in aviation have been slow, but steady.

  1. The Mice Drawer System (MDS experiment and the space endurance record-breaking mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Cancedda

    Full Text Available The Italian Space Agency, in line with its scientific strategies and the National Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (ISS, contracted Thales Alenia Space Italia to design and build a spaceflight payload for rodent research on ISS: the Mice Drawer System (MDS. The payload, to be integrated inside the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation and inside the Express Rack in the ISS during experiment execution, was designed to function autonomously for more than 3 months and to involve crew only for maintenance activities. In its first mission, three wild type (Wt and three transgenic male mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the control of a bone-specific promoter (PTN-Tg were housed in the MDS. At the time of launch, animals were 2-months old. MDS reached the ISS on board of Shuttle Discovery Flight 17A/STS-128 on August 28(th, 2009. MDS returned to Earth on November 27(th, 2009 with Shuttle Atlantis Flight ULF3/STS-129 after 91 days, performing the longest permanence of mice in space. Unfortunately, during the MDS mission, one PTN-Tg and two Wt mice died due to health status or payload-related reasons. The remaining mice showed a normal behavior throughout the experiment and appeared in excellent health conditions at landing. During the experiment, the mice health conditions and their water and food consumption were daily checked. Upon landing mice were sacrificed, blood parameters measured and tissues dissected for subsequent analysis. To obtain as much information as possible on microgravity-induced tissue modifications, we organized a Tissue Sharing Program: 20 research groups from 6 countries participated. In order to distinguish between possible effects of the MDS housing conditions and effects due to the near-zero gravity environment, a ground replica of the flight experiment was performed at the University of Genova. Control tissues were collected also from mice maintained on Earth in standard vivarium cages.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F Appendix F to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 135 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... E Appendix E to Part 135—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Accuracy...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D Appendix D to Part 125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D Appendix D to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy...

  6. Airplane tracking documents the fastest flight speeds recorded for bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Gary F; Safi, Kamran; Kunz, Thomas H; Dechmann, Dina K N; Swartz, Sharon M; Wikelski, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The performance capabilities of flying animals reflect the interplay of biomechanical and physiological constraints and evolutionary innovation. Of the two extant groups of vertebrates that are capable of powered flight, birds are thought to fly more efficiently and faster than bats. However, fast-flying bat species that are adapted for flight in open airspace are similar in wing shape and appear to be similar in flight dynamics to fast-flying birds that exploit the same aerial niche. Here, we investigate flight behaviour in seven free-flying Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and report that the maximum ground speeds achieved exceed speeds previously documented for any bat. Regional wind modelling indicates that bats adjusted flight speeds in response to winds by flying more slowly as wind support increased and flying faster when confronted with crosswinds, as demonstrated for insects, birds and other bats. Increased frequency of pauses in wing beats at faster speeds suggests that flap-gliding assists the bats' rapid flight. Our results suggest that flight performance in bats has been underappreciated and that functional differences in the flight abilities of birds and bats require re-evaluation.

  7. Study of flight data recorder, underwater locator beacon, data logger and flarm collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timi, Purnota Hannan; Shermin, Saima; Rahman, Asifur

    2017-06-01

    Flight data recorder is one of the most important sources of flight data in event of aviation disaster which records a wide range of flight parameters including altitude, airspeed, heading etc. and also helps monitoring and analyzing aircraft performance. Cockpit voice recorder records radio microphone transmissions and sounds in the cockpit. These devices help to find out and understand the root causes of aircraft crashes and help building better aircraft systems and technical solutions to prevent similar type of crashes in future, which lead to improvement in safety of aircrafts and passengers. There are other devices also which enhance the aircraft safety and assists in emergency or catastrophic situations. This paper discusses the concept of Flight Data Recorder (FDR), Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR), Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB), Data logger and flarm-collision avoidance system for aircraft and their applications in aviation.

  8. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  9. Flight and seizure motor patterns in Drosophila mutants: simultaneous acoustic and electrophysiological recordings of wing beats and flight muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Atulya; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tethered flies allow studies of biomechanics and electrophysiology of flight control. We performed microelectrode recordings of spikes in an indirect flight muscle (the dorsal longitudinal muscle, DLMa) coupled with acoustic analysis of wing beat frequency (WBF) via microphone signals. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording of direct and indirect flight muscles has been technically challenging; however, the WBF is thought to reflect in a one-to-one relationship with spiking activity in a subset of direct flight muscles, including muscle m1b. Therefore, our approach enables systematic mutational analysis for changes in temporal features of electrical activity of motor neurons innervating subsets of direct and indirect flight muscles. Here, we report the consequences of specific ion channel disruptions on the spiking activity of myogenic DLMs (firing at ∼5 Hz) and the corresponding WBF (∼200 Hz). We examined mutants of the genes enconding: 1) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (cacophony, cac), 2) Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (slowpoke, slo), and 3) voltage-gated K(+) channels (Shaker, Sh) and their auxiliary subunits (Hyperkinetic, Hk and quiver, qvr). We found flight initiation in response to an air puff was severely disrupted in both cac and slo mutants. However, once initiated, slo flight was largely unaltered, whereas cac displayed disrupted DLM firing rates and WBF. Sh, Hk, and qvr mutants were able to maintain normal DLM firing rates, despite increased WBF. Notably, defects in the auxiliary subunits encoded by Hk and qvr could lead to distinct consequences, that is, disrupted DLM firing rhythmicity, not observed in Sh. Our mutant analysis of direct and indirect flight muscle activities indicates that the two motor activity patterns may be independently modified by specific ion channel mutations, and that this approach can be extended to other dipteran species and additional motor programs, such as electroconvulsive stimulation-induced seizures.

  10. 佩戴头盔模拟飞行8h的飞行耐力试验%Trid of Endurance of Flight During 8h Flight in Simulator with Helmet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明磊; 陈立雄; 赵广; 张信民; 成海平; 周海亮; 王聪; 张慕哲; 陈勇胜; 王兴伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the aviators' tolerance during long flight (8h) with helmet so as to provide basis for improving the design of the helmet prototype and guiding the use of helmet. Method Targets are divided into 3 groups by the weights of helmets (1.7kg or 2.0kg) and tasks (only providing video and musical entertainment or airline flight in flight simulators with tow seats). The volunteer's complaint and behavioral reaction in the tests were investigated and recorded. Result The problems of the volunteer's complaint are mainly the stuffy heat and pain of head and neck. To decrease the pain,the volunteers adjusted the helmet frequently. The adjusting reactions are related to the time progress and significantly different among the 3 groups. The moment of stuffy heat appears in lh~3h,and the pain appears in 4h~7h. The frequency of complaints and adjustment varies,depending on the different weights of helmets and task loads. Conclusion weights of helmet and tasks make a notable impact to the endurance of volunteers. The heavy helmet and complex task make them hot and painful quickly. Frequently adjusting the helmet is the main behavioral reaction to release the discomfort. The results can be used for guiding the helmet design and use.%目的:测定飞行员长时间(8h)模拟飞行时,佩戴飞行头盔对其飞行耐力的影响,为飞行头盔设计改进和使用提供依据.方法:按受试者佩戴头盔的重量(1.7kg与2.0 kg)和任务负荷(仅提供影视音乐节目与模拟航线飞行)的不同将试验分为3组,观察记录受试者的主诉和表现.结果:受试者反映的问题,主要是闷热和压痛.为减轻闷热和压痛,受试者不断地调整头盔.闷热、压痛和调整头盔频次与时间进程相关,闷热出现在1h-3h,压痛出现在4-7h.因头盔重量和任务负荷不同,各组受试者的主诉和调整头盔频次有显著性差异.结论:头盔重量以及任务负荷等对飞行耐受能力有重大影响:头盔增重、

  11. Application of Flight Simulator Record/Playback Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    complex visual flying task in ASPT under one of three instructional conditions which differed in their use of an automated record/playback feature. The...Advanced Instructional Features and Methods in ASPT . The work unit supports project 1123, Flying Training Development; task 112302, Ivstructional...cloverleaf maneuver flown in the present study. Appwffaa. The study was conducted on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) located at the Flying

  12. Meteorological Support of the Helios World Record High Altitude Flight to 96,863 Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Donohue, Casey J.; Wright, Patrick T.; DelFrate, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In characterizing and understanding atmospheric behavior when conducting high altitude solar powered flight research flight planning engineers and meteorologists are able to maximize the use of available airspace and coordinate aircraft maneuvers with pilots to make the best use of changing sun elevation angles. The result of this cooperative research produced a new world record for absolute altitude of a non-rocket powered aircraft of 96,863 ft (29,531.4 m). The Helios prototype solar powered aircraft, with a wingspan of 247 ft (75.0m), reached this altitude on August 13, 2001, off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. The analyses of the weather characterization, the planning efforts, and the weather-of-the-day summary that led to at record flight are described in this paper.

  13. Enhanced Query Data Recorder - A Next Generation Flight Recorder Built Around the iNET Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In accordance with current T&E operational scenarios and IRIG 106 standards, the telemetry stream transmitted from the test article to the ground is...activity, recorded data could be retrieved and sent to the ground for analysis to ensure test objectives have been met. The IRIG 106 Chapter 10... IRIG 106 Chapter 10–compliant recorder technology does not support any of these requirements. The EQDR has been developed to fill these T&E needs

  14. Software Interface Assessment of the Centralized Aviation Flight Records System (CAFRS) 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    instructor Job Title (UTE 2): • Brigade standardization pilot • Regiment standardization pilot • ARNG standardization officer • AH-64 Apache helicopter ...repairer/test and evaluation NCO • UH-60 helicopter repairer • 15W senior small group leader • Helicopter instructor pilot • Flight records...simplify. Ex: “Compl RL3 ref tng – Designated RL2 D/N, RL3 Night Vision Goggles ( NVG )”. • Once entry is made on 7122 initial and signed and remark

  15. Record statistics of a strongly correlated time series: random walks and Lévy flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2017-08-01

    We review recent advances on the record statistics of strongly correlated time series, whose entries denote the positions of a random walk or a Lévy flight on a line. After a brief survey of the theory of records for independent and identically distributed random variables, we focus on random walks. During the last few years, it was indeed realized that random walks are a very useful ‘laboratory’ to test the effects of correlations on the record statistics. We start with the simple one-dimensional random walk with symmetric jumps (both continuous and discrete) and discuss in detail the statistics of the number of records, as well as of the ages of the records, i.e. the lapses of time between two successive record breaking events. Then we review the results that were obtained for a wide variety of random walk models, including random walks with a linear drift, continuous time random walks, constrained random walks (like the random walk bridge) and the case of multiple independent random walkers. Finally, we discuss further observables related to records, like the record increments, as well as some questions raised by physical applications of record statistics, like the effects of measurement error and noise.

  16. In-flight transfusion of packed red blood cells on a combat search and rescue mission: a case report from operation enduring freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brad C; Bentley, Richard; Place, Ronald J

    2004-03-01

    Injuries on the battlefield can occur far from the nearest medical treatment facility. This is especially likely for downed pilots and special operations personnel. Some of these injuries lead to significant blood loss requiring transfusion. We present two cases of injured coalition force members during Operation Enduring Freedom that illustrate the potential need for a transfusion capability at the site of injury to prevent death. Consideration should be given to augmenting transfusion capabilities in military environments with predictably long evacuation times.

  17. Comprehensive study of endurance for IAR-99 Hawk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin LOZICI-BRINZEI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some methods of on-ground and in-flight calibration for strain gauges, intended to the development of complex programs which analyze the endurance phenomena for aerospace structures, with direct application to the IAR-99 Hawk. The strain gauges have the advantage of being sensitive to load and therefore to aerodynamic phenomena, thereby providing indications of the loads supported by the structure. The effects size of loads type phenomena caused by wind gusts or buffet can be measured only by strain gauges or accelerometres70 and they cannot be recorded by flight or fatigue parameters counters. The installation of a strain gauge is made using a pattern (its position and orientation are crucial and the strain gauge selected for installation should not be fragile or unstable. Routines should be established for periodic inspection of strain gauges and those which are defective should be replaced immediately.

  18. 中长期飞行对人体超重耐力影响及防护技术研究%Research on Effects of Mid-Long-Term Flight on Human +Gx Endurance and Protection Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萍; 吴斌; 陈晓萍; 阚广悍; 谷志明; 黄伟芬; 白延强; 王跃; 刘敏

    2015-01-01

    为探讨中长期空间飞行(30 d以上)后飞船应急返回对机体超重耐力的影响及防护技术,首先选用42只健康雄性成年猕猴,随机分为4组,进行中长期模拟失重再超重的病理生理影响及其机理研究;之后选22名健康被试者,随机平均分为2组,分别穿着绳索拉紧式和充气式抗荷服,测定各自选定的高低2种压力制度时的下体负压耐力;最后选8名健康志愿者,测试在不穿抗荷服、穿着绳索拉紧式和充气式抗荷服三种状态下承受超重过载时的生理反应。实验表明,高+Gx作用,使猕猴脏器出现病理性损伤,相同G值猕猴头低位卧床后再超重组引起的病理损伤要比单纯超重组严重;绳索拉紧式抗荷服和充气式抗荷服可以提高人体下体负压耐力和超重耐力。%The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of spaceship emergency re-turn on body hyper-gravity endurance after mid-long-term flight ( over 30 days ) and the protection measures, and to provide theoretical basis for formulating the hyper-gravity medical standard for spaceship emergency return after mid-long-term flight and developing space protective suits .Forty-two healthy male rhesus monkeys were selected as the test subjects and were randomly divided into 4 groups, to study on the pathophysiological effects of long-term simulated weightlessness plus hyper-gravity and its mechanism .Twenty-two healthy subjects were selected and randomly divided into two groups, wearing rope taut anti-G suit and inflatable anti-G suit respectively .Lower body negative pressure tolerance was measured in the chosen pressure .Finally 8 healthy volunteers were selected and their physiological responses to hyper-gravity with anti-G suit, or rope taut anti-G suit or inflata-ble anti-G suits were measured .The results showed that high +Gx caused pathologic organ damage in rhesus monkeys , and pathological damage in the same G

  19. Data Acquistion Controllers and Computers that can Endure, Operate and Survive Cryogenic Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and future NASA exploration flight missions require Avionics systems, Computers, Controllers and Data processing units that are capable of enduring extreme...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 135 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Pt. 135, App... attitude 100% of usable range ±2° 1 0.8°. Roll attitude ±60° or 100% of usable range, whichever is greater... Maximum range +5% 1 1% 2 Engine torque Maximum range ±5% 1 1% 2 Flight Control—Hydraulic Pressure Primary...

  1. A portable, low-cost flight-data measurement and recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design of and the experience with an inexpensive, hand-portable, onboard data system used to record four parameters in the final portion of the landing approach and touchdown of an airplane are described. The system utilized a high-quality audio tape recorder and amateur photographic equipment with accessory circuitry rather than specialized instrumentation to given satisfactory results.

  2. Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2. Fuel Storage Tank: The fuel storage tanker was completely drained and returned to BakerCorp IAW the lease agreement . 3. Aircraft: The...tests, use of the JP-8/ATJ blend was transparent to all fuel wetted systems including the engines. REFERENCES. 1. Test Record, Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8

  3. [Endurance sports and arythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgan, H; Burri, H

    2013-03-01

    Endurance sports can predispose to the occurrence of certain arrhythmias, making them more frequent in athletes than in the general population. Endurance athletes often exhibit electrocardiographic modifications that are difficult to interpret without specific knowledge of the athlete's ECG. Some of these ECG modifications and arrhythmias are benign, however others can be potentially life threatening.

  4. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  5. Barriers to Electronic Records Management (ERM): An Exploratory Case Study Investigating ERM in the Deployed Environment During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Patterson, G., & Sprehe, J. T. (2002). Principal challenges facing electronic records management in federal agencies today. Government Information Quarterly , 19...factors in managing U.S. federal recordkeeping. Government Information Quarterly , 19(3), 289-305. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study

  6. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eternal Flight as the Solution for 'X' Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An investigation into a new mission concept approach to achieve unlimited high altitude long endurance flight to achieve geosynchronous atmospheric satellites for...

  8. Enduring health effects of asbestos use in Belgian industries: a record-linked cohort study of cause-specific mortality (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-06-24

    To investigate cause-specific mortality among asbestos workers and potentially exposed workers in Belgium and evaluate potential excess in mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. This cohort study is based on an individual record linkage between the 1991 Belgian census and cause-specific mortality information for Flanders and Brussels (2001-2009). Belgium (Flanders and Brussels region). The study population consists of 1,397,699 male workers (18-65,years) with 72,074 deaths between 1 October 2001 and 31 December 2009. Using a classification of high-risk industries, mortality patterns between 2056 asbestos workers, 385,046 potentially exposed workers and the working population have been compared. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs are calculated for manual and non-manual workers. Our findings show clear excess in asbestos-related mortality in the asbestos industry with SMRs for mesothelioma of 4071 (CI 2327 to 6611) among manual workers and of 4489 (CI 1458 to 10,476) among non-manual workers. Excess risks in asbestos-related mortality are also found in the chemical industry, the construction industry, the electrical generation and distribution industry, the basic metals manufacturing industry, the metal products manufacturing industry, the railroad industry, and the shipping industry. Oral cancer mortality is significantly higher for asbestos workers (SMR 383; CI 124 to 894), railroad workers (SMR 192; CI 112 to 308), shipping workers (SMR 172; CI 102 to 271) and construction workers (SMR 125; CI 100 to 153), indicating a possible association with occupational asbestos exposure. Workers in all four industries have elevated mortality rates for cancer of the mouth. Only construction workers experience significantly higher pharyngeal cancer mortality (SMR 151; CI 104 to 212). The study identifies vulnerable groups of Belgian asbestos workers, demonstrating the current-day health repercussions of historical asbestos use

  9. Enduring health effects of asbestos use in Belgian industries: a record-linked cohort study of cause-specific mortality (2001–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate cause-specific mortality among asbestos workers and potentially exposed workers in Belgium and evaluate potential excess in mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. Design This cohort study is based on an individual record linkage between the 1991 Belgian census and cause-specific mortality information for Flanders and Brussels (2001–2009). Setting Belgium (Flanders and Brussels region). Participants The study population consists of 1 397 699 male workers (18–65 years) with 72 074 deaths between 1 October 2001 and 31 December 2009. Using a classification of high-risk industries, mortality patterns between 2056 asbestos workers, 385 046 potentially exposed workers and the working population have been compared. Outcome measures Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs are calculated for manual and non-manual workers. Results Our findings show clear excess in asbestos-related mortality in the asbestos industry with SMRs for mesothelioma of 4071 (CI 2327 to 6611) among manual workers and of 4489 (CI 1458 to 10 476) among non-manual workers. Excess risks in asbestos-related mortality are also found in the chemical industry, the construction industry, the electrical generation and distribution industry, the basic metals manufacturing industry, the metal products manufacturing industry, the railroad industry, and the shipping industry. Oral cancer mortality is significantly higher for asbestos workers (SMR 383; CI 124 to 894), railroad workers (SMR 192; CI 112 to 308), shipping workers (SMR 172; CI 102 to 271) and construction workers (SMR 125; CI 100 to 153), indicating a possible association with occupational asbestos exposure. Workers in all four industries have elevated mortality rates for cancer of the mouth. Only construction workers experience significantly higher pharyngeal cancer mortality (SMR 151; CI 104 to 212). Conclusions The study identifies vulnerable groups of Belgian asbestos

  10. 75 FR 60740 - Record of Decision for the Base Closure and Realignment Beddown and Flight Operations of Remotely...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations of Remotely Piloted Aircraft at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. The ROD states the Air Force... Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: On September 17, 2010, the United States Air Force... Remotely Piloted Aircraft at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota, inputs from the public and regulatory agencies...

  11. Altitude and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  12. [Improved performance in endurance sports through acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Stefan; Benner, K

    2010-09-01

    In many years of experience in treating athletes with acupuncture, I often had the impression that athletes in endurance sports showed improved performances after such treatments. In order to scientifically verify these impressions, I performed a field test with three groups of runners of different performance levels preparing for a marathon. The first group was given acupuncture, the second a placebo, with the third being the control group. After their maximum pulse rates were recorded, the runners were asked to run 5000m four times in 4 weeks at 75 % of their maximum pulse rate. Their pulse rates were measured for each runner at the finish of the run, and subsequently, one, two and five minutes after the run. Based on these data, the complexity factor (running time multiplied by the respective pulse rate) was calculated for all four recorded pulse rates for each run and each runner. All groups showed statistically significant enhancements in their running times and their complexity factors, but in the case of the runners treated with acupuncture, the improvements were highly significant. Therefore, the field test proves that acupuncture has a significant impact on the performance of the athletes in endurance sports.

  13. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  14. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  15. The energetics of ultra-endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, Stefano; Salvadego, Desy; Rejc, Enrico; Buglione, Antonio; Antonutto, Guglielmo; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of long-lasting endurance events on the energy cost of running (C(r)), and the role of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), its fractional utilisation (F) and C(r) in determining the performance. Ten healthy runners (age range 26-59 years) participated in an ultra-endurance competition consisting of three running laps of 22, 48 and 20 km on three consecutive days in the North-East of Italy. Anthropometric characteristics and VO(2max) by a graded exercise test on a treadmill were determined 5 days before and 5 days after the competition. In addition, C(r) was determined on a treadmill before and after each running lap. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the three laps. Results revealed that mean C(r) of the individual laps did not increase significantly with lap number (P = 0.200), thus ruling out any chronic lap effect. Even so, however, at the end of lap 3, C(r) was 18.0% (P increase of C(r-mean) during the competition yields to marked worsening of the performance, and (2) the three variables F, VO(2max) and C(r-mean) combined as described above explaining 87% of the total competition time variance.

  16. Enduring Issues In Educational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were an important tool recommended by "A Nation at Risk;" however, a generation after that report, many of the problems with student assessment still remain. This article offers brief reflections on three somewhat overlapping but enduring issues in educational assessment: validity, construct underrepresentation in outcome measures in…

  17. Soccer Endurance Development in Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, C. R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In t

  18. Soccer Endurance Development in Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, C. R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Visscher, C.

    The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In

  19. Food selection for endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkooper, L

    1992-09-01

    1) The body requires at least 40 nutrients that are classified into six groups: protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, and water. These nutrients cannot be made in the body and so they must be supplied from solid or liquid foods. 2) Fat, carbohydrate, and protein contain energy that is measured in units called kilocalories. Alcohol also contains kilocalories, but is not a recommended energy source for endurance exercise. 3) Foods in endurance sports training programs should provide adequate fluids to prevent dehydration; energy intake that is high in carbohydrate, low in fat, adequate in protein, and that maintains desirable body weight and desirable proportions of fat and lean weight; and sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals. 4) Six categories of food types form the fundamentals of good diets for endurance exercise training and include: fruits, vegetables, grains-legumes, lean meats, low-fat milk products, and fats-sweets. Vegetarian diets include all food type categories except meat and/or milk products. 5) Fat and carbohydrate content of foods in each food type category varies greatly because of how foods are prepared. 6) The Food Pyramid and Sports Food Swap are guides for selecting foods that provide recommended amounts of essential nutrients for endurance exercise. 7) Before, during, and after endurance exercise, food intake should include adequate amounts of easily digestible, high carbohydrate foods that are familiar and psychologically satisfying. 8) Easily digestible high carbohydrate liquid or solid foods should be eaten soon after exercise is stopped to maximize rates of glycogen replacement. 9) Dehydration can be prevented by adequate fluid intake before, during, and after exercise. 10) Any food plan should be tested before a competition to find out how well that plan works for an athlete.

  20. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  1. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of...

  2. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  3. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  4. Ischemic Preconditioning Enhances Muscle Endurance during Sustained Isometric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, D; Suga, T; Tanaka, T; Kido, K; Honjo, T; Fujita, S; Hamaoka, T; Isaka, T

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) enhances whole-body exercise endurance. However, it is poorly understood whether the beneficial effects originate from systemic (e. g., cardiovascular system) or peripheral (e. g., skeletal muscle) adaptations. The present study examined the effects of IPC on local muscle endurance during fatiguing isometric exercise. 12 male subjects performed sustained isometric unilateral knee-extension exercise at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Prior to the exercise, subjects completed IPC or control (CON) treatments. During exercise trial, electromyography activity and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived deoxygenation in skeletal muscle were continuously recorded. Endurance time to task failure was significantly longer in IPC than in CON (mean±SE; 233±9 vs. 198±9 s, PIPC and CON. In contrast, deoxygenation dynamics in the quadriceps vastus lateralis muscle was significantly faster in IPC than in CON (27.1±3.4 vs. 35.0±3.6 s, PIPC can enhance muscular endurance during fatiguing isometric exercise. Moreover, IPC accelerated muscle deoxygenation dynamics during the exercise. Therefore, we suggest that the origin of beneficial effects of IPC on exercise performance may be the enhanced mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  5. Editorial: Nature-inspired flight - beyond the leap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Biewener, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas humans can outrun horses over large distances (BBC News 2004), because of their adaptation for endurance (Bramble and Lieberman 2004), their swimming performance is mediocre compared to that of tuna and sailfish, and flight is impossible. No wonder that the flight of animals and plants such

  6. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  7. Dark-Bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla bernicla, as Recorded by Satellite Telemetry, do not Minimize Flight Distance During Spring Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M.; Alerstam, T.; Clausen, P.;

    2002-01-01

    of six adult males). Only 7% of total time during spring migration was spent in active flight, as contrasted to c. 80% at long-term stopovers. Overall average travelling speed was 118 km day-1 (range 97-148). Including fattening prior to departure the rate of travel falls to 62 km day-1 (range 49......-70), in keeping with theoretical predictions. Routes followed deviated from the great circle route, adding at least 700 km (16%) to the journey from Wadden Sea to Taymyr, and we conclude that the coastal route is chosen to facilitate feeding, drinking and resting en route instead of minimizing total flight...

  8. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz; Chmura, Paweł; Błach, Wiesław; Migasiewicz, Juliusz; Klich, Sebastian; Chmura, Jan; Madeleine, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyogram (SEMG) changes within and between muscles of the torso and shoulder region during static endurance contraction in elite judokas. We hypothesized an increased functional connectivity of muscles from the shoulder and torso regions during sustained isometric contraction. Twelve healthy, right-handed judo competitors participated in the study. The SEMG signals from the dominant trapezius (upper, middle and lower part), deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscles were recorded during isometric endurance contraction consisting of bilateral arm abduction at 90°. The normalized mutual information (NMI) was computed between muscle pairs as an index indicating functional connectivity. The NMIs increased significantly during endurance test for 10 of the 15 muscle pairs (P shoulder muscles during an endurance contraction in elite judokas.

  9. Power equations in endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Cavanagh, P R

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the formulation of power equations applicable to a variety of endurance activities. An accurate accounting of the relationship between the metabolic power input and the mechanical power output is still elusive, due to such issues as storage and recovery of strain energy and the differing energy costs of concentric and eccentric muscle actions. Nevertheless, an instantaneous approach is presented which is based upon the application of conventional Newtonian mechanics to a rigid segment model of the body, and does not contain assumptions regarding the exact nature of segmental interactions--such as energy transfer, etc. The application of the equation to running, cycling, speed skating, swimming and rowing is discussed and definitions of power, efficiency, and economy are presented.

  10. Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.

  11. Dehydration and endurance performance in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Eric D B

    2012-11-01

    The field of research examining the link between dehydration and endurance performance is at the dawn of a new era. This article reviews the latest findings describing the relationship between exercise-induced dehydration and endurance performance and provides the knowledge necessary for competitive, endurance-trained athletes to develop a winning hydration strategy. Acute, pre-exercise body weight loss at or above 3% may decrease subsequent endurance performance. Therefore, endurance athletes should strive to start exercise well hydrated, which can be achieved by keeping thirst sensation low and urine color pale and drinking approximately 5-10 mL/kg body weight of water 2 h before exercise. During exercise lasting 1 h or less, dehydration does not decrease endurance performance, but athletes are encouraged to mouth-rinse with sports drinks. During exercise lasting longer than 1 h, in which fluid is readily available, drinking according to the dictates of thirst maximizes endurance performance. In athletes whose thirst sensation is untrustworthy or when external factors such as psychological stress or repeated food intake may blunt thirst sensation, it is recommended to program fluid intake to maintain exercise-induced body weight loss around 2% to 3%.

  12. Muscular endurance training and motor unit firing patterns during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    With muscular training, the central nervous system may regulate motor unit firing rates to sustain force output and delay fatigue. The aims of this study were to investigate motor unit firing rates and patterns of the adductor pollicis (AdP) muscle in young, able-bodied adults throughout a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction and postactivation potentiation pre-post 4 weeks of muscular endurance training. Fifteen participants (training group: N = 10; control group: N = 5) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and a sustained isometric 20 % MVC fatigue task pre-post training. Single-motor-unit potentials were recorded from the AdP during the fatigue task with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Twitch force potentiation was measured during single-pulse electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve before and after MVCs. The training group endurance trained their AdP muscle at 20 % MVC for 4 weeks. Mean motor unit firing rates were calculated every 5 % of endurance time (ET). ET increased by 45.2 ± 8.7 % (p pattern consisted of an initial slowing followed by an increase in firing rate late in fatigue and remained consistent pre-post training. Potentiation did not change following training. These data suggest that the ability of the neuromuscular system to sustain motor unit firing rate may serve as a mechanism to augment the duration of submaximal muscle performance and delay muscular fatigue.

  13. Enduring symbols of dentistry: international metaphors of dental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2008-12-13

    Dentists' contributions to science and society extend beyond the practice of clinical dentistry and preventive oral health. Such service encompasses contributions to biology specifically and more generally to societal good works for which dentists are particularly esteemed. The profession of dentistry promotes the history and heritage of its craft and those who practise it. Enduring symbols of dentistry take many forms. These include metonymic emblems such as those of Cadmus and Saint Apollonia and the portrayal of effigies of twentieth century dentists on eponymous medals. Other enduring symbols are to be found in the names of streets and towns (eg Normanville in Australia) which commemorate dentists; and in the worldwide scientific names of plants and animal species which perpetuate singular contributions of dentists to biological science. Such include the scientific names of grasses (Deyeuxia rodwayi) after the Tasmanian dentist, Dr Leonard Rodway (1853-1936); seaweeds (Jeannerettia sp.) after a seaweed of the Pacific and Southern Oceans, after Dr Henry Jeannerett (1802-1886); gastropods (Typhina yatesi) after Dr Lorenzo Yates (1837-1909); copepods (eg Mimocalanus heronae) named to commemorate the life and works of Gayle Ann Heron (b.1923), a dental hygienist of the University of Washington, USA; and crabs (eg Cancer bellianus) named to commemorate the life and works of the leading British dentist of his day, Thomas Bell (1792-1880). This paper explores this theme of the creation and promotion of enduring symbols of dental science - enshrined in the civic, numismatic and taxonomic record.

  14. Long endurance underwater power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The development and design of deep sea power sources for long endurances (more than 1 year) and moderate power (more than 1 KW) are unique. The best primary battery (Li-thionyl chloride) would involve huge space and weight and the cost of such a system would be prohibitive. Fuel cells with stored gases need a pressure vessel and also quite a large volume and weight. Aquanautics is engaged in developing a power source to a very demanding design. The design would involve a completely open system eliminating the need for a pressure vessel. Aquanautics will capture oxygen from the seawater to be delivered to a fuel cell. The hydrogen generated in this design is envisioned to be from a reaction between aluminum and seawater. Such a completely open system is already available from Alupower, Inc. This provides for a much safer and more compact design than cryogenic hydrogen. Lithium or magnesium can also be used. Both are expensive and lithium is known to be potentially hazardous. Since the last report, there has been major improvement of the technological issue of carrier longevity. The previous carrier had an operational life of 3 days. At present, Aquanautics has discovered a carrier called 23SuzyP which has stable electrochemical performance for over a month.

  15. Study of speed endurance middle distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovaschenko R.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To investigate the boost performance speed endurance runners who specialize in middle-distance running . Material and methods : The study involved team members Vinnytsia region in an amount of 44 people, whose average age was 20,2 ± 2,1 years. Classes are held during the 21-day mesocycle, 5 times a week, twice a day. Things were aimed at enhancing the development of indicators of special speed endurance. Results : The dynamics of the running speed of the model segments that characterize speed endurance athletes. Proved that the improved running 400 meter intervals helps reduce travel time competitive distance of 1500 meters. Conclusion : The use of the program contributes to higher speed endurance, which determines the result in the women's 1,500 meters.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAND BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING VERSUS AQUATIC BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING ON IMPROVING ENDURANCE IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Eunice Regima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently the exercises and fitness professionals have adopted water as an alternative medium for delivering programs to improve fitness and health. When exercise on dry land our skeletal muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and other body systems are greatly affected by the forces of gravity. When exercise in water, the effects created by the gravitational pull on the body are attenuated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of land based endurance training and aquatic based endurance training for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Methods: An experimental study design with 30 subjects healthy individuals between 20-30 years of both sexes currently were divided equally into 2 groups. Group A underwent land based exercises while Group B underwent aquatic based exercises. The outcome measures consist of RPP (rate pressure product, REC HR (recovery heart rate, RHR (resting heart rate and 6MWD (6 minute walking distance was measured before (pre-training and after four weeks of endurance training. Results: In this study, the mean improvement between the 2 groups of land and aquatic based endurance exercises were tested for significance using a dependent t test. The calculated t value were 43.550, 4.583, 16, 5.870 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively. For group B 25.922, 12.762, 27.495,19.236 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively with p<0.05. This clearly indicated that both land based exercises and aquatic based exercises will improve cardiovascular endurance significantly and there is no significant difference between land based exercises and aquatic based exercises for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Conclusion: It is concluded that both land based and aquatic based endurance exercises methods produce equivalent, if not same effect on the enhancement of aerobic endurance. There was no significant difference between these two exercising mediums. Nonetheless

  17. 14 CFR 125.405 - Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans. 125.405 Section 125.405 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRCRAFT Records and Reports § 125.405 Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans....

  18. Flight Data For Tail 687

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Flight Data For Tail 653

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 658

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 685

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 677

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 676

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 666

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 682

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 664

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 675

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 654

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 669

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 671

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 660

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 661

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 674

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 684

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 657

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 681

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight Data For Tail 672

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Flight Data For Tail 662

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 665

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 678

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 686

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 652

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 655

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 680

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 659

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 667

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 673

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 668

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 670

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 663

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 656

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 683

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long...

  15. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    , while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  16. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (pathletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research.

  17. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  18. United States Navy - Canadian forces solid state flight data recorder/crash position locator experiment on the B-720 controlled impact demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The operation of a radio beacon position locator during and after the remotely controlled transport aircraft is discussed. The radio beacon transmission was actuated and was picked up by the Navy P-3A chase aircraft for a short time, after which reception was lost. The pilot reported that he received a signal on both 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz for a period of approximately 5 seconds. Five minutes after the crash a portable direction finding unit located on the roof of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, 4 miles distant from the crash, was unable to pick up the beacon transmission. The fire crews started fighting the fires approximately 90 seconds after the time of impact. Navy personnel access to the crash site was allowed on the morning of December 2, 1984. Radio beacon locator was found resting top side up, 15 feet forward and 13 feet perpendicular from the tray location the starboard side of the aircraft. An immediate inspection indicated the airfoil suffered moderate fire damage with paint peeling but not intumescing. The visual marker strobe lamp housings were intact but extensively burned such that it was impossible to see if the lamps had survived. The airfoil suffered minor structural damage, with assorted dents, etc. The extended plunger on the ARU-21 release unit indicated that the pyrotechnic deployment system operated. The radio beacon base (tray) suffered some heat and fire damage, and was charred and blackened by smoke. The frangible switch in the nose survived and the switch in the belly was recovered and found to have actuated. It is assumed that this switch fired the ARU-21 squib. There were no other release switches installed in the normally open system in the aircraft.

  19. ANTHROPOLOGY DIMENSIONS AS INDEPENDENT AEROBIC ENDURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Pavlović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance as human capability is treated in two ways. Some authors define it as mobility capability, while others deny this theory. The denying of this theory lies in attitude that endurance is saturated with psychological factors (motivation and cardio- vascular factors as well and is often identified with aero power, typical dimension of fun- ctional diagnostics. Having that in mind this research enabled the obtaining of necessary informations which could contribute to the clearing up of these uncoordinated opinions. The research included 110 student of the III year Phisical Education in East Sarajevo, male gender. Nine (9 predictors has been applied (4 variables for mobility space estima- te, 5 variables for morphology and functional space estimate and variable used for the estimate of endurance race 1500m. Obtained results confirmed statistical significance of two functional capability variable of Harvard step test, Margarija test and mobility variable race 4x15 meters with the race results.

  20. Relationship between laboratory-measured variables and heart rate during an ultra-endurance triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Paul B; Knez, Wade L; Shing, Cecilia M; Langill, Robert H; Rhodes, Edward C; Jenkins, David G

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the performance heart rate during an ultra-endurance triathlon and the heart rate corresponding to several demarcation points measured during laboratory-based progressive cycle ergometry and treadmill running. Less than one month before an ultra-endurance triathlon, 21 well-trained ultra-endurance triathletes (mean +/- s: age 35 +/- 6 years, height 1.77 +/- 0.05 m, mass 74.0 +/- 6.9 kg, = 4.75 +/- 0.42 l x min(-1)) performed progressive exercise tests of cycle ergometry and treadmill running for the determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate corresponding to the first and second ventilatory thresholds, as well as the heart rate deflection point. Portable telemetry units recorded heart rate at 60 s increments throughout the ultra-endurance triathlon. Heart rate during the cycle and run phases of the ultra-endurance triathlon (148 +/- 9 and 143 +/- 13 beats x min(-1) respectively) were significantly (P triathlon were significantly related to (r = 0.76 and 0.66; P triathlon and heart rate at the first ventilatory threshold was related to marathon run time (r = 0.61; P triathlon time (r = 0.45; P triathlon at an exercise intensity near their first ventilatory threshold.

  1. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  2. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  3. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her future. Donate Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A ... “To improve access to health care by providing financial assistance to low income children for commercial air ...

  4. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport. PMID:28265245

  5. Monitoring endurance athletes : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Tina Ardi

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of Gron

  6. Life-long endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Couppé, C; Karlsen, A

    2013-01-01

    Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr...

  7. Piaget's Enduring Contribution to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…

  8. Monitoring endurance athletes : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Tina Ardi

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of Gron

  9. Life-long endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Couppé, C; Karlsen, A;

    2013-01-01

    Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr...

  10. Piaget's Enduring Contribution to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…

  11. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  12. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes: The flight response recorded in a semi-field study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an experimental house was recorded within a large screen house. We compared entry- and exit rates in relation to the presence in the house of different insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) with an untreated net. Mosquitoes were lured towards the house by dispensing a synthetic host-odour blend from within the net in the house. Complementary WHO bioassays revealed that the treated nets caused high knock-down- and mortality responses to the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strain tested. The proportion of mosquitoes that came into view of the cameras and subsequently entered the house did not differ between treated nets and the untreated net. Treated nets did not affect proportions of mosquitoes that exited the house and departed from view around the eave. However, the percentage of house-leaving and re-entering mosquitoes when an insecticide- treated net was present, was lower than in the presence of an untreated net. Our results indicated that there was no spatial repellent effect from pyrethroid-treated nets that influences house-entry at eave level. It is argued that the toxic effect of treated bed nets resulted in a reduced number of mosquitoes re-entering the house, which could thereby affect malaria transmission in neighbouring, unprotected houses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic Flight Simulation of aircraft and its comparison to Flight tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays obtaining data for air vehicles researches and analyses is very expensive and risky through the flight tests. Therefore using flight simulation is usually used for the mentioned researches by aerospace science researchers. In this paper, dynamic flight simulation has been performed by airplane nonlinear equations modelling. In these equations, aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives have an important role. Therefore, the stability derivatives for typical aircraft are calculated on various flight conditions by analytical and numerical methods. Flight conditions include of Mach number, altitude, angle of attack, control surfaces and CG position variations. The obtained derivatives are used in the form of look up table for dynamic flight simulation and virtual flight. In order to validate the simulation results, the under investigation maneuvres parameters are recorded during many real flights. The obtained data from flight tests are compared with the outputs of flight simulations. The results indicate that less than 13% differences are found in different parts of the maneuvres.

  14. Thinking and action: a cognitive perspective on self-regulation during endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Edward Brick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation reflects an individual’s efforts to bring behavior and thinking into line with often consciously desired goals. During endurance activity, self-regulation requires an athlete to balance their speed or power output appropriately to achieve an optimal level of performance. Considering that both behavior and thinking are core elements of self-regulation, this article provides a cognitive perspective on the processes required for effective pace-regulation during endurance performance. We also integrate this viewpoint with physiological and performance outcomes during activity. As such, evidence is presented to suggest that what an athlete thinks about has an important influence on effort perceptions, physiological outcomes, and, consequently, endurance performance. This article also provides an account of how an athlete might control their cognition and focus attention during an endurance event. We propose that effective cognitive control during performance requires both proactive, goal-driven processes and reactive, stimulus-driven processes. In addition, the role of metacognition – or thinking about thinking – in pace-regulation will also be considered. Metacognition is an essential component of self-regulation and its primary functions are to monitor and control the thoughts and actions required for task completion. To illustrate these processes in action, a metacognitive framework of attentional focus and cognitive control is applied to an endurance performance setting: specifically, Bradley Wiggins’ successful 2015 Hour record attempt in cycling. Finally, future perspectives will consider the potentially deleterious effects of the sustained cognitive effort and self-control required during prolonged and strenuous endurance tasks.

  15. Kinematic changes during running-induced fatigue and relations with core endurance in novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblbauer, Ian F; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Verhagen, Evert A; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate kinematic changes experienced during running-induced fatigue. Further, the study examined relations between kinematic changes and core endurance. Repeated measures and correlation. Seventeen novice runners participated in a running-induced fatigue protocol and underwent core endurance assessment. Participants ran at a steady state corresponding to an intensity of 13 on the Borg scale and continued until 2min after a Borg score of 17 or 90% of maximum heart rate was reached. Kinematic data were analyzed for the lower extremities and trunk throughout a running protocol and, on separate days, core endurance measures were recorded. Changes in pre- and post-fatigue running kinematics and their relations with core endurance measures were analyzed. Analysis of peak joint angles revealed significant increases in trunk flexion (4°), decreases in trunk extension (3°), and increases in non-dominant ankle eversion (1.6°) as a result of running-induced fatigue. Post-fatigue increased trunk flexion changes displayed a strong to moderate positive relation with trunk extensor core endurance measures, in contrast to expected negative relations. Novice runners displayed an overall increase in trunk inclination and increased ankle eversion peak angles when fatigued utilizing a running-induced fatigue protocol. As most pronounced changes were found for the trunk, trunk kinematics appear to be significantly affected during fatigued running and should not be overlooked. Core endurance measures displayed unexpected relations with running kinematics and require further investigation to determine the significance of these relations. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural, Synaptic, and Epigenetic Dynamics of Enduring Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama Khalaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our memories are the records of the experiences we gain in our everyday life. Over time, they slowly transform from an initially unstable state into a long-lasting form. Many studies have been investigating from different aspects how a memory could persist for sometimes up to decades. In this review, we highlight three of the greatly addressed mechanisms that play a central role for a given memory to endure: the allocation of the memory to a given neuronal population and what brain areas are recruited for its storage; the structural changes that underlie memory persistence; and finally the epigenetic control of gene expression that might regulate and support memory perseverance. Examining such key properties of a memory is essential towards a finer understanding of its capacity to last.

  17. Plutonium in an enduring fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles evolved over the past five decades have allowed many nations of the world to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy, while contributing to the sustainable consumption of the world`s energy resources. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production suffered many traumas since the 1970s because of perceived risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons. However, the experience of the past five decades has shown that the world community is committed to safeguarding all fissile materials and continuing the use of nuclear energy resources. Decisions of a few nations to discard spent nuclear fuels in geologic formations are contrary to the goals of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development being pursued by the world community. The maintenance of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including spent fuels.

  18. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuan; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  19. Frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro E. Muñoz-Alonzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana (Chile and the association of these abnormal behaviors with age and sex of the animals. All resident endurance horses from 8 equestrian centres of the Región Metropolitana were studied (n=107. A description of classic stereotipies (crib-biting, weaving and box-walking was given to each horse keeper and then they were asked for this presence or absence, along the name, sex, age and breed, of every horse under their care. To analyze the data, horses were divided by age into 3 groups: 3 to 6 years (n=28, 7 to 9 years (n=42 and 10 to 18 years (n=37. Based on their sex, they were divided into 3 groups: stallions (n =11, geldings (n=64 and mares (n=32. Results are expressed as percentages. Fisher`s test with p < 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of the variables age and sex. A 12.2% of all horses presented stereotypies: crib -biting (0.9%, weaving (6.5% and box-walking (4.7%. No relationship was found between the presence of stereotypies and variables age and sex. This study evidence a high frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana, mostly weaving, and no found association between classic stereotypies and the variables age and sex of horses.

  20. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  1. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  2. Small UAV Research and Evolution in Long Endurance Electric Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Michael J.; Chu, Julio; Motter, Mark A.; Carter, Dennis L.; Ol, Michael; Zeune, Cale

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes recent research into the advancement of small, electric powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capabilities. Specifically, topics include the improvements made in battery technology, design methodologies, avionics architectures and algorithms, materials and structural concepts, propulsion system performance prediction, and others. The results of prototype vehicle designs and flight tests are discussed in the context of their usefulness in defining and validating progress in the various technology areas. Further areas of research need are also identified. These include the need for more robust operating regimes (wind, gust, etc.), and continued improvement in payload fraction vs. endurance.

  3. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  4. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  5. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  6. Crash Survivable Flight Data Recording System Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    41 0.- 041-4, .- 4 0 -) 0 0 4 0 0 81-ge1-2 i Z0-ERC MA UATRN COMPANY Page00 10- 140 z 77 Luz LUL 4A cc - C. 2 Li 4A0 0zz cc i -j IA L> I--~WI < oA...screwed into a 2 inch diameter by 10 inches long mild steel bar extending downwards from the carriage. Both still and high speed cine photography at 400

  7. FLIGHT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on singaporeair.com. This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  8. Seasonal and flight-related variation of galectin expression in heart, liver and flight muscles of yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Stefanie S; Dick, Morag F; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2017-06-08

    Galectins, a family of multifunctional glycan-binding proteins, are proposed as biomarkers of cellular stress responses. Avian migration is an energetically challenging physical stress, which represents a physiological model of muscular endurance exercises. This study assesses change in galectin gene expression profiles associated with seasonal variation in migratory state and endurance flight in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Bioinformatics analysis and real-time qPCR were used to analyse the expression of galectins in flight muscle, heart and liver tissues of 15 warblers separated into three groups of winter unflown, and fall migratory flown/unflown birds. Five transcripts similar to chicken and human galectins -1, -2, -3, -4, and -8 were identified in warbler tissues. The expression of these galectins showed no seasonal changes between two experimental groups of birds maintained under unflown winter and fall conditions indicating a minor role of galectins in preparation for migration. However, endurance flight led to a significant elevation of galectin-1 and galectin-3 mRNAs in flight muscles and galectin-3 mRNA in heart tissue while no changes were observed in liver. Different changes were observed for the level of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, which were elevated in flight muscles under winter conditions. These results suggest that secreted galectin-1 and galectin-3 may be active in repair of bird muscles during and following migratory flight and serve as molecular biomarkers of recent arrival from migratory flights in field studies.

  9. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  10. Do Running Kinematic Characteristics Change over a Typical HIIT for Endurance Runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-10-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. Do running kinematic characteristics change over a typical HIIT for endurance runners?. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2907-2917, 2016-The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic changes that occur during a common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) session for endurance runners. Twenty-eight male endurance runners participated in this study. A high-speed camera was used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at the first and the last run during a HIIT (4 × 3 × 400 m). The dependent variables were spatial-temporal variables, joint angles during support and swing, and foot strike pattern. Physiological variables, rate of perceived exertion, and athletic performance were also recorded. No significant changes (p ≥ 0.05) in kinematic variables were found during the HIIT session. Two cluster analyses were performed, according to the average running pace-faster vs. slower, and according to exhaustion level reached-exhausted group vs. nonexhausted group (NEG). At first run, no significant differences were found between groups. As for the changes induced by the running protocol, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found between faster and slower athletes at toe-off in θhip and θknee, whereas some changes were found in NEG in θhip during toe-off (+4.3°) and θknee at toe-off (-5.2°) during swing. The results show that a common HIIT session for endurance runners did not consistently or substantially perturb the running kinematics of trained male runners. Additionally, although some differences between groups have been found, neither athletic performance nor exhaustion level reached seems to be determinant in the kinematic response during a HIIT, at least for this group of moderately trained endurance runners.

  11. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  12. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-02-16

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggett, Emily; Magdesian, K Gary; Maas, John; Puschner, Birgit; Higgins, Jamie; Fiack, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Exercise causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, which can result in oxidant/antioxidant disequilibrium. Deficiency of antioxidants can further alter this balance in favor of pro-oxidation. Selenium (Se) is one of many antioxidant catalysts, as a component of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Soils and forages vary widely in Se concentration and a deficient diet can lead to sub-clinical or clinical deficiency in horses. Endurance horses are prone to oxidative stress during long periods of aerobic exercise and their performance could be affected by Se status. This study investigated the blood Se concentration in a group of endurance horses (n=56) residing and competing in California, a state containing several regions that tend to produce Se-deficient forages. The rate of Se deficiency in this group of horses was low, with only one horse being slightly below the reference range. Higher blood Se concentrations were not associated with improved performance in terms of ride time. There was no significant difference in Se concentration between horses that completed the ride and those that were disqualified, although blood Se concentrations were significantly higher in horses that received oral Se supplementation. An increase in blood Se concentration was observed following exercise and this warrants further study.

  14. Major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonje, Anne; Nangrahary, Mary; de Swart, Hans; Umans, Victor

    2007-03-15

    Major adverse cardiac events in endurance exercise are usually due to underlying and unsuspected heart disease. The investigators present an analysis of major adverse cardiac events that occurred during 2 consecutive annual long distance races (a 36-km beach cycling race and a 21-km half marathon) over the past 5 years. All patients with events were transported to the hospital. Most of the 62,862 participants were men (77%; mean age 40 years). Of these, 4 men (3 runners, 1 cyclist; mean age 48 years) collapsed during (n = 2) or shortly after the races, rendering a prevalence of 0.006%. Two patients collapsed after developing chest pain, 1 of whom needed resuscitation at the event site, which was successful. These patients had acute myocardial infarctions and underwent primary angioplasty. The third patient was resuscitated at the site but did not have coronary disease or inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and collapsed presumably because of catecholamine-induced ventricular fibrillation. The fourth patient experienced heat stroke and had elevated creatine kinase-MB and troponins in the absence of electrocardiographic changes. In conclusion, the risk for major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports in well-trained athletes is very low.

  15. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  16. Hodgkin's Lymphoma in an elite endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Muser, Klaus; Hirschberger, Barbara; Roecker, Kai; Dickhuth, Hans Herrmann; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2008-03-01

    Cancer is a life-threatening condition. We describe the case of a 22-yr-old world-class endurance athlete who presented with mild local lymphadenopathy but without any systemic complaints or impaired performance. He was subsequently diagnosed with stage III A (S) Hodgkin's lymphoma. A complete physiological workup before the diagnosis revealed high aerobic capacity. Immediately after six courses of escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in an identical test setting, aerobic capacity was markedly reduced (-42%), mainly because of a decrease in total hemoglobin mass (-37%), despite maintaining a certain amount of endurance training. Other potentially performance-limiting systems such as heart, lung, or aerobic metabolism did not show any signs of impairment. Two months after chemotherapy, the athlete had recovered his hemoglobin mass, and his aerobic performance was almost back to pretherapy levels. This case illustrates that advanced malignancies can be present in elite athletes without affecting performance, and that aerobic capacity can be regained within a short time after systemic chemotherapy.

  17. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Baranauskas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.

  18. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  19. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwańska Dagmara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  20. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  1. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  2. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... facilities for returning Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10...

  3. Talking yourself out of exhaustion : The effects of self-talk on endurance performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchfield, A.W.; Hardy, J.; de Morree, H.M.; Staiano, W.; Marcora, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that the perception of effort is the ultimate determinant of endurance performance. Therefore, any physiological or psychological factor affecting the perception of effort will affect endurance performance. Accordingly, this novel

  4. Unique Aspects of Flight Testing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    High Altitude Endurance HCI Human Computer Interface INS Inertial Navigation System IR Infrared JITC Joint Interoperability Testing Command...highlighting some of the unique aspects of flight testing unmanned air vehicle systems. It is intended to provide a practical set of guidelines in support of...of unmanned aviation systems, it is especially important that even minor changes to the baseline code be carefully reviewed, and that regression

  5. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 12 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  6. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  7. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedo, John E

    2002-01-01

    Through the development of a novel observational method, Sigmund Freud made possible the collection of reliable data about man's inner life. The scientific hypotheses he formulated about these formed the initial version of psychoanalysis. Many of these first thoughts have had to be revised in the light of subsequent scientific findings about the operations of the central nervous system, but even these refuted propositions often had much heuristic value. Despite the passage of a whole century, many Freudian hypotheses have retained their scientific standing. Most important among these was Freud's realization that human thought is usually unconscious. His understanding of the role of the automatic repetition of basic patterns of behavior, of the fateful consequences of early childhood emotional vicissitudes in structuring enduring mental dispositions, and of the distinction between two distinct modes of thinking are the most significant among his many contributions.

  8. Context-dependent flight speed: evidence for energetically optimal flight speed in the bat Pipistrellus kuhlii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzinski, Uri; Spiegel, Orr; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W

    2009-05-01

    1. Understanding the causes and consequences of animal flight speed has long been a challenge in biology. Aerodynamic theory is used to predict the most economical flight speeds, minimizing energy expenditure either per distance (maximal range speed, Vmr) or per time (minimal power speed, Vmp). When foraging in flight, flight speed also affects prey encounter and energy intake rates. According to optimal flight speed theory, such effects may shift the energetically optimal foraging speed to above Vmp. 2. Therefore, we predicted that if energetic considerations indeed have a substantial effect on flight speed of aerial-hawking bats, they will use high speed (close to Vmr) to commute from their daily roost to the foraging sites, while a slower speed (but still above Vmp) will be preferred during foraging. To test these predictions, echolocation calls of commuting and foraging Pipistrellus kuhlii were recorded and their flight tracks were reconstructed using an acoustic flight path tracking system. 3. Confirming our qualitative prediction, commuting flight was found to be significantly faster than foraging flight (9.3 vs. 6.7 m s(-1)), even when controlling for its lower tortuosity. 4. In order to examine our quantitative prediction, we compared observed flight speeds with Vmp and Vmr values generated for the study population using two alternative aerodynamic models, based on mass and wing morphology variables measured from bats we captured while commuting. The Vmp and Vmr values generated by one of the models were much lower than our measured flight speed. According to the other model used, however, measured foraging flight was faster than Vmp and commuting flight slightly slower than Vmr, which is in agreement with the predictions of optimal flight speed theory. 5. Thus, the second aerodynamic model we used seems to be a reasonable predictor of the different flight speeds used by the bats while foraging and while commuting. This supports the hypothesis that bats fly

  9. Low energy availability in the marathon and other endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Anne B

    2007-01-01

    Energy availability is the amount of dietary energy remaining after exercise training for all other metabolic processes. Excessively low energy availability impairs reproductive and skeletal health, although genetics and age may alter an individual's initial conditions and sensitivity when low energy availability is imposed. Many marathon runners and other endurance athletes reduce energy availability either (i) intentionally to modify body size and composition for improving performance; (ii) compulsively in a psychopathological pattern of disordered eating; or (iii) inadvertently because there is no strong biological drive to match energy intake to activity-induced energy expenditure. Inadvertent low energy availability is more extreme when consuming a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. Low energy availability, reproductive disorders, low bone mineral density and stress fractures are more common in female than male athletes. Functional menstrual disorders caused by low energy availability should be diagnosed by excluding diseases that also disrupt menstrual cycles. To determine energy availability (in units of kilocalories or kilojoules per kilogram of fat-free mass), athletes can record their diets and use diet analysis software to calculate energy intake, measure energy expenditure during exercise using a heart monitor and measure fat-free mass using a bioelectrical impedance body composition scale. All are commercially available at consumer prices.

  10. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  11. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V

    2015-11-01

    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance.

  12. Comparison of Level and Graded Treadmill Tests to Evaluate Endurance Mountain Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Pascal; Clémençon, Michel; Morel, Baptiste; Quiniou, Géraud; Saboul, Damien; Hautier, Christophe A

    2016-06-01

    Mountain endurance running has increased in popularity in recent years. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine if maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and energy cost of running (Cr) measured during level and uphill running are associated. Ten high level male endurance mountain runners performed three maximal oxygen uptake tests at three slope conditions (0, 12.5 and 25%). Metabolic data, step frequency (SF) and step length (SL) were recorded. No significant differences were found in VO2max (63.29 (±3.84), 63.97 (±3.54) and 63.70 (±3.58) mlO2/kg(-1)/min(-1)) or associated metabolic data at 0, 12.5 and 25% slope respectively. High intra-individual correlations were found between metabolic data measured in the three conditions. The energy cost of running was significantly different between slopes (0.192 (±0.01), 0.350 (±0.029) and 0.516 (±0.035) mlO2/kg(-1)/min(-1), p mountain runners, there is no difference in VO2max values between level and uphill running.In a homogeneous group of mountain runners, uphill Cr is not associated with level Cr.To assess performance potential of endurance mountain runners, a standardized uphill running protocol should be performed.

  13. Masseter thickness, endurance and exercise-induced pain in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, Mauro; Bakke, Merete; Michelotti, Ambra; Rapuano, Alessia; Martina, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular features of the masseter muscle in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology. Fifteen short-faced (mandibular plane-Frankfurt plane angle or = 23 degrees) male students participated. The thickness of the masseter was assessed by ultrasonography. Onset and endurance of exercise pain were recorded during sustained biting at a level of 15% of maximum voluntary contraction and 30 micro V electromyographic activity. Pain and fatigue was measured on visual analog scales before and after the biting, as well as before and after 10 min chewing. Statistical comparison showed that the masseter muscle was significantly thicker (+15%) in the short-faced than the normal- to long-faced subjects. The pain onset time and endurance time were also consistently shorter in short-faced subjects, whereas the intensity of pain and fatigue did not differ significantly between the two groups. Multiple stepwise regression showed positive influence from the mandibular plane inclination and the masseter thickness on the pain onset time and endurance time. The present findings support the concept that subjects with different craniofacial morphology show neuromuscular differences.

  14. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, Pskinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold.

  15. Energy Balance of Triathletes during an Ultra-Endurance Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE and the fluid balance through the race. Methods: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2 regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM, total body water (TBW and intracellular (ICW and extracellular water (ECW were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA. Results: Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%. BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  16. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. Chronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up. Nine heat adapted recreational runners (age: 25.4 ± 6.9 yr, body mass: 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height: 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) were recruited in this placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Subjects ingested 200 mg of PG one hour before the exercise test on treadmill at 70 per cent of their VO2max in a laboratory environment of 31° C and 70 per cent relative humidity. They drank 3 ml/kg body weight of cool water every 20 min during the exercise to prevent adverse effects of dehydration. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for the analysis of glucose, lactate, insulin and free fatty acids. Oxygen uptake was determined every 20 min while heart rate, body and skin temperatures, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 min during the trials. Endurance running time to exhaustion did not differ between PG and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant differences between the trials. We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat.

  17. Ability of clinicopathologic variables and clinical examination findings to predict race elimination in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, C Langdon; Meier, Chloe A; Fellers, Greg K; Magdesian, K Gary

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare results of point-of-care laboratory testing with standard veterinary clinical examination findings at a single time point during endurance competition to identify horses at risk for elimination. ANIMALS 101 endurance horses participating in the 2013 Western States 160-km (100-mile) endurance ride. PROCEDURES At the 58-km checkpoint, blood samples were collected from all horses. Samples were analyzed for pH, Pco2, base excess, anion gap, PCV, and whole blood concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, total carbon dioxide, BUN, glucose, and bicarbonate. Corrected electrolyte and PCV values were calculated on the basis of plasma total protein concentration. Immediately following the blood sample collection, each horse underwent a clinical examination. In addition to standard examination variables, an adjusted heart rate was calculated on the basis of the variable interval between entry into the checkpoint and heart rate recording. A combination of stepwise logistic regression, classification and regression tree analysis, and generalized additive models was used to identify variables that were associated with overall elimination or each of 3 other elimination categories (metabolic elimination, lameness elimination, and elimination for other reasons). RESULTS Corrected whole blood potassium concentration and adjusted heart rate were predictive for overall elimination. Breed, plasma total protein concentration, and attitude were predictive for elimination due to metabolic causes. Whole blood chloride concentration and corrected PCV were predictive for elimination due to lameness. Corrected PCV was predictive for elimination due to other causes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for horses in endurance competition, a combination of breed and clinical examination and laboratory variables provided the best prediction of overall elimination.

  18. [Endurance training and cardial adaptation (athlete's heart)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, Hans-Hermann; Röcker, Kai; Mayer, Frank; König, Daniel; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike

    2004-06-01

    One essential function of the cardiovascular system is to provide an adequate blood supply to all organs, including the skeletal muscles at rest and during exercise. Adaptation to chronic exercise proceeds mainly via the autonomic nervous system. On the one hand, peripheral muscles influence the autonomic reactions through "feedback" control via ergoreceptors, in particular, mechano- and chemoreceptors. On the other hand, there is central control in the sense of a "feed forward" regulation, e. g., the reaction of an athlete before competition. Along with other influential factors, such as circulatory presso-, chemo-, and volume receptors, the incoming impulses are processed in vegetative centers.A cardiovascular reaction, then, is the result of nerval and humoral sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. At rest, the parasympathetic tone dominates. It reduces heart frequency and conduction velocity. The high vagal tone is initially reduced with increasing physical exertion and switches at higher intensity to increasingly sympathetic activation. This mechanism of reaction to exercise is supported by inverse central and peripheral transmissions.Chronic endurance training leads to an improved local aerobic capacity of the exercised musculature. At rest, it augments parasympathetic activity when the muscle mass is sufficiently large, i. e., 20-30% of the skeletal musculature. The extent of the adaptation depends on individual factors, such as scope, intensity of training, and type of muscle fiber. A higher vagal tone delays the increase in the sympathetic tone during physical exertion. The regulatory range of heart rate, contractility, diastolic function, and blood pressure is increased. In addition, adaptation results in functional and structural changes in the vascular system. Cardiocirculatory work is economized, and maximum performance and oxygen uptake are improved. Endurance training exceeding an individual limit causes harmonic enlargement and hypertrophy of the

  19. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Campoy, Antonio; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Soto, Antonia; Rodríguez-Ballester, Francisco; Martínez-Blay, Victoria; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2016-04-07

    Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis.

  20. 75 FR 999 - Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ..., including such records as capital planning and investment control files, reports and presentations, legal... flight standards training that is used by employees to access their records and obtain information... reference copies of flight safety and flight standards information. 22. Department of Transportation...

  1. Endurance characteristics of phase change memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruru, Huo; Daolin, Cai; Chen, Bomy; Yifeng, Chen; Yuchan, Wang; Yueqing, Wang; Hongyang, Wei; Qing, Wang; Yangyang, Xia; Dan, Gao; Zhitang, Song

    2016-05-01

    The endurance characteristics of phase change memory are studied. With operational cycles, the resistances of reset and set states gradually change to the opposite direction. What is more, the operational conditions that are needed are also discussed. The failure and the changes are concerned with the compositional change of the phase change material. An abnormal phenomenon that the threshold voltage decreases slightly at first and then increases is observed, which is due to the coaction of interface contact and growing active volume size changing. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA09020402), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2013CBA01900, 2010CB934300, 2011CBA00607, 2011CB932804), the National Integrate Circuit Research Program of China (No. 2009ZX02023-003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176122, 61106001, 61261160500, 61376006), and the Science and Technology Council of Shanghai (Nos. 12nm0503701, 13DZ2295700, 12QA1403900, 13ZR1447200, 14ZR1447500).

  2. INNOVATIVE METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ENDURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Cherkesov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently taking place in the countries sociopolitical and socio-economic changes require corresponding changes in the part of departmental vocational training. Physical preparation of employees of law enforcement bodies of the Russian Federation of affairs is one of the areas in need of a thorough modification. With the growing volume and complexity of problems solved by the system of internal affairs bodies, including the configuration of highquality modern crime make it necessary to increase the physical training officer. To maintain law and order and successfully confront crime, the police officer should equally have both legal skills and a decent physical training. This principle of operation is to become a professional duty of a police officer. The article tells about the basic methods of general and special endurance, as well as on innovative developments in this field. Use of physical force has become commonplace in the everyday life of law enforcement officers. This entails the risk of serious consequences, in some cases; threaten the health and life of humans. Therefore, of particular importance are the problem of ensuring the rights of citizens, the rule of law in the activities of departments of internal affairs bodies.

  3. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanci, J; Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, Sm

    ...; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89...

  4. Bone health in endurance athletes: runners, cyclists, and swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Kirk L; Hecht, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Weight-bearing exercise has been recognized widely to be beneficial for long-term bone health. However inherent differences in bone-loading characteristics and energy expenditure during participation in endurance sports place many endurance athletes at a relative disadvantage with regard to bone health compared with other athletes. Adolescents and adults who participate in endurance sports, such as running, and non-weight-bearing sports, such as biking and swimming, often have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than athletes participating in ball and power sports, and sometimes their BMD is lower than their inactive peers. Low BMD increases the risk of stress and fragility fractures, both while an athlete is actively competing and later in life. This article reviews the variable effects of distance running, cycling, swimming, and triathlons on bone health; the evaluation of stress and fragility fractures; and the diagnosis, management, and prevention of low BMD in endurance athletes.

  5. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (SFHA) is common among female athletes, especially in weight-sensitive sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between SFHA and neuromuscular performance in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Sixteen eumenorrheic (EUM...

  6. Endurance training and GH administration in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F;

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of endurance training alone and endurance training combined with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was investigated. Sixteen healthy women [age 75 +/- 2 yr (mean +/- SE)] underwent a 12-wk...... endurance training program on a cycle ergometer. rhGH was administered in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was estimated by means of microdialysis combined with measurements of subcutaneous abdominal...... and after completion of the training program. Similarly, no effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was observed when combining endurance training with rhGH administration. However, in both the placebo and the GH groups, fat oxidation was significantly increased during exercise performed...

  7. Physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine physical fitness differences in students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels, a study was conducted on a sample of students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education at the University of Nis. The sample was divided into two subsamples, where the first subsample comprised 27 female students and the other 35 male students. Physical fitness was assessed using eight tests from the Eurofit battery of tests: the single-leg balance test - for the assessment of general balance, plate tapping - for the assessment of speed of movement, sit-and-reach - for the assessment of flexibility, the standing broad jump - for the assessment of explosive strength, the handgrip test - for the assessment of static strength, sit-ups - for the assessment of repetitive trunk strength, the bent arm hang - for the assessment of muscular endurance and the 10x5 meter shuttle run - for the assessment of the speed/agility. Cardiorespiratory endurance was estimated with the aid of 20 m endurance shuttle-run test. Based on the level of cardiorespiratory endurance, the participants in each subsample, were divided into three groups using a cluster analysis: high (VKRI, average (PKRI and low level (NKRI. The physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels were calculated using the one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that there were no differences in physical fitness of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels. Based on the results it can be concluded that the level of cardiorespiratory endurance does not affect the components of physical fitness among students of both sexes.

  8. Radiation endurance of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A N; Chertov, A M

    2015-03-01

    A literature survey is presented on the radiation endurance of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer components and complete transducer assemblies, as functions of cumulative gamma dose and neutron fluence. The most extensive data on this topic has been acquired in CANDU electrical generating stations, which use piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers manufactured commercially with minor accommodation for high radiation fields. They have been found to be reliable for cumulative gamma doses of up to approximately 2 MegaGrays; a brief summary is made of the associated accommodations required to the transducer design, and the ultimate expected failure modes. Outside of the CANDU experience, endurance data have been acquired under a diverse spectrum of operating conditions; this can impede a direct comparison of the information from different sources. Much of this data is associated with transducers immersed in liquid metal coolants associated with advanced reactor designs. Significant modifications to conventional designs have led to the availability of custom transducers that can endure well over 100 MegaGrays of cumulative gamma dose. Published data on transducer endurance against neutron fluence are reviewed, but are either insufficient, or were reported with inadequate description of test conditions, to make general conclusions on transducer endurance with high confidence. Several test projects are planned or are already underway by major laboratories and research consortia to augment the store of transducer endurance data with respect to both gamma and neutron radiation.

  9. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach.

  10. Master athletes are extending the limits of human endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Lepers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased participation of master athletes (i.e. > 40 years old in endurance and ultra-endurance events (> 6h duration over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Ageing does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented. The relative stability of gender differences observed across the ages suggests that the age-related declines in physiological function did not differ between males and females. Among the main physiological determinants of endurance performance, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max appears to be the parameter that is most altered by age. Exercise economy and the exercise intensity at which a high fraction of VO2max can be sustained (i.e. lactate threshold, seem to decline to a lesser extent with advancing age. The ability to maintain a high exercise-training stimulus with advancing age is emerging as the single most important means of limiting the rate of decline in endurance performance. By constantly extending the limits of (ultra-endurance, master athletes therefore represent an important insight into the ability of humans to maintain physical performance and physiological function with advancing age.

  11. The enduring impact of violence against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Susan D; Mercy, James A; Saul, Janet R

    2017-04-01

    More than one billion children - half of all children in the world - are exposed to violence every year. The violence children are exposed to includes both direct experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as indirectly witnessing violence in their homes, schools, and communities. What these various forms of violence share, based on a review of the literature, is their enduring potential for life-long consequences. These consequences include increases in the risks of injury, HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, reproductive health problems, and non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes. Studies addressing biologic underpinnings of such consequences demonstrate that violence-associated toxic stress may cause damage to the nervous, endocrine, circulatory, musculo-skeletal, reproductive, respiratory, and immune systems. Furthermore, rigorous economic evaluations suggest that costs associated with the consequences of violence against children exceed $120 billion in the U.S. and account for up to 3.5% of the GDP in sub-regions of East Asia. The expanding literature confirming the mechanisms of consequences and the associated costs of violence against children has been accompanied by growing evidence on effective approaches to prevention. Moreover, the expanding evidence on prevention has been accompanied by a growing determination on the part of global leaders to accelerate action. Thus, as part of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development agenda, the UN has issued a call-to-action: to eliminate violence against children. This unprecedented UN call may foster new investments, to fuel new progress for protecting children around the world from violence and its preventable consequences.

  12. A Preliminary Flight Investigation of Formation Flight for Drag Reduction on the C-17 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahle, Joe; Berger, Dave; Venti, Michael W.; Faber, James J.; Duggan, Chris; Cardinal, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that aircraft flying in formation could experience significant reductions in fuel use compared to solo flight. To date, formation flight for aerodynamic benefit has not been thoroughly explored in flight for large transport-class vehicles. This paper summarizes flight data gathered during several two ship, C-17 formation flights at a single flight condition of 275 knots, at 25,000 ft MSL. Stabilized test points were flown with the trail aircraft at 1,000 and 3,000 ft aft of the lead aircraft at selected crosstrack and vertical offset locations within the estimated area of influence of the vortex generated by the lead aircraft. Flight data recorded at test points within the vortex from the lead aircraft are compared to data recorded at tare flight test points outside of the influence of the vortex. Since drag was not measured directly, reductions in fuel flow and thrust for level flight are used as a proxy for drag reduction. Estimated thrust and measured fuel flow reductions were documented at several trail test point locations within the area of influence of the leads vortex. The maximum average fuel flow reduction was approximately 7-8%, compared to the tare points flown before and after the test points. Although incomplete, the data suggests that regions with fuel flow and thrust reduction greater than 10% compared to the tare test points exist within the vortex area of influence.

  13. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  14. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  15. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery.

  16. Pathfinder - flight preparation on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    AeroVironment, Inc., crew members prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for its first flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after its configuration was shanged from 8 electric motors to 6. Bob Curtin of AeroVironment is in the foreground of the photo. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  17. Formation Flight Control for Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Microbiotics , Inc. The IMU data were recorded on a flight of a Cessna 172, and a representative time slice was reproduced for all of the simulations...nothing about. The final position relative Data Source: Flight Test MIDG II IMU Cessna 172 Microbiotics , Inc. 48 to the boom will obviously...Embedded PC ATH-400 Athena Diamond Systems, Inc GPS Receiver Card JNS100 OEM Javad Navigation Systems MEMS IMU MIDG II INS/GPS Microbiotics , Inc UHF

  18. Noninvasive evaluation of the athletic heart: sprinters versus endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikäheimo, M J; Palatsi, I J; Takkunen, J T

    1979-07-01

    To evaluate possible differences in the cardiac effects of different types of running training, 22 competing male runners--10 sprinters and 12 endurance runners--were studied with a physical examination, electrocardiography, chest X-ray film and echocardiography. Thirteen sedentary men served as control subjects. There were no differences between the athletic groups in physical findings. However, left ventricular hypertrophy in the electrocardiogram was more apparent in the endurance runners (P less than 0.05), whose relative heart size on chest X-ray examination was also greater than in the sprinters (P less than 0.02). On echocardiography the left ventricular end-diastolic volume was equally greater than normal in both groups of athletes (P less than 0.005), but in the endurance runners the percent chance of the minor axis diameter in systole was greater than in the sprinters or control subjects (P less than 0.02). Values for left ventricular wall thickness and mass were greater than normal in both groups of athletes but were higher in the endurance runners than in the sprinters (P less than 0.001). The left atrial diameter was apparently greater in the endurance runners than in the sprinters or control subjects (P less than 0.001), whereas that of the sprinters did not differ from normal. Thus, intensive sprinter training seems to dilate the left ventricle but causes less increase in wall thickness and mass than training for endurance running and no change in left ventricular function or left atrial size. Endurance running causes left ventricular dilatation equal to that of sprinter training, greater wall hypertrophy and improved systolic emptying of the left ventricle, and it also dilates the left atrium perhaps because of decreased left ventricular compliance.

  19. On numerical modeling of animal swimming and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yuan-Qing; Chen, Duan-Duan; Dai, Hu; Wu, Jian; Tian, Fang-Bao

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic and aerial animals have developed their superior and complete mechanisms of swimming and flight. These mechanisms bring excellent locomotion performances to natural creatures, including high efficiency, long endurance ability, high maneuverability and low noise, and can potentially provide inspiration for the design of the man-made vehicles. As an efficient research approach, numerical modeling becomes more and more important in studying the mechanisms of swimming and flight. This review is focused on assessing the recent progress in numerical techniques of solving animal swimming and flight problems. According to the complexity of the problems considered, numerical studies are classified into five stages, of which the main characteristics and the numerical strategies are described and discussed. In addition, the body-conformal mesh, Cartesian-mesh, overset-grid, and meshfree methods are briefly introduced. Finally, several open issues in numerical modeling in this field are highlighted.

  20. Patterns of horse-rider coordination during endurance race: a dynamical system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viry, Sylvain; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Frances, Jean-Philippe; Berton, Eric; Laurent, Michel; Nicol, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter). The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race.

  1. Patterns of horse-rider coordination during endurance race: a dynamical system approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Viry

    Full Text Available In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter. The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race.

  2. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    A full spatio-temporal four-dimensional characterization of the microphysics and dynamics of cloud formation including the onset of precipitation has never been reached. Such a characterization would yield a better understanding of clouds, e.g. to assess the dominant mixing mechanism and the main source of cloudy updraft dilution. It is the sampling strategy that matters: fully characterizing the evolution over time of the various parameters (P, T, 3D wind, liquid water content, aerosols...) within a cloud volume requires dense spatial sampling for durations of the order of one hour. A fleet of autonomous lightweight UAVs that coordinate themselves in real-time as an intelligent network can fulfill this purpose. The SkyScanner project targets the development of a fleet of autonomous UAVs to adaptively sample cumuli, so as to provide relevant data to address long standing questions in atmospheric science. It mixes basic researches and experimental developments, and gathers scientists in UAV conception, in optimal flight control, in intelligent cooperative behaviors, and of course atmospheric scientists. Two directions of researches are explored: optimal UAV conception and control, and optimal control of a fleet of UAVs. The design of UAVs for atmospheric science involves the satisfaction of trade-offs between payload, endurance, ease of deployment... A rational conception scheme that integrates the constraints to optimize a series of criteria, in particular energy consumption, would yield the definition of efficient UAVs. This requires a fine modeling of each involved sub-system and phenomenon, from the motor/propeller efficiency to the aerodynamics at small scale, including the flight control algorithms. The definition of mission profiles is also essential, considering the aerodynamics of clouds, to allow energy harvesting schemes that exploit thermals or gusts. The conception also integrates specific sensors, in particular wind sensor, for which classic

  3. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  4. Mine Lifecycle Planning and Enduring Value for Remote communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Robertson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mine lifecycle planning is critical to developing enduring value from mining for remote communities. The history of mining is replete with examples of communities being unsustainable post mine closure. The concept of enduring value involves ensuring that a sustainable community will remain following the closure of an associated mine. Since 2003, awareness has increased amongst the International and Australian peak mining bodies for the need to plan for enduring community value. This increased awareness has developed alongside the requirement for mining companies to operate in a socially responsible manner by maintaining a social license to operate. This paper thematically reviews the literature relevant to mine life cycle planning, enduring value, the socio-economic impacts of mining, and mine closure. Conditions required for a community to gain enduring value from mining include: ‘normalisation’ rather than being a ‘closed’ town; the existence of government support and funding; and realised economic diversification opportunities. It is imperative that these conditions are given due consideration 1 in the initial stages of mine and town planning and 2 throughout the life of the mine through ongoing monitoring and community engagement. However, we acknowledge the shortcomings in assuming planning is a panacea and suggest areas for further testing.

  5. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  6. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  7. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  8. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  9. White flight or flight from poverty?

    CERN Document Server

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  10. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    , such as muscle fibre type composition and power reserve, relate to endurance time. Twenty males underwent testing to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), power output corresponding to 90% of VO(2max) at 80 rpm (W90), FCPR at W90, percentage of slow twitch muscle fibres (% MHC I), maximal leg power...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables......The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables...

  11. Thermoregulation and endurance running in extinct hominins: Wheeler's models revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Wilkinson, David M

    2011-08-01

    Thermoregulation is often cited as a potentially important influence on the evolution of hominins, thanks to a highly influential series of papers in the Journal of Human Evolution in the 1980s and 1990s by Peter Wheeler. These papers developed quantitative modeling of heat balance between different potential hominins and their environment. Here, we return to these models, update them in line with new developments and measurements in animal thermal biology, and modify them to represent a running hominin rather than the stationary form considered previously. In particular, we use our modified Wheeler model to investigate thermoregulatory aspects of the evolution of endurance running ability. Our model suggests that for endurance running to be possible, a hominin would need locomotive efficiency, sweating rates, and areas of hairless skin similar to modern humans. We argue that these restrictions suggest that endurance running may have been possible (from a thermoregulatory viewpoint) for Homo erectus, but is unlikely for any earlier hominins.

  12. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painelli Vitor

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance.

  13. Effects of yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Juliana Costa; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a systematized yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women. Twenty six women (24 ± 3.5 years old) participated in six weeks of yoga classes, and twenty one women (25 ± 5.1 years old) participated as the control group. The yoga intervention was composed of eighteen sessions, three times per week, at 1 h per session. The muscular endurance of upper limbs (push-up) and abdominal (sit-up) was assessed through the protocol suggested by Gettman (1989) [1] and Golding, Myers and Sinning (1989) [2] to the maximum repetitions performed in 1 min. To verify the significant differences intra groups and between groups a SPANOVA was performed, and the level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance.

  14. Endurance training: is it bad for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Morici

    2016-06-01

    Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol­ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes. Conversely, elite athletes of both summer and winter sports show increased susceptibility to development of asthma, possibly related to environmental exposures to allergens or poor conditioning of inspired air, so that a distinct phenotype of “sports asthma” has been proposed to characterise such athletes, who more often practise aquatic and winter sports. Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume.

  15. Adaptations to speed endurance training in highly trained soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I...... and II muscle fibers. METHODS: During the last nine weeks of the season, thirteen semi-professional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of 2-3 sets of 8 - 10 repetitions of 30 m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects...... in type I and II fibers did not change. CONCLUSION: In highly trained soccer players, additional speed endurance training is associated with an improved ability to perform repeated high-intensity work. To what extent the training-induced changes in V˙O2 kinetics and mechanical efficiency in type I fibers...

  16. Break point of serum creatine kinase release after endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsuka, Manabu; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sugawara, Kazuo; Sato, Koki

    2002-10-01

    We investigated whether there is a break point of creatine kinase (CK) release after daily endurance exercise and whether CK response depends on individual physical characteristics. Fifteen healthy young men performed 90 min of bicycle exercise for 3 consecutive days. Body composition, properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM), and aerobic and anaerobic capacities were estimated before the test. Blood samples were obtained 22 times during the experimental period. Endurance exercise significantly elevated serum CK from 3 h after the first exercise session (P 500 IU/l of CK) and low responders (LR; break point of CK release after endurance exercise under these conditions is 300-500 IU/l, two or three times higher than in the resting condition, and is associated with properties of the QFM.

  17. Changes in heart rate, arrhythmia frequency, and cardiac biomarker values in horses during recovery after a long-distance endurance ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Haugaard, Maria Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate heart rate, heart rate variability, and arrhythmia frequency as well as changes in cardiac biomarker values and their association with heart rate in horses before and after an endurance ride. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 28 Arabian horses competing in a 120- or 160......-km endurance ride. PROCEDURES: ECG recordings were obtained from each horse before (preride) and after (recovery) an endurance ride to evaluate changes in heart rate and the SD of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) during the initial 12 hours of recovery. Frequencies of supraventricular and ventricular...... premature complexes before and after the ride were evaluated. Blood samples were obtained before the ride and twice during recovery. Hematologic analyses included measurement of serum cardiac troponin I concentration and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity. RESULTS: Heart rate was significantly increased...

  18. Records Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be...

  19. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (pexercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (pexercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (pexercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in heart rate, arrhythmia frequency, and cardiac biomarker values in horses during recovery after a long-distance endurance ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flethøj, Mette; Kanters, Jørgen K; Haugaard, Maria M; Pedersen, Philip J; Carstensen, Helena; Balling, Johanne D; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Buhl, Rikke

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate heart rate, heart rate variability, and arrhythmia frequency as well as changes in cardiac biomarker values and their association with heart rate in horses before and after an endurance ride. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 28 Arabian horses competing in a 120- or 160-km endurance ride. PROCEDURES ECG recordings were obtained from each horse before (preride) and after (recovery) an endurance ride to evaluate changes in heart rate and the SD of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) during the initial 12 hours of recovery. Frequencies of supraventricular and ventricular premature complexes before and after the ride were evaluated. Blood samples were obtained before the ride and twice during recovery. Hematologic analyses included measurement of serum cardiac troponin I concentration and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity. RESULTS Heart rate was significantly increased and SDNN was decreased during the recovery versus preride period. Frequency of ventricular premature complexes increased during recovery, albeit not significantly, whereas frequency of supraventricular premature complexes was not significantly different between preride and recovery periods. Serum cardiac troponin I concentration and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity were significantly increased in the recovery versus preride period. No associations were identified between cardiac biomarkers and velocity, distance, or mean heart rate. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Heart rate increased and SDNN decreased in horses after completion of an endurance ride. These and other cardiac changes suggested that prolonged exercise such as endurance riding might have cardiac effects in horses. Additional studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of the findings.

  1. A power recirculating test rig for ball screw endurance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual design of an innovative test rig for endurance tests of ball screws is presented in this paper. The test rig layout is based on the power recirculating principle and it also allows to overtake the main critical issues of the ball screw endurance tests. Among these there are the high power required to make the test, the lengthy duration of the same and the high loads between the screw and the frame that holds it. The article describes the test rig designed scheme, the kinematic expedients to be adopted in order to obtain the required performance and functionality and the sizing procedure to choose the actuation system.

  2. Cardiac adaptation to acute and chronic participation in endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Keith; Spence, Angela; Naylor, Louise H; Whyte, Gregory P; Green, Daniel J

    2011-12-01

    The pervasive public health message is that moderate amounts of endurance exercise help maintain optimal health and reduce cardiovascular risk. While not enough people meet national physical activity guidelines, there are some at the opposite end of the activity spectrum who far exceed the recommended 'dose' of exercise. The cardiovascular health consequences of single and/or multiple (lifelong) 'doses' of high-volume endurance exercise are currently being debated. Recent commentaries, case reports and case series data have posed the question whether you can 'overdose on exercise', and that is the focus of this brief review.

  3. SPORTS ANAEMIA IN ENDURANCE ATHLETES: A PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil B Warkar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes require a very efficient oxygen transport system for maximal aerobic power during physical work performance. Many studies carried on endurance athletes suggested low levels of red blood cell markers leading to misconception of existence of so called sports anaemia in athletes. Sometimes athletes are on needless iron supplementation and are concern about anaemia. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the red cell population markers and to study the sports anaemia phenomenon in endurance athletes and the underlying responses responsible for ot. 60 male endurance track and field runners age group 18-21 were selected from the local city based club named Vasant Desai Krida Sangh Akola and were compared with the age, height sex matched non athletes students of Govt. Medical College Akola. The seven red blood cell markers were studied from the blood samples taken from the cubital vein under standard conditions. The blood variables for both the groups were analyzed with an automatic cell counter. The mean values of Hb(12.27 gm% +/- 0.782, RBC count in(3.64millions per cu mm+/-0.52, hematocrit ( 41.58 % +/- 1.32, mean corpuscular Hb conc (MCHC 29.49% +/- 1.198 were all very significantly lower ( p<0.0001 as compare to controls. Whereas the plasma volume (58.412% +/- 1.32, Mean Corpuscular volume (MCV 115.06 cu microns+/- 11.54, Mean Hb conc (MCH 33.998 picogms+/- 2.608, were significantly increased in endurance athletes. Though decrease in Hb conc, Low RBC count and less hematocrit in endurance athletes indicate presence of anaemia in them but it’s not a true anaemia as it is also confirmed by MCV, MCH, MCHC values between the two groups. The significant differences between the groups are due to the response to endurance training leading to hemo dilutional anaemia caused by plasma volume expansion which increases the blood volume in endurance athletes helping them for better oxygen supply and aerobic power needed

  4. The role of physique, strength and endurance in the achievements of elite climbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draga, Paweł; Ljakh, Vladimir; Ręgwelski, Tomasz; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Görner, Karol; Jurczak, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study is to determine the principal somatic and motor determinants for elite climbers. Methods Twenty climbers were examined [age: 28.5±6.1 years].The runners were divided into two groups based on their climbing level, according to the International Rock Climbing Research Association (IRCRA). Elite climbers represented a 8b-8c Rotpunkt (RP) climbing level (n = 6), and advanced climbers represented an 7c+-8a RP level (n = 14). The following measurements were assessed: height, weight, lean body mass, upper limb length, arm span, and forearm, arm, thigh and calf circumference. The BMI, Rohrer ratio, and Ape Index were also measured. The following motor tests were assessed: a specific test for finger strength, an arm strength test, and a test of muscle endurance (hanging from 2.5 and 4 cm ledges). In addition, pull ups were used to measure muscle resistance to fatigue. Results Elite climbers recorded significantly higher values for finger strength than advanced climbers (129.08 vs. 111.54 kg; t(18) = 2.35, p = 0.03) and arm endurance (33.17 vs. 25.75 pull ups; t(18) = 2.54, p = 0.02). In addition, the calf circumference was significantly lower in elite climbers than that in advanced climbers (34.75 vs. 36.93 cm; t(18) = 3.50, p = 0.003). Conclusion The results suggest that elite climbers have greater finger strength and arm endurance than advanced climbers. PMID:28771525

  5. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  6. Fire Endurance Testing of Fiberglass Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    explosion . A computer data acquisition system was used to record the various channels of test data. Color video cameras, an infrared camera, and 35 mm...sample included a bolted flanged coupling. One of the copper-nickel samples had a brazed sleeve-type coupling and the other had a Staub mechanical...FGP of the types tested. Pipe deflections were within IACS limits. 8. An explosion hazard exists when sealed pipe samples are exposed to fire. If the

  7. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk Nielsen, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson;

    2016-01-01

    period. Maximal aerobic speed was 0.6 km h(-1) higher (P ...PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...

  8. 4 Types of Exercise, Endurance | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, many endurance activities also build strength. Strength exercises also help improve balance. Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system ...

  9. Decrease of muscle fiber conduction velocity correlates with strength loss after an endurance run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Rosso, Valeria; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring surface electromyographic (EMG) signals can provide useful insights for characterizing muscle fatigue, which is defined as an exercise-induced strength loss. This experiment investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) changes induced by an endurance run. The day before and immediately after a half-marathon run (21.097 km) 11 amateur runners performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extensor muscles. During the MVC, multichannel EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and EMG amplitude and CV were calculated. After the run, knee extensors showed a decreased strength (-13  ±  9%, p  =  0.001) together with a reduction in EMG amplitude (-13  ±  10%, p  =  0.003) and in CV (-6  ±  8%, p  =  0.032). Knee extensor strength loss positively correlated with vastus lateralis CV differences (r  =  0.76, p  =  0.006). Thus, the exercises-induced muscle fatigue was associated not only with a decrease in EMG amplitude, but also with a reduction in CV. This finding suggests that muscle fibers with higher CV (i.e. those with greater fiber size) were the most impaired during strength production after an endurance run.

  10. Evidence from neuroimaging to explore brain plasticity in humans during an ultra-endurance burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrey Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity, likely through induction of neuroplasticity, is a promising intervention to promote brain health. In athletes it is clear that training can and does, by physiological adaptations, extend the frontiers of performance capacity. The limits of our endurance capacity lie deeply in the human brain, determined by various personal factors yet to be explored. The human brain, with its vast neural connections and its potential for seemingly endless behaviors, constitutes one of the final frontiers of medicine. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, the TransEurope FootRace Project followed 10 ultra-endurance runners over around 4,500 km across Europe and recorded a large data collection of brain imaging scans. This study indicates that the cerebral atrophy amounting to a reduction of approximately 6% throughout the two months of the race is reversed upon follow-up. While this study will contribute to advances in the limits of human performance on the neurophysiological processes in sports scientists, it will also bring important understanding to clinicians about cerebral atrophy in people who are vulnerable to physical and psychological stress long term. See related research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/170

  11. Peculiarities of endurance development for first year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochernina A.G.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the dynamics of the specific endurance first-year students in the classroom of physical education. Material : the study involved 20 students. Conducted educational testing: seed of lifting in supine position, hang on bent arms, jumping from sitting up with the stop, run 30m, bending and straightening the arms in emphasis lying, tilt forward from a sitting position, shuttle run, broad jump start. Results : found that the passage of the training module volleyball observed development of specific endurance and all motor abilities. Established that the manifestation and development of motor skills are interrelated. Since force is a functional foundation for the development of other skills, flexibility - the foundation of all mechanical movements. Without the development of strength, speed, coordination abilities impossible to develop endurance. Therefore, it is inappropriate and incorrect receipt of unidirectional only specific endurance (dynamic power and static, speed-power. Conclusions: indicated the need to achieve functional specialization of the body in the direction which is necessary for high-level manifestation of certain motor skills.

  12. Biochemical aspects of overtraining in endurance sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibois, Cyril; Cazorla, Georges; Poortmans, Jacques-Rémi; Déléris, Gérard

    2002-01-01

    Top-level performances in endurance sports require several years of hard training loads. A major objective of this endurance training is to reach the most elevated metabolic adaptations the athlete will be able to support. As a consequence, overtraining is a recurrent problem that highly-trained athletes may experience during their career. Many studies have revealed that overtraining could be highlighted by various biochemical markers but a principal discrepancy in the diagnosis of overtraining stems from the fact that none of these markers may be considered as universal. In endurance sports, the metabolic aspects of training fatigue appear to be the most relevant parameters that may characterise overtraining when recovery is not sufficient, or when dietary habits do not allow an optimal replenishment of substrate stores. From the skeletal muscle functions to the overall energetic substrate availability during exercise, six metabolic schemes have been studied in relation to overtraining, each one related to a central parameter, i.e. carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, polyunsaturated fatty acids, leptin, and proteins. We summarise the current knowledge on these metabolic hypotheses regarding the occurrence of overtraining in endurance sports.

  13. Effect of ambient temperature on female endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, Julie; Sandsund, Mariann; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2014-10-01

    Ambient temperature can affect physical performance, and an ambient temperature range of -4 °C to 11 °C is optimal for endurance performance in male athletes. The few similar studies of female athletes appear to have found differences in response to cold between the genders. This study investigated whether ambient temperature affects female endurance performance. Nine athletes performed six tests while running on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at different ambient temperatures: 20, 10, 1, -4, -9 and -14 °C and a wind speed of 5 m s(-1). The exercise protocol consisted of a 10-min warm-up, followed by four 5-min intervals at increasing intensities at 76%, 81%, 85%, and 89% of maximal oxygen consumption. This was followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Although peak heart rate, body mass loss, and blood lactate concentration after the incremental test to exhaustion increased as the ambient temperature rose, no changes in time to exhaustion, running economy, running speed at lactate threshold or maximal oxygen consumption were found between the different ambient temperature conditions. Endurance performance during one hour of incremental exercise was not affected by ambient temperature in female endurance athletes.

  14. Cardiopulmonary Fitness and Endurance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng K.; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary fitness and endurance in 9-11-year-old children with DCD against a group of typically developing children in Taiwan. The Movement ABC test was used to evaluate the motor abilities of children. Forty-one participants (20 children with DCD and 21 children without DCD) were recruited for this…

  15. Endurance and age : evidence from long-distance running data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of aging on long-run endurance. We analyze the determinants of running speed on distances from 5K to the marathon. We model running speed as a function of distance, age, and sex. We find evidence for interaction between age and sex, but not between distance and sex.

  16. Endurance test of TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.W.; Slaager, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term behaviour of suspended photocatalysts (Degussa P25) is studied in two endurance tests. Model waste water with an acid dye (Special Brilliant Blue FFR) or 4-chlorophenol as main contaminant have been used. Titanium dioxide is recovered from the effluent by pressure filtration and reused

  17. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  18. Recommendations for healthy nutrition in female endurance runners: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eDeldicque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2-1.4g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels.

  19. Solution-Space Screening of a Hypersonic Endurance Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, Bernd; Coleman, Gary; Oza, Amit; Gonzalez, Lex; Czysz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a parametric sizing study performed to develop a program strategy for research and development and procurement of a feasible next-generation hypersonic air-breathing endurance demonstrator. Overall project focus has been on complementing technical and managerial decision-making during the earliest conceptual design phase towards minimization of operational, technical, and managerial risks.

  20. Instructions to Adopt an External Focus Enhance Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, David C.; Greig, Matt; Bullough, Jonathan; Hitchen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention…

  1. The Effect of Variant Dosages of Amphetamine Upon Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melvin H.; Thompson, John

    The purpose of this study was to provide basic information concerning the acute effects of a small, moderate, and large dose of d-amphetamine sulfate upon muscular endurance; a secondary purpose involved the effect upon resting (R), and submaximal, and maximal (MAX) heart rate (HR). Twelve male university students underwent four separate trials of…

  2. Crew Endurance Management Practices: A Guide for Maritime Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Watchkeeping for Seafarers ( STCW ) regarding hours of work and rest. The fundamental purpose of this guide is to provide managers, captains, department...should use this information, along with the guidelines provided in OPA 90 and STCW : • To identify risk factors affecting crew endurance in specific

  3. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martí-Campoy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae, Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY BUILD AND ENDURANCE ON TREADMILL EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalathadevi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The type of the body build, efficacy of energy and oxygen supply mechanisms and utilization are the chief determinants of various forms of exertional endurance and achievement in various sporting activities. Therefore, the relationship between these varia bles of physique, fuel supply and aerobic capacity 6 and the endurance on treadmill stress test are chosen for study. MATERIALS & METHODS: Two groups (20 each of subjects (18 - 20 years were chosen based on body weight differences 9 60 kg BW for the study. They were further sub grouped based on BMI. DISCUSSION: When the body mass Index (BMI is at the range of 20 - 25, the endurance was better. However, when the BMI increased to very high value like 30, the endurance decreased. Such individual s with disproportionally high body weight could not endure a longer duration of exercise. This perhaps may be explained on the ground that such very high weight individuals (BMI > 30 may have more body fat than muscles. Excess body fat is dead weight that adds directly to the energy cost of running. In both groups of individuals with BMI of 20 or slightly above could run for longer periods than at extreme lower or higher ends of the BMI scale. OBSERVATIONS: The subjects with greater BMI could run for great er length of times, greater distances and achieved greater METs, glucose utilization and oxygen usage (aerobic capacity. The percentage of oxygen saturation (Pulse oxymetry after exercise fell to a greater degree in high body mass (BMI subjects indicati ng better cardio pulmonary function and greater degree of oxygen utilization. Finally, the resting heart rate and magnitude of heart rate rise during exercise are found to be somewhat lower in high body mass index subjects

  5. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders

    2014-01-01

    the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training...

  6. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  7. Training Interventions for Reducing Flight Mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    data recorders, and (e) line operations safety audits ( LOSA ), Each illuminates a different aspect of flight operations. Helmreich, Wilhelm, Klinect, and...Merritt, (2001) studied threats to safcty and the nature of errors in three airlines using LOSAs . Striking differences were observed among these air

  8. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  9. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  10. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η(2) = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active

  11. The NASA radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    NASA contribution to radar entomology is presented. Wallops Flight Center is described in terms of its radar systems. Radar tracking of birds and insects was recorded from helicopters for airspeed and vertical speed.

  12. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  13. Infrared absorption of methanethiol clusters (CH3SH)n, n = 2-5, recorded with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using IR depletion and VUV ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lung; Han, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2012-12-21

    We investigated IR spectra in the CH- and SH-stretching regions of size-selected methanethiol clusters, (CH(3)SH)(n) with n = 2-5, in a pulsed supersonic jet using infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization. VUV emission at 132.50 nm served as the source of ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Clusters were dissociated with light from a tunable IR laser before ionization. The variations in intensity of methanethiol cluster ions (CH(3)SH)(n)(+) were monitored as the IR laser light was tuned across the range 2470-3100 cm(-1). In the SH-stretching region, the spectrum of (CH(3)SH)(2) shows a weak band near 2601 cm(-1), red-shifted only 7 cm(-1) from that of the monomer. In contrast, all spectra of (CH(3)SH)(n), n = 3-5, show a broad band near 2567 cm(-1) with much greater intensity. In the CH-stretching region, absorption bands of (CH(3)SH)(2) are located near 2865, 2890, 2944, and 3010 cm(-1), red-shifted by 3-5 cm(-1) from those of CH(3)SH. These red shifts increase slightly for larger clusters and bands near 2856, 2884, 2938, and 3005 cm(-1) were observed for (CH(3)SH)(5). These spectral results indicate that the S-H[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]S hydrogen bond plays an important role in clusters with n = 3-5, but not in (CH(3)SH)(2), in agreement with theoretical predictions. The absence of a band near 2608 cm(-1) that corresponds to absorption of the non-hydrogen-bonded SH moiety and the large width of observed feature near 2567 cm(-1) indicate that the dominant stable structures of (CH(3)SH)(n), n = 3-5, have a cyclic hydrogen-bonded framework.

  14. Effects of eccentric cycling and endurance training versus low cadence cycling and endurance training on muscle strength and cycling performance in trained individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Eidsheim, Hedda Øyeflaten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown a positive effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on performance in cycling. Still, few studies have investigated the effect of eccentric cycling (ECC) and low cadence cycling (LCC) on muscle strength and determinants of cycling performance. Aim: Compare the effect of concurrent ECC and endurance training with concurrent LCC and endurance training on strength development, muscle thickness, and cycling performance in trained...

  15. Severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEED-AN): a qualitative study of patients with 20+ years of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul H; Kukucska, Roza; Guidetti, Giulia; Leavey, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how patients with long-term eating disorders manage their clinical problems. We carried out a preliminary qualitative study (using Thematic Analysis) of patients with severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEED-AN) in which we undertook recorded interviews in eight participants whose conditions had lasted 20-40 years. We found 15 principle features in physical, psychological, social, family, occupational and treatment realms. Psychological and social realms were most affected. Severe physical problems were reported. They described feelings of unworthiness, frugality regarding money and obsessive time-keeping. Persisting with negligible social networks, participants described depression and hopelessness, while somehow achieving a sense of pride at their endurance and survival in spite of the eating disorder. They emphasized the importance of professional help in managing their care. The severe and enduring description, often reserved for people with psychotic illness, is appropriately applied to SEED-AN, which has major impacts in all realms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...

  17. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  18. Methods for conducting an introductory flight test engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Gentry

    This thesis serves as a guide to teaching an introductory flight test engineering course. There are several references pertaining to this area of study, but they are limited in their discussion of the details in how the professor can teach the course, how the professor can handle the logistics of the course, how the students can record and reduce the data and how the pilot can perform the flight test maneuvers. As such, this thesis, along with the materials developed therein, serves the reader as a guide to developing and conducting an introductory flight test engineering course. Materials were developed for the parties involved with an introductory flight test engineering course. Lesson plans and background theory is developed for the professor of the course. In-flight videos and flight maneuver manuals were developed to assist the pilot with flying the maneuvers. In-flight videos, a workbook and in-flight data collection manuals were developed to teach the students the basics of flight test engineering. A chapter is also dedicated to the logistics of the course for the professor. With these materials, any university interested in teaching the basics of flight test engineering will have a foundation to build upon. They will also be guided in the selection of a pilot who can perform the flight test maneuvers required of this course.

  19. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  20. EFFECTS OF AN EXTREME ENDURANCE RACE ON ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bircher

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study was to examine energy expenditure (EE in one cyclist during an extreme endurance cycling race - the "XXAlps 2004" (2,272 km distance and 55,455 m altitude which was completed in 5 days and 7 hours - and whether the energy deficit derives primarily from the degradation of subcutaneous adipose tissue or loss of muscle mass. Energy intake (EI was continuously recorded. EE was estimated using two different methods: 1 Continuous heart rate recording using a portable heart rate monitor (POLAR® S710 and 2 using the individual relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake (VO2 determined under laboratory conditions. Body composition was assessed by measuring body mass, skinfold thickness and extremity circumferences. The cyclist lost 2.0 kg body mass, corresponding to 11,950 kcal (50 MJ. Fat mass was reduced by 790 g (7,110 kcal; 30 MJ and fat free mass by 1.21 kg (4,840 kcal; 20 MJ. Circumferences of the lower extremities were reduced, in contrast skinfold thickness at the lower limbs increased. Energy deficit (ED was calculated as the difference between EI and EE. Energy deficit using continuous heart rate monitoring was 29,554 kcal (124 MJ, and using the individual relationship between heart rate and VO2 was 7,111 kcal (30 MJ. The results show that the difference between ED due to decreased body mass and ED estimated from continuous heart rate monitoring was 74 MJ (124 MJ - 50 MJ. In contrast the difference between ED due to decreased body mass and ED estimated from laboratory data was 20 MJ (30 - 50 MJ. This difference between methodologies cannot properly be explained. Body mass and skinfold thickness may be overestimated due to hypoproteinemic oedemas during endurance exercise. Data from the present study suggests the individual relationship between heart rate and VO2 may provide a closer estimation of EE during extreme endurance exercise compared with corresponding data derived from continuous heart rate monitoring

  1. Energy Drinks Improve Five-Kilometer Running Performance in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Philip J; Goss, Fredric L; Nagle, Elizabeth F; Beals, Kim; Robertson, Robert J; Lovalekar, Mita T; Welton, Gary L

    2016-11-01

    Prins, PJ, Goss, FL, Nagle, EF, Beals, K, Robertson, RJ, Lovalekar, MT, and Welton, GL. Energy drinks improve five-kilometer running performance in recreational endurance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2979-2990, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate exercise performance time and related physiological and perceptual responses of recreational endurance runners after they had ingested a commercially available energy drink (Red Bull, Red Bull GmbH, Fuschl am See, Austria) containing caffeine, glucose, and taurine. Recreational endurance runners (n = 18; 13 men and 5 women; age: 20.39 ± 3.27 years; weight: 71.25 ± 17.17 kg; height: 178.00 ± 7.57 cm; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 55.94 ± 7.66 ml·kg·min) participated in a double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures study where they were randomized to supplement with 500 ml of the commercially available energy drink Red Bull and a noncaffeinated, sugar-free placebo (PLA) 60 minutes before completing a 5-km time trial on a treadmill, separated by 7 days. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (RPE-Overall; RPE-Chest; RPE-Legs), and affect were recorded at rest, 1 hour before ingestion, at 5-minute intervals during the 5-km time trial, and immediately after exercise. Session RPE and session affect were obtained 5 minutes after completion of the 5-km time trial. The distance covered at each 5-minute interval during the 5-km time trial was recorded. Performance improved with the energy drink compared with placebo (Red Bull: 1,413.2 ± 169.7 vs. PLA: 1,443.6 ± 179.2 seconds; p = 0.016), but there were no differences in RPE, affect, session RPE, session affect, or the distance covered at 5-minute splits between the two 5-km time trials (p > 0.05). These results demonstrate that consuming a commercially available energy drink before exercise can improve 5-km performance. These results may have application for altering pre-exercise nutritional strategies in recreational runners.

  2. SR-71 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    atmospheric particles at altitudes of 80,000 feet and above where future hypersonic aircraft will be operating. The system used six sheets of laser light projected from the bottom of one of the two 'A' models. As microscopic-sized atmospheric particles passed between the two beams, direction and speed were measured and processed into standard speed and attitude references. An earlier laser air-data collection system was successfully tested at Dryden on an F-l04 testbed. The first of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory was flown in March 1993. From the nosebay of the aircraft, an upward-looking ultraviolet video camera studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. The SR-71 has also been used in a project for researchers at the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) who are investigating the use of charged chlorine atoms to protect and rebuild the ozone layer. The SR-71, operating as a testbed, has been used to assist in the development of a commercial satellite-based instant wireless personal communications network, called the IRIDIUM system, under a NASA commercialization assistance program. In addition, the SR-71 has been used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic boom overpressures that are heard on the ground much like sharp thunderclaps when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' of sonic booms and minimize the startle affect they produce on the ground. Instruments at precise locations on the ground recorded the sonic booms as the aircraft passed overhead at known altitudes and speeds. An F-16XL aircraft was also used in this study. It was flown behind the SR-71 to 'probe' the near-field shockwave while instrumentation recorded the pressures and other atmospheric parameters. The aircraft has also been used most recently to evaluate a new concept

  3. EFFECT OF STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING ON COGNITION IN OLDER PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Y. Özkaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate strength and endurance training on cognition evaluated by event-related potentials (ERP in older people. Thirty-six adults, aged 60-85 years, were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary control (C, strength training (ST, and endurance training (ET. Participants performed functional fitness tests and ERP data were recorded before and after nine weeks of training. Training involved three sessions per week. Functional fitness test performance improved significantly in the ST and ET groups. The latencies of the N1, N2, and P2 components and the amplitudes of the N1P2, P2N2, and N2P3 components differed significantly between groups (p < 0.05. After training, the latencies of the P2 and N2 components at the Fz and Cz sites, decreased significantly, and the amplitudes of the N1P2, P2N2, and N2P3 components at the Fz site and the N1P2 and N2P3 components at the Cz site, increased significantly in the ST group compared with the ET group. After training, the latencies of N1, N2, and P2 components shortened significantly, and the amplitudes of the N1P2, P2N2, and N2P3 components increased significantly in the ST group compared with the C group. The latencies of the N2 and P2 components shortened significantly in the ET group compared with the C group, although the amplitudes of the ERP recordings did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that strength training might facilitate early sensory processing and cognitive functioning in older individuals

  4. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  5. Java for flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  6. Fatigue induced by physical and mental exertion increases perception of effort and impairs subsequent endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance.

  7. Bumblebee calligraphy: the design and control of flight motifs in the learning and return flights of Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippides, Andrew; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Collett, Thomas S

    2013-03-15

    Many wasps and bees learn the position of their nest relative to nearby visual features during elaborate 'learning' flights that they perform on leaving the nest. Return flights to the nest are thought to be patterned so that insects can reach their nest by matching their current view to views of their surroundings stored during learning flights. To understand how ground-nesting bumblebees might implement such a matching process, we have video-recorded the bees' learning and return flights and analysed the similarities and differences between the principal motifs of their flights. Loops that take bees away from and bring them back towards the nest are common during learning flights and less so in return flights. Zigzags are more prominent on return flights. Both motifs tend to be nest based. Bees often both fly towards and face the nest in the middle of loops and at the turns of zigzags. Before and after flight direction and body orientation are aligned, the two diverge from each other so that the nest is held within the bees' fronto-lateral visual field while flight direction relative to the nest can fluctuate more widely. These and other parallels between loops and zigzags suggest that they are stable variations of an underlying pattern, which enable bees to store and reacquire similar nest-focused views during learning and return flights.

  8. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... in the hippocampus (4.5 + or - 1.6 vs. 1.4 + or - 1.1 mRNA/ssDNA; P human brain following training suggest......The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...

  9. Survival of the Fittest: Why Terrorist Groups Endure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Young

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.

  10. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 110{mu}m. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed.

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ultra-endurance running - two incompatible entities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mathew G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regular and prolonged exercise is associated with increased left ventricular wall thickness that can overlap with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. Differentiating physiological from pathological hypertrophy has important implications, since HCM is the commonest cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Most deaths have been reported in intermittent 'start-stop' sports such as football (soccer and basketball. The theory is that individuals with HCM are unable to augment stroke volume sufficiently to meet the demands of endurance sports and are accordingly 'selected-out' of participation in such events. We report the case of an ultra-endurance athlete with 25 years of > 50 km competitive running experience, with genetically confirmed HCM; thereby demonstrating that these can be two compatible entities.

  12. Electromagnetic levitation platform for wireless study of insect flight neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, Alexander; McKnight, Michael; Bozkurt, Alper

    2013-01-01

    An electromagnetic levitation platform for use in a light emitting diode (LED) arena based virtual reality environment was developed for wireless recording of neural and neuromuscular signals from the flight related muscle groups in Manduca sexta. The platform incorporates the use of Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology to implant recording electrodes into the flight muscles of late stage pupal moths. Analysis of the insects' response to changes in the LED arena rotation direction indicate that this setup could be used to perform a variety of flight behavior studies during yaw maneuvers.

  13. Hannelore Wass: Death Education--An Enduring Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Hannelore Wass's enduring contribution to the field of thanatology focused on death education In addition to developing a journal initially focused on that topic, Wass also created one of the first text books in the field. This article explores the factors that caused death education to emerge in the late 1960s as well as issues that death education still faces as it continues to evolve.

  14. Strength training improves cycling efficiency in master endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Julien; Hausswirth, Christophe; Easthope, Christopher; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a 3-week strength training program of knee extensor muscles on cycling delta efficiency in master endurance athletes. Nine master (age 51.5 ± 5.5 years) and 8 young (age 25.6 ± 5.9 years) endurance athletes with similar training levels participated in this study. During three consecutive weeks, all the subjects were engaged in a strength training program of the knee extensor muscles. Every week, they performed three training sessions consist of 10 × 10 knee extensions at 70% of maximal repetition with 3 min rest between in a leg extension apparatus. Maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVC torque) and force endurance (End) were assessed before, after every completed week of training, and after the program. Delta efficiency (DE) in cycling was evaluated before and after the training period. Before the training period, MVC torque, End, and DE in cycling were significantly lower in masters than in young. The strength training induced a significant improvement in MVC torque in all the subjects, more pronounced in masters (+17.8% in masters vs. +5.9% in young, P < 0.05). DE in cycling also significantly increased after training in masters, whereas it was only a trend in young. A significant correlation (r = 0.79, P < 0.01) was observed between MVC torque and DE in cycling in masters. The addition of a strength training program for the knee extensor muscles to endurance-only training induced a significant improvement in strength and cycling efficiency in master athletes. This enhancement in muscle performance alleviated all the age-related differences in strength and efficiency.

  15. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Švedas, Edmundas; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Abaravičius, Jonas Algis

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: For athletes, the main purpose of nutrition is to ensure the compensation of increased energy consumption and the need for nutrients in the athlete's body, thereby enabling maximum adaptation to physical loads. The aim of this study was to determine the habits of highly trained endurance athletes depending on sports type, sex and age in order to improve the planning and management of the training of athletes using targeted measures. Materials and me...

  16. Speed, Strength and Endurance Training for Adolescent Footballers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Igendia, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was speed, strength and endurance training for adolescent footballers in Kenya. The commissioner of this work was the Football Kenya Federation (FKF). Football is a popular sport in Kenya, but the development of football in Kenya has been ineffective due to poor coaching standards, lack of information and inadequate facilities. This has also resulted in Kenya being able to produce few world class footballers. The purpose of this thesis was to provide easily accessib...

  17. Late Type 3b Endoleak with an Endurant Endograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Barburoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular stent grafting with different commercially available stent graft systems is widely applied for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms with high success rates in the current era. Various types of endoleaks are potential complications of the procedure. They usually occur in the early period. In this report, we present type 3b endoleak occurring 14 months after a successful endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a Medtronic Endurant stent graft.

  18. Energy Availability and Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina

    The overall aim of this PhD project was to study the prevalence and potential dietary risk factors and consequences of current low EA and oligomenorrhea/functionel hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) in a group of female elite endurance athletes. The results indicated that athletes with current low and......-reported screening tool to complement existing validated disordered eating screening instruments for the identification of female athletes at risk for the Triad....

  19. Ballooning Spiders: The Case for Electrostatic Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    We consider general aspects of the physics underlying the flight of Gossamer spiders, also known as ballooning spiders. We show that existing observations and the physics of spider silk in the presence of the Earth's static atmospheric electric field indicate a potentially important role for electrostatic forces in the flight of Gossamer spiders. A compelling example is analyzed in detail, motivated by the observed "unaccountable rapidity" in the launching of such spiders from H.M.S. Beagle, recorded by Charles Darwin during his famous voyage.

  20. In-Flight Injuries Involving Children on Commercial Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Paulo M; Nerwich, Neil; Rotta, Alexandre T

    2016-12-09

    More than 3 billion passengers are transported every year on commercial airline flights worldwide, many of whom are children. The incidence of in-flight medical events (IFMEs) affecting children is largely unknown. This study seeks to characterize pediatric IFMEs, with particular focus on in-flight injuries (IFIs). We reviewed the records of all IFMEs from January 2009 to January 2014 involving children treated in consultation with a ground-based medical support center providing medical support to commercial airlines. Among 114 222 IFMEs, we identified 12 226 (10.7%) cases involving children. In-flight medical events commonly involved gastrointestinal (35.4%), infectious (20.3%), neurological (12.2%), allergic (8.6%), and respiratory (6.3%) conditions. In addition, 400 cases (3.3%) of IFMEs involved IFIs. Subjects who sustained IFIs were younger than those involved in other medical events (3 [1-8] vs 7 [3-14] y, respectively), and lap infants were overrepresented (35.8% of IFIs vs 15.9% of other medical events). Examples of IFIs included burns, contusions, and lacerations from falls in unrestrained lap infants; fallen objects from the overhead bin; and trauma to extremities by the service cart or aisle traffic. Pediatric IFIs are relatively infrequent given the total passenger traffic but are not negligible. Unrestrained lap children are prone to IFIs, particularly during meal service or turbulence, but not only then. Children occupying aisle seats are vulnerable to injury from fallen objects, aisle traffic, and burns from mishandled hot items. The possible protection from using in-flight child restraints might extend beyond takeoff and landing operations or during turbulence.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  1. Piloted Simulator Evaluation Results of New Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Smaili, M.H.; Stroosma, O.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.; Joosten, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A high fidelity aircraft simulation model, reconstructed using the Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) of the 1992 Amsterdam Bijlmermeer aircraft accident (Flight 1862), has been used to evaluate a new Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm in an online piloted evaluation. This paper focuses on the

  2. 14 CFR 61.197 - Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.197 Renewal requirements for flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewal requirements for flight instructor... the following renewal requirements— (i) A record of training students showing that, during the...

  3. Venous hemogasometry of equines finalists in 90 km endurance races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia B.S. Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Front of exercise, the organic systems may suffer water-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, particularly in the case of blood gases, demonstrating variations from different causes, whether respiratory and/or metabolic. Understanding the physiological adaptations to exercise is essential in the search for the optimum performance. In this way, this study measured the venous blood gases (pO2, pCO2, as well as the oxygen saturation (SatO2 in healthy equines, Arabian horses finalists in 90km endurance races. A total of fourteen Arabian horses were evaluated, nine males and five females, between six and 12 years old, finalists in 90km endurance races. There was a significant reduction in pO2, pCO2 and SatO2 after the exercise, however, the values remained within the normality range, and did not change the athletic performance of the animals, indicating a temporary alteration, assuming thus a character of physiological response to the exercise performed. The equines, finalists in 90 Km endurance races, demonstrated efficient ventilatory process, without any alterations in the athletic performance, being adapted to the type of exercise imposed.

  4. Serum cardiac troponin T after repeated endurance exercise events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, A; Tirelli, F; Albertini, R; Monica, C; Monica, M; Tredici, G

    1996-05-01

    Recently Dr. Rowe made a hypothesis according to which small areas of myocardial necrosis can be caused by microvascular spasm, related to high catecholamine concentrations and other mechanisms, following extraordinary unremitting endurance exercises or due to the cumulative effect of several endurance events. It was this last suggestion which prompted us to investigate 25 top cyclists, taking part in the 77th Giro d'Italia. Blood samples were obtained the day before the start of the competition and once a week thereafter until the end. We measured myoglobin, lactic dehydrogenase, total creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and serum cardiac troponin T (Tn-T), a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of myocardial injury. While at measuring time points which followed we found a significant increase in the serum indicators of muscle damage, compared with their values at the beginning of the race, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB did not rise significantly and cardiac Tn-T was found in the serum of only 5 athletes, repeatedly in some cases, but always below the cut off values considered as indicating myocardial ischemia. On the basis of the behaviour of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and, above all, of cardiac Tn-T, we can conclude that heavy endurance exercises, repeated daily for 22 days, as was the case in our study, do not seem able to produce, in top athletes, permanent heart damage by means of acute myocardial injury.

  5. INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL TRAINING ON CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE IN PREADOLESCENT AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Marinkovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory or aerobic endurance is the ability of the whole body to sustain physical activity for an extended period of time, involving relatively large groups of muscles. The attitudes on the possible impact of training on cardiorespiratory endurance in preadolescents are contradictory. Our study enrolled 195 boys aged 11 to 12 years. Experimental group (n=92 consisted of the children who had been involved with planned and programmed water polo training for at least two years. Control group (n=103 consisted of schoolchildren who only had had regular physical education in schools. Our investigation protocol included standardized anthropometric measurements and tests, performed respecting the appropriate protocols. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in age and relative values of oxygen consumption (VO2peak. Body height and mass, as well as the skinfold thickness, were significantly higher in experimental group subjects. The values of absolute VO2peak, FVC and FEV1.0 were also significantly higher in the examinees involved with water polo training. These findings stress the importance of a systematic training process even in this early period of growth and development in order for the trainees to acquire important functional advantages. We believe that a properly planned and programmed physical training can significantly contribute to the development of cardiorespiratory endurance even as early as preadolescent age.

  6. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type.

  7. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers’ Strength and Isometric Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozimek Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and “conditioning” variables on the one hand, and climber’s performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman’s rank were found between climber’s competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7; much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 – 0.57. Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests.

  8. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (pinsight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia.

  9. Structural protein alterations to resistance and endurance cycling exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcell, Allen C; Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Sawyer, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    The muscle cytoskeleton is necessary for the effective transmission of forces generated by actin-myosin interactions. We have examined the impact of muscle force and exercise volume on the cytoskeleton by measuring desmin and dystrophin content in human skeletal muscle after 12 weeks of progressive resistance or endurance cycle training. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained before and after training. Desmin and dystrophin content was determined using immunoblotting techniques. After resistance training, desmin content increased 82 +/- 18% (p < 0.05), whereas there was no change in desmin content with endurance cycling. Dystrophin content did not change in either group. One-repetition maximum and VO2max increased (p < 0.05) in the resistance and endurance groups, respectively. These data demonstrate that a high-tension stimulus impacts the cytoskeleton in contrast to high-volume concentric contractions. The tensile loading and eccentric components of resistance training are implicated in desmin alterations. Indeed, the functional improvements resulting from resistance training may be related in part to the mechanical integration provided by the desmin protein.

  10. Arterial Elasticity, Strength, Fatigue, and Endurance in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation. Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P<0.01 and treadmill endurance (P<0.02 after adjusting for VO2 max and knee extension strength. Subjective fatigue at rest was related to large artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (<0.02. Strength was significantly related to small artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.

  11. Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Thin Carbon Fiber Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Almaraz, Gonzalo M.; Ruiz Vilchez, Julio A.; Dominguez, Aymeric; Meyer, Yann

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic fatigue tests were carried out on thin carbon fiber sheets (0.3 mm of thickness) to determine the fatigue endurance under very high-frequency loading (20 kHz). This material, called the gas diffusion layer (GDL), plays a major role in the overall performances of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The study of its physical-chemical properties is an on-going subject in the literature; nevertheless, no knowledge is available concerning the high-frequency fatigue endurance. A principal difficulty in carrying out ultrasonic fatigue tests on this material was to determine the dimensions of testing specimen to fit the resonance condition. This aspect was solved by modal numerical simulation: The testing specimen has been a combination of a low-strength steel frame (to facilitate the attachment to the ultrasonic machine and to increase the mass of the specimen), and the carbon fiber hourglass-shape profile. Under resonance condition, a stationary elastic wave is generated along the specimen that induces high stress at the neck section and high displacements at the ends. Results show that fatigue life was close to 3 × 108 cycles when the high Von Misses stress at the neck section was 170 MPa, whereas fatigue life attains the 4.5 × 109 cycles when stress decreases to 117 MPa. Crack initiation and propagation were analyzed, and conclusions were drawn concerning the fatigue endurance of these fiber carbon sheets under ultrasonic fatigue testing.

  12. Recent Advances in Long Range and Long Endurance Operation of Aircraft (Les Progres Recents dans le Domaine des Operations Aeriennes a Longue Distance et de Longdue Duree)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    du pont a6rien militaire pour positionner les forces de fa~on optimale fourni un autre exemple d’une op6ration o6 l’autonomie et ]’endurance de...EXTENDED RANGE OPERATIONS - A REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS by A. Samel and H.M. Wegmann DLR-Institute for Aerospace Medicine Postfach 90 60 58 Linder H6he...Neuilly-sur Flight Crews", NASA- Technical Memorandum Seine, lQR7, pp. 78-82. 103852, December 1991. 28 Hart , S. G., Staveland, L. E.. "Development oi

  13. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  14. Robert Recorde

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The 16th-Century intellectual Robert Recorde is chiefly remembered for introducing the equals sign into algebra, yet the greater significance and broader scope of his work is often overlooked. This book presents an authoritative and in-depth analysis of the man, his achievements and his historical importance. This scholarly yet accessible work examines the latest evidence on all aspects of Recorde's life, throwing new light on a character deserving of greater recognition. Topics and features: presents a concise chronology of Recorde's life; examines his published works; describes Recorde's pro

  15. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    This photo of the X-1A includes graphs of the flight data from Maj. Charles E. Yeager's Mach 2.44 flight on December 12, 1953. (This was only a few days short of the 50th anniversary of the Wright brothers' first powered flight.) After reaching Mach 2.44, then the highest speed ever reached by a piloted aircraft, the X-1A tumbled completely out of control. The motions were so violent that Yeager cracked the plastic canopy with his helmet. He finally recovered from a inverted spin and landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. Among the data shown are Mach number and altitude (the two top graphs). The speed and altitude changes due to the tumble are visible as jagged lines. The third graph from the bottom shows the G-forces on the airplane. During the tumble, these twice reached 8 Gs or 8 times the normal pull of gravity at sea level. (At these G forces, a 200-pound human would, in effect, weigh 1,600 pounds if a scale were placed under him in the direction of the force vector.) Producing these graphs was a slow, difficult process. The raw data from on-board instrumentation recorded on oscillograph film. Human computers then reduced the data and recorded it on data sheets, correcting for such factors as temperature and instrument errors. They used adding machines or slide rules for their calculations, pocket calculators being 20 years in the future. Three second generation Bell Aircraft Corporations X-1s were built, though four were requested. They were the X-1A (48-1384); X-1B (48-1385); X-1C (canceled and never built); X-1D (48-1386). These aircraft were similar to the X-1s, except they were five feet longer, had conventional canopies, and were powered by Reaction Motors, Inc. XLR11-RM-5 rocket engines. The RM-5, like the previous engines, had no throttle and was controlled by igniting one or more of the four thrust chambers at will. The original program outline called for the X-1A and X-1B to be used for dynamic stability and air loads investigations. The X-1D was to be used

  16. Hyper-X Hot Structures Comparison of Thermal Analysis and Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Leonard, Charles P.; Bruce, Walter E., III

    2004-01-01

    The Hyper-X (X-43A) program is a flight experiment to demonstrate scramjet performance and operability under controlled powered free-flight conditions at Mach 7 and 10. The Mach 7 flight was successfully completed on March 27, 2004. Thermocouple instrumentation in the hot structures (nose, horizontal tail, and vertical tail) recorded the flight thermal response of these components. Preflight thermal analysis was performed for design and risk assessment purposes. This paper will present a comparison of the preflight thermal analysis and the recorded flight data.

  17. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  18. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  19. Hypersonic flight testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, W.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is developed for people attending the University of Texas week-long short course in hypersonics. The presentation will be late in the program after the audience has been exposed to computational tehniques and ground test methods. It will attempt to show why we flight test, flight test options, what we learn from flight tests and how we use this information to improve our knowledge of hypersonics. It presupposes that our primary interest is in developing vehicles which will fly in the hypersonic flight region and not in simply developing technology for technology's sake. The material is presented in annotated vugraph form so that the author's comments on each vugraph are on the back of the preceding page. It is hoped that the comments will help reinforce the message on the vugraph.

  20. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  1. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  2. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  3. Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the

  4. Is asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease associated with walking endurance in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun KS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Shao Sun,1,2* Ming-Shian Lin,1,2* Yi-Jen Chen,1,2 Yih-Yuan Chen,3 Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen,4 Wei Chen1,5,6 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Care, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Medical Research, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, 5College of Nursing, Dayeh University, Changhua, 6Department of Respiratory Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD is associated with impaired walking endurance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, it is unknown whether asymptomatic PAD is associated with impaired walking endurance in patients with COPD. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 200 COPD patients (mean age: 70.9 years who volunteered to perform ankle-brachial index (ABI and 6-minute walk test (6MWT consecutively. Demographic data, lung function, dyspnea scales, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ABI was used to detect PAD (ABI <0.90. All patients were free of PAD symptoms at enrollment. Results: Of the 200 COPD patients, 17 (8.5% were diagnosed with asymptomatic PAD. The COPD patients without asymptomatic PAD did not walk significantly further on the 6MWT than the COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD (439±86 m vs 408±74 m, P=0.159. The strongest correlation with the distance walked on the 6MWT was Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (r2=-0.667, P<0.001, followed by oxygen-cost diagram (r2=0.582, P<0.001 and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r2=0.532, P<0.001. In multivariate linear regression analysis, only age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and baseline pulse oximetry were independently correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (P<0.05. However, body mass index, baseline heart rate, and

  5. Comparison of Level and Graded Treadmill Tests to Evaluate Endurance Mountain Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Balducci, Michel Clémençon, Baptiste Morel, Géraud Quiniou, Damien Saboul, Christophe A. Hautier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountain endurance running has increased in popularity in recent years. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine if maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and energy cost of running (Cr measured during level and uphill running are associated. Ten high level male endurance mountain runners performed three maximal oxygen uptake tests at three slope conditions (0, 12.5 and 25%. Metabolic data, step frequency (SF and step length (SL were recorded. No significant differences were found in VO2max (63.29 (±3.84, 63.97 (±3.54 and 63.70 (±3.58 mlO2/kg-1/min-1 or associated metabolic data at 0, 12.5 and 25% slope respectively. High intra-individual correlations were found between metabolic data measured in the three conditions. The energy cost of running was significantly different between slopes (0.192 (±0.01, 0.350 (±0.029 and 0.516 (±0.035 mlO2/kg-1/min-1, p < 0.01, 0, 12.5 and 25% respectively. However, Cr0% was not correlated with either Cr25% or Cr12.5% (rs = 0.09 and rs = 0.10, in contrast, Cr25% and Cr12.5% were correlated (rs = 0.78. Step length was positively correlated with speed under the three slope conditions. Step frequency was significantly lower at 25 compared to 12.5 and 0% slope. We found that the maximum aerobic power did not differ between level and graded treadmill tests. However, the increase in Cr on the inclined versus level conditions varied between subjects. None of the measured anthropometric or kinematic variables could explain the higher increase in Cr of some subjects when running uphill. Thus, a short graded (5min at 12.5% running test should be performed at a submaximal velocity (around 40% of level vVO2max to enhance understanding of an endurance runner’s uphill capability.

  6. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND CONTINUOUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuno Hottenrott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17 or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17 for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01. Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36. Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63. Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners

  7. STS-34 MS Chang-Diaz records onboard activity with 16mm camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz records forward flight deck activity with ARRIFLEX 16mm camera onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. In the background, MS Shannon W. Lucid works at aft flight deck payload station.

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  9. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  10. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  11. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... about the risks of the launch and reentry, including the safety record of the launch or reentry vehicle... must describe the safety record of its vehicle to each space flight participant. The operator's safety... launch vehicle the consent covers; (2) State that the space flight participant understands the risk, and...

  12. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  13. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Gordon; Keegan, Richard J.; Thompson, Kevin G.; Cathcart, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Background The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min), the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age (M = 24.42 ± 3.85) were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo) stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Results Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, −1.23 ± 1.21 kg) significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, −.26 ± .92 kg; p = .046). Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm) or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post-tDCS, 100.27 ± 44

  14. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Flood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min, the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age (M = 24.42 ± 3.85 were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Results Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, −1.23 ± 1.21 kg significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, −.26 ± .92 kg; p = .046. Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post

  15. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A;

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...... in the two subjects receiving rhGH. In conclusion, rhGH adds to the effects of endurance training on muscle oxidative enzymes and causes a reduction in body fat in elderly women....

  16. COMBINED STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Aspenes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11 or a control group (n = 9 from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers

  17. Predictive Indicators of Overuse Injuries in Adolescent Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Silván, Daniel; Díaz-Ocejo, Jaime; Murray, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. Five adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 y) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q and Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for 1 season (37 wk) to detect signs of overtraining and underrecovery (RC-q) and early symptoms of lower-limb injuries (OSTRC-q). All overuse injuries were retrospectively analyzed to detect which variations in the questionnaires in the weeks preceding injury were best associated. Overuse incidence rates were calculated based on training exposure. Lower-limb overuse injuries accounted for 73% of total injuries. The incidence rate for overuse training-related injuries was 10 injuries/1000 h. Strong correlations were observed between individual running exposure and overuse injury incidence (r(2) = .66), number of overuse injuries (r(2) = .69), and days lost (r(2) = .66). A change of 20% or more in the RC-q score in the preceding week was associated with 67% of the lower-limb overuse injuries. Musculoskeletal symptoms were only detected in advance by the OSTRC-q in 27% of the episodes. Training exposure (especially running exposure) was shown to be related to overuse injuries, suggesting that monitoring training load is a key factor for injury prevention. Worsening scores in the RC-q (but not the OSTRC) may be an indicator of overuse injury in adolescent endurance runners when used longitudinally.

  18. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (≤13) and "very hard" (≥17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts.

  19. Eccentric endurance exercise economically improves metabolic and inflammatory risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppetzauer, Markus; Drexel, Heinz; Vonbank, Alexander; Rein, Philipp; Aczel, Stefan; Saely, Christoph H

    2013-08-01

    Exercise is a cornerstone of cardiovascular prevention. Because many individuals are not willing or not able to perform regular exercise, new methods of exercise (like eccentric exercise) are necessary. Eccentric endurance exercise is supposed to be less strenuous than concentric exercise but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in relation to energy expenditure are unclear. We randomly allocated 45 healthy sedentary individuals to one of two groups, each hiking upwards or downwards for 2 months, with a crossover for a further 2 months; for the opposite way, a cable car was used. The difference in altitude was 540 metres; the distance was covered between three and five times a week. Energy expenditure was assessed for each hiking period. Both eccentric and concentric endurance exercise improved glucose tolerance vs. baseline (by 4.1%, p = 0.136; 6.2%, p = 0.023, respectively). Of note, adjustment for energy expenditure per exercise unit (127 ± 22 kcal/unit with eccentric and 442 ± 78 kcal/unit with concentric exercise) revealed a significantly greater improvement of glucose tolerance per kilocalorie spent by eccentric than by concentric exercise (4-times more economical; 0.1123 mg h/dl/kcal vs. 0.0245 mg h/dl/kcal; p = 0.038). Also the decrease of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol per kilocalorie spent was significantly stronger with eccentric exercise (0.0982 mg/dl/kcal vs. 0.0346 mg/dl/kcal, p = 0.014). Serum levels of C-reactive protein and creatine kinase activity were reduced in both groups. Eccentric endurance exercise economically improves glucose tolerance and LDL cholesterol. It therefore is a promising new exercise modality for individuals who are not able to participate in more strenuous exercise regimens.

  20. Predicting intermittent running performance: critical velocity versus endurance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Laursen, P B; Millet, G P; Pactat, F; Ahmaidi, S

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of the critical velocity (CV) and the endurance index (EI) to assess endurance performance during intermittent exercise. Thirteen subjects performed two intermittent runs: 15-s runs intersected with 15 s of passive recovery (15/15) and 30-s runs with 30-s rest (30/30). Runs were performed until exhaustion at three intensities (100, 95 and 90 % of the speed reached at the end of the 30 - 15 intermittent fitness test, V (IFT)) to calculate i) CV from the slope of the linear relationship between the total covered distance and exhaustion time (ET) (iCV); ii) anaerobic distance capacity from the Y-intercept of the distance/duration relationship (iADC); and iii) EI from the relationship between the fraction of V (IFT) at which the runs were performed and the log-transformed ET (iEI). Anaerobic capacity was indirectly assessed by the final velocity achieved during the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (VMART). ET was longer for 15/15 than for 30/30 runs at similar intensities. iCV (15/15) and iCV (30/30) were not influenced by changes in ET and were highly dependent on V (IFT). Neither iADC (15/15) nor iADC (30/30) were related to VMART. In contrast, iEI (15/15) was higher than iEI (30/30), and corresponded with the higher ET. In conclusion, only iEI estimated endurance capacity during repeated intermittent running.

  1. Antioxidant supplementation does not alter endurance training adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a considerable commercial market, especially within the sports community, claiming the need for antioxidant supplementation. One argument for antioxidant supplementation in sports is that physical exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS...... measured. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that administration of vitamins C and E to individuals with no prior vitamin deficiencies has no effect on physical adaptations to strenuous endurance training.......) production, which may cause cell damage. However, RONS production may also activate redox sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors, which subsequently may promote training adaptation. PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of combined vitamin C and E supplementation to healthy...

  2. Endurance training and GH administration in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F

    2001-01-01

    adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; (133)Xe washout). Whole body fat oxidation was estimated simultaneously by indirect calorimetry. Before and after completion of the training program, measurements were performed both at rest and during 60 min of continuous cycling at a workload corresponding to 60...... and after completion of the training program. Similarly, no effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was observed when combining endurance training with rhGH administration. However, in both the placebo and the GH groups, fat oxidation was significantly increased during exercise performed...

  3. Supplementation strategies for gastrointestinal distress in endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ximeno Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the endurance athlete is about 25% to 70%. Even though it is recognized that the etiology of exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress is multifactorial, blood flow redistribution during physical activity and therefore gastrointestinal ischemia is often acknowledged as the main pathophysiology mechanism for the onset of symptoms. This review will provide an overview to the recent research on gastrointestinal function during strenuous exercise. In addition, we consider different nutritional interventions that could be evaluated for preventive or treatment interventions founding that ever though there is some research in the area, the scientific evidence does not support its use in athlete population.

  4. Effects of Endurance and Endurance-strength Exercise on Renal Function in Abdominally Obese Women with Renal Hyperfiltration:A Prospective Randomized Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monika Szuliska; Damian Skrypnik; Marzena Ratajczak; Joanna Karolkiewicz; Edyta Mdry; Katarzyna Musialik; Jarosaw Walkowiak; Hieronim Jakubowski; Pawe Bogdaski

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveObesity is associated with kidney defects.Physical activity is a key element in the treatment of obesity.The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on kidney function in abdominally obese women. MethodsForty-four abdominally obese women were randomized to endurance training or endurance-strength training, three times a week for 3 months. Before and after the intervention, kidney function was assessed by measuring blood creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine albumin levels, and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. ResultsRenal hyperperfusion was present in both groups before the study. Following both types of physical activity, similar modifications of the investigated parameters were observed, but with no significant between-group differences.Both courses of training led to a significant increase in blood creatinine and a subsequent decrease in the GFR. A significant increase in urine creatinine and album levels, though not exceeding the range for microalbuminuria, was not accompanied by any difference in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio after endurance-strength training alone. ConclusionThree months of either endurance or endurance-strength training has a favorable and comparable effect on renal function in abdominally obese women with renal hyperfiltration.

  5. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  6. Descriptive epidemiology and risk factors for eliminations from Fédération Equestre Internationale endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic reasons (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Murray, J K; Dyson, S J

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on international endurance rides and on risk factors for eliminations. To describe and compare the frequency of occurrence of elimination due to lameness and metabolic reasons from Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) endurance rides (≥100 km) during 2008-2011 in all countries and to assess risk factors for elimination due to lameness and metabolic reasons. Retrospective unmatched case-control study. Data collected from the FEI website included the following: the country where the ride was held; the year; the result for each horse-rider combination; the number of entries in each class; whether the class was restricted to young riders; and the winning speed. Descriptive data were summarised, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess risk factors for eliminations due to lameness and metabolic reasons. Between 2008 and 2011, there were 30,741 horse starts at FEI endurance rides of 100-160 km distance in 47 countries. Of all started horses, 30% were eliminated for lameness. Eliminations for metabolic reasons were recorded for 8.7% of all started horses. There was a large range of winning speeds amongst countries (10.2-29.5 km/h). Multivariable analysis revealed that the risk of elimination due to lameness was significantly associated with the country where the ride was held, the year, the distance of the ride and the number of entries. Elimination for metabolic reasons was significantly associated with the country where the ride was held, the year and the number of entries. Differences existed among elimination rates at FEI endurance rides in different countries (2008-2011). Lameness was the most common reason for elimination globally. These results provide objective global data on endurance riding that can replace anecdotal information, which has been the base of opinions, decisions and regulations. The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  7. The effect of the PostureJac on deep cervical flexor endurance: implications in the management of cervicogenic headache and mechanical neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makofsky, Howard W; Douris, Peter; Goldstein, Leonard B; Discepolo, Adam; Grion, Kelly; Kushnir, Garry; Malner, Stacie; Singh, Jessica; Urgolites, Lisa; Zic, Frank; Oricchio, Jacqueline

    2011-07-01

    The convergence of cervical and trigeminal afferents on second-order neurons in the trigeminocervical nucleus may refer pain from the upper cervical spine into the head and face. Furthermore, "bi-directional interactions" between trigeminal and upper cervical afferents may also explain neck symptoms of trigeminal origin (e.g., migraine). It is known that cervicogenic headache sufferers present with several musculoskeletal changes including poor endurance of the deep cervical flexor muscles. These intrinsic muscles of the neck contribute to stabilization and protection of the cervical spine and are critical for the control of both intervertebral motion and the cervical lordosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of the PostureJac (SomatoCentric Systems, Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada), a posture support and exercise jacket, was effective in enhancing deep cervical muscle endurance. Forty-five (45) female subjects, between the ages of 18 and 40 years, were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of the no-treatment control, the treatment-control (table stabilization), and the experimental (PostureJac) group. The outcome measure of deep cervical flexor muscle endurance was based on the Flexor Endurance Test and was recorded in seconds. The results indicated that the PostureJac group was superior to the no-treatment control (p=.001) and the treatment-control (p=.004) groups in terms of increasing endurance of the deep cervical flexors. Consequently, the PostureJac may be a useful therapeutic tool in the management of cervicogenic headache and mechanical neck pain.

  8. Recent estimates of capital flight

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David

    1993-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...

  9. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  10. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  11. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  12. Flight Dynamics Laboratory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Thaddeus

    1986-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FDL) is one of four Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) and part of the Aeronautical Systems Division located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The FDL is responsible for the planning and execution of research and development programs in the areas of structures and dynamics, flight controls, vehicle equipment/subsystems, and aeromechanics. Some of the areas being researched in the four FDL divisions are as follows: large space structures (LSS) materials and controls; advanced cockpit designs; bird-strike-tolerant windshields; and hypersonic interceptor system studies. Two of the FDL divisions are actively involved in programs that deal directly with LSS control/structures interaction: the Flight Controls Division and the Structures and Dynamics Division.

  13. Experimental study on the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter: free flight testing and wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2012-09-01

    This study experimentally shows the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter using two different types of approach: (1) free flight testing, and (2) wind tunnel testing. An ornithopter is flown in straight and level flight with a fixed wingbeat frequency and tail elevation angle. A three-dimensional visual tracking system is applied to follow the retro-reflective markers on the ornithopter and record the flight trajectories. The unique oscillatory behavior of the body in the longitudinal plane is observed in the free flight testing and the detailed wing and tail deformations are also obtained. Based on the trim flight data, a specially devised tether device is designed and employed to emulate the free flight conditions in the wind tunnel. The tether device provides minimal mechanical interference and longitudinal flight dynamic characteristics similar to those of free flight. On introducing a pitching moment disturbance to the body, the oscillation recovered to the original trajectory turns out to be a stable limit-cycle oscillation (LCO). During the wind tunnel testing, the magnitude of LCO is effectively suppressed by active tail motion.

  14. Endurance test for mini-plate fuel rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Heung June; Yang, Sun Kyu; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed by KAERI and fabricated by Daewoo Precision Co. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow velocity across the fuel rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 6.78 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the fuel rig ranges from 14 to 19 Hz. RMZ (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 7 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 20 {mu}m. Based on the endurance rest results, the appreciable fretting wear for the fuel rig is not observed but the small amount of wear was observed at the interface region between the mini-plates and upper housing cap as well as at the slot regions of a bottom endplate interfacing with the bottom guide arms. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 33 figs.

  15. Oxidative profiles of endurance horses racing different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress during prolonged endurance exercises may result in muscle damage, fatigue and decreased performance. An adequate stress response during training is critical to obtain improved results and high animal welfare standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the red blood cell haemolysate concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH and catalase (CAT and the plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA from endurance horses in different distances at high speed in a tropical climate. Fifteen horses were tested; five at 160km (18.54 - 17.16km/h race speed, five at 120km (21.53 - 17km/h race speed and five at 80km (20.06 - 18.01km/h race speed. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after and three hours after the horses left the final vet check and three, seven and fourteen days after the race. No significant increases (P > 0.05 in the levels of SOD, GPx, GSH, CAT or MDA were observed for any of the times or distances examined. Based on these observations, we conclude that reactive oxygen species (ROS formation during exercise evokes specific adaptations, such as increased antioxidant/oxidative damage-repairing enzyme activity, increased resistance to oxidative stress and lower levels of oxidative damage.

  16. Emotions and trait emotional intelligence among ultra-endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Wilson, Mathew

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between trait emotional intelligence and emotional state changes over the course of an ultra-endurance foot race covering a route of approximately 175 miles (282 km) and held in set stages over six days. A repeated measures field design that sought to maintain ecological validity was used. Trait emotional intelligence was defined as a relatively stable concept that should predict adaptive emotional states experienced over the duration of the race and therefore associate with pleasant emotions during a 6-stage endurance event. Thirty-four runners completed a self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence before the event started. Participants reported emotional states before and after each of the six races. Repeated measures ANOVA results showed significant variations in emotions over time and a main effect for trait emotional intelligence. Runners high in self-report trait emotional intelligence also reported higher pleasant and lower unpleasant emotions than runners low in trait emotional intelligence. Findings lend support to the notion that trait emotional intelligence associates with adaptive psychological states, suggesting that it may be a key individual difference that explains why some athletes respond to repeated bouts of hard exercise better than others. Future research should test the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance trait emotional intelligence and examine the attendant impact on emotional responses to intense exercise during multi-stage events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in endurance-trained individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind-Holst, Mikkel; Cotter, James D; Helge, Jørn W;

    2011-01-01

    of increase in the cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi = MCA V(mean)/MAP) appeared later in the athletes (3.9 ± 0.4 vs. 2.7 ± 0.4s, P = 0.01). Spectral analysis revealed a normal MAP-to-MCA V(mean) phase in both groups but ~40% higher normalized MAP to MCA V(mean) low-frequency transfer function gain...... in untrained subjects and was associated with parallel changes in indexes of cerebral blood flow. Once initiated, the autoregulatory response was similar between the groups. A delayed onset of autoregulation with a larger normalized transfer gain conforms with a less effective dampening of MAP oscillations...... pressure (MAP) after 2.5 min of leg ischemia in endurance athletes and untrained subjects (maximal O(2) uptake: 69 ± 7 vs. 42 ± 5 ml O(2)·min(-1)·kg(-1); n = 9 for both, means ± SE). After cuff release when seated, endurance athletes had larger drops in MAP (94 ± 6 to 62 ± 5 mmHg, -39%, vs. 99 ± 5 to 73...

  18. Noise, vibration and changes in wakefulness during helicopter flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landström, U; Löfstedt, P

    1987-02-01

    The investigation was carried out in cooperation with the helicopter school AF 1 in Boden. Measurements were made in two different types of helicopter, Hkp 3 and Hkp 6. Three different parameters were recorded during the flights: noise, vibrations, and wakefulness. Noise and vibration exposures were mainly correlated to the main rotor energy and frequency. Both types of exposure were dominated by lower frequencies, below 10 Hz. Analyses of wakefulness during long-distance flights, about 4 h, and short-distance flights, less than 2 h, were based on EEG and EKG recordings. As expected the level of wakefulness was influenced by the stress upon the pilots. Take-offs and landings, as well as unexpected events during the flight, were correlated to an increased level of wakefulness. In some cases flying was correlated to a gradual increase of weariness. The correlation between weariness, types of flying, and the external environmental factors of noise and vibration, is also discussed.

  19. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  20. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  1. Vortex wake and flight kinematics of a swift in cruising flight in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, P; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we describe the flight characteristics of a swift (Apus apus) in cruising flight at three different flight speeds (8.0, 8.4 and 9.2 m s(-1)) in a low turbulence wind tunnel. The wingbeat kinematics were recorded by high-speed filming and the wake of the bird was visualized by digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Certain flight characteristics of the swift differ from those of previously studied species. As the flight speed increases, the angular velocity of the wingbeat remains constant, and so as the wingbeat amplitude increases, the frequency decreases accordingly, as though the flight muscles were contracting at a fixed rate. The wings are also comparatively inflexible and are flexed or retracted rather little during the upstroke. The upstroke is always aerodynamically active and this is reflected in the wake, where shedding of spanwise vorticity occurs throughout the wingbeat. Although the wake superficially resembles those of other birds in cruising flight, with a pair of trailing wingtip vortices connected by spanwise vortices, the continuous shedding of first positive vorticity during the downstroke and then negative vorticity during the upstroke suggests a wing whose circulation is gradually increasing and then decreasing during the wingbeat cycle. The wake (and implied wing aerodynamics) are not well described by discrete vortex loop models, but a new wake-based model, where incremental spanwise and streamwise variations of the wake impulse are integrated over the wingbeat, shows good agreement of the vertical momentum flux with the required weight support. The total drag was also estimated from the wake alone, and the calculated lift:drag ratio of approximately 13 for flapping flight is the highest measured yet for birds.

  2. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Boulay, Marcel R.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L.; Garton, Fleur C.; Generozov, Edward V.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Houweling, Peter J.; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Kulemin, Nickolay A.; Larin, Andrey K.; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A.; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Pyankova, Olga N.; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A.; Uyba, Vladimir V.; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N.; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  3. Flight Record Of Long March Series Of Launch Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ (Continued) The 13th Launch On February 1, 1986, a LM-3 launch vehicle sent DFH-2, the 3rd geosynehronous experimental communications satellite of China, into space. The satellite entered the preset orbit.

  4. Flight Record Of The Long March Series Of Launch Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying

    2009-01-01

    @@ (Continued) The 27th launch On August 9, 1992, a LM-2D launch vehicle sent the 13th recoverable satellite into space. The satellite operated in orbit for 16 days, fulfilled missions of scientific exploration and technical experiment and returned on August 25.

  5. Flight Record Of Long March Series Of Launch Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ (Continued) The 7th Launch On September 9,1982,a LM-2C launch vehicle sent the 4th recoverable satellite,FSW-4 into space.The satellite returned to Earth on September 14 after it fulfilled its mission for scientific research and tests during 5-day operation in space.

  6. Flight Record of the Long March Series of Launch Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying

    2010-01-01

    @@ (Continued) THE 56TH LAUNCH The FY-1C meteorological satellite and the Shijian 5 (SJ-5) satellite were put into their predetermined orbits by a LM-4B launch vehicle on May 10,1999. Launch Site: Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center Launch Result: Success At 09:33 on May 10, a LM-4B lifted off with two satellites.749 seconds after the lift-off, the FY-1C satellite separated with the rocket, and the SJ-5 satellite separated with LM-4B 814 seconds after it was fired.The two satellites entered sun-synchronous orbit which is 870km above the Earth.

  7. 14 CFR 125.226 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section, no person may operate under this part a turbine-engine-powered transport category...) Manual radio transmitter keying, or CVR/DFDR synchronization reference; (9) Thrust/power of each engine... installed); (33) Hydraulic pressure low (each system); (34) Ground speed (when an information source...

  8. O-2A Aircraft Sea Flight Loads Recording Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-01

    When Government drawings, specifications, or other data are used for niy purpose other than in connection with a definitely related Government...Exceedances per Nautical Mile for Derived Equivalent Gust Velozity , Ude, by Altitude ........ 29 14 Exceedances per Nautical Mile for Derived Gust Velocity...period are detailed later in this report. To present the data reflecting the manuver and gust load spectra, the data processing consisted of

  9. 14 CFR 125.225 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... attitude; (8) Roll attitude; (9) Longitudinal acceleration; (10) Control column or pitch control surface... control; (7) Pitch attitude; (8) Roll attitude; (9) Longitudinal acceleration; (10) Pitch trim position...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Instrument and Equipment...

  10. 14 CFR 135.152 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (vii) Pitch attitude; (viii) Roll attitude; (ix) Longitudinal acceleration; (x) Control column or pitch... each radio transmission either to or from air traffic control; (vii) Pitch attitude; (viii) Roll attitude; (ix) Longitudinal acceleration; (x) Pitch trim position; (xi) Control column or pitch control...

  11. Pathfinder - flight preparation on lakebed at sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Crew members prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for its first flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after its configuration was changed from 8 motors to 6. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  12. Pathfinder on lakebed preparing for test flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Support crew prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for a research flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  13. The effect of endurance training on cell metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Rychlewski

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of endurance training on cell metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with ischemic heart disease. Study population consisted of 24 survivors of myocardial infarction. Patients were assigned to the training group (n=18, mean age 48.2 years or to the control group (n=6, mean age 42.6 years. Directly before (ExTest I and after completing a 3-week endurance training program (ExTest II patients performed bicycle ergometry with computer analysis of ventilatory expired gas (CardioO2, Medical Graphics Corporation. The exercise intensity increased gradually until ventilatory threshold was reached. ExTest II was finished at the same workload level as ExTest I. ECG was recorded and blood pressure was assessed during each ergometry. Prior to and 3 minutes after finishing each test, capillary blood samples were taken for measurements of acid-base equilibrium parameters and lactate concentrations and venous blood samples were collected for assessment of oxypurines and uric acid levels (HPLC method. The training consisted of five 40-min sessions of continuos working on a bicycle ergometer weekly. The workload was 25 W lower than the load at which ventilatory threshold had been reached by the patient. Subjects in the control group did not participate in endurance training. During exercise tests performed after the rehabilitation program, heart rate and rate-pressure product at particular workload were lower than on admission. Similarly, the increases in lactate concentrations and changes in base excess were reduced during ExTest II. The oxypurines pool was reduced after the training, which reflects improvement in cell metabolism. No influence of training on uric acid concentrations was observed.

  14. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  15. Student Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  16. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    -facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  17. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  18. Flight Test Hazard Planning Near the Speed of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Bart; Huete, Rod

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing flight test safety near the speed of light is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept; 2) Portal Content; 3) Activity to Date; 4) FTS Database Updatd FAA Program; 5) FAA Flight Test Risk Management; 6) CFR 14 Part 21.35 Current and proposed changes; 7) An Online Resource for Flight Test Safety Planning; 8) Data Gathering; 9) NTPS Role; 10) Example Maturation; 11) Many Varied Inputs; 12) Matured Stall Hazards; 13) Loss of Control Mitigations; 14) FAA Access; 15) NASA PBMA Website Link; 16) FAR Reference Search; 17) Record Field Search; 18) Keyword Search; and 19) Results of FAR Reference Search.

  19. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Katherine M; Shelton, Ryan M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  20. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Sholtis

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics. These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  1. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  2. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  3. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  4. OMV In Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In this 1988 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), closes in on a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  5. Multidisciplinary Investigation of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Flight Dynamics in Rapidly Maneuvering Micro Air Vehicles: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    dragonflies were recorded by the projected lines method and utilizing natural landmarks on the insects’ wings. A number of parameters were measured...Wing Kinematics, Flight Trajectory and Body Attitude During Forward Flight and Turning Maneuvers in Dragonflies ,” The Journal of Experimental Biology... world transition. Because subplot (3,2) features both a high throttle-setting and a negative elevator deflection it most accurately describes a real

  6. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and postintervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance...

  7. 77 FR 25536 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Supplement No. 17 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Endurance American Insurance Company (NAIC 10641). Business Address:...

  8. Analysis of the Static Strength and Relative Endurance of Women Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Vivian; McCreary, Leslie

    1977-01-01

    Investigations of static strength and relative endurance of the grip muscles of women athletes revealed that mean endurance time was significantly greater than for men. Results were discussed in light of evidence suggesting possible sex differences in muscle hypertrophy, capillarization of muscle tissue, critical occluding tension level, and…

  9. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

  10. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...

  11. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  12. The Impact of Obesity on Back and Core Muscular Endurance in Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Mayer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between obesity and measures of back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in career firefighters without low back pain. Obesity measures included body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Muscular endurance was assessed with the Modified Biering Sorensen (back and Plank (core tests. Relationships were explored using t-tests and regression analyses. Results. Of the 83 participants enrolled, 24 (29% were obese (BMI ≥ 30. Back and core muscular endurance was 27% lower for obese participants. Significant negative correlations were observed for BMI and body fat percentage with back and core endurance (r = −0.42 to −0.52. Stepwise regression models including one obesity measure (BMI, body fat percentage, and fat mass/fat-free mass, along with age and self-reported physical exercise, accounted for 17–19% of the variance in back muscular endurance and 29–37% of the variance in core muscular endurance. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with reduced back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Obesity should be considered along with back and core muscular endurance when designing exercise programs for back pain prevention in firefighters.

  13. Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Hvid, Lars G; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes....

  14. BITE-FORCE ENDURANCE IN PATIENTS WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS AND INTERNAL DERANGEMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGENGA, B; BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; DEBONT, LGM; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of testing bite force endurance in patients with articular temporomandibular disorders. The endurance of a 50 N bite force was measured in 51 patients with painful temporomandibular joint disorders. The results were compared t

  15. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  16. Ultra-endurance exercise: unanswered questions in redox biology and immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, J.E.; Bennett, S.J.; Bosch, J.A.; Griffiths, H.S.; Aldred, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance races are extreme exercise events that can take place over large parts of a day, several consecutive days or over weeks and months interspersed by periods of rest and recovery. Since the first ultra-endurance races in the late 1970s, around 1000 races are now held worldwide each

  17. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  18. Development of the interval endurance capacity in elite and sub-elite youth field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, MT; Visscher, C; van Duijn, MAJ; Lemmink, KAPM

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To gain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie the development of interval endurance capacity in talented youth field hockey players in the 12-19 age band. Methods: A total of 377 measurements were taken over three years. A longitudinal model for interval endurance capacity was d

  19. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  20. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  1. Relationships of Muscular Endurance Among Specific Muscle Groups for Continuous and Intermittent Static Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, Thomas B.; Massey, B. H.

    1986-01-01

    The static contraction endurance characteristics of five muscle groups were investigated in 38 normal, health, college-aged men. Four parameters of continuous and intermittent contractions were examined. Results support the hypothesis that endurance is unique to each muscle group and specific to the task performed. (Author/MT)

  2. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength and Endurance, and Flexibility in Hong Kong Chinese Adults: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. Methods. 173 adults (aged 52.0 ± 7.5 years) were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the waitlist control group (n = 86). 19 dropped out from the study. Primary outcomes were changes in cardiorespiratory endurance (resting heart rate (HR) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)), muscular strength and endurance (curl-up and push-up tests), and lower back and hamstring flexibility (the modified back-saver sit-and-reach (MBS) test). Results. Compared to controls, the yoga group achieved significant improvements in VO2max (P yoga group failed to improve resting HR or the curl-up test versus control. Adherence (89%) and attendance (94%) were high. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion. A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention has favorable effects on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults.

  3. Neuromuscular adaptations to different modes of combined strength and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, D; Pulverenti, T; Bankers, S; Avela, J; Newton, R; Schumann, M; Häkkinen, K

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated neuromuscular adaptations between same-session combined strength and endurance training with 2 loading orders and different day combined training over 24 weeks. 56 subjects were divided into different day (DD) combined strength and endurance training (4-6 d·wk(-1)) and same-session combined training: endurance preceding strength (E+S) or vice versa (S+E) (2-3 d·wk(-1)). Dynamic and isometric strength, EMG, voluntary activation, muscle cross-sectional area and endurance performance were measured. All groups increased dynamic one-repetition maximum (ptraining (pstrength when E+S-training was performed, while gains in one-repetition maximum, endurance performance and hypertrophy did not differ between the training modes.

  4. Head posture influences low back muscle endurance tests in 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejanovic, Aleksandar; Balkovec, Christian; McGill, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Poor low back muscle endurance has been shown to be a predictor of chronic low back pain. While posture is a modulator of low back muscle endurance, it is unclear whether the phenomenon is neural or mechanical. This study examined low back muscle endurance with changing head and neck posture in a sample of 117 children using the Biering-Sørensen test. Each subject performed the test in a neutral posture followed by randomly selected flexed and extended head and neck positions. Head posture was found to significantly influence low back muscle endurance within subjects (p posture (boys = 171.3 ± 56.5 s; girls = 181.7 ± 57.3 s), and flexion (boys = 146.2 ± 63.8 s; girls = 159.8 ± 49.3 s). Given the minimal influence of changing moment from head and neck posture, it appears other mechanisms influence endurance score.

  5. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  6. Gospel, culture and mission: Revisiting an enduring problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.U. Kalu

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Gospel, culture and mission: Revisiting an enduring problem This article reflects on the 1996 Conference on World Mission and Evangelism. The relation between gospel, culture and mission is considered, especially from an Africa perspective, but not reserved to it in application. Apart from considering the problem of appropriate terminology to express the intricacies concerning the subject, a deeper search is conducted into the complex relationship between the believer, his mission to, and his distancing from divergent cultural sources and manifestations. Emerging perspectives are considered, which help to formulate mission strategies and historic viewpoints and attitudes. Knowledge of these perspectives is essential for a more responsible answering to the call made to all believers.

  7. CANFLEX fuel bundle cross-flow endurance test (test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Deok; Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the normal refuelling sequence of CANDU nuclear reactor, both new and irradiated bundles can be parked in the cross-flow region of the liner tubes. This situation occurs normally for a few minutes. The fuel bundle which is subjected to the cross-flow should be capable of withstanding the consequences of cross flow for normal periods, and maintain its mechanical integrity. The cross-flow endurance test was conducted for CANFLEX bundle, latest developed nuclear fuel, at CANDU-Hot Test Loop. The test was carried out during 4 hours at the inlet cross-flow region. After the test, the bundle successfully met all acceptance criteria after the 4 hours cross-flow test. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Materiality and the Enduring Aspects of Organisational Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2007-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging body of work in organisational theory that seeks to include materiality in conceptualising processes of organizing (e.g. Law, 1994; Doolin, 2003; Czarniawska and Gustavsson, 2004; Dale, 2005). Using the four largest multinational oil companies' green...... transition towards renewable energies as a case the article integrates material aspects into the theory on the narration of organisational identities. Following Czarniawska (1997) the concept of organisational identity is viewed as an evolving organisational narrative. Following Law (1994......) this organisational narrative is then conceptualised as a socio-technical narrative. The article describes how oil related technologies and their accompanying symbolic meaning and technical oil related standards can be conceptualised as part of the enduring aspects in oil companies' organisational identities...

  9. Subclinical Theileria Equi Infection and Rhabdomyolysis in Three Endurance Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz1,2*, R. G. M. Rodríguez2, C. Riber1,2, P. Trigo2, M. Gómez-Díez2 and F. Castejon2

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three well-trained endurance horses, competing over different distances, developed sudden and unexpected rhabdomyolysis at the onset of exercise. They were treated and afterwards they did not have any other bout of muscle damage. All of them were positive to Theileria equi (polymerase reaction chain. The possible reasons of the rhabdomyolysis could have been the direct effect of the parasite on the muscle and/or the result of the anemia and a limited oxygen supply to the exercising muscles. It is suggested that the horses were carriers of Theileria and they developed clinical signs because of the immune-suppression caused by prolonged submaximal exercise and/or transportation.

  10. Implicit motives and basic need satisfaction in extreme endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Julia; Wegner, Mirko; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the effects of basic psychological needs on the flow experience in sports are moderated by implicit motives. However, so far, only leisure and health-oriented sports have been analyzed. In a pilot study and a main study (N = 29, 93), we tested whether the implicit achievement and affiliation motives interact with the need for competence and the need for social relatedness satisfaction, respectively, to predict flow experience and well-being in extreme endurance athletes. Results showed that highly achievement-motivated individuals benefited more from the need for competence satisfaction in terms of flow than individuals with a low achievement motive did. In addition, highly affiliation-motivated individuals whose need for social relatedness is satisfied reported higher positive affect and lower exercise addiction scores than athletes with a low motive. We discuss the differential effects of the interplay between the achievement and affiliation motives and basic needs on different outcome variables.

  11. No superior adaptations to carbohydrate periodization in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Thams, Line; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    content (18 ± 5%), CS activity (11 ± 5%) and pACC (38 ± 19%) (Ptraining had no superior effects on performance and muscle...... endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing...... either high CHO (414±2.4 g) or low CHO (79.5±1.0 g), and a 2-hr moderate bike session in the afternoon with or without CHO. VO2max, maximal fat oxidation and power output during a 30-min time trial (TT) were determined before and after the training period. The TT was undertaken after 90 mins...

  12. Endurance of Damping Properties of Foam-Filled Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Matteo; Marra, Alessandro; Mussi, Valerio; Goletti, Massimo; Bocher, Philippe

    2015-07-07

    The favorable energy-absorption properties of metal foams have been frequently proposed for damping or anti-crash applications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the endurance of these properties for composite structures, made by a metal or a hybrid metal-polymeric foam used as the core filling of a tubular metal case. The results of experimental tests are shown, run with two types of structures: 1) square steel tubes filled with aluminum or with hybrid aluminum-polymer foams; 2) round titanium tubes filled with aluminum foams. The paper shows that the damping properties of a foam-filled tube change (improve) with the number of cycles, while all other dynamic properties are nearly constant. This result is very important for several potential applications where damping is crucial, e.g., for machine tools.

  13. Pre-exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wisherd, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Jensen, C. D.; Whittam, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time to exhaustion at 87-91% of peak VO2 was measured in 5 untrained men (age: 31 +/- 8 years, body mass: 74.20 +/- 16.50 kg, body surface area: 1.90 +/- 0.24 m2, peak VO2: 2.87 +/- 0.40 l min-1, plasma volume: 3.21 +/- 0.88 l; means +/-SD) after consuming nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 ml kg-1, 743 +/- 161 ml): Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic carbohydrate drink, containing 55 mEq l-1 Na+, 4.16 g l-1 citrate, 20.49 g l-1 glucose, and 365 mOsm kg-1 H2O, and AstroAde (AA), a sodium chloride-sodium citrate hyperhydration drink, containing 164 mEq l-1 Na+, 8.54 g l-1 citrate, energy substrate from citrate, may have contributed to the greater endurance.

  14. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Wiggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning.

  15. Estimating seismic demand parameters using the endurance time method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin MADARSHAHIAN; Homayoon ESTEKANCHI; Akbar MAHVASHMOHAMMADI

    2011-01-01

    The endurance time (ET) method is a time history based dynamic analysis in which structures are subjected to gradually intensifying excitations and their performances are judged based on their responses at various excitation levels.Using this method,the computational effort required for estimating probable seismic demand parameters can be reduced by an order of magnitude.Calculation of the maximum displacement or target displacement is a basic requirement for estimating performance based on structural design.The purpose of this paper is to compare the results of the nonlinear ET method with the nonlinear static pushover (NSP) method of FEMA 356 by evaluating performances and target displacements of steel frames.This study will lead to a deeper insight into the capabilities and limitations of the ET method.The results are further compared with those of the standard nonlinear response history analysis.We conclude that results from the ET analysis are in proper agreement with those from standard procedures.

  16. Muscle strength and endurance following lowerlimb suspension in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Per A.; Berg, Hans E.; Haggmark, Tom; Ohlsen, Hans; Dudley, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lower-limb suspension on the muscle strength and muscle endurance was investigated in six men subjected to four weeks of unilateral unloading of a lower limb (using of a harness attached to a modified shoe), followed by seven weeks of weight-bearing recovery. Results showed a decrease in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle and in the average peak torque (APT) during three bouts of 30 concentric knee extensions. While the the thigh muscle CSA returned to normal after seven weeks of recovery, the APT recovery was still reduced by 11 percent, suggesting that muscle metabolic function was severely affected by unloading and was not restored by ambulation.

  17. Endurance of Damping Properties of Foam-Filled Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Strano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The favorable energy-absorption properties of metal foams have been frequently proposed for damping or anti-crash applications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the endurance of these properties for composite structures, made by a metal or a hybrid metal-polymeric foam used as the core filling of a tubular metal case. The results of experimental tests are shown, run with two types of structures: 1 square steel tubes filled with aluminum or with hybrid aluminum-polymer foams; 2 round titanium tubes filled with aluminum foams. The paper shows that the damping properties of a foam-filled tube change (improve with the number of cycles, while all other dynamic properties are nearly constant. This result is very important for several potential applications where damping is crucial, e.g., for machine tools.

  18. Results of a 1462 hour ammonia arcjet endurance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J. E.; Goodfellow, K. D.

    1992-07-01

    A total of 1462 hours of operaton were demonstrated in an endurance test of a 30 kWe-class ammonia arcjet operated at 10 kWe. The propellant flow rate was 0.170 g/s, and the measured performance increased from approximately 650 s specific impulse at 36 percent efficiency at the beginning of the test to 675 s at 39 percent near the end. The voltage increased and the current dropped slightly over the first 400 hours, and then remained approximately constant for the remainder of the test. The test, scheduled for 1500 hours, was terminated after an insulator in the rear of the engine failed. Post-test examination of the electrodes revealed only minimal damage. Although there was evidence of a number of mass transport processes occurring in the discharge chamber, the primary life-limiting wear mechanisms appear to be cathode tip erosion and constrictor melting.

  19. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...... to fatigue at 70% of P(max) approximately 14% and approximately 30%, respectively. CS and beta-HAD activity increased and glycogen content was greater after training, but there were no differences between Glc and Plc. After training the rate of oxidation of palmitate (R(ox)) and the % of rate...... of disappearance that was oxidized (%R(dox)) changed. %R(dox) was on average 16.4% greater during exercise after training whereas, after exercise %R(dox) was 30.4% lower. R(ox) followed the same pattern. However, none of these parameters were different between Glc and Plc. We conclude that glucose ingestion during...

  20. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  1. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  2. Acute effects of high-intensity intermittent training on kinematics and foot strike patterns in endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, P Á; García Pinillos, F; Bujalance-Moreno, P; Soto-Hermoso, V M

    2016-08-11

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT. High levels of exhaustion were reached by the athletes during HIIT (HRpeak: 174.30 bpm; RPE: 17.23). There was a significant increase of HRpeak and RPE during HIIT; nevertheless, time for each run remained unchanged. A within-protocol paired t-test (first vs. last run) revealed no significant changes (P ≥ 0.05) in kinematics variables and FSP variables during HIIT. There were no substantial changes on kinematics and FSP characteristics in endurance runners after fatigue induced by a HIIT. Only the minimum ankle alignment showed a significant change. The author suggests that these results might be due to both the high athletic level of participants and their experience in HIIT.

  3. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yanci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were, firstly, to determine the reliability and reproducibility of an agility T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89 ± 21.71 kg and sitting body height 86.07 ± 6.82 cm belonging to the national WB league participated in this study. Wheelchair sprint (5 and 20 m without ball, and 5 and 20 m with ball agility (T-test and pick-up test strength (handgrip and maximal pass and endurance (Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test were performed. T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test showed good reproducibility values (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.74-0.94. The WB players’ results in 5 and 20 m sprints without a ball were 1.87 ± 0.21 s and 5.70 ± 0.43 s and with a ball 2.10 ± 0.30 s and 6.59 ± 0.61 s, being better than those reported in the literature. Regarding the pick-up test results (16.05 ± 0.52 s and maximal pass (8.39 ± 1.77 m, players showed worse values than those obtained in elite players. The main contribution of the present study is the characterization of the physical performance profile of WB players using a field test battery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the agility T-test and the aerobic Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test are reliable; consequently they may be appropriate instruments for measuring physical fitness in WB.

  4. Building a beverage for recovery from endurance activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-11-01

    Recovery beverages are commonly used by endurance and team-sport athletes during the time between exercise sessions. Practical recommendations on the optimal nutrient composition of these drinks and timing of their consumption are therefore needed. This article summarizes research to date on the use of recovery beverages after aerobic activities and provides the following recommendations for practitioners on the optimal formula and timing of use for endurance and team-sport athletes. Current evidence suggests that, to maximize glycogen resynthesis, athletes should consume about 1.2 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight as glucose and sucrose immediately after exercise and each hour thereafter for 4-6 hours postexercise. Alternatively, they may consume 0.8 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) in combination with 0.4 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) amino acids or protein. Liquids provide valuable fluids for rehydration, and an ideal recovery beverage should not only contain carbohydrate and protein but also contain electrolytes, including about 0.3-0.7 g sodium·per liter fluid to help restore sodium lost through sweat. Commercial beverages with this type of nutrient composition are effective, and recent work indicates that chocolate milk may be as effective as or superior to these in promoting recovery. Research regarding the effects of specific types of amino acids and antioxidants on recovery is mixed; thus, further investigation is needed before specific recommendations about these nutrients can be made. Future studies that include women and athletes representing a variety of sports, ages, and training levels and that use consistent methodology will lead to a better understanding of the effects of postexercise intake on recovery.

  5. Limitations of Reliability for Long-Endurance Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Andrew C.; de Weck, Olivier L.

    2016-01-01

    Long-endurance human spaceflight - such as missions to Mars or its moons - will present a never-before-seen maintenance logistics challenge. Crews will be in space for longer and be farther way from Earth than ever before. Resupply and abort options will be heavily constrained, and will have timescales much longer than current and past experience. Spare parts and/or redundant systems will have to be included to reduce risk. However, the high cost of transportation means that this risk reduction must be achieved while also minimizing mass. The concept of increasing system and component reliability is commonly discussed as a means to reduce risk and mass by reducing the probability that components will fail during a mission. While increased reliability can reduce maintenance logistics mass requirements, the rate of mass reduction decreases over time. In addition, reliability growth requires increased test time and cost. This paper assesses trends in test time requirements, cost, and maintenance logistics mass savings as a function of increase in Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) for some or all of the components in a system. In general, reliability growth results in superlinear growth in test time requirements, exponential growth in cost, and sublinear benefits (in terms of logistics mass saved). These trends indicate that it is unlikely that reliability growth alone will be a cost-effective approach to maintenance logistics mass reduction and risk mitigation for long-endurance missions. This paper discusses these trends as well as other options to reduce logistics mass such as direct reduction of part mass, commonality, or In-Space Manufacturing (ISM). Overall, it is likely that some combination of all available options - including reliability growth - will be required to reduce mass and mitigate risk for future deep space missions.

  6. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the newer exercise

  7. NASA/FAA/NCAR Supercooled Large Droplet Icing Flight Research: Summary of Winter 1996-1997 Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean; Ratvasky, Thomas; Bernstein, Ben; McDonough, Frank; Strapp, J. Walter

    1998-01-01

    During the winter of 1996-1997, a flight research program was conducted at the NASA-Lewis Research Center to study the characteristics of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) within the Great Lakes region. This flight program was a joint effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Based on weather forecasts and real-time in-flight guidance provided by NCAR, the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Aircraft was flown to locations where conditions were believed to be conducive to the formation of Supercooled Large Droplets aloft. Onboard instrumentation was then used to record meteorological, ice accretion, and aero-performance characteristics encountered during the flight. A total of 29 icing research flights were conducted, during which "conventional" small droplet icing, SLD, and mixed phase conditions were encountered aloft. This paper will describe how flight operations were conducted, provide an operational summary of the flights, present selected experimental results from one typical research flight, and conclude with practical "lessons learned" from this first year of operation.

  8. Isokinetic and isometric strength-endurance after 6 hours of immersion and 6 degrees head-down tilt in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine weight (water) loss levels for onset of muscular strength and endurance changes during deconditioning. METHODS: Seven men (27-40 yr) performed maximal shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint isometric (0 degree.s(-1) load) and isokinetic (60 degrees, 120 degrees, 180 degrees.s(-1) velocity) exercise tests during ambulatory control (AC), after 6 h of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT; dry-bulb temp. = 23.2 +/- SD 0.6 degrees C, relative humidity = 31.1+/- 11.1%) and after 6 h of 80 degrees foot-down head-out water immersion (WI; water temp. = 35.0 +/- SD 0.1 degree C) treatments. RESULTS: Weight (water) loss after HDT (1.10 +/- SE 0.14 kg, 1.4 +/- 0.2% body wt) and WI (1.54+/- 0.19 kg, 2.0 +/- 0.2% body wt) were not different, but urinary excretion with WI (1,354 +/- 142 ml.6 h(-1)) was 28% greater (p knee at 180 degrees.s(-1) for 30 s) was not different between AC and the WI or HDT treatments. Shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint strength was unchanged except for three knee-joint peak torques: AC torque (120 degrees.s(-1), 285 +/- 20 Nm) decreased to 268 +/- 21 Nm (delta = -6%, p torques (180 degrees.s(-1), 260 +/- 19 Nm) decreased to 236 +/- 15 Nm (delta = -9%, p joint strength and endurance decrements is more than 2% body weight (water) loss, while significant reduction in knee-joint muscular strength-endurance occurred only at moderate (120 degrees.s(-1) and lighter (180 degrees.s(-1)) loads with body weight loss of 1.4-2.0% following WI or HDT, respectively. These weight (water) losses and knee-joint strength decrements are somewhat less than the mean weight loss of 2.6% and knee-joint strength decrements of 6-20% of American astronauts after Skylab flights to 84 d.

  9. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied.The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion.The primary findings are as the following.The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one(or two)unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion.At hovering to medium flight speed[flight speed ue=(0-3.5)m s-1;advance ratio J=0-0.44],the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable;at high speed(ue=4.5 m s-1;J=0.57),the flight becomes strongly unstable(initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  10. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  11. Ordos Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's vast hinterland has long conjured up images of rugged mountains and countrysides dotted by villages all but untouched by the hands of time. But after a recent one-hour flight west from Beijing,Anna Chennault,Chair of the Council for International Cooperation (CIC),a Washington,D.C.-based non-profit organization that helps promote development in China,found something altogether different-a city called Ordos.

  12. Spontaneous Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    As shown in an earlier work [Vandenberghe, et. al. JFM, Vol 506, 147, 2004], a vertically flapping wing can spontaneously move horizontally as a result of symmetry breaking. In the current experimental study, we investigate the dependence of resultant velocity on flapping amplitude. We also describe the forward thrust generation and how the system dynamically selects a Strouhal number by balancing fluid and body forces. We further compare our model system with examples of biological locomotion, such as bird flight and fish swimming.

  13. Simulations of Levy flights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantaleo, E; Pascazio, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Facchi, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: ester.pantaleo@ba.infn.it

    2009-07-15

    Levy flights, also known as {alpha}-stable Levy processes or heavy-tailed statistics, are becoming a commonly used tool in optics. Nonetheless, the different parametrizations and the absence of any analytic expression for the distribution functions (apart from some exceptions) makes it difficult to efficiently simulate such processes. We review and compare three algorithms for the generation of sequences of symmetric stable Levy random variables.

  14. Dental emergency rates at an expeditionary medical support facility supporting Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William Jackson

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the dental emergency rate and the distribution of cause of dental emergencies at an Expeditionary Medical Support +25 medical facility during a 6-month deployment in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1,972 soldiers stationed at Seeb Air Base, Sultanate of Oman, was accomplished from a phased deployment from March to September 2002. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. One hundred thirty-five dental emergency visits were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 137 dental emergencies per 1,000 soldiers per year. Most of the emergencies (34.8%) were due to caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic (19.3%).

  15. Record club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  16. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  17. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  18. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  19. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  20. Cosmic radiation algorithm utilizing flight time tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Mika Helminen, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [Tampere Univ., School of Public Health (Finland); Gerhard Leuthold, D.Sc. [GSF - Research Center, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Cosmic radiation is considerably higher on cruising altitudes used in aviation than at ground level. Exposure to cosmic radiation may increase cancer risk among pilots and cabin crew. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has recommended that air crew should be classified as radiation workers. Quantification of cosmic radiation doses is necessary for assessment of potential health effects of such occupational exposure. For Finnair cabin crew (cabin attendants and stewards), flight history is not available for years prior to 1991 and therefore, other sources of information on number and type of flights have to be used. The lack of systematically recorded information is a problem for dose estimation for many other flight companies personnel as well. Several cosmic radiation dose estimations for cabin crew have been performed using different methods (e.g. 2-5), but they have suffered from various shortcomings. Retrospective exposure estimation is not possible with personal portable dosimeters. Methods that employ survey data for occupational dose assessment are prone to non-differential measurement error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number of past flights. Assessment procedures that utilize surrogate measurement methods i.e. the duration of employment, lack precision. The aim of the present study was to develop an assessment method for individual occupational exposure to cosmic radiation based on flight time tables. Our method provides an assessment method that does not require survey data or systematic recording of flight history, and it is rather quick, inexpensive, and possible to carry out in all other flight companies whose past time tables for the past periods exist. Dose assessment methods that employ survey data are prone to random error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number or types of routes that they have flown during the past. Our method avoids this since survey data are not needed

  1. Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Mujika, I

    2014-08-01

    Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax, respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax. Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness.

  2. Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.

  3. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F M; Bangsbo, J

    2010-10-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump α-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.

  4. Cross-validation analysis for genetic evaluation models for ranking in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ballesteros, S; Varona, L; Valera, M; Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I

    2017-06-21

    Ranking trait was used as a selection criterion for competition horses to estimate racing performance. In the literature the most common approaches to estimate breeding values are the linear or threshold statistical models. However, recent studies have shown that a Thurstonian approach was able to fix the race effect (competitive level of the horses that participate in the same race), thus suggesting a better prediction accuracy of breeding values for ranking trait. The aim of this study was to compare the predictability of linear, threshold and Thurstonian approaches for genetic evaluation of ranking in endurance horses. For this purpose, eight genetic models were used for each approach with different combinations of random effects: rider, rider-horse interaction and environmental permanent effect. All genetic models included gender, age and race as systematic effects. The database that was used contained 4065 ranking records from 966 horses and that for the pedigree contained 8733 animals (47% Arabian horses), with an estimated heritability around 0.10 for the ranking trait. The prediction ability of the models for racing performance was evaluated using a cross-validation approach. The average correlation between real and predicted performances across genetic models was around 0.25 for threshold, 0.58 for linear and 0.60 for Thurstonian approaches. Although no significant differences were found between models within approaches, the best genetic model included: the rider and rider-horse random effects for threshold, only rider and environmental permanent effects for linear approach and all random effects for Thurstonian approach. The absolute correlations of predicted breeding values among models were higher between threshold and Thurstonian: 0.90, 0.91 and 0.88 for all animals, top 20% and top 5% best animals. For rank correlations these figures were 0.85, 0.84 and 0.86. The lower values were those between linear and threshold approaches (0.65, 0.62 and 0.51). In

  5. Effect and mechanism of micronutrient compound on swimming endurance in mice with nutritional deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-quan WU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the anti-fatigue effect and possible mechanisms of micronutrient compound. Methods One hundred and twenty-five male Kunming mice (SPF were fed following different feeding stuffs: sufficient feed, i.e. AIN-93M feed (corn starch 46.6%, casein 14%, dextrinized corn starch 15.5%, sucrose 10%, soybean oil 4%, fiber 5%, mineral mix 3.5%, vitamin mix 1%, L-cystine 0.18%, choline chloride 0.138% and tert-butylhydroquinone 8 ppm; insufficient feed (composed the same ingredients as the AIN-93M diet, replacing 30%, 50% or 70% of the content of mineral and vitamin mix with corn starch; compound micronutrient-added feed (CMAF, replacing 30% of the content of mineral and vitamin mix of AIN-93M diet with micronutrient compound composed of (g/kg Vit A 0.25, Vit B1 0.3, Vit B2 0.3, Vit B6 0.35, nicotinic acid 1.5, Vit D 0.05, Vit C 50, Vit E 10, calcium carbonate 180, ferrous glycine 1, zinc lactate 1 and corn starch 755.25. The mice were fed for 14 or 28 d, and then subjected to forced swim test with a load on their tails to exhaustion. The maximal swimming time was recorded. In another experiment, the Kunming mice were fed with corresponding feed for 28 d, and then subjected to forced swim test for 60 min, thereafter the samples of blood and liver were collected immediately. The serum contents of glucose, lactate, nonprotein nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids and hepatic glycogen were measured. Results The dietary intake of 30% nutritional insufficient group (30% group was significantly decreased compared with normal control group (fed with AIN-93M diet, (P 0.05. The serum glucose and hepatic glycogen decreased and serum lactate, nonprotein nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids increased in the control group, which were aggravated in nutrient insufficient group and reversed in micronutrient supplementation group. Conclusions Insufficient intake of micronutrients has significant influence on swimming endurance in mice and compound

  6. Heart rate and performance during combat missions in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Taija M M; Koskelo, Jukka P; Laitinen, Tomi; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-04-01

    The psychological workload of flying has been shown to increase heart rate (HR) during flight simulator operation. The association between HR changes and flight performance remains unclear. There were 15 pilots who performed a combat flight mission in a Weapons Tactics Trainer simulator of an F-18 Hornet. An electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded, and individual incremental heart rates (deltaHR) from the HR during rest were calculated for each flight phase and used in statistical analyses. The combat flight period was divided into 13 phases, which were evaluated on a scale of 1 to 5 by the flight instructor. HR increased during interceptions (from a mean resting level of 79.0 to mean value of 96.7 bpm in one of the interception flight phases) and decreased during the return to base and slightly increased during the ILS approach and landing. DeltaHR appeared to be similar among experienced and less experienced pilots. DeltaHR responses during the flight phases did not correlate with simulator flight performance scores. Overall simulator flight performance correlated statistically significantly (r = 0.50) with the F-18 Hornet flight experience. HR reflected the amount of cognitive load during the simulated flight. Hence, HR analysis can be used in the evaluation of the psychological workload of military simulator flight phases. However, more detailed flight performance evaluation methods are needed for this kind of complex flight simulation to replace the traditional but rough interval scales. Use of a visual analog scale by the flight instructors is suggested for simulator flight performance evaluation.

  7. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Simon; Straight, Chad R; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    Endurance athletes commonly ingest caffeine as a means to enhance training intensity and competitive performance. A widely-used source of caffeine is coffee, however conflicting evidence exists regarding the efficacy of coffee in improving endurance performance. In this context, the aims of this evidence-based review were threefold: 1) to evaluate the effects of preexercise coffee on endurance performance, 2) to evaluate the effects of coffee on perceived exertion during endurance performance, and 3) to translate the research into usable information for athletes to make an informed decision regarding the intake of caffeine via coffee as a potential ergogenic aid. Searches of three major databases were performed using terms caffeine and coffee, or coffee-caffeine, and endurance, or aerobic. Included studies (n = 9) evaluated the effects of caffeinated coffee on human subjects, provided the caffeine dose administered, administered caffeine ≥ 45 min before testing, and included a measure of endurance performance (e.g., time trial). Significant improvements in endurance performance were observed in five of nine studies, which were on average 24.2% over controls for time to exhaustion trials, and 3.1% for time to completion trials. Three of six studies found that coffee reduced perceived exertion during performance measures significantly more than control conditions (p studies there is moderate evidence supporting the use of coffee as an ergogenic aid to improve performance in endurance cycling and running. Coffee providing 3-8.1 mg/kg (1.36-3.68 mg/lb) of caffeine may be used as a safe alternative to anhydrous caffeine to improve endurance performance.

  8. Shoulder muscle endurance: the development of a standardized and reliable protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder muscle fatigue has been proposed as a possible link to explain the association between repetitive arm use and the development of rotator cuff disorders. To our knowledge, no standardized clinical endurance protocol has been developed to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder function. Such a test could improve clinical examination of individuals with shoulder disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a reliable protocol for objective assessment of shoulder muscle endurance. Methods An endurance protocol was developed on a stationary dynamometer (Biodex System 3. The endurance protocol was performed in isotonic mode with the resistance set at 50% of each subject's peak torque as measured for shoulder external (ER and internal rotation (IR. Each subject performed 60 continuous repetitions of IR/ER rotation. The endurance protocol was performed by 36 healthy individuals on two separate occasions at least two days apart. Maximal isometric shoulder strength tests were performed before and after the fatigue protocol to evaluate the effects of the endurance protocol and its reliability. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the reduction in shoulder strength due to the protocol, while intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and minimal detectable change (MDC were used to evaluate its reliability. Results Maximal isometric strength was significantly decreased after the endurance protocol (P 0.84. Conclusions Changes in muscular performance observed during and after the muscular endurance protocol suggests that the protocol did result in muscular fatigue. Furthermore, this study established that the resultant effects of fatigue of the proposed isotonic protocol were reproducible over time. The protocol was performed without difficulty by all volunteers and took less than 10 minutes to perform, suggesting that it might be feasible for clinical practice. This protocol could be used to induce

  9. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  10. Record breakers

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  11. 14 CFR 91.417 - Maintenance records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance records. 91.417 Section 91.417 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive...

  12. 47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice was given. (v) Date and time notice was given to the Flight Service Station (Federal Aviation... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.69 Station records. Each licensee of a CARS station shall... time of the beginning and end of each period of transmission of each channel; (b) For all stations,...

  13. Avionics. Progress Record and Theory Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This combination progress record and course outline is designed for use by individuals teaching a course in avionics that is intended to prepare students for employment in the field of aerospace electronics. Included among the topics addressed in the course are the following: shop practices, aircraft and the theory of flight, electron physics,…

  14. Pre-deployment training recommendations for Special Forces Medical Sergeants based on recent Operation Enduring Freedom experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John; Hughes, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of patient records from two 1st Battalion, 7th Special Forces Group combat rotations in Operation Enduring Freedom reveals a high volume of medical activity over a wide range of medical issues managed by Special Forces Medical Sergeants (MOS 18Ds). The initial training curriculum for 18Ds has been modified to provide graduating 18Ds with a refresher course and updated credentialing before reporting to their first unit. However, due to the high operational tempo, subsequent biannual refresher training has proven difficult for at least one Special Forces unit. Units must plan ahead between deployments to balance medic recredentialing with unit pre-mission training and individual non-medical training.

  15. Life-long endurance running is associated with reduced glycation and mechanical stress in connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, Christian; Svensson, René B; Grosset, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    Life-long regular endurance exercise is known to counteract the deterioration of cardiovascular and metabolic function and overall mortality. Yet it remains unknown if life-long regular endurance exercise can influence the connective tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs...... counteract the aging process in connective tissue by reducing age-related accumulation of AGEs. This may not only benefit skin and tendon but also other long-lived protein tissues in the body. Furthermore, it appears that endurance running yields tendon tissue hypertrophy that may serve to lower the stress...

  16. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO2max), cycling economy (CE) and long/short-term endurance...... capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  17. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO(2max) ), cycling economy (CE) and long....../short-term endurance capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  18. Transatlantic flight times and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft do not fly through a vacuum, but through an atmosphere whose meteorological characteristics are changing because of global warming. The impacts of aviation on climate change have long been recognised, but the impacts of climate change on aviation have only recently begun to emerge. These impacts include intensified turbulence (Williams and Joshi 2013) and increased take-off weight restrictions. A forthcoming study (Williams 2016) investigates the influence of climate change on flight routes and journey times. This is achieved by feeding synthetic atmospheric wind fields generated from climate model simulations into a routing algorithm of the type used operationally by flight planners. The focus is on transatlantic flights between London and New York, and how they change when the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is doubled. It is found that a strengthening of the prevailing jet-stream winds causes eastbound flights to significantly shorten and westbound flights to significantly lengthen in all seasons, causing round-trip journey times to increase. Eastbound and westbound crossings in winter become approximately twice as likely to take under 5h 20m and over 7h 00m, respectively. The early stages of this effect perhaps contributed to a well-publicised British Airways flight from New York to London on 8 January 2015, which took a record time of only 5h 16m because of a strong tailwind from an unusually fast jet stream. Even assuming no future growth in aviation, extrapolation of our results to all transatlantic traffic suggests that aircraft may collectively be airborne for an extra 2,000 hours each year, burning an extra 7.2 million gallons of jet fuel at a cost of US 22 million, and emitting an extra 70 million kg of carbon dioxide. These findings provide further evidence of the two-way interaction between aviation and climate change. References Williams PD (2016) Transatlantic flight times and climate change. Environmental Research Letters, in

  19. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G K

    2001-11-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

  20. Physiological and biomechanical factors associated with elite endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F; Feltner, M E; Kautz, S A; Hamilton, M T; Montain, S J; Baylor, A M; Abraham, L D; Petrek, G W

    1991-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the physiological and biomechanical responses of "elite-national class" (i.e., group 1; N = 9) and "good-state class" (i.e., group 2; N = 6) cyclists while they simulated a 40 km time-trial in the laboratory by cycling on an ergometer for 1 h at their highest power output. Actual road racing 40 km time-trial performance was highly correlated with average absolute power during the 1 h laboratory performance test (r = -0.88; P less than 0.001). In turn, 1 h power output was related to each cyclists' VO2 at the blood lactate threshold (r = 0.93; P less than 0.001). Group 1 was not different from group 2 regarding VO2max (approximately 70 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 5.01 l.min-1) or lean body weight. However, group 1 bicycled 40 km on the road 10% faster than group 2 (P less than 0.05; 54 vs 60 min). Additionally, group 1 was able to generate 11% more power during the 1 h performance test than group 2 (P less than 0.05), and they averaged 90 +/- 1% VO2max compared with 86 +/- 2% VO2max in group 2 (P = 0.06). The higher performance power output of group 1 was produced primarily by generating higher peak torques about the center of the crank by applying larger vertical forces to the crank arm during the cycling downstroke. Compared with group 2, group 1 also produced higher peak torques and vertical forces during the downstroke even when cycling at the same absolute work rate as group 2. Factors possibly contributing to the ability of group 1 to produce higher "downstroke power" are a greater percentage of Type I muscle fibers (P less than 0.05) and a 23% greater (P less than 0.05) muscle capillary density compared with group 2. We have also observed a strong relationship between years of endurance training and percent Type I muscle fibers (r = 0.75; P less than 0.001). It appears that "elite-national class" cyclists have the ability to generate higher "downstroke power", possibly as a result of muscular adaptations stimulated by more years of endurance

  1. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  2. Flight mode affects allometry of migration range in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-08-01

    Billions of birds migrate to exploit seasonally available resources. The ranges of migration vary greatly among species, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. I hypothesise that flight mode (flapping or soaring) and body mass affect migration range through their influence on flight energetics. Here, I compiled the tracks of migratory birds (196 species, weighing 12-10 350 g) recorded by electronic tags in the last few decades. In flapping birds, migration ranges decreased with body mass, as predicted from rapidly increasing flight cost with increasing body mass. The species with higher aspect ratio and lower wing loading had larger migration ranges. In soaring birds, migration ranges were mass-independent and larger than those of flapping birds, reflecting their low flight costs irrespective of body mass. This study demonstrates that many animal-tracking studies are now available to explore the general patterns and the underlying mechanisms of animal migration.

  3. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  4. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  5. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  6. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  7. Model and Effectiveness of Endurance Exercise to Increase Physical Fitness in Intellectual Disability Subjects with Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Z Tamin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to design a model and assess the effectiveness of endurance exercise to increase physical fitness in intelectual disability (ID patients with obesity. Methods: a randomized-controlled clinical trial was performed in ID patients with obesity aged 10-30 years old from all Special School in DKI Jakarta, which were randomly allocated into 3 groups and then given 3 different type of exercises: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise for 20 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercise for 24-25 minutes (type I, lower extremity muscles endurance exercises for 10 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercises for 26-27 minutes (type II, and threw a tennis ball with 10 m distance for 10 minutes as control (type III. These program was performed 3 times a week for 4 months. Assesment of the exercise effectiveness was done by measuring maximum load that can be lifted and six-minutes walking test on rectangular track which was converted with the VO2 max prediction formula. Analysis was perfomed with Kruskal Wallis test. Results: two hundred and twelve (212 subjects were included in the study, randomly allocated into three types (I, II, and III of exercises groups. The type II of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing lower extremity muscles endurance level compared to type I and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Meanwhile, type I of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing cardiorespiratory endurance level compared to type II and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Conclusion: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise followed by a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise can be used to increase physical fitness in ID patients with obesity. Key words: intelectual disability patient, obesity, lower extremity muscles and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, lower extremity muscles endurance level, cardiorespiratory endurance level.

  8. Post-ride inflammatory markers in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Farinelli de Siqueira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The acute phase reaction occurs in response to diseases, surgical trauma and can happen after strenuous exercise, like long distance events. This study aimed to evaluate the Serum Amyloid A (SAA, pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1β and TNFα and creatine phosphokinase (CK after free speed races like physical stress markers in endurance horses. Blood of 21 trained horses that competed in tests of 80, 120 and 160km, was taken before and after race. There was a significant increase in CK and SAA after the race in all horses, as well as the anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-10. But when results were compared between the groups, only the SAA was different, being higher in 160km horses. There was no change in pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1β and TNFα before and after the event; however, the TNFα was higher in 160km horses after the race. Based on data obtained in this study it was concluded that stress is more dependent on the distance than speed imposed and that SAA is a good marker of physical effort, since it is accompanied by other markers well established as CK. Interleukins are not a good markers since they did not change significantly.

  9. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  10. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  11. Contextual Responsiveness: An Enduring Challenge for Educational Assessment in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Serpell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in Africa have found that indigenous conceptualization of intelligence includes dimensions of social responsibility and reflective deliberation, in addition to the dimension of cognitive alacrity emphasized in most intelligence tests standardized in Western societies. In contemporary societies undergoing rapid socio-cultural and politico-economic change, the technology of intelligence testing has been widely applied to the process of educational selection. Current applications in Zambia rely exclusively on Western style tests and fail to respond to some enduring cultural preoccupations of many parents, educators and policymakers. We discuss how recent and ongoing research addresses the challenges of eco-culturally responsive assessment with respect to assessment of intellectual functions in early childhood, monitoring initial literacy acquisition in middle childhood, and selection for admission to secondary and tertiary education. We argue that the inherent bias of normative tests can only be justified politically if a compelling theoretical account is available of how the construct of intelligence relates to learning and how opportunities for learning are distributed through educational policy. While rapid social change gives rise to demands for new knowledge and skills, assessment of intellectual functions will be more adaptive in contemporary Zambian society if it includes the dimensions of reflection and social responsibility.

  12. Small sized slip-ring capsule endurance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondier, Jean-Bernard

    2005-07-01

    Slip-ring capsules are mechanical units used to carry electrical signals or power currents through a rotating joint. They are used either in solar array drive mechanisms (SADM) or in scientific instruments like radiometers. Analyses of the latest missions show that the slip-rings requirements are more and more demanding. For example, the number of in-orbit mechanical cycles keeps increasing. As a result, a signal slip-ring technology, which had been successfully tested for a given need, now has to improve its performances. It was therefore interesting to try to reach the slip-rings technical limits by testing them beyond the required performance of already known space missions. Slip-rings units are currently used in mechanisms such as SADM for the CNES Proteus and Myriade satellite family. They can be also found in the payload instruments of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, namely Madras and Scarab. A selected hardware was tested at the mechanism endurance laboratory of the CNES, in Toulouse. The typical in-orbit rotation speed was increased in order to limit the test duration to 2 years. The main interest of this work was to provide a continuous slip-ring performance status and a large set of engineering data. The main test results are presented and discussed. The following lines also report a part of the hardware detailed inspection and the lessons learned.

  13. A moderate glycemic meal before endurance exercise can enhance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; O'Gorman, D; Evans, W J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether presweetened breakfast cereals with various fiber contents and a moderate glycemic index optimize glucose availability and improve endurance exercise performance. Six recreationally active women ate 75 g of available carbohydrate in the form of breakfast cereals: sweetened whole-grain rolled oats (SRO, 7 g of dietary fiber) or sweetened whole-oat flour (SOF, 3 g of dietary fiber) and 300 ml of water or water alone (Con). The meals were provided 45 min before semirecumbent cycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion at 60% of peak O2 consumption (VO2peak). Diet and physical activity were controlled by having the subjects reside in the General Clinical Research Center for 2 days before each trial. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein for glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), glycerol, insulin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine determination. Breath samples were obtained at 15-min intervals after meal ingestion and at 30-min intervals during exercise. Muscle glycogen concentration was determined from biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before the meal and immediately after exercise. Plasma FFA concentrations were lower (P glycemic index 45 min before prolonged moderately intense exercise significantly enhances exercise capacity.

  14. Effects of endurance training in the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S J; Dickson, K A

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of endurance training in an elasmobranch fish. Twenty-four leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) were divided randomly into three groups. Eight sharks were killed immediately, eight were forced to swim continuously for 6 wk against a current of 35 cm s-1 (60%-65% of maximal sustainable swimming speed), and eight were held for 6 wk in a tank without induced current. There were no changes due to training in maximal sustainable speed, oxygen consumption rates, percentage of the myotome composed of red and white muscle fibers, blood oxygen-carrying capacity, liver mass, liver lipid, glycogen, and protein concentrations, white muscle protein content, heart ventricle mass, or the specific activities of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the heart ventricle. In red myotomal muscle, citrate synthase activity increased 17% as a result of training, but there was no change in muscle fiber diameter. The greatest effects occurred in white myotomal muscle, in which a 34% increase in fiber diameter and a 36% increase in the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase occurred as a result of training. The conditioned fish also had significantly higher growth rates. The observed effects within the myotomal muscle may reflect the higher growth rates of the trained leopard sharks, or they may be a specific response to the increased energetic demands of the training activity, indicating characteristics that limit swimming performance in leopard sharks.

  15. Pre-exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wisherd, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Jensen, C. D.; Whittam, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time to exhaustion at 87-91% of peak VO2 was measured in 5 untrained men (age: 31 +/- 8 years, body mass: 74.20 +/- 16.50 kg, body surface area: 1.90 +/- 0.24 m2, peak VO2: 2.87 +/- 0.40 l min-1, plasma volume: 3.21 +/- 0.88 l; means +/-SD) after consuming nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 ml kg-1, 743 +/- 161 ml): Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic carbohydrate drink, containing 55 mEq l-1 Na+, 4.16 g l-1 citrate, 20.49 g l-1 glucose, and 365 mOsm kg-1 H2O, and AstroAde (AA), a sodium chloride-sodium citrate hyperhydration drink, containing 164 mEq l-1 Na+, 8.54 g l-1 citrate, exercise were -1.5 +/- 3.2% (N), 0.2 +/- 2.2% (P1), and 4.8 +/- 3.0% (AA; P exercise metabolism (VE, RE, VO2) from the carbohydrate or citrate, terminal heart rate, levels of perceived exertion, forehead or thigh skin blood flow velocity, changes or absolute termination levels of rectal temperature. Thus, the higher level of resting PV for AA just before exercise, as well as greater acid buffering and possible increased energy substrate from citrate, may have contributed to the greater endurance.

  16. Probabilistic seismic loss estimation via endurance time method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafakori, Ehsan; Pourzeynali, Saeid; Estekanchi, Homayoon E.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Seismic Loss Estimation is a methodology used as a quantitative and explicit expression of the performance of buildings using terms that address the interests of both owners and insurance companies. Applying the ATC 58 approach for seismic loss assessment of buildings requires using Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA), which needs hundreds of time-consuming analyses, which in turn hinders its wide application. The Endurance Time Method (ETM) is proposed herein as part of a demand propagation prediction procedure and is shown to be an economical alternative to IDA. Various scenarios were considered to achieve this purpose and their appropriateness has been evaluated using statistical methods. The most precise and efficient scenario was validated through comparison against IDA driven response predictions of 34 code conforming benchmark structures and was proven to be sufficiently precise while offering a great deal of efficiency. The loss values were estimated by replacing IDA with the proposed ETM-based procedure in the ATC 58 procedure and it was found that these values suffer from varying inaccuracies, which were attributed to the discretized nature of damage and loss prediction functions provided by ATC 58.

  17. Tricarboxylic-acid-cycle intermediates and cycle endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C; Macrae, Holden S H; Turner, Nathan S

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of a multinutrient supplement containing 3 tricarboxylic-acid-cycle intermediates (TCAIs; pyridoxine-alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, and succinate) and other substances potentially supporting the TCA cycle (such as aspartate and glutamate) would improve cyclists' time to exhaustion during a submaximal endurance-exercise test (approximately 70 % to 75 % VO2peak) and rate of recovery. Seven well-trained male cyclists (VO2max 67.4 2.1 mL x kg(-1) x in(-1), 28.6 +/- 2.4 y) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study for 7 wk. Each took either the treatment or a placebo 30 min before and after their normal training sessions for 3 wk and before submaximal exercise tests. There were no significant differences between the TCAI group (KI) and placebo group (P) in time to exhaustion during cycling (KI = 105 +/- 18, P = 113 +/- 11 min); respiratory-exchange ratio at 20-min intervals; blood lactate and plasma glucose before, after, and at 30-min intervals during exercise; perceived exertion at 20-min intervals during exercise; or time to fatigue after the 30-min recovery (KI = 16.1 +/- 3.2, P = 15 +/- 2 min). Taking a dietary sport supplement containing several TCAIs and supporting substances for 3 wk does not improve cycling performance at 75 % VO2peak or speed recovery from previously fatiguing exercise.

  18. The Capacity to Endure: Following Nature’s Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Fogarty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many businesses today are striving to improve their environmental sustainability for a variety of reasons, ranging from consumer demand for “greener” products to potential cost-savings. For many business decision-makers who lack formal environmental training, the process of identifying facets of their organization that can be improved is unclear and challenging. Inspired by the fields of biomimicry, industrial ecology and organizational ecology, this paper draws on the inherent capacity to endure (CTE of the natural world and recognizes that ecosystem function can be used as a technical advisor to guide business sustainability. We identified major attributes of ecosystems that both contribute to their CTE and can be easily translated into applications for the business world. Each of these attributes (fitness, functional redundancy, keystone species, waste and efficiency and their applications are discussed at length. While further work is needed to evaluate their effectiveness and appropriateness for individual firms, we hope they can serve as a starting point for businesses seeking to improve their environmental sustainability.

  19. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in training...

  20. STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Springer uses camera on OV-104 aft flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, holding HASSELBLAD camera, positions himself under aft flight deck overhead window W7 before recording the Earth's surface below. Behind Springer are Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, onorbit station and aft flight deck viewing windows.

  1. Triacilglicerol intramuscular: um importante substrato energético para o exercício de endurance Triacilglicerol intramuscular: un importante substrato energético para el ejercicio de endurance Intramuscular triacylglycerol: an important energetic substrate for endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Aparecida Belmonte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos são uma importante fonte de energia para exercício de endurance. Os ácidos graxos plasmáticos encontram-se disponíveis para as fibras musculares sob a forma de ácidos graxos associados à albumina ou agregados à molécula de triacilglicerol (TAG encontrada nas lipoproteínas. Entretanto, além dessas fontes plasmáticas, a hidrólise do TAG encontrado no músculo também pode contribuir com a oferta de ácidos graxos durante o exercício de endurance. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma extensa revisão da literatura sobre a importância do TAG intramuscular como substrato energético. A revisão da literatura sugere que a contribuição dos estoques endógenos de TAG durante a realização do exercício de endurance é bastante relevante. Além disso, pode-se concluir que uma adaptação induzida pelo treinamento de endurance é o aumento dos estoques intramusculares de TAG. Após o treinamento de endurance, também é observado aumento na capacidade de utilização desses estoques. Apesar de parecer importante, a contribuição do TAG intramuscular ainda é motivo de controvérsia na literatura. Essa discrepância de resultados está relacionada às metodologias empregadas para estimar a sua oxidação no exercício. A fim de esgotar este assunto de maneira apropriada, mais pesquisas, com novos métodos (ex.: utilização de isótopos, ressonância magnética nuclear e microscopia eletrônica, precisam ser conduzidas.Los ácidos grasos son una fuente importante de energía para el ejercicio de endurance. Los ácidos grasos plasmáticos se encuentran disponibles en las fibras musculares bajo la forma de ácido graso asociado a la albúmina o agregados a la molécula del triacilglicerol (TAG encontrados en las lipoproteínas. Sin embargo, además de estos fuentes plasmáticas, la hidrólisis de los TAG encontrados en el músculo pueden contribuir también con la oferta de ácidos grasos durante el ejercicio

  2. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle strength of quadriceps, triceps, and abdominal muscles while a negative correlation with the endurance time of these muscles.

  3. Effect of Endurance and Resistance Training on Parameters Related to Sexual Function in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This paper should be cited as: Barari A, Ayatollahi AA, Shirali S, Ghasemi M, Hosseini A, Ekrami A, Khandan Del A . [ Effect of Endurance and Resistance Training on Parameters Related to Sexual ]. mlj goums . 201 4 ; 8 ( 3 : [Article in Persi an] Barari, A. (PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The hormonal responses are different, according to type, intensity and the duration of training. We aimed to compare the effect of endurance and resistance training in untrained men on the level sexual hormone including testosterone, estradiol, and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Material and Methods: this study was conducted on male Student Volunteers divided randomly into three groups of eight members, including endurance, resistance and control. To measure the variables, we performed sampling before and after the training program. Results: the levels of testosterone and estradiol, in both groups have a significant (p<0.05 increase and decrease respectively. SHBG level was significantly increased only in endurance group (p<0.05, But LH level was meaningfully increased only in the resistance group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The endurance and resistance training can increase the production of testosterone .Increased testosterone and decreased estradiol in men lead to sperm production and improve fertility.

  4. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (Ptraining, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (Pstrength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training.

  5. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, Pim; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Mensink, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that glycogen depletion affects endurance exercise performance negatively. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that post-exercise carbohydrate ingestion improves exercise recovery by increasing glycogen resynthesis. However, recent research into the effects of glyc

  6. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, Pim; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Mensink, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that glycogen depletion affects endurance exercise performance negatively. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that post-exercise carbohydrate ingestion improves exercise recovery by increasing glycogen resynthesis. However, recent research into the effects of

  7. Chocolate milk and endurance exercise recovery: protein balance, glycogen, and performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lunn, William R; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Colletto, Megan R; Karfonta, Kirstin E; Carbone, John W; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Rodriguez, Nancy R

    This study examined effects of fat-free chocolate milk (MILK) consumption on kinetic and cellular markers of protein turnover, muscle glycogen, and performance during recovery from endurance exercise...

  8. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...... endurance training on a cycle ergometer over 12 wk. rhGH was given in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. GH administration resulted in a doubling of serum insulin-like growth factor I levels. With endurance training, peak oxygen uptake increased...... by approximately 18% in both groups, whereas the marked increase in muscle citrate synthase activity was 50% larger in the GH group compared with the placebo group. In addition, only the GH group revealed an increase in muscle L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Body weight remained unchanged in both...

  9. Work criteria for stress conditions using heat-resistant materials having limited endurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheyn, Ye.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of stress concentrations and material properties on endurance limits. The parameter properties are theoretically founded and define the comparative sensitivity of materials to stress concentration over prolonged statistical breakdowns.

  10. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  11. In-Flight System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed and studied whereby the system identification cycle consisting of experiment design and data analysis can be repeatedly implemented aboard a test aircraft in real time. This adaptive in-flight system identification scheme has many advantages, including increased flight test efficiency, adaptability to dynamic characteristics that are imperfectly known a priori, in-flight improvement of data quality through iterative input design, and immediate feedback of the quality of flight test results. The technique uses equation error in the frequency domain with a recursive Fourier transform for the real time data analysis, and simple design methods employing square wave input forms to design the test inputs in flight. Simulation examples are used to demonstrate that the technique produces increasingly accurate model parameter estimates resulting from sequentially designed and implemented flight test maneuvers. The method has reasonable computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  12. Predicting migratory flight altitudes by physiological migration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liechti, F.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Bruderer, B.

    2000-01-01

    Using the altitudinal profiles of wind, temperature, pressure, and humidity in three flight models, we tried to explain the altitudinal distributions of nocturnal migrants recorded by radar above a desert in southern Israel. In the simplest model, only the tailwind component was used as a predictor

  13. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  14. Enduring Rivalry in the Philippines and the Application of Amnesty, Reintegration and Reconciliation (AR2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Enduring Rivalry in the Philippines and the Application of Amnesty, Reintegration and Reconciliation (AR2) A Monograph by MAJ Gary J Morea...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enduring Rivalry in the Philippines and the Application of Amnesty, Reintegration and Reconciliation (AR2) 5c...of force, diplomacy and economic programs that are necessary in initiating and sustaining peace. While the elements of amnesty, reintegration and

  15. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers associated with elite endurance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemin, NA; Popov, DV; Naumov, VA; Akimov, EB; Bravy, YR; Egorova, ES; Galeeva, AA; Generozov, EV; Kostryukova, ES; Larin, AK; Mustafina, LJ; Ospanova, EA; Pavlenko, AV; Starnes, LM; Żmijewski, P; Alexeev, DG; Vinogradova, OL; Govorun, VM

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status in Russians. By using GWAS approach, we examined the association between 1,140,419 SNPs and relative maximal oxygen consumption rate (V.O2max) in 80 international-level Russian endurance athletes (46 males and 34 females). To validate obtained results, we further performed case-control studies by comparing the frequencies of the most significant SNPs (with P < 10−5-10−8) between 218 endurance athletes and opposite cohorts (192 Russian controls, 1367 European controls, and 230 Russian power athletes). Initially, six ‘endurance alleles’ were identified showing discrete associations with V.O2max both in males and females. Next, case-control studies resulted in remaining three SNPs (NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs7144481, RBFOX1 rs7191721) associated with endurance athlete status. The C allele of the most significant SNP, rs1572312, was associated with high values of V.O2max (males: P = 0.0051; females: P = 0.0005). Furthermore, the frequency of the rs1572312 C allele was significantly higher in elite endurance athletes (95.5%) in comparison with non-elite endurance athletes (89.8%, P = 0.0257), Russian (88.8%, P = 0.007) and European (90.6%, P = 0.0197) controls and power athletes (86.2%, P = 0.0005). The rs1572312 SNP is located on the nuclear factor I A antisense RNA 2 (NFIA-AS2) gene which is supposed to regulate the expression of the NFIA gene (encodes transcription factor involved in activation of erythropoiesis and repression of the granulopoiesis). Our data show that the NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs7144481 and RBFOX1 rs7191721 polymorphisms are associated with aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status. PMID:25729143

  17. Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Holm Paige; Sattler Angela; Fregosi Ralph F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min), experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10) trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4) underwent "sham" tra...

  18. Acclimation Training Improves Endurance Cycling Performance in the Heat without Inducing Endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Guy; David Bruce Pyne; Glen Deakin; Catherine Margaret Miller; Andrew Mark Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. Methods: Moderately-acti...

  19. Effect of concurrent endurance and circuit resistance training sequence on muscular strength and power development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Levin, Gregory T; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Laursen, Paul B

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the sequence order of high-intensity endurance training and circuit training on changes in muscular strength and anaerobic power. Forty-eight physical education students (ages, 21.4 +/- 1.3 years) were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: no training controls (C, n = 9), endurance training (E, n = 10), circuit training (S, n = 9), endurance before circuit training in the same session, (E+S, n = 10), and circuit before endurance training in the same session (S+E, n = 10). Subjects performed 2 sessions per week for 12 weeks. Resistance-type circuit training targeted strength endurance (weeks 1-6) and explosive strength and power (weeks 7-12). Endurance training sessions included 5 repetitions run at the velocity associated with Vo2max (Vo2max) for a duration equal to 50% of the time to exhaustion at Vo2max; recovery was for an equal period at 60% Vo2max. Maximal strength in the half squat, strength endurance in the 1-leg half squat and hip extension, and explosive strength and power in a 5-jump test and countermovement jump were measured pre- and post-testing. No significant differences were shown following training between the S+E and E+S groups for all exercise tests. However, both S+E and E+S groups improved less than the S group in 1 repetition maximum (p strength and explosive strength and power. Circuit training alone induced strength and power improvements that were significantly greater than when resistance and endurance training were combined, irrespective of the intrasession sequencing.

  20. Influence of nitrate supplementation on VO(2) kinetics and endurance of elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined if an elevated nitrate intake would improve VO(2) kinetics, endurance, and repeated sprint capacity in elite endurance athletes. Ten highly trained cyclists (72¿±¿4¿mL O(2) /kg/min, mean¿±¿standard deviation) underwent testing for VO(2) kinetics (3¿×¿6¿min at 298¿±¿28¿W...

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers associated with elite endurance performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmetov, Ii; Kulemin, Na; Popov, Dv

    2015-01-01

    in elite endurance athletes (95.5%) in comparison with non-elite endurance athletes (89.8%, P = 0.0257), Russian (88.8%, P = 0.007) and European (90.6%, P = 0.0197) controls and power athletes (86.2%, P = 0.0005). The rs1572312 SNP is located on the nuclear factor I A antisense RNA 2 (NFIA-AS2) gene which...

  2. Mutations in the hereditary haemochromatosis gene HFE in professional endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    López Chicharro, José; Hoyos, J; Gómez Gallego, Félix; Villa Vicente, José Gerardo; Bandrés Moya, Fernando; Celaya, P; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hereditary haemochromatosis, a disease that affects iron metabolism, progresses with a greater or lesser tendency to induce iron overload, possibly leading to severe organ dysfunction. Most elite endurance athletes take iron supplements during their active sporting life, which could aggravate this condition. Objective: To determine the prevalence and discuss potential clinical implications of mutations of HFE (the gene responsible for hereditary haemochromatosis) in endurance athl...

  3. Superimposed electrical stimulation comfortably improves the endurance of maximal voluntary contractions.

    OpenAIRE

    Boisgontier, Matthieu; Moineau, Bastien; Nougier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Electrical stimulation has shown to improve muscle endurance in sub-maximal contractions but sessions were painful due to the electric stimuli parameters. Therefore, the present study tested the effects of the superimposed electrical stimulation technique using comfortable current on endurance in repetitions of maximal voluntary contraction. METHODS: Seventeen young healthy subjects performed fifty maximal voluntary contractions of the triceps brachii in two condi...

  4. 77 FR 69491 - Privacy Act of 1974: System of Records; Secure Flight Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Disqualification List will be generated by TSA's Performance and Results Information System (PARIS).\\17\\ \\17\\ PARIS... System (TSERS), 75 FR 28042 (May 19, 2010). Consistent with its ongoing efforts to focus on passengers... the following information regarding a passenger or non-traveling individual: Full name, date of birth...

  5. First RAVEN flight set for September

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-08-01

    An unmanned aerial vehicle called RAVEN, said to be capable of remote tracking of onshore and offshore oil and gas facilities, has been developed by a group of graduate students from Memorial University of Newfoundland. RAVEN is claimed to be capable of performing a number of tasks under its own control without the need for human intervention, including checking onshore pipelines for damage, or scouting the path of hazardous icebergs offshore. The RAVEN was created to meet the need for real time iceberg tracking and early hazard detection, supplementing or replacing the present method of RADARSAT images and tracking by manned aircraft. The RAVEN can be launched from any platform; it can fly under conditions that would be too dangerous for a manned aircraft. Currently in the prototype stage, the first trial flight for the RAVEN is expected to take place in September 2002. The first flight will consist of five GPS waypoints set relatively close together in a pattern to allow testing of the autopilot and the camera simultaneously. The second flight will be similar, but will also include tracking a section of a pipeline and record images at programmed GPS waypoints.

  6. D-558-2 launch and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    (Bureau No. 37975 -- NACA 145). Skyrocket 143 flew all but one of its missions as part of the Douglas Aircraft Company contractor program to test the airplane's performance. NACA aircraft 143 was initially powered by a Westinghouse J34-40 turbojet engine configured only for ground takeoffs, but in 1954-55 the contractor modified it to an all-rocket air-launch capability featuring an LR8-RM-6, 4-chamber Reaction Motors engine rated at 6,000 pounds of thrust at sea level (the Navy designation for the Air Force LR-11 used in the X-1). In this configuration, NACA research pilot John McKay flew the airplane only once for familiarization on September 17, 1956. The 123 flights of NACA 143 served to validate wind-tunnel predictions of Skyrocket performance, except for the fact that the airplane experienced less drag above Mach 0.85 than the wind tunnels had indicated. NACA 144 also began its flight program with a turbojet powerplant. NACA pilots Robert A. Champine and John H. Griffith flew 21 times in this configuration to test airspeed calibrations and to research longitudinal and lateral stability and control. In the process, during August of 1949 they encountered pitchup problems, which NACA engineers recognized as serious because pitchups could produce a limiting and dangerous restriction on flight performance. Hence, they determined to make a complete investigation of the problem. In 1950 Douglas Aircraft Company replaced the turbojet with an LR-8 rocket engine, and its pilot, William B. Bridgeman, flew the aircraft seven times -- up to a speed of Mach 1.88 (1.88 times the speed of sound) and an altitude of 79,494 feet (the latter an unofficial world altitude record at the time, achieved on August 15, 1951). In the rocket configuration, a Navy P2B (Navy version of the B-29) launched the airplane at an altitude of approximately 30,000 feet after taking off from the ground with the Skyrocket attached beneath its bomb bay. During Bridgeman's supersonic flights, he encountered a

  7. Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an authentic aircraft environment by generating the appropriate physical cues that provide the sensations of flight.

  8. Effect of coffee ingestion on physiological responses and ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamada, Takayoshi; Terasawa, Naoko

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of coffee ingestion on physiological responses and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during submaximal endurance exercises by 10 healthy young adults. Participants performed a submaximal endurance cycling exercise corresponding to 60% of maximum oxygen uptake capacity for 60 min. They drank either caffeinated coffee with a caffeine content of 6 mg/kg body-mass of each participant (Caf) or a decaffeinated coffee (Dec) 60 min. before starting exercise. Participants participated in the blind design experiment under both conditions at a one-week interval. Oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, RPE, and plasma lactate concentration were measured during the endurance exercise. The RPE under the Caffeinated coffee condition during the last 60 min. of endurance exercise was significantly lower than that in the Decaffeinated coffee condition. However, no significant differences in any physiological response were observed between conditions. Thus, caffeine ingestion 60 min. before starting exercise had an insignificant effect on the physiological responses, except for RPE during submaximal endurance exercises for 60 min. Caffeine ingestion before endurance exercise of relatively low intensity may have a beneficial effect on psychological responses.

  9. Contribution of ankle dorsiflexor strength to walking endurance in people with spastic hemiplegia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S; Hui-Chan, Christina W

    2012-06-01

    (1) To determine the relationships of ankle dorsiflexor strength, ankle plantarflexor strength, and spasticity of the ankle plantarflexors with walking endurance; (2) to determine whether affected ankle dorsiflexor strength makes an independent contribution to walking endurance; and (3) to quantify its relative contribution to the walking endurance of people with spastic hemiplegia after stroke. A cross-sectional study. University-based rehabilitation center. Subjects (N=62) with spastic hemiplegia. Not applicable. Walking endurance was measured by the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Ankle dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength were measured using a load-cell mounted on a custom-built foot support. Plantarflexor spasticity was measured using the Composite Spasticity Scale. The six-minute walk distances showed stronger positive correlation with affected dorsiflexor strength (r=.793, P≤.000) when compared with affected plantarflexor strength (r=.349, P=.005). Results of the regression model showed that after adjusting for basic demographic and stroke-related impairments, affected ankle dorsiflexor strength remained independently associated with six-minute walk distance, accounting for 48.8% of the variance. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to document the importance of ankle dorsiflexor strength as an independent determinant of walking endurance in stroke survivors with spastic plantarflexors. Our findings suggest that stroke rehabilitation programs aiming to improve walking endurance should include strengthening exercises for the ankle dorsiflexors. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Discriminant musculo-skeletal leg characteristics between sprint and endurance elite Caucasian runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, T; Iannaccone, F; Stautemas, J; Baguet, A; De Beule, M; Verhegghe, B; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-03-01

    Excellence in either sprinting or endurance running requires specific musculo-skeletal characteristics of the legs. This study aims to investigate the morphology of the leg of sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity. Eight male sprinters and 11 male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging and after data collection, digital reconstruction was done to calculate muscle volumes and bone lengths. Sprinters have a higher total upper leg volume compared to endurance runners (7340 vs 6265 cm(3) ). Specifically, the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and hamstrings showed significantly higher muscle volumes in the sprint group. For the lower leg, only a higher muscle volume was found in the gastrocnemius lateralis for the sprinters. No differences were found in muscle volume distribution, center of mass in the different muscles, or relative bone lengths. There was a significant positive correlation between ratio hamstrings/quadriceps volume and best running performance in the sprint group. Sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity showed the greatest distinctions in muscle volumes, rather than in muscle distributions or skeletal measures. Sprinters show higher volumes in mainly the proximal and lateral leg muscles than endurance runners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of endurance exercise training status and gender on postexercise hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senitko, Annette N; Charkoudian, Nisha; Halliwill, John R

    2002-06-01

    In sedentary individuals, postexercise hypotension after a single bout of aerobic exercise is due to a peripheral vasodilation. Endurance exercise training has the potential to modify this response and perhaps reduce the degree of postexercise hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise-trained men and women would have blunted postexercise hypotension compared with sedentary subjects but that the mechanism of hypotension would be similar (i.e., vasodilation). We studied 16 endurance-trained and 16 sedentary men and women. Arterial pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were determined before and after a single 60-min bout of exercise at 60% peak oxygen consumption. All groups exhibited a similar degree of postexercise hypotension (approximately 4-5 mmHg; P men and women, hypotension was the result of vasodilation (Deltaresistance: -8.9 +/- 2.2%). In endurance-trained women, hypotension was also the result of vasodilation (-8.1 +/- 4.1%). However, in endurance-trained men, hypotension was the result of a reduced cardiac output (-5.2 +/- 2.4%; P men and women but that endurance-trained men and women achieve this fall in pressure via different mechanisms.

  12. Effect of core strength and endurance training on performance in college students: randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim F; Murphy, Jeff C; Bonney, John R; Thich, Jacob L

    2013-07-01

    Core training continues to be emphasized with the proposed intent of improving athletic performance. The purpose of this investigation was to discover if core isometric endurance exercises were superior to core isotonic strengthening exercises and if either influenced specific endurance, strength, and performance measures. Ten untrained students were randomly assigned to core isometric endurance (n = 5) and core isotonic strength training (n = 5). Each performed three exercises, two times per week for six weeks. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the measurements for the dependent variables and significance by bonferroni post-hoc testing. The training protocols were compared using a 2 × 3 mixed model ANOVA. Improvement in trunk flexor and extensor endurance (p strength (p strength group. Improvement in trunk flexor and right lateral endurance (p strength in the squat (p < 0.05) were found with the endurance group. Neither training protocol claimed superiority and both were ineffective in improving performance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Endurance exercise diverts the balance between Th17 cells and regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chava Perry

    Full Text Available Endurance, marathon-type exertion is known to induce adverse changes in the immune system. Increased airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation are well documented in endurance athletes and endurance exercise is considered a major risk factor for asthma in elite athletes. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still to be deduced. We studied the effect of strenuous endurance exercise (marathon and half-ironman triathlon on CD4+ lymphocyte sub-populations and on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of trained athletes, Endurance exercise induced a significant increase in Th17 cells and a sustained decrease in peripheral blood regulatory T cells (Tregs. While interleukin (IL-2 levels remained undetectable, post-race serum IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF β levels were significantly elevated. Treg levels in sedentary controls' decreased in vitro after incubation with athletes' post-exercise serum, an effect that was attenuated by supplements of IL-2 or anti IL-6 neutralizing antibodies. Our data suggest that exercise-induced changes in serum cytokine levels promote alterations in Tregs and Th17 cell populations, which may divert the subtle balance in the immune system towards inflammation. This may explain allergic and autoimmune phenomena previously reported in endurance athletes and contribute to our understanding of exercise-related asthma.

  14. [From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

    2011-01-01

    The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine.

  15. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  16. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  17. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  18. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  19. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  20. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.