WorldWideScience

Sample records for flight control testing

  1. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  2. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  3. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  4. Dual control vibration tests of flight hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1991-01-01

    A vibration retest of a spacecraft flight instrument, the Mars Observer Camera (MOC), was conducted using extremal dual control to automatically limit the shaker force and notch the shaker acceleration at resonances. This was the first application of extremal dual control with flight hardware at JPL. The retest was successful in that the environment was representative of flight plus some margin, the instrument survived without any structural or performance degradation, and the force limiting worked very well. The test set-up, force limiting procedure, and test results are described herein. It is concluded that dual control should be utilized when there is a concern about overtesting in hard-base-drive tests and the instrumentation for force measurement and control is available. Recommendations for improving the implementation of dual control are provided as a result of this first experience.

  5. Simulation to Flight Test for a UAV Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.

  6. Software Considerations for Subscale Flight Testing of Experimental Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.

  7. The development and flight test of an electronic integrated propulsion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. J.; Painter, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced technical features of the electronic integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) and flight evaluation tests of IPCS (F-111E with TF30-P-9 engines as test vehicle) are described. Nine baseline flight tests and 15 IPCS flight tests were conducted. Instrumentation, data acquisition and data processing systems, software maintenance procedures, flight test procedures, flight safety criteria, flight test results, and ground and flight testing of the aircraft system are described. Advantages conferred by IPCS include: faster accelerations (both gas generator and afterburner performance), better thrust and flight control, reduced flight idle thrust, reduced engine ground trim, extended service ceiling, automatic stall detection, and stall recovery detection.

  8. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  9. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  10. Flight Controllability Limits and Related Human Transfer Functions as Determined from Simulator and Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Day, Richard E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study and flight tests were performed to determine the levels of static stability and damping necessary to enable a pilot to control the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics of a vehicle for short periods of time. Although a basic set of aerodynamic characteristics was used, the study was conducted so that the results would be applicable to a wide range of flight conditions and configurations. Novel piloting techniques were found which enabled the pilot to control the vehicle at conditions that were otherwise uncontrollable. The influence of several critical factors in altering the controllability limits was also investigated. Several human transfer functions were used which gave fairly good representations of the controllability limits determined experimentally for the short-period longitudinal, directional, and lateral modes. A transfer function with approximately the same gain and phase angle as the pilot at the controlling frequencies along the controllability limits was also derived.

  11. Flight Test Results for the F-16XL With a Digital Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Susan J.; Bosworth, John T.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1980s, two F-16 airplanes were modified to extend the fuselage length and incorporate a large area delta wing planform. These two airplanes, designated the F-16XL, were designed by the General Dynamics Corporation (now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems) (Fort Worth, Texas) and were prototypes for a derivative fighter evaluation program conducted by the United States Air Force. Although the concept was never put into production, the F-16XL prototypes provided a unique planform for testing concepts in support of future high-speed supersonic transport aircraft. To extend the capabilities of this testbed vehicle the F-16XL ship 1 aircraft was upgraded with a digital flight control system. The added flexibility of a digital flight control system increases the versatility of this airplane as a testbed for aerodynamic research and investigation of advanced technologies. This report presents the handling qualities flight test results covering the envelope expansion of the F-16XL with the digital flight control system.

  12. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  13. Flight-testing of the self-repairing flight control system using the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control flight research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Shuck, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests conducted with the self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS) installed on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control aircraft are described. The development leading to the current SRFCS configuration is highlighted. Key objectives of the program are outlined: (1) to flight-evaluate a control reconfiguration strategy with three types of control surface failure; (2) to evaluate a cockpit display that will inform the pilot of the maneuvering capacity of the damage aircraft; and (3) to flight-evaluate the onboard expert system maintenance diagnostics process using representative faults set to occur only under maneuvering conditions. Preliminary flight results addressing the operation of the overall system, as well as the individual technologies, are included.

  14. Design and Testing of Flight Control Laws on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chad R.; Hindson, William S.; Moralez. Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Dryfoos, James B.

    2001-01-01

    Two unique sets of flight control laws were designed, tested and flown on the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The first set of control laws used a simple rate feedback scheme, intended to facilitate the first flight and subsequent flight qualification of the RASCAL research flight control system. The second set of control laws comprised a more sophisticated model-following architecture. Both sets of flight control laws were developed and tested extensively using desktop-to-flight modeling, analysis, and simulation tools. Flight test data matched the model predicted responses well, providing both evidence and confidence that future flight control development for RASCAL will be efficient and accurate.

  15. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  16. F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test results viewed from an active controls perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, K. J.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test program are presented, along with the implications for active controls applications. The closed loop performance of the digital control system agreed well with the sampled-data system design predictions. The digital fly-by-wire mechanization also met pilot flying qualities requirements. The advantages of mechanizing the control laws in software became apparent during the flight program and were realized without sacrificing overall system reliability. This required strict software management. The F-8 flight test results are shown to be encouraging in light of the requirements that must be met by control systems for flight-critical active controls applications.

  17. Flight testing the digital electronic engine control in the F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine which was flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The DEEC hardware and software throughout the F-15 flight envelope was evaluated. Real-time data reduction and data display systems were implemented. New test techniques and stronger coordination between the propulsion test engineer and pilot were developed which produced efficient use of test time, reduced pilot work load, and greatly improved quality data. The engine pressure ratio (EPR) control mode is demonstrated. It is found that the nonaugmented throttle transients and engine performance are satisfactory.

  18. Flight Test Experiment Design for Characterizing Stability and Control of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2008-01-01

    A maneuver design method that is particularly well-suited for determining the stability and control characteristics of hypersonic vehicles is described in detail. Analytical properties of the maneuver design are explained. The importance of these analytical properties for maximizing information content in flight data is discussed, along with practical implementation issues. Results from flight tests of the X-43A hypersonic research vehicle (also called Hyper-X) are used to demonstrate the excellent modeling results obtained using this maneuver design approach. A detailed design procedure for generating the maneuvers is given to allow application to other flight test programs.

  19. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  20. Initial virtual flight test for a dynamically similar aircraft model with control augmentation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linliang Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the validation requirements of flight control law for advanced aircraft, a wind tunnel based virtual flight testing has been implemented in a low speed wind tunnel. A 3-degree-of-freedom gimbal, ventrally installed in the model, was used in conjunction with an actively controlled dynamically similar model of aircraft, which was equipped with the inertial measurement unit, attitude and heading reference system, embedded computer and servo-actuators. The model, which could be rotated around its center of gravity freely by the aerodynamic moments, together with the flow field, operator and real time control system made up the closed-loop testing circuit. The model is statically unstable in longitudinal direction, and it can fly stably in wind tunnel with the function of control augmentation of the flight control laws. The experimental results indicate that the model responds well to the operator’s instructions. The response of the model in the tests shows reasonable agreement with the simulation results. The difference of response of angle of attack is less than 0.5°. The effect of stability augmentation and attitude control law was validated in the test, meanwhile the feasibility of virtual flight test technique treated as preliminary evaluation tool for advanced flight vehicle configuration research was also verified.

  1. Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. The development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements is discussed. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  2. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The proposed security controls were integrated into the GRC flight test system aboard our S-3B Viking surrogate aircraft and several network tests were conducted during a flight on November 15th, 2014 to determine whether the controls were working properly within the flight environment. The flight test was also the first to integrate Robust Header Compression (ROHC) as a means of reducing the additional overhead introduced by the security controls and Mobile IPv6. The effort demonstrated the complete end-to-end secure CNPC link in a relevant flight environment.

  3. Testing command and control of the satellites in formation flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Popan; Gheorghe, Gh. Ion; Gabriel, Todoran

    2013-10-01

    The topics covered in the paper are mechatronic systems for determining the distance between the satellites and the design of the displacement system on air cushion table for satellites testing. INCDMTM has the capability to approach the collaboration within European Programms (ESA) of human exploration of outer space through mechatronic systems and accessories for telescopes, mechatronics systems used by the launchers, sensors and mechatronic systems for the robotic exploration programs of atmosphere and Mars. This research has a strong development component of industrial competitiveness many of the results of space research have direct applicability in industrial fabrication.

  4. Three-Axis Fluidic/Electronic Automatic Flight Control System Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    sustained vertical bounce which could be due tc the location of the rate vortex sensor being in the cockpit rather than under the transmission. 3...29,000 lbs vs U7,000 lbs). A very minor reduction in dampening was incorporater"—but the response of the SAS to vertical bounce was critical in a...Sensitivity to vertical bounce in hover flight was increased with SAS on or off over that experience on the previous flight. Aircraft buzz and

  5. Flight Services and Aircraft Access: Active Flow Control Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the Flight Services and Aircraft Access task order NNL14AA57T as part of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project ITD12A+. It includes descriptions of flight test preparations and execution for the Active Flow Control (AFC) Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) experiments conducted on the 757 ecoDemonstrator. For the AFC Vertical Tail, this is the culmination of efforts under two task orders. The task order was managed by Boeing Research & Technology and executed by an enterprise-wide Boeing team that included Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense and Space and Boeing Test and Evaluation. Boeing BR&T in St. Louis was responsible for overall Boeing project management and coordination with NASA. The 757 flight test asset was provided and managed by the BCA ecoDemonstrator Program, in partnership with Stifel Aircraft Leasing and the TUI Group. With this report, all of the required deliverables related to management of this task order have been met and delivered to NASA as summarized in Table 1. In addition, this task order is part of a broader collaboration between NASA and Boeing.

  6. Control and flight test of a tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles have attracted increasing attention due to their ability to perform vertical take-off and landing and their high-speed cruising abilities, thereby presenting broad application prospects. Considering portability and applications in tasks characterized by constrained or small scope areas, this article presents a compact tricopter configuration tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with full modes of flight from the rotor mode to the fixed-wing mode and vice versa. The unique multiple modes make the tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle a multi-input multi-output, non-affine, multi-channel cross coupling, and nonlinear system. Considering these characteristics, a control allocation method is designed to make the controller adaptive to the full modes of flight. To reduce the cost, the accurate dynamic model of the tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle is not obtained, so a full-mode flight strategy is designed in view of this situation. An autonomous flight test was conducted, and the results indicate the satisfactory performance of the control allocation method and flight strategy.

  7. Dynamic planning of navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in an automated flight test control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtsov, D. A.; Karpov, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    This study considers an approach to planning navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in the course of preparing for and carrying out an active flight test in an automated flight test control system. The approach is based on special information and mathematical software. The performance indices of the navigation determination subsystem are studied. Results of simulated modeling are provided.

  8. Flight test results of the fuzzy logic adaptive controller-helicopter (FLAC-H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert L.; Walker, Gregory W.

    1996-05-01

    The fuzzy logic adaptive controller for helicopters (FLAC-H) demonstration is a cooperative effort between the US Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM), the US Army Aviation and Troop Command, and the US Army Missile Command to demonstrate a low-cost drone control system for both full-scale and sub-scale helicopters. FLAC-H was demonstrated on one of STRICOM's fleet of full-scale rotary-winged target drones. FLAC-H exploits fuzzy logic in its flight control system to provide a robust solution to the control of the helicopter's dynamic, nonlinear system. Straight forward, common sense fuzzy rules governing helicopter flight are processed instead of complex mathematical models. This has resulted in a simplified solution to the complexities of helicopter flight. Incorporation of fuzzy logic reduced the cost of development and should also reduce the cost of maintenance of the system. An adaptive algorithm allows the FLAC-H to 'learn' how to fly the helicopter, enabling the control system to adjust to varying helicopter configurations. The adaptive algorithm, based on genetic algorithms, alters the fuzzy rules and their related sets to improve the performance characteristics of the system. This learning allows FLAC-H to automatically be integrated into a new airframe, reducing the development costs associated with altering a control system for a new or heavily modified aircraft. Successful flight tests of the FLAC-H on a UH-1H target drone were completed in September 1994 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper discuses the objective of the system, its design, and performance.

  9. Hypersonic flight testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, W.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is developed for people attending the University of Texas week-long short course in hypersonics. The presentation will be late in the program after the audience has been exposed to computational tehniques and ground test methods. It will attempt to show why we flight test, flight test options, what we learn from flight tests and how we use this information to improve our knowledge of hypersonics. It presupposes that our primary interest is in developing vehicles which will fly in the hypersonic flight region and not in simply developing technology for technology's sake. The material is presented in annotated vugraph form so that the author's comments on each vugraph are on the back of the preceding page. It is hoped that the comments will help reinforce the message on the vugraph.

  10. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  11. Flight Testing of Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems on the Mighty Eagle Robotic Lander Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Mike; Rickman, Doug; Chavers, Greg; Adam, Jason; Becker, Chris; Eliser, Joshua; Gunter, Dan; Kennedy, Logan; O'Leary, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    During 2011 a series of progressively more challenging flight tests of the Mighty Eagle autonomous terrestrial lander testbed were conducted primarily to validate the GNC system for a proposed lunar lander. With the successful completion of this GNC validation objective the opportunity existed to utilize the Mighty Eagle as a flying testbed for a variety of technologies. In 2012 an Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) algorithm was implemented in flight software and demonstrated in a series of flight tests. In 2012 a hazard avoidance system was developed and flight tested on the Mighty Eagle. Additionally, GNC algorithms from Moon Express and a MEMs IMU were tested in 2012. All of the testing described herein was above and beyond the original charter for the Mighty Eagle. In addition to being an excellent testbed for a wide variety of systems the Mighty Eagle also provided a great learning opportunity for many engineers and technicians to work a flight program.

  12. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  13. Description and Flight Test Results of the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A NASA program to develop digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) technology for aircraft applications is discussed. Phase I of the program demonstrated the feasibility of using a digital fly-by-wire system for aircraft control through developing and flight testing a single channel system, which used Apollo hardware, in an F-8C airplane. The objective of Phase II of the program is to establish a technology base for designing practical DFBW systems. It will involve developing and flight testing a triplex digital fly-by-wire system using state-of-the-art airborne computers, system hardware, software, and redundancy concepts. The papers included in this report describe the Phase I system and its development and present results from the flight program. Man-rated flight software and the effects of lightning on digital flight control systems are also discussed.

  14. Flight testing the Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) A unique management experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Kock, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    The concept for the DEEC had its origin in the early 1970s. At that time it was recognized that the F100 engine performance, operability, reliability, and cost could be substantially improved by replacing the original mechanical/supervisory electronic control system with a full-authority digital control system. By 1978, the engine manufacturer had designed and initiated the procurement of flight-qualified control system hardware. As a precursor to an integrated controls program, a flight evaluation of the DEEC system on the F-15 aircraft was proposed. Questions regarding the management of the DEEC flight evaluation program are discussed along with the program elements, the technical results of the F-15 evaluation, and the impact of the flight evaluation on after-burning turbofan controls technology and its use in and application to military aircraft. The lessons learned through the conduct of the program are discussed.

  15. Flight Tests of Autopilot Integrated with Fault-Tolerant Control of a Small Fixed-Wing UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault-tolerant control scheme for the autopilot of the small fixed-wing UAV is designed and tested by the actual flight experiments. The small fixed-wing UAV called Xiang Fei is developed independently by Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The flight control system is designed based on an open-source autopilot (Pixhawk. Real-time kinematic (RTK GPS is introduced due to its high accuracy. Some modifications on the longitudinal and lateral guidance laws are achieved to improve the flight control performance. Moreover, a data fusion based fault-tolerant control scheme is integrated in altitude control and speed control for altitude sensor failure and airspeed sensor failure, which are the common problems for small fixed-wing UAV. Finally, the real flight experiments are implemented to test the fault-tolerant control based autopilot of UAV. Real flight test results are given and analyzed in detail, which show that the fixed-wing UAV can track the desired altitude and speed commands during the whole flight process including takeoff, climbing, cruising, gliding, landing, and wave-off by the fault-tolerant control based autopilot.

  16. Case Study: Test Results of a Tool and Method for In-Flight, Adaptive Control System Verification on a NASA F-15 Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed [3]. This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.

  17. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  18. Control and Non-Payload Communications Generation 1 Prototype Radio Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Young, Daniel P.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Walker, Steven H.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    regularity of flight. Only recently has radiofrequency (RF) spectrum been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union specifically for commercial UA C2, LOS communication (L-Band: 960 to 1164 MHz, and C-Band: 5030 to 5091 MHz). The safe and efficient integration of UA into the NAS requires the use of protected RF spectrum allocations and a new data communications system that is both secure and scalable to accommodate the potential growth of these new aircraft. Data communications for UA-referred to as control and non-payload communications (CNPC)-will be used to exchange information between a UA and a ground station (GS) to ensure safe, reliable, and effective UA flight operation. The focus of this effort is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UA integration into the NAS. Through a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with Rockwell Collins, Inc., the NASA Glenn Research Center is exploring and performing the necessary development steps to realize a prototype UA CNPC system. These activities include investigating signal waveforms and access techniques, developing representative CNPC radio hardware, and executing relevant testing and validation activities. There is no intent to manufacture the CNPC end product, rather the goals are to study, demonstrate, and validate a typical CNPC system that will allow safe and efficient communications within the L-Band and C-Band spectrum allocations. The system is addressing initial "seed" requirements from RTCA, Inc., Special Committee 203 (SC-203) and is on a path to Federal Aviation Administration certification. This report provides results from the flight testing campaign of the Rockwell Collins Generation 1 prototype radio, referred hereafter as the "radio." The radio sets operate within the 960- to 977-MHz frequency band with both air and ground radios using identical hardware. Flight tests involved one aircraft and one GS. Results include discussion of aircraft flight

  19. Effects of Inboard Horizontal Field of View Display Limitations on Pilot Path Control During Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.; Lavell, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    A flight test was conducted aboard Calspan's Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft by researchers within the External Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research program. The purpose was to investigate the effects of inboard horizontal field of view (FOV) display limitations on pilot path control and to learn about the TIFS capabilities and limitations for possible use in future XVS flight tests. The TIFS cockpit windows were masked to represent the front XVS display area and the High-Speed Civil Transport side windows, as viewed by the pilot. Masking limited the forward FOV to 40 deg. horizontal and 50 deg. vertical for the basic flight condition, With an increase of 10 deg. horizontal in the inboard direction for the increased FOV flight condition. Two right-hand approach tasks (base-downwind-final) with a left crosswind on final were performed by three pilots using visual flight rules at Niagara Falls Airport. Each of the two tasks had three replicates for both horizontal FOV conditions, resulting in twelve approaches per test subject. Limited objective data showed that an increase of inboard FOV had no effect (deficiences in objective data measurement capabilities were noted). However, subjective results showed that a 50 deg. FOV was preferred over the 40 deg. FOV.

  20. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN and C) Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  1. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a series of flight tests for the purpose of evaluating air-to-ground communications links for future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The primary objective of the test effort was to evaluate the transition of the aircraft communications from one ground station to the next, and to monitor data flow during the "hand-off" event. To facilitate the testing, ground stations were installed at locations in Cleveland, Ohio and Albany, Ohio that each provides line-of-sight radio communications with an overflying aircraft. This report describes results from the flight tests including flight parameters, received signal strength measurements, data latency times, and performance observations for the air-to-ground channel.

  2. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  3. Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Technology for Flight Test on the C-17 T-1 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Venti, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The C-I 7 T-l Globemaster III is an Air Force flight research vehicle located at Edwards Air Force Base. NASA Dryden and the C-17 System Program Office have entered into a Memorandum of Agreement to permit NASA the use of the C-I 7 T-I to conduct flight research on a mutually coordinated schedule. The C-17 Propulsion Control and Health Management (PCHM) Working Group was formed in order to foster discussion and coordinate planning amongst the various government agencies conducting PCHM research with a potential need for flight testing, and to communicate to the PCHM community the capabilities of the C-17 T-l aircraft to support such flight testing. This paper documents the output of this Working Group, including a summary of the candidate PCHM technologies identified and their associated benefits relative to NASA goals and objectives.

  4. Stability and Control. Volume 2. Stability and Control Flight Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    standby capable of reverting to manual revtrsible control. B.a AIRCRAFT FEIL SYSTEMS Aircraft feel was discussed at some length in section 9.1...pensate for unstable stick force gradients in the transonic speed region. MARTIN B-57E ^ v/1 The longitudinal control sys- tem is a reversible type

  5. Guidance and Control of an Autonomous Soaring Vehicle with Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A guidance and control method was developed to detect and exploit thermals for energy gain. Latency in energy rate estimation degraded performance. The concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology. Many UAVs have similar mission constraints to birds and sailplanes. a) Surveillance; b) Point to point flight with minimal energy; and c) Increased ground speed.

  6. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  7. AirSTAR: A UAV Platform for Flight Dynamics and Control System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Foster, John V.; Bailey, Roger M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program at Langley Research Center, a dynamically scaled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and associated ground based control system are being developed to investigate dynamics modeling and control of large transport vehicles in upset conditions. The UAV is a 5.5% (seven foot wingspan), twin turbine, generic transport aircraft with a sophisticated instrumentation and telemetry package. A ground based, real-time control system is located inside an operations vehicle for the research pilot and associated support personnel. The telemetry system supports over 70 channels of data plus video for the downlink and 30 channels for the control uplink. Data rates are in excess of 200 Hz. Dynamic scaling of the UAV, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuation, and control system scaling, is required so that the sub-scale vehicle will realistically simulate the flight characteristics of the full-scale aircraft. This testbed will be utilized to validate modeling methods, flight dynamics characteristics, and control system designs for large transport aircraft, with the end goal being the development of technologies to reduce the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control.

  8. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  9. Flight test results for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft control sensor analytic redundancy management technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the formulation and flight test results of an algorithm to detect and isolate the first failure of any one of twelve duplex control sensor signals being monitored. The technique uses like-signal differences for fault detection while relying upon analytic redundancy relationships among unlike quantities to isolate the faulty sensor. The fault isolation logic utilizes the modified sequential probability ratio test, which explicitly accommodates the inevitable irreducible low frequency errors present in the analytic redundancy residuals. In addition, the algorithm uses sensor output selftest, which takes advantage of the duplex sensor structure by immediately removing a highly erratic sensor from control calculations and analytic redundancy relationships while awaiting a definitive fault isolation decision via analytic redundancy. This study represents a proof of concept demonstration of a methodology that can be applied to duplex or higher flight control sensor configurations and, in addition, can monitor the health of one simplex signal per analytic redundancy relationship.

  10. Functional testing of space flight induced changes in tonic motor control by using limb-attached excitation and load devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, Eugen; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2007-02-01

    Long term space flights induce atrophy and contractile changes on postural muscles such effecting tonic motor control. Functional testing of tonic motor control structures is a challenge because of the difficulties to deliver appropriate test forces on crew members. In this paper we propose two approaches for functional testing by using limb attached loading devices. The first approach is based on a frequency and amplitude controllable moving magnet exciter to deliver sinusoidal test forces during limb postures. The responding limb deflection is recorded by an embedded accelerometer to obtain limb impedance. The second approach is based on elastic limb loading to evoke self-excited oscillations during arm extensions. Here the contraction force at the oscillation onset provides information about limb stiffness. The rationale for both testing approaches is based on Feldman's λ-model. An arm expander based on the second approach was probed in a 6-month MIR space flight. The results obtained from the load oscillations, confirmed that this device is well suited to capture space flight induced neuromuscular changes.

  11. Flight tests for the assessment of task performance and control activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausder, H. J.; Hummes, D.

    1982-01-01

    The tests were performed with the helicopters BO 105 and UH-1D. Closely connected with tactical demands the six test pilots' task was to minimize the time and the altitude over the obstacles. The data reduction yields statistical evaluation parameters describing the control activity of the pilots and the achieved task performance. The results are shown in form of evaluation diagrams. Additionally dolphin tests with varied control strategy were performed to get more insight into the influence of control techniques. From these test results recommendations can be derived to emphasize the direct force control and to reduce the collective to pitch crosscoupling for the dolphin.

  12. Flight test results for the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing Systems (DIALS): A modern control full-state feedback design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) is discussed. The DIALS is a modern control theory design performing all the maneuver modes associated with current autoland systems: localizer capture and track, glideslope capture and track, decrab, and flare. The DIALS is an integrated full-state feedback system which was designed using direct-digital methods. The DIALS uses standard aircraft sensors and the digital Microwave Landing System (MLS) signals as measurements. It consists of separately designed longitudinal and lateral channels although some cross-coupling variables are fed between channels for improved state estimates and trajectory commands. The DIALS was implemented within the 16-bit fixed-point flight computers of the ATOPS research aircraft, a small twin jet commercial transport outfitted with a second research cockpit and a fly-by-wire system. The DIALS became the first modern control theory design to be successfully flight tested on a commercial-type aircraft. Flight tests were conducted in late 1981 using a wide coverage MLS on Runway 22 at Wallops Flight Center. All the modes were exercised including the capture and track of steep glidescopes up to 5 degrees.

  13. HYFLEX (Hypersonic Flight Experiment). Results of flight testing (Navigation, guidance and control of HYFLEX vehicle and actual reentry flight trajectory); Gokuchoonsoku hiko jikken (HYFLEX) ni tsuite. Hiko kekka wo chushin ni (koho yudo seigyo to jitsuhiko keiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Takizawa, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Ishimoto, S.; Morito, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsujioka, M.; Shimura, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-05

    The HYFLEX vehicle is the first reentry testing vehicle with an airframe generating lift in Japan. Establishment of guidance and control technology is one of the purposes. For the design of flight trajectory, in order to satisfy the constraint of J-1 rocket during launching and the heat resistance performance of HYFLEX, the altitude 110 km and ground speed 3.9 km/s were determined as an apogee condition of the reentry trajectory. For the trajectory design on the ground surface, were considered the insurance of radar tracking and telemetry transfer from the Ogasawara Tracking Station and the load reduction for development cost and attitude control system. The navigation, guidance and control system is composed of an inertia sensor unit, an on-board computer, and an on-board software (OBS). The attitude is controlled by the elevon at the rear end of airframe and the gas jet. The design requirements include an accuracy of flight trajectory and a stable flight by attitude control. In response to these requirements, OBS was divided into function units, i.e., navigation, guidance, and control, which were individually designed. The flight experiments were conducted as scheduled. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Estimation of Stability & Control Derivatives from Flight Test Data of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Saraswathi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal stability and tontrol derivatives of a fightlfr aircraft are estimated by output error method for different types of input excitation. The uncertainties in the parameters are computed by cortfcting Cramer-Ra(j bounds using fudge factor. In general, the step input response data is not usedfor estimating the derivatives. Therefore, step response time history trajectories were cross-validated using tIle estimated derivatives for standard inputs like doublet and 3211. This proves that the model parameters are estimated with high confidence. By appropriately choosing the mathematical modeland using the corrected flight data for bias and scale factor errors by compatability check for parameter  estimation proves beyond doubt that such a procedure can be adopted for estimating stability and control derivatives of any aircraft.

  15. Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) will evaluate, for the first time in a space environment, the performance of a feedback-controlled variable conductance heat pipe and a heat pipe thermal diode. In addition, the temperature control aspects of a phase-change material (PCM) will be demonstrated. The methanol/stainless steel feedback-controlled heat pipe uses helium control gas that is stored in a wicked reservoir. This reservoir is electrically heated through a solid state controller that senses the temperature of the heat source directly. The ammonia/stainless steel diode heat pipe uses excess liquid to block heat transfer in the reverse direction. The PCM is octadecane. Design tradeoffs, fabrication problems, and performance during qualification and flight acceptance tests are discussed.

  16. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  17. Development and flight test of a multi-function controller for automated cruise flaps on an aircraft wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Craig Allen

    Cruise flaps are trailing-edge flaps which minimize the profile drag of a wing by moving the low-drag-region (or bucket) of a drag polar such that it spans the current coefficient of lift. Previous research has explored the use of a pressure-based technique for automating cruise flaps. Data obtained using this technique can be presented in a number of different formats, and different presentations of the same data tend to lead to the development of different types of automating controllers. The presentation used by previous researchers led to the development of a drag-minimizing controller that required a low-pass filter to prevent instability. This prevented the controller from being used for purposes which required a fast-acting flap. The presentation of pressure data used in this research led to the development of a multi-function controller that includes both slow-acting functionality (drag reduction) and fast-acting functionality (gust alleviation). The pressure-based technique developed by previous researchers using natural-laminar-flow (NLF) airfoils must be modified somewhat for the low Reynolds number SD7037 airfoil used in this research. Drag polars for low Reynolds number airfoils do not behave as predictably as those for NLF airfoils at much higher Reynolds numbers. A series of rigid-aircraft simulations were conducted to show the effectiveness of the multi-function controller, which was able to simultaneously reduce drag and alleviate the effects of vertical gusts. A flight controller was developed using low-cost microcontrollers and pressure transducers. The controller implemented a slow-acting drag-reduction function and a fast-acting function to handle pilot-commanded elevator inputs. Gust alleviation was not implemented due to limitations of the available hardware and flight test conditions. The controller was tested on an radio-controlled sailplane with a wingspan of 100 inches. Although direct measurement of the drag of an aircraft this size is

  18. L1 Adaptive Control Law for Flexible Space Launch Vehicle and Proposed Plan for Flight Test Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.

  19. Aviation Flight Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Test Center provides an expert workforce and technologically advanced test equipment to conduct the rigorous testing necessary for U.S. Army acquisition and...

  20. Low-Cost, Integrated Ground Test, Simulation, and Flight Control Development Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of Micro unmanned air vehicles (MAVs) and Mars...

  1. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  2. Assembly of an Experimental Quad-Rotor Type UAV for Testing a Novel Autonomous Flight Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Khatoon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research a prototype experimental Quad-rotor type UAV have been assembled using low cost components easily available in the Indian market. The quad-copter is used for testing a novel autonomous flight control strategy developed using embedded system. In order to enable a mini-UAV to perform target acquisition, localization and continuous surveillance in real world environment one must develop a technology which may be a combination of aircraft engineering, control systems, and wireless communication. The major limiting factors in developing the capabilities of small low cost UAVs are connectivity, computational processing power and lack of resource integration. To overcome these limitations in this research we have tried to assemble an experimental quad-rotor prototype UAV capable of being remotely controlled in the range of 20 meter, which is specifically designed as an economical, moderately functional, small airborne platform intended to meet the requirement for fast-response to time-critical events in many small private sectors or government agencies. The experimental prototype quad-copter has been successfully implemented and tested for 15 minutes smooth flight time.

  3. Flight Dynamics and Controls Discipline Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.

  4. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  5. Development Of Maneuvering Autopilot For Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes recent efforts to develop automatic control system operating under supervision of pilot and making airplane follow prescribed trajectories during flight tests. Report represents additional progress on this project. Gives background information on technology of control of test-flight trajectories; presents mathematical models of airframe, engine and command-augmentation system; focuses on mathematical modeling of maneuvers; addresses design of autopilots for maneuvers; discusses numerical simulation and evaluation of results of simulation of eight maneuvers under control of simulated autopilot; and presents summary and discussion of future work.

  6. Greased Lightning (GL-10) Flight Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; McSwain, Robert G.; Beaton, Brian F.; Klassman, David W.; Theodore, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    Greased Lightning (GL-10) is an aircraft configuration that combines the characteristics of a cruise efficient airplane with the ability to perform vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). This aircraft has been designed, fabricated and flight tested at the small unmanned aerial system (UAS) scale. This technical memorandum will document the procedures and findings of the flight test experiments. The GL-10 design utilized two key technologies to enable this unique aircraft design; namely, distributed electric propulsion (DEP) and inexpensive closed loop controllers. These technologies enabled the flight of this inherently unstable aircraft. Overall it has been determined thru flight test that a design that leverages these new technologies can yield a useful VTOL cruise efficient aircraft.

  7. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  8. Design and Flight Test of a Cable Angle Feedback Control System for Improving Helicopter Slung Load Operations at Low Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    11-13 May 2010. [21] Anon., Aeronautical design Standard, Handling Quality Requirements for Military Rotorcraft , ADS- 33E-PRF, U.S. Army Aviation...Dec 1989. [47] Cheng, R.P., Rotorcraft Flight Control Design Using Quantitative Feedback Theory and Dynamic Crossfeeds, Master’s Thesis, California...Cheung, K.K., Berger, T., Berrios, M., “Handling- Qualities Optimization and Trade-offs in Rotorcraft Flight Control Design ,” Proceedings of the RAeS

  9. Dynamic Flight Simulation of aircraft and its comparison to Flight tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays obtaining data for air vehicles researches and analyses is very expensive and risky through the flight tests. Therefore using flight simulation is usually used for the mentioned researches by aerospace science researchers. In this paper, dynamic flight simulation has been performed by airplane nonlinear equations modelling. In these equations, aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives have an important role. Therefore, the stability derivatives for typical aircraft are calculated on various flight conditions by analytical and numerical methods. Flight conditions include of Mach number, altitude, angle of attack, control surfaces and CG position variations. The obtained derivatives are used in the form of look up table for dynamic flight simulation and virtual flight. In order to validate the simulation results, the under investigation maneuvres parameters are recorded during many real flights. The obtained data from flight tests are compared with the outputs of flight simulations. The results indicate that less than 13% differences are found in different parts of the maneuvres.

  10. X-31A Tactical Utility Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin

    1997-01-01

    The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.

  11. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  12. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  13. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  14. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  15. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  16. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  17. NASA develops new digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This news release reports on the development and testing of a new integrated flight and propulsion automated control system that aerospace engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center have been working on. The system is being tested in the V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA).

  18. Pilot control through the TAFCOS automatic flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The set of flight control logic used in a recently completed flight test program to evaluate the total automatic flight control system (TAFCOS) with the controller operating in a fully automatic mode, was used to perform an unmanned simulation on an IBM 360 computer in which the TAFCOS concept was extended to provide a multilevel pilot interface. A pilot TAFCOS interface for direct pilot control by use of a velocity-control-wheel-steering mode was defined as well as a means for calling up conventional autopilot modes. It is concluded that the TAFCOS structure is easily adaptable to the addition of a pilot control through a stick-wheel-throttle control similar to conventional airplane controls. Conventional autopilot modes, such as airspeed-hold, altitude-hold, heading-hold, and flight path angle-hold, can also be included.

  19. NASA test flights with increased flight stress indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the objectives, results, and conclusions stemming from a series of six test flights conducted for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF). Results from the test flights indicate that: (1) the current two U.S. balloon films are capable of being flown at significantly increased flight stress index values; (2) payload weights less than the design minimum payload can be reliably flown without fear of structural failure due to increased circumferential stress; and (3) large and rapid decreases in payload weight can be tolerated by current balloons without structural failure.

  20. 14 CFR 21.35 - Flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight tests. 21.35 Section 21.35... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.35 Flight tests. (a) Each applicant for an aircraft type certificate (other than under §§ 21.24 through 21.29) must make the tests listed in paragraph...

  1. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  2. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  3. 热控涂层搭载飞行试验进展综述%Review of Thermal Control Coatings Flight Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 满广龙

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the development of thermal control coatings flight test,including Mir orbital stations,International Space Station,Space Shuttle,LDEF,etc.Based on the assessment of literature survey,the suggestions on thermal control coatings flight test are proposed.%文章对国内外航天器热控涂层在轨搭载飞行试验进行了调研,综述了利用和平号空间站、"国际空间站"、美国航天飞机、"长期暴露装置"等航天器进行的相关试验工作及主要的研究成果等。在此基础上提出了我国开展热控涂层搭载飞行试验的建议。

  4. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The multipurpose crew vehicle, Orion, is being designed and built for NASA to handle the rigors of crew launch, sustainment and return from scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. In this role, the Orion vehicle is meant to operate in the space environments like the naturally occurring meteoroid and the artificial orbital debris environments (MMOD) with successful atmospheric reentry at the conclusion of the flight. As a result, Orion's reentry module uses durable porous, ceramic tiles on almost thirty square meters of exposed surfaces to accomplish both of these functions. These durable, non-ablative surfaces maintain their surface profile through atmospheric reentry; thus, they preserve any surface imperfections that occur prior to atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, Orion's launch abort system includes a shroud that protects the thermal protection system while awaiting launch and during ascent. The combination of these design features and a careful pre-flight inspection to identify any manufacturing imperfections results in a high confidence that damage to the thermal protection system identified post-flight is due to the in-flight solid particle environments. These favorable design features of Orion along with the unique flight profile of the first exploration flight test of Orion (EFT-1) have yielded solid particle environment measurements that have never been obtained before this flight.

  5. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    system, the answer was by a comprehensive programme of simulation and rig testing. ix In the only paper in the programme deailing with systems for civil ...be used otherwise. At one time there was an explosive growth in the application of automatic flight control to civil transport aircraft, culminating in...nombre at l’ampleur des 6quipesenta de maintenance extgrieurs a lavion, 11 faut s’efforcer I ce qua 1. mayan privil~gif pareattant lea 6changss

  6. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  7. Assessing UAS Flight Testing and It's Importance for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control in Cooperation with Partnering Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    From the 1st of June until the 21st of August, the internship has been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Master of Space Studies at the International Space University. The main activities consisted of doing research on UAV flight-­-testing and the assessing of safety with respect to Beyond-­-Line-­-Of-­-Sight operations. Further activities consisted of accommodating international partners and potential partners at the NASA Ames site, in order to identify mutual interest and future collaboration. Besides those activities, the report describes the planning process of the ISU Space Coast Trip to 10 different space related companies on the west-­-coast of California. Key words: UAS, UAV, BLOS, Ames, ISU Trip

  8. Joint Detect and Avoid Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliska, Heather; Estrada, Ramon; Euteneuer, Eric; Gong, Chester; Arthur, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into a joint flight testing effort that included participation from NASA, Honeywell, and General Atomics. The presentation includes roles and responsibilities, test flow, and encounter requirements and summary.

  9. 737 Windshear Sensor Flight Tests, Orlando

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's Boeing 737 test aircraft on the ramp at Orlando International Airport following a day of flight tests evaluating the performance of radar, lidar, and infrared wind shear detection sensors

  10. An Overview of Flight Test Results for a Formation Flight Autopilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curtis E.; Ryan, Jack; Allen, Michael J.; Jacobson, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    The first flight test phase of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Autonomous Formation Flight project has successfully demonstrated precision autonomous station-keeping of an F/A-18 research airplane with a second F/A-18 airplane. Blended inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) measurements have been communicated across an air-to-air telemetry link and used to compute relative-position estimates. A precision research formation autopilot onboard the trailing airplane controls lateral and vertical spacing while the leading airplane operates under production autopilot control. Four research autopilot gain sets have been designed and flight-tested, and each exceeds the project design requirement of steady-state tracking accuracy within 1 standard deviation of 10 ft. Performance also has been demonstrated using single- and multiple-axis inputs such as step commands and frequency sweeps. This report briefly describes the experimental formation flight systems employed and discusses the navigation, guidance, and control algorithms that have been flight-tested. An overview of the flight test results of the formation autopilot during steady-state tracking and maneuvering flight is presented.

  11. French Flight Test Program LEA Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    reusable . French Flight Test Program LEA Status RTO-EN-AVT-185 17 - 5 Figure 4: CAD view of LEA vehicle. The test principle consists in...Figure 8: CLEA model under test at ONERA test facility. Some parametric studies related to forebody have been carried out in order to determine a...PROPULSION: ENGINE DESIGN – INTEGRATION AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT” is focused on the French flight experiment program called “LEA”. French R&T effort

  12. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  13. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  14. Robust Control Design for Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    to achieve desired performance over the full flight envelope when linear feedback is employed. Exact linearization methods [48] provide means for...designing nonlinear feedback laws which satisfy these requirements. However, exact linearization is not always compatible with control authority...specific situations. The most promising approaches appear to be those associated with methods of exact linearization . This procedure is based on some

  15. Flight Deck Interval Management Flight Test Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulder, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the avionics design, implementation, and evaluation activities conducted for the ATD-1 Avionics Phase 2. The flight test data collection and a subset of the analysis results are described. This report also documents lessons learned, conclusions, and recommendations to guide further development efforts.

  16. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  17. Successful test flight of an airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the Balloon Aircraft Research Center (BARC) of the Academy of Opto-electronics, CAS, succeeded in their first test flight of an aeroboat with a flight altitude up to 1,000 meters and an effective payload of 20 kilograms in Shandong on 25 December, 2007.

  18. Quadrocopter Control Design and Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwoski, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A limiting factor in control system design and analysis for spacecraft is the inability to physically test new algorithms quickly and cheaply. Test flights of space vehicles are costly and take much preparation. As such, EV41 recently acquired a small research quadrocopter that has the ability to be a test bed for new control systems. This project focused on learning how to operate, fly, and maintain the quadrocopter, as well as developing and testing protocols for its use. In parallel to this effort, developing a model in Simulink facilitated the design and analysis of simple control systems for the quadrocopter. Software provided by the manufacturer enabled testing of the Simulink control system on the vehicle.

  19. Digital Flight Control System Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Uperioust languages and formal progrmiag Logic (Such was the cae ina the formation of the Radio end design, hag resulted in the accelerated Technical...wee In defined , dM tin Osytm e all as wssLuete Ohe 0esig of these same- Isei to btop ues eM m defined . "UK""t fault coie am ep~es syste prior ft Mo... Softwre Cost etilstift, 131 Computer Society 17. ’Simulator Investigation Plan for Digital 1977, Pages 13-177. Flight Controls Validation Technology

  20. 直升机结构响应主动控制飞行试验%Flight test of active control of structure response for helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆洋; 顾仲权; 凌爱民; 李明强

    2012-01-01

    为验证结构响应主动控制方法在直升机振动控制中的有效性,以某轻型直升机为验证机,基于具有在线识别功能的时域自适应控制算法,进行了直升机结构响应主动控制飞行试验研究.给出了飞行试验方法、试验系统组成、试验内容及其过程.通过对飞行试验数据的处理分析,对减振效果进行了评估.试飞结果表明:ACSR (Active Control of Structure Response)系统对各测点的垂向振动均有减振效果,各速度状态下的全机垂向减振效率在30%~66%之间,巡航速度状态下具有最佳的减振效率;此外,各测点的侧向振动水平也有一定程度的减小.%In order to verify the validity for the method of active control of structural response (ACSR) in helicopter vibration reduction, the flight tests are carried out on a lighter helicopter based on the adaptive control algorithm with online identification in time domain. Details about the ACSR system composing and the scheme of the flight tests are brought forward. Then, summary and analysis of the flight test data are given. The results of flight tests show that when the ACSR system is working , the vertical vibration level of every evaluation points can be reduced. And the reduction efficiency of total helicopter is between 30% and 66% at different flight speeds; best efficiency can be acquired at cruise speed. At the same time, to some extent, vibration reduction in lateral direction can be observed as well.

  1. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  2. Technology research for digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  3. Drag Coefficients of Low Altitude Stationary Flight Test Airship Estimated from Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Takashi

    Flight tests were carried out to obtain aerodynamic characteristics of the low altitude stationary flight test airship. The deceleration test method was used in a flight experiment to obtain the drag coefficient. Combining with the deceleration test result, the minimum drag coefficient was acquired by equating a thrust force with the corresponding drag force at the steady level flight. As a result, 0.044±0.002 were obtained on the minimum drag coefficient of the airship. Modifications of the deceleration test data analysis are proposed to be applicable to test data obtained under non-zero attack angle etc. in the paper.

  4. Flight Test Hazard Planning Near the Speed of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Bart; Huete, Rod

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing flight test safety near the speed of light is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept; 2) Portal Content; 3) Activity to Date; 4) FTS Database Updatd FAA Program; 5) FAA Flight Test Risk Management; 6) CFR 14 Part 21.35 Current and proposed changes; 7) An Online Resource for Flight Test Safety Planning; 8) Data Gathering; 9) NTPS Role; 10) Example Maturation; 11) Many Varied Inputs; 12) Matured Stall Hazards; 13) Loss of Control Mitigations; 14) FAA Access; 15) NASA PBMA Website Link; 16) FAR Reference Search; 17) Record Field Search; 18) Keyword Search; and 19) Results of FAR Reference Search.

  5. Flight test results of an automatic support system on board a YF-12A airplane. [for jet engine inlet air control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An automatic support system concept that isolated faults in an existing nonavionics subsystem was flight tested up to a Mach number of 3. The adaptation of the automated support concept to an existing system (the jet engine automatic inlet control system) caused most of the problems one would expect to encounter in other applications. These problems and their solutions are discussed. Criteria for integrating automatic support into the initial design of new subsystems are included in the paper. Cost effectiveness resulted from both the low maintenance of the automated system and the man-hour saving resulting from the real time diagnosis of the monitored subsystem.

  6. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.

  7. Flight Testing an Iced Business Jet for Flight Simulation Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam; Cooper, Jon

    2007-01-01

    A flight test of a business jet aircraft with various ice accretions was performed to obtain data to validate flight simulation models developed through wind tunnel tests. Three types of ice accretions were tested: pre-activation roughness, runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal wing ice protection system, and a wing ice protection system failure shape. The high fidelity flight simulation models of this business jet aircraft were validated using a software tool called "Overdrive." Through comparisons of flight-extracted aerodynamic forces and moments to simulation-predicted forces and moments, the simulation models were successfully validated. Only minor adjustments in the simulation database were required to obtain adequate match, signifying the process used to develop the simulation models was successful. The simulation models were implemented in the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) to enable company pilots to evaluate flight characteristics of the simulation models. By and large, the pilots confirmed good similarities in the flight characteristics when compared to the real airplane. However, pilots noted pitch up tendencies at stall with the flaps extended that were not representative of the airplane and identified some differences in pilot forces. The elevator hinge moment model and implementation of the control forces on the ICEFTD were identified as a driver in the pitch ups and control force issues, and will be an area for future work.

  8. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Internal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin D.; Lam, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team is sending the rover, Curiosity, to Mars, and therefore is physically and technically complex. During my stay, I have assisted the MSL Flight Software (FSW) team in implementing functional test scripts to ensure that the FSW performs to the best of its abilities. There are a large number of FSW requirements that have been written up for implementation; however I have only been assigned a few sections of these requirements. There are many stages within testing; one of the early stages is FSW Internal Testing (FIT). The FIT team can accomplish this with simulation software and the MSL Test Automation Kit (MTAK). MTAK has the ability to integrate with the Software Simulation Equipment (SSE) and the Mission Processing and Control System (MPCS) software which makes it a powerful tool within the MSL FSW development process. The MSL team must ensure that the rover accomplishes all stages of the mission successfully. Due to the natural complexity of this project there is a strong emphasis on testing, as failure is not an option. The entire mission could be jeopardized if something is overlooked.

  10. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  11. Flight-Tested Prototype of BEAM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Wang, David

    2006-01-01

    Researchers at JPL have completed a software prototype of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multi-missions) and successfully tested its operation in flight onboard a NASA research aircraft. BEAM (see NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9; and Vol. 27, No. 3) is an ISHM (Integrated Systems Health Management) technology that automatically analyzes sensor data and classifies system behavior as either nominal or anomalous, and further characterizes anomalies according to strength, duration, and affected signals. BEAM (see figure) can be used to monitor a wide variety of physical systems and sensor types in real time. In this series of tests, BEAM monitored the engines of a Dryden Flight Research Center F-18 aircraft, and performed onboard, unattended analysis of 26 engine sensors from engine startup to shutdown. The BEAM algorithm can detect anomalies based solely on the sensor data, which includes but is not limited to sensor failure, performance degradation, incorrect operation such as unplanned engine shutdown or flameout in this example, and major system faults. BEAM was tested on an F-18 simulator, static engine tests, and 25 individual flights totaling approximately 60 hours of flight time. During these tests, BEAM successfully identified planned anomalies (in-flight shutdowns of one engine) as well as minor unplanned anomalies (e.g., transient oil- and fuel-pressure drops), with no false alarms or suspected false-negative results for the period tested. BEAM also detected previously unknown behavior in the F- 18 compressor section during several flights. This result, confirmed by direct analysis of the raw data, serves as a significant test of BEAM's capability.

  12. Redundant Flight-Critical Control System Evaluation: Analog and Digital Systems Failure Analyses and Preflight Test Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Supplementary Notes L mam m DOT/SST FCD task technical monitors: Messrs. Siu ’’ latt and M.H. Lowe (ARD-500). Abstract The U.S. SST prototype...technology was selected for the HSAS and ECSS hardware primarily because sufficient insight into state-of-the- art digital hardware failure modes and...of the very low confidence level (high risk) in the applicability of digital computers for flight-critical functions. The state of the art of

  13. The Propulsive-Only Flight Control Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blezad, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Attitude control of aircraft using only the throttles is investigated. The long time constants of both the engines and of the aircraft dynamics, together with the coupling between longitudinal and lateral aircraft modes make piloted flight with failed control surfaces hazardous, especially when attempting to land. This research documents the results of in-flight operation using simulated failed flight controls and ground simulations of piloted propulsive-only control to touchdown. Augmentation control laws to assist the pilot are described using both optimal control and classical feedback methods. Piloted simulation using augmentation shows that simple and effective augmented control can be achieved in a wide variety of failed configurations.

  14. Research in digital adaptive flight controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

  15. Flight Test Evaluation of the ATD-1 Interval Management Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Baxley, Brian T.; Roper, Roy D.; Abbott, Terence S.; Levitt, Ian; Scharl, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a concept designed to be used by air traffic controllers and flight crews to more efficiently and precisely manage inter-aircraft spacing. Both government and industry have been working together to develop the IM concept and standards for both ground automation and supporting avionics. NASA contracted with Boeing, Honeywell, and United Airlines to build and flight test an avionics prototype based on NASA's spacing algorithm and conduct a flight test. The flight test investigated four different types of IM operations over the course of nineteen days, and included en route, arrival, and final approach phases of flight. This paper examines the spacing accuracy achieved during the flight test and the rate of speed commands provided to the flight crew. Many of the time-based IM operations met or exceeded the operational design goals set out in the standards for the maintain operations and a subset of the achieve operations. Those operations which did not meet the goals were due to issues that are identified and will be further analyzed.

  16. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) takes off for first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The F-16XL #1 (NASA 849) takes off for the first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) on December 16, 1997. Like most first flight, the DFCS required months of preparations. During July 1997, crews worked on the engine, cockpit, canopy, seat, and instrumentation. By late August, the aircraft began combined systems tests and a flight readiness review. Although the Air Force Safety Review Board (AFSRB)- a group that provided double checks on all flight operations - approved the program in late November 1997, a problem with the aircraft flight computer delayed the functional check flight until mid-December.

  17. Cassini Attitude Control Flight Software: from Development to In-Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) Flight Software (FSW) has achieved its intended design goals by successfully guiding and controlling the Cassini-Huygens planetary mission to Saturn and its moons. This paper describes an overview of AACS FSW details from early design, development, implementation, and test to its fruition of operating and maintaining spacecraft control over an eleven year prime mission. Starting from phases of FSW development, topics expand to FSW development methodology, achievements utilizing in-flight autonomy, and summarize lessons learned during flight operations which can be useful to FSW in current and future spacecraft missions.

  18. Cassini Attitude Control Flight Software: from Development to In-Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) Flight Software (FSW) has achieved its intended design goals by successfully guiding and controlling the Cassini-Huygens planetary mission to Saturn and its moons. This paper describes an overview of AACS FSW details from early design, development, implementation, and test to its fruition of operating and maintaining spacecraft control over an eleven year prime mission. Starting from phases of FSW development, topics expand to FSW development methodology, achievements utilizing in-flight autonomy, and summarize lessons learned during flight operations which can be useful to FSW in current and future spacecraft missions.

  19. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the

  20. The Development of the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was created as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight vehicle is an early operational model of Ares, with specific emphasis on Ares I and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. Ares I-X will encompass the design and construction of an entire system that includes the Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) and associated operations. The FTV will be a test model based on the Ares I design. Select design features will be incorporated in the FTV design to emulate the operation of the CLV in order to meet the flight test objectives. The operations infrastructure and processes will be customized for Ares I-X, while still providing data to inform the developers of the launch processing system for Ares/Orion. The FTV is comprised of multiple elements and components that will be developed at different locations. The components will be delivered to the launch/assembly site, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), for assembly of the elements and components into an integrated, flight-ready, launch vehicle. The FTV will fly a prescribed trajectory in order to obtain the necessary data to meet the objectives. Ares I-X will not be commanded or controlled from the ground during flight, but the FTV will be equipped with telemetry systems, a data recording capability and a flight termination system (FTS). The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation representative of the CLV. The in-flight test also includes separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage and recovery of the First Stage. The data retrieved from the flight test will be analyzed

  1. Hypersonic Flight Test Windows for Technology Development Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    hypersonic vehicles requires the application of a significant amount of thermal protection or use of a hot structures concept, which can be a major cost...AFRL-RQ-WP-TM-2013-0260 HYPERSONIC FLIGHT TEST WINDOWS FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TESTING Barry M. Hellman Vehicle Technology Branch...DATES COVERED (From - To) November 2013 Final 01 November 2013 – 25 November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HYPERSONIC FLIGHT TEST WINDOWS FOR

  2. Ground and flight test experience with a triple redundant digital fly by wire control system. [installed in F-8C aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C. R.; Szalai, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    A triplex digital fly by wire flight control system was developed and installed in an F-8C aircraft to provide fail operative, full authority control. Hardware and software redundancy management techniques were designed to detect and identify failures in the system. Control functions typical of those projected for future actively controlled vehicles were implemented.

  3. CSI Flight Computer System and experimental test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Peri, F., Jr.; Schuler, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the CSI Computer System (CCS) and the experimental tests performed to validate its functionality. This system is comprised of two major components: the space flight qualified Excitation and Damping Subsystem (EDS) which performs controls calculations; and the Remote Interface Unit (RIU) which is used for data acquisition, transmission, and filtering. The flight-like RIU is the interface between the EDS and the sensors and actuators positioned on the particular structure under control. The EDS and RIU communicate over the MIL-STD-1553B, a space flight qualified bus. To test the CCS under realistic conditions, it was connected to the Phase-0 CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) at NASA Langley Research Center. The following schematic shows how the CCS is connected to the CEM. Various tests were performed which validated the ability of the system to perform control/structures experiments.

  4. Orlando 737 Windshear Sensor Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's 737 'flying laboratory' flight tested three advance warning windshear sensors. The laser beams seen in the photograph were used to align the optical hardware of the infrared (located in front of the windows) and LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) systems. In addition, a microwave doppler radar system is installed in the aircraft nose.

  5. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  6. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  7. The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

  8. Design, Manufacturing and Test of a High Lift Secondary Flight Control Surface with Shape Memory Alloy Post-Buckled Precompressed Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sinn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of morphing components on aerospace structures can greatly increase the versatility of an aircraft. This paper presents the design, manufacturing and testing of a new kind of adaptive airfoil with actuation through Shape Memory Alloys (SMA. The developed adaptive flap system makes use of a novel actuator that employs SMA wires in an antagonistic arrangement with a Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP mechanism. SMA actuators are usually used in an antagonistic arrangement or are arranged to move structural components with linearly varying resistance levels similar to springs. Unfortunately, most of this strain energy is spent doing work on the passive structure rather than performing the task at hand, like moving a flight control surface or resisting air loads. A solution is the use of Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP actuators that are arranged so that the active elements do not waste energy fighting passive structural stiffnesses. One major problem with PBP actuators is that the low tensile strength of the piezoelectric elements can often result in tensile failure of the actuator on the convex face. A solution to this problem is the use of SMA as actuator material due to their tolerance of tensile stresses. The power consumption to hold deflections is reduced by approximately 20% with the Post-Buckled Precompressed mechanism. Conventional SMAs are essentially non-starters for many classes of aircraft due to the requirement of holding the flight control surfaces in a given position for extremely long times to trim the vehicle. For the reason that PBP actuators balance out air and structural loads, the steady-state load on the SMAs is essentially negligible, when properly designed. Simulations and experiments showed that the SMAPBP actuator shows tip rotations on the order of 45°, which is nearly triple the levels achieved by piezoelectric PBP actuators. The developed SMAPBP actuator was integrated in a NACA0012 airfoil with a flexible skin

  9. Development and flight test of an experimental maneuver autopilot for a highly maneuverable aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Jones, Frank P.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the development of an experimental flight test maneuver autopilot (FTMAP) for a highly maneuverable aircraft. The essence of this technique is the application of an autopilot to provide precise control during required flight test maneuvers. This newly developed flight test technique is being applied at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. The FTMAP is designed to increase the quantity and quality of data obtained in test flight. The technique was developed and demonstrated on the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) vehicle. This report describes the HiMAT vehicle systems, maneuver requirements, FTMAP development process, and flight results.

  10. YF-16 flight flutter test procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignac, W. J.; Ness, H. B.; Johnson, M. K.; Smith, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Random Decrement technique (Randomdec) was incorporated in procedures for flight testing of the YF-16 lightweight fighter prototype. Damping values obtained substantiate the adequacy of the flutter margin of safety. To confirm the structural modes which were being excited, a spectral analysis of each channel was performed using the AFFTC time/data 1923/50 time series analyzer. Inflight test procedure included the careful monitoring of strip charts, three axis pulses, rolls, and pullups.

  11. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test: Simulation Predictions Versus Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation covers the pre-flight simulation predictions of the Orion Pad Abort 1. The pre-flight simulation predictions are compared to the Orion Pad Abort 1 flight test data. Finally the flight test data is compared to the updated simulation predictions, which show a ove rall improvement in the accuracy of the simulation predictions.

  12. Automated Flight Test and System Identification for Rotary Wing Small Aerial Platform using Frequency Responses Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an autopilot system that can be used to control the small scale rotorcraft during the flight test for linear-frequency-domain system identification. The input frequency swept is generated automatically as part of the autopilot control command. Therefore the bandwidth coverage and consistency of the frequency swept is guaranteed to produce high quality data for system identification. Beside that we can set the safety parameter during the flight test (maximum roll or pitch value, minimum altitude, etc) so the safety of the whole flight test is guaranteed. This autopilot for automated flight test will be tested using hardware in the loop simulator for hover flight condition.

  13. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  14. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  15. 基于动态仿真激励模型的飞控计算机测试系统设计%The design of the test verification system for flight control computer based on dynamic simulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞健飞; 钟季龙; 邵帅

    2016-01-01

    飞行控制计算机作为飞行控制系统的核心组成单元,其性能的好坏很大程度上决定了整个飞行控制系统的性能指标,并最终影响飞机飞行安全。针对全时全权数字电传系统结构和功能复杂的特点,以自动飞行控制计算机测试验证为目的,设计开发了一套面向自动飞行控制计算机性能测试的测试验证系统,包括信号表决、余度管理、控制律软件测试等功能。双余度飞控计算机有故障信号注入试验测试表明,本文设计的测试验证系统测试结果准确,可有效验证飞控计算机功能和性能,达到设计要求。%As the core composition of flight control system ,the performance of flight control computer decides the whole performance index of flight control system ,which ultimately affects the flight safety .As for the complicated structure and function of full‐time and full‐authority digital fly‐by‐wire flight control system ,this paper designs a set of test verification system for the automatic flight control computer function and performance test ,taking automatic flight control computer test as the purpose ,including the signal vote ,redundancy management and control law software testing and so on .Through the dual‐redundant flight control computer test ,the test verification system can effectively test the function and performance of flight control computer ,reaching the design requirement .

  16. Control Design and Performance Analysis for Autonomous Formation Flight Experimentss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Caleb Michael

    Autonomous Formation Flight is a key approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and managing traffic in future high density airspace. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) have made it possible for the physical demonstration and validation of autonomous formation flight concepts inexpensively and eliminates the flight risk to human pilots. This thesis discusses the design, implementation, and flight testing of three different formation flight control methods, Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID); Fuzzy Logic (FL); and NonLinear Dynamic Inversion (NLDI), and their respective performance behavior. Experimental results show achievable autonomous formation flight and performance quality with a pair of low-cost unmanned research fixed wing aircraft and also with a solo vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) quadrotor.

  17. A unified flight control methodology for a compound rotorcraft in fundamental and aerobatic maneuvering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Adam

    This study investigates a novel approach to flight control for a compound rotorcraft in a variety of maneuvers ranging from fundamental to aerobatic in nature. Fundamental maneuvers are a class of maneuvers with design significance that are useful for testing and tuning flight control systems along with uncovering control law deficiencies. Aerobatic maneuvers are a class of aggressive and complex maneuvers with more operational significance. The process culminating in a unified approach to flight control includes various control allocation studies for redundant controls in trim and maneuvering flight, an efficient methodology to simulate non-piloted maneuvers with varying degrees of complexity, and the setup of an unconventional control inceptor configuration along with the use of a flight simulator to gather pilot feedback in order to improve the unified control architecture. A flight path generation algorithm was developed to calculate control inceptor commands required for a rotorcraft in aerobatic maneuvers. This generalized algorithm was tailored to generate flight paths through optimization methods in order to satisfy target terminal position coordinates or to minimize the total time of a particular maneuver. Six aerobatic maneuvers were developed drawing inspiration from air combat maneuvers of fighter jet aircraft: Pitch-Back Turn (PBT), Combat Ascent Turn (CAT), Combat Descent Turn (CDT), Weaving Pull-up (WPU), Combat Break Turn (CBT), and Zoom and Boom (ZAB). These aerobatic maneuvers were simulated at moderate to high advance ratios while fundamental maneuvers of the compound including level accelerations/decelerations, climbs, descents, and turns were investigated across the entire flight envelope to evaluate controller performance. The unified control system was developed to allow controls to seamlessly transition between manual and automatic allocations while ensuring that the axis of control for a particular inceptor remained constant with flight

  18. Procedure for estimating stability and control parameters from flight test data by using maximum likelihood methods employing a real-time digital system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, R. D.; Bowles, R. L.; Mayhew, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    A maximum likelihood parameter estimation procedure and program were developed for the extraction of the stability and control derivatives of aircraft from flight test data. Nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom equations describing aircraft dynamics were used to derive sensitivity equations for quasilinearization. The maximum likelihood function with quasilinearization was used to derive the parameter change equations, the covariance matrices for the parameters and measurement noise, and the performance index function. The maximum likelihood estimator was mechanized into an iterative estimation procedure utilizing a real time digital computer and graphic display system. This program was developed for 8 measured state variables and 40 parameters. Test cases were conducted with simulated data for validation of the estimation procedure and program. The program was applied to a V/STOL tilt wing aircraft, a military fighter airplane, and a light single engine airplane. The particular nonlinear equations of motion, derivation of the sensitivity equations, addition of accelerations into the algorithm, operational features of the real time digital system, and test cases are described.

  19. Pathfinder on lakebed preparing for test flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Support crew prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for a research flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  20. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  1. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for prototype development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as...

  2. Engines-only flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W. (Inventor); Gilyard, Glenn B (Inventor); Conley, Joseph L. (Inventor); Stewart, James F. (Inventor); Fullerton, Charles G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A backup flight control system for controlling the flightpath of a multi-engine airplane using the main drive engines is introduced. The backup flight control system comprises an input device for generating a control command indicative of a desired flightpath, a feedback sensor for generating a feedback signal indicative of at least one of pitch rate, pitch attitude, roll rate and roll attitude, and a control device for changing the output power of at least one of the main drive engines on each side of the airplane in response to the control command and the feedback signal.

  3. Formation Flight Control System for In-Flight Sweet Spot Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodecki, M.; Subbarao, K.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    A formation flight control system has been designed that addresses the unique environment encountered by aircraft flying in formation and in the upwash of the leading aircraft. In order to test the control system a simulation environment has been created that adequately represents the aerodynamic co

  4. Formation Flight Control System for In-Flight Sweet Spot Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodecki, M.; Subbarao, K.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    A formation flight control system has been designed that addresses the unique environment encountered by aircraft flying in formation and in the upwash of the leading aircraft. In order to test the control system a simulation environment has been created that adequately represents the aerodynamic co

  5. Flight Controller Design of Transport Airdrop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; SHIZhongke

    2011-01-01

    During airdrop of heavy load,the flight paramctcrs vary continuously as the load moves in the hold,and change suddenly when the load drops out.This process deteriorates the flight quality and control characteristic as the load becomes heavier.Based on the simplified airdrop flight equations,the backstepping and switch control methods are developed to tackle the flight state holding and disturbance/uncertainty(such as large scale flight condition,pilot manipulation error,system measure delay,etc.)attenuation problem in this paper.Moreover,these methods can be used as a reference for pilot manipulating during airdrop.With the backstepping theory,an adaptive controller is synthesized for the purpose of stabilizing the transport when the load moves in the hold,and then a coordinated switch control method is used to control the aircraft when the condition jumps from the existence of load at the rear of fuselage to no load in the fuselage.Simulation results show that the proposed controllers not only provide effective state holding during airdrop,but also achieve robust performance within wide flight conditions.

  6. Compound control methodology for flight vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuanqing

    2013-01-01

    “Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles” focuses on new control methods for flight vehicles. In this monograph the concept of compound control is introduced. It is demonstrated that both Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) have their own advantages and limitations, i.e., chattering of SMC and the observability of extended state observer (ESO), respectively. It is shown that compound control combines their advantages and improves the performance of the closed-loop systems. The book is self-contained, providing sufficient mathematical foundations for understanding the contents of each chapter. It will be of significant interest to scientists and engineers engaged in the field of flight vehicle control.

  7. Wind Tunnel Tests Conducted to Develop an Icing Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program goals to reduce aviation accidents due to icing, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading a flight simulator development activity to improve pilot training for the adverse flying characteristics due to icing. Developing flight simulators that incorporate the aerodynamic effects of icing will provide a critical element in pilot training programs by giving pilots a pre-exposure of icing-related hazards, such as ice-contaminated roll upset or tailplane stall. Integrating these effects into training flight simulators will provide an accurate representation of scenarios to develop pilot skills in unusual attitudes and loss-of-control events that may result from airframe icing. In order to achieve a high level of fidelity in the flight simulation, a series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a 6.5-percent-scale Twin Otter aircraft model. These wind tunnel tests were conducted at the Wichita State University 7- by 10-ft wind tunnel and Bihrle Applied Research's Large Amplitude Multiple Purpose Facility in Neuburg, Germany. The Twin Otter model was tested without ice (baseline), and with two ice configurations: 1) Ice on the horizontal tail only; 2) Ice on the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. These wind tunnel tests resulted in data bases of aerodynamic forces and moments as functions of angle of attack; sideslip; control surface deflections; forced oscillations in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes; and various rotational speeds. A limited amount of wing and tail surface pressure data were also measured for comparison with data taken at Wichita State and with flight data. The data bases from these tests will be the foundation for a PC-based Icing Flight Simulator to be delivered to Glenn in fiscal year 2001.

  8. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  9. Merging Autopilot/Flight Control and Navigation-Flight Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Qutbodin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this abstract the following commercial aircraft 3 avionics systems will be merged together: (1 Autopilot Flight Director System (APFDS, (2 Flight Control System (FCS and (3 Flight Management Systems (FMS. Problem statement: These systems perform functions that are dependant and related to each other, also they consists of similar hardware components. Each of these systems consists of at least one computer, control panel and displays that place on view the selection and aircraft response. They receive several similar sensor inputs, or outputs of one system are fed as input to the other system. By combining the three systems, repeated and related functions are reduced. Since these systems perform related functions, designers and programmers verify that conflict between these systems is not present. Combining the three systems will eliminate such possibility. Also used space, weight, wires and connections are decreased, consequently electrical consumption is reduced. To keep redundancy, the new system can be made of multiple channels. Approach: The new system (called Autopilot Navigation Management System, APNMS is more efficient and resolves the above mention drawbacks. Results: The APFDS system functions (as attitude-hold or heading-hold are merged with the FCS system main function which is controlling flight control surfaces as well as other functions as flight protection, Turn coordination and flight stability augmentation. Also the Flight Management system functions (as flight planning, aircraft flight performance/engine thrust management are merged in the new system. All this is done through combining all 3 systems logic software’s. Conclusion/Recommendations: The new APNMS system can be installed and tested on prototype aircraft in order to verify its benefits and fruits to the aviation industry.

  10. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  11. Formation Flight Control for Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Microbiotics , Inc. The IMU data were recorded on a flight of a Cessna 172, and a representative time slice was reproduced for all of the simulations...nothing about. The final position relative Data Source: Flight Test MIDG II IMU Cessna 172 Microbiotics , Inc. 48 to the boom will obviously...Embedded PC ATH-400 Athena Diamond Systems, Inc GPS Receiver Card JNS100 OEM Javad Navigation Systems MEMS IMU MIDG II INS/GPS Microbiotics , Inc UHF

  12. 小型飞翼布局无人机控制律设计与试飞验证%Flight Control Law Design and Flight Test for Small Flying Wing Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雯; 张宁; 马蓉; 陈小龙; 张奕煊

    2015-01-01

    For a due to the cancellation of the vertical tail and horizontal tail result in decreased stability, especially unstable heading for flying-wing. We design the flight control law for the full process base on the scaled flying-wing aircraft. Taking certain type shrinkage ratio aircraft of flying-wing as the control object, analysis aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft longitudinal and lateral directional, and using eigenstructure assignment method, respectively, the longitudinal and lateral directional add stability design. The simulation results and actual test data show that, the control law can track a desired trajectory effectively, inhibit the gust disturbance, and has great practical significance.%针对无尾飞翼布局的无人机由于取消了水平尾翼和垂直尾翼,导致纵向、横航向的稳定下降,特别是横航向变为静不安定的问题,设计一种小型飞翼布局无人机全流程飞行控制律。以某型飞翼布局飞机的缩比飞机为控制对象,分析该飞机纵向与横航向的气动特性,采用特征结构配置方式,分别对纵向与横航向进行增稳设计。仿真与实际试飞结果表明:该控制律能够很好地跟踪期望的轨迹,并能有效地抑制侧风扰动,具有良好的工程应用价值。

  13. 14 CFR 21.37 - Flight test pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test pilot. 21.37 Section 21.37... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.37 Flight test pilot. Each applicant for a normal... holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests required by this part....

  14. A flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on a flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer. Information is given on aircraft/ground exchange, data link research activities, data link display format, a data link flight test, and the flight test setup.

  15. Structural Pain Compensating Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.

  16. Automation of Flight Software Regression Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) to be a heavy lift launch vehicle supporting human and scientific exploration beyond earth orbit. SLS will have a common core stage, an upper stage, and different permutations of boosters and fairings to perform various crewed or cargo missions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is writing the Flight Software (FSW) that will operate the SLS launch vehicle. The FSW is developed in an incremental manner based on "Agile" software techniques. As the FSW is incrementally developed, testing the functionality of the code needs to be performed continually to ensure that the integrity of the software is maintained. Manually testing the functionality on an ever-growing set of requirements and features is not an efficient solution and therefore needs to be done automatically to ensure testing is comprehensive. To support test automation, a framework for a regression test harness has been developed and used on SLS FSW. The test harness provides a modular design approach that can compile or read in the required information specified by the developer of the test. The modularity provides independence between groups of tests and the ability to add and remove tests without disturbing others. This provides the SLS FSW team a time saving feature that is essential to meeting SLS Program technical and programmatic requirements. During development of SLS FSW, this technique has proved to be a useful tool to ensure all requirements have been tested, and that desired functionality is maintained, as changes occur. It also provides a mechanism for developers to check functionality of the code that they have developed. With this system, automation of regression testing is accomplished through a scheduling tool and/or commit hooks. Key advantages of this test harness capability includes execution support for multiple independent test cases, the ability for developers to specify precisely what they are testing and how, the ability to add

  17. Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

  18. Optimization models for flight test scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Derreck

    with restriction removal is based on heuristic approaches to support the reality of flight test in both solution space and computational time. Exact methods for yielding an optimized solution will be discussed however they are not directly applicable to the flight test problem and therefore have not been included in the system.

  19. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration: Phase I Flight-Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small.

  20. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration, Phase I Flight-Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small

  1. Analysis of Flight Test Technique on Ground Minimum Control Speed for Civil Aircraft%民机地面最小操纵速度试飞分析及技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范祝斌

    2013-01-01

    According to the CCAR-25-R4 “Airworthiness Standards of Transport Category Airplanes” and FAA advisory AC25-7C“Flight Test Guide”, drawing on the flight test experiences of other planes, this paper analyses the flight test principle and impact factors of ground minimum control speed ( VMCG ) in theory, and discusses the flight test technique and the risk alleviated method of VMCG . It can provide guidance for the VMCG flight test of the civil airplane.%按照CCAR-25-R4《运输类飞机适航标准》要求,结合FAA咨询通告AC25-7 C《运输类飞机试飞指南》,总结其它机型的试飞经验,通过理论分析民机地面最小操纵速度( VMCG )试飞原理及影响因素,探讨了民机VMCG试飞的试飞方法及风险规避方法,可为民机的VMCG试飞提供参考。

  2. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  3. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G K

    2001-11-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

  4. F-8C digital CCV flight control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Hauge, J. A.; Hendrick, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A set of digital flight control laws were designed for the NASA F-8C digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The control laws emphasize Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) benefits. Specific pitch axis objectives were improved handling qualities, angle-of-attack limiting, gust alleviation, drag reduction in steady and maneuvering flight, and a capability to fly with reduced static stability. The lateral-directional design objectives were improved Dutch roll damping and turn coordination over a wide range in angle-of-attack. An overall program objective was to explore the use of modern control design methodilogy to achieve these specific CCV benefits. Tests for verifying system integrity, an experimental design for handling qualities evaluation, and recommended flight test investigations were specified.

  5. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  6. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  7. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  8. Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

  9. Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.

  10. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While modern ground-based flight simulators continue to improve in fidelity and effectiveness, there remains no substitute for flight test evaluations. In addition...

  11. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  12. Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    2000-06-01

    The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

  13. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  14. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan; Wang Lixin; Tan Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS) equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM) is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric tur-bulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness com-pliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ) rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  15. Flight Crew Survey Responses from the Interval Management (IM) Avionics Phase 2 Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Roper, Roy D.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Goess, Paul A.; Shay, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    The Interval Management (IM) Avionics Phase 2 flight test used three aircraft over a nineteen day period to operationally evaluate a prototype IM avionics. Quantitative data were collected on aircraft state data and IM spacing algorithm performance, and qualitative data were collected through end-of-scenario and end-of-day flight crew surveys. The majority of the IM operations met the performance goals established for spacing accuracy at the Achieve-by Point and the Planned Termination Point, however there were operations that did not meet goals for a variety of reasons. While the positive spacing accuracy results demonstrate the prototype IM avionics can contribute to the overall air traffic goal, critical issues were also identified that need to be addressed to enhance IM performance. The first category was those issues that impacted the conduct and results of the flight test, but are not part of the IM concept or procedures. These included the design of arrival and approach procedures was not ideal to support speed as the primary control mechanism, the ground-side of the Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) integrated concept of operations was not part of the flight test, and the high workload to manually enter the information required to conduct an IM operation. The second category was issues associated with the IM spacing algorithm or flight crew procedures. These issues include the high frequency of IM speed changes and reversals (accelerations), a mismatch between the deceleration rate used by the spacing algorithm and the actual aircraft performance, and some spacing error calculations were sensitive to normal operational variations in aircraft airspeed or altitude which triggered additional IM speed changes. Once the issues in these two categories are addressed, the future IM avionics should have considerable promise supporting the goals of improving system throughput and aircraft efficiency.

  16. Flight Control Design - Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    certains aspects théoriques. Vient d’abord un débat sur les critères de qualités de vol, en particulier sur les spécifications militaires...was designed such that a failure could not result in an unsafe recovery. The system is credited with saving the test aircraft during the evaluation of a...Recherche et développement - Estado Maior da Força Aérea AnalysisCommunications et gestion de SDFA - Centro de Documentação Institute of Military

  17. Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

  18. Learning control of a flight simulator stick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, W.J.R.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Vrielink, Koen H.J.; Wierda, G.J.; Borghuis, André

    1998-01-01

    Aimportant part of a flight simulator is its control loading system, which is the part that emulates the behaviour of an aircraft as experienced by the pilot through the stick. Such a system consists of a model of the aircraft that is to be simulated and a stick that is driven by an electric motor.

  19. Automated Flight Test and System Identification for Rotary Wing Small Aerial Platform Using Frequency Responses Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Widyawardana Adiprawita; Adang Suwandi Ahmad; Jaka Sembiring

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an autopilot system that can be used to control the small scale rotorcraft during the flight test for linear-frequency-domain system identification. The input frequency-sweep is generated automatically as part of the autopilot control command. Therefore the bandwidth coverage and consistency of the frequency-sweep are guaranteed to produce high quality data for system identification. Beside that, we can set the safety parameters during the flight test (maximum roll/pitch value, minimum altitude, etc.) so the safety of the whole flight test is guaranteed. This autopilot system is validated using hardware in the loop simulator for hover flight condition.

  20. Methods for conducting an introductory flight test engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Gentry

    This thesis serves as a guide to teaching an introductory flight test engineering course. There are several references pertaining to this area of study, but they are limited in their discussion of the details in how the professor can teach the course, how the professor can handle the logistics of the course, how the students can record and reduce the data and how the pilot can perform the flight test maneuvers. As such, this thesis, along with the materials developed therein, serves the reader as a guide to developing and conducting an introductory flight test engineering course. Materials were developed for the parties involved with an introductory flight test engineering course. Lesson plans and background theory is developed for the professor of the course. In-flight videos and flight maneuver manuals were developed to assist the pilot with flying the maneuvers. In-flight videos, a workbook and in-flight data collection manuals were developed to teach the students the basics of flight test engineering. A chapter is also dedicated to the logistics of the course for the professor. With these materials, any university interested in teaching the basics of flight test engineering will have a foundation to build upon. They will also be guided in the selection of a pilot who can perform the flight test maneuvers required of this course.

  1. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) with Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) in flight over desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An image of the F-16XL #1 during its functional flight check of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) on December 16, 1997. The mission was flown by NASA research pilot Dana Purifoy, and lasted 1 hour and 25 minutes. The tests included pilot familiarly, functional check, and handling qualities evaluation maneuvers to a speed of Mach 0.6 and 300 knots. Purifoy completed all the briefed data points with no problems, and reported that the DFCS handled as well, if not better than the analog computer system that it replaced.

  2. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  3. Asset Analysis and Operational Concepts for Separation Assurance Flight Testing at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.

  4. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  5. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to the...

  6. Flight simulation for flight control computer S/N 0104-1 (ASTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Flight control computer (FCC) 0104-I has been designated the prime unit for the SA-210 launch vehicle. The results of the final flight simulation for FCC S/N 0104-I are documented. These results verify satisfactory implementation of the design release and proper interfacing of the FCC with flight-type control sensor elements and simulated thrust vector control system.

  7. Flight Test Overview for UAS Integration in the NAS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.; Hayes, Peggy S.; Kim, Sam K.; Bridges, Wayne; Marston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a series of flight tests intended to support the reduction of barriers that prevent unmanned aircraft from flying without the required waivers from the Federal Aviation Administration. The most recent testing supported two separate test configurations. The first investigated the timing of Detect and Avoid (DAA) alerting thresholds using a radar-equipped unmanned vehicle and multiple live intruders flown at varying encounter geometries. The second configuration included a surrogate unmanned vehicle (flown from a ground control station, with a safety pilot on board) flying a mission in a virtual air traffic control airspace sector using research pilot displays and DAA advisories to maintain separation from live and virtual aircraft. The test was conducted over a seven-week span in the summer of 2015. The data from over 100 encounter sorties will be used to inform the RTCA Phase 1 Detect and Avoid and Command and Control Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS) intended to be completed by the summer of 2016. Follow-on flight-testing is planned for the spring of 2016 to capture remaining encounters and support validation of the MOPS.

  8. Air China conducts first biofuel test flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Air China became the first Chinese carrier to conduct a demonstration flight powered in part by biofuel, indicating the alternative energy's possible use in future commercial flights in China. The Beijing-based airline company, also China's flag carrier,

  9. Contamination Control and Evaluation for Manufacturing, Ground Tests, Flight Operation and Post-Retrieval Analyses of the TANPOPO Exposed Panels and Capture Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Uchihori, Yukio; Tabata, Makoto; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Imai, Eiichi

    The TANPOPO (“dandelion” in Japanese) is Japan’s first astrobiology space experiment to be exposed on and retrieved from the ISS-Kibo Exposed Facility from the 2014-5 timeframe. During its 1-3 years of continuous exposure operation in the low earth orbit (LEO) of the Earth, it aims to test key questions consisted of the “quasi-panspermia” hypothesis, a theory for exogenesis origin of life and their precursor transports among celestial bodies The TANPOPO experiment consists of following six sub-themes (ST): 1) the first intact capture of terrestrial microbial colonies in LEO, 2) survival test of terrestrial microbes long exposed in LEO, 3) alteration tests of artificially composed “astronomical organic analogs” long exposed in LEO, 4) intact capture of organic-bearing micrometeoroids with the lowest peak temperature ever in LEO, 5) space flight verification of the world’s lowest density aerogels for intact capture of microparticles, and 6) meteoroid and orbital debris flux assessment only capable to be measured in-situ in LEO. Each will utilize one or more Capture Panel(CP) and Exposure Panel (EP) samples from various pointing faces onboard the Kibo Exposed Facility, i.e., anti-Earth pointing face(Space), leading face (East) and anti-Pressurized Facility face (North), as the ISS is an Earth gravity gradient three-axis stabilized satellite. In order to both satisfy scientific values and planetary protection policy, contamination control and evaluation protocols are implemented for the whole process of manufacturing, ground tests, flight operation and post-retrieval initial analyses of both CPs and EPs. The CPs employ blocks of 0.01g/ccultra-low dense aerogels on its to intact capture impacting solid microparticles such as organic-bearing micrometeoroids, artificial orbital debris and possible terrestrial aerosols temporally reached to the LEO, for assessing the possibility of interplanetary transport of life and its precursors. By analyzing them

  10. Flight telerobotic servicer control from the Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Texas M.; Harlan, Don L.

    1989-01-01

    The research and work conducted on the development of a testbed for a display and control panel for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) are presented. Research was conducted on both software and hardware needed to control the FTS. A breadboard was constructed and placed into a mockup of the aft station of the Orbiter spacecraft. This breadboard concept was then evaluated using a computer graphics representation of the Tinman FTS. Extensive research was conducted on the software requirements and implementation. The hardware selected for the breadboard was 'flight like' and in some cases fit and function evaluated. The breadboard team studied some of the concepts without pursuing in depth their impact on the Orbiter or other missions. Assumptions are made concerning payload integration.

  11. Real-time flight test analysis and display techniques for the X-29A aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John W.; Petersen, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator flight envelope expansion program and the subsequent flight research phase gave impetus to the development of several innovative real-time analysis and display techniques. These new techniques produced significant improvements in flight test productivity, flight research capabilities, and flight safety. These techniques include real-time measurement and display of in-flight structural loads, dynamic structural mode frequency and damping, flight control system dynamic stability and control response, aeroperformance drag polars, and aircraft specific excess power. Several of these analysis techniques also provided for direct comparisons of flight-measured results with analytical predictions. The aeroperformance technique was made possible by the concurrent development of a new simplified in-flight net thrust computation method. To achieve these levels of on-line flight test analysis, integration of ground and airborne systems was required. The capability of NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility's Western Aeronautical Test Range was a key factor to enable implementation of these methods.

  12. Hermes flight control center: Definition status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letalle, Pierre

    1990-10-01

    The Hermes Flight Control Center (HFCC) located in Toulouse (France) is described. The center is the third in the world after the American center in Houston and the Soviet center in Kaliningrad. All the Hermes elements, both on board and on the ground will be coordinated by the HFCC for all phases of each mission. Aspects of the detailed definition phase still in the requirements analysis subphase are described. Diagrams are used to illustrate the interplay between the different systems.

  13. Post-Flight Analysis of GPSR Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John

    2016-01-01

    On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.

  14. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James

    1993-01-01

    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  15. Technology Research of Real Flight Test on Hinge Moment of Aircraft's Control Surface%飞机舵面铰链力矩飞行实测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何发东

    2011-01-01

    测量飞机舵面铰链力矩是飞行试验的一项重要任务.提出了通过测量传力关键件的载荷和利用传力关键件安装的空间位置来测量飞行中舵面铰链力矩的方法.以某型飞机为例,详细描述了如何利用该方法测量舵面铰链力矩的过程.这种方法对飞机舵面铰链力矩的飞行实测有重要的参考价值.%Measuring the hinge moment of aircraft's control surface is a important task for the flight test. Through the measurement of the force transmission key component'load and use of power transmission key-module installation space to measure the hinge moment of control surface in flighting method. To a certain type of aircraft, for example, the process in detail how to use the methods to measure hinge moment of control surface is described. This method of real flight test on hinge moment of aircraft's control surface has important reference value.

  16. Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several experiments in integrated flight-propulsion control. Benefits have included improved maneuverability; increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits. The F-111E experiment integrated the engine and inlet control systems. The YF-12C incorporated an integral control system involving the inlet, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and stability augmentation systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real-time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self-repairing flight control system; and an engines-only control concept for emergency control. The F-18A aircraft incorporated thrust vectoring integrated with the flight control system to provide enhanced maneuvering at high angles of attack. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits of each program are described.

  17. A three-axis flight simulator. [for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.

  18. Development of a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. This paper presents the development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft. A linear quadratic regulator approach is used to develop the control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements by treating the maneuver as a finite time tracking problem with regulation of state rates. Results are presented to show the effectiveness of the controller in insuring acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  19. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  20. ASDAR (aircraft to satellite data relay) flight test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, E. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Conroy, M. J.; Culp, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The aircraft to Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR), an airborne data collection system that gathers meteorological data from existing aircraft instrumentation and relays it to ground user via a geo-synchronous meteorological satellite, is described and the results of the first test flight on a commercial Boeing 747 aircraft are presented. The flight test was successful and verified system performance in the anticipated environment.

  1. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  2. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  3. Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test Sets and Networks Integration Management Office Testing for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

  4. Nonlinear region of attraction analysis for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by polynomial equation. And then the region of attraction estimation method based on V–s iteration is presented to complete the stability analysis. Finally, with the controller law, the closed-loop system stability is analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. SSI-ARC Flight Test 3 Data Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chester; Wu, Minghong G.

    2015-01-01

    The "Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration into the National Airspace System (NAS)" Project conducted flight test program, referred to as Flight Test 3, at Armstrong Flight Research Center from June - August 2015. Four flight test days were dedicated to the NASA Ames-developed Detect and Avoid (DAA) System referred to as Autoresolver. The encounter scenarios, which involved NASA's Ikhana UAS and a manned intruder aircraft, were designed to collect data on DAA system performance in real-world conditions and uncertainties with four different surveillance sensor systems. Resulting flight test data and analysis results will be used to evaluate the DAA system performance (e.g., trajectory prediction accuracy, threat detection) and to add fidelity to simulation models used to inform Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS) for integrating UAS into routine NAS operations.

  6. Airborne Turbulence Detection and Warning ACLAIM Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Bagley, Hal R.; Soreide, Dave C.; Bowdle, David A.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. Jack

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced Inflight Measurements (ACLAIM) is a NASA/Dryden-lead program to develop and demonstrate a 2 micrometers pulsed Doppler lidar for airborne look-ahead turbulence detection and warning. Advanced warning of approaching turbulence can significantly reduce injuries to passengers and crew aboard commercial airliners. The ACLAIM instrument is a key asset to the ongoing Turbulence component of NASA's Aviation Safety Program, aimed at reducing the accident rate aboard commercial airliners by a factor of five over the next ten years and by a factor of ten over the next twenty years. As well, the advanced turbulence warning capability can prevent "unstarts" in the inlet of supersonic aircraft engines by alerting the flight control computer which then adjusts the engine to operate in a less fuel efficient, and more turbulence tolerant, mode. Initial flight tests of the ACLAIM were completed in March and April of 1998. This paper and presentation gives results from these initial flights, with validated demonstration of Doppler lidar wind turbulence detection several kilometers ahead of the aircraft.

  7. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack

    . This project is thus concentrating on developing a method by which an entire, ecient, control system compensating for the disturbances from the space environment and thereby enabling precision formation flight can be realized. The space environment is initially studied and the knowledge gained is used...... to deduce the requirements for a propulsion system consituting the actuator part of a control system eliminating the disturbances from the space environment. Due to the minute magnitudes of the forces to be delivered, this type of propulsion has been denoted Micropropulsion. Initially a theoretical study...... of the disturbance forces and their influence on a precision controlled spacecraft, is used to deduce the requirements for a micropropulsion system compensating for these. Following this an LTCC based resistojet microthruster is developed and fabricated, utilizing water as fuel. Towards the end of the project...

  8. Experimental study on the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter: free flight testing and wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2012-09-01

    This study experimentally shows the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter using two different types of approach: (1) free flight testing, and (2) wind tunnel testing. An ornithopter is flown in straight and level flight with a fixed wingbeat frequency and tail elevation angle. A three-dimensional visual tracking system is applied to follow the retro-reflective markers on the ornithopter and record the flight trajectories. The unique oscillatory behavior of the body in the longitudinal plane is observed in the free flight testing and the detailed wing and tail deformations are also obtained. Based on the trim flight data, a specially devised tether device is designed and employed to emulate the free flight conditions in the wind tunnel. The tether device provides minimal mechanical interference and longitudinal flight dynamic characteristics similar to those of free flight. On introducing a pitching moment disturbance to the body, the oscillation recovered to the original trajectory turns out to be a stable limit-cycle oscillation (LCO). During the wind tunnel testing, the magnitude of LCO is effectively suppressed by active tail motion.

  9. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  10. Atmospheric Measurements for Flight Test at NASAs Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Information enclosed is to be shared with students of Atmospheric Sciences, Engineering and High School STEM programs. Information will show the relationship between atmospheric Sciences and aeronautical flight testing.

  11. Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.

  12. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  13. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  14. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  15. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  16. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  17. SLS Flight Software Testing: Using a Modified Agile Software Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Albanie T.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is an advanced launch vehicle for a new era of exploration beyond earth's orbit (BEO). The world's most powerful rocket, SLS, will launch crews of up to four astronauts in the agency's Orion spacecraft on missions to explore multiple deep-space destinations. Boeing is developing the SLS core stage, including the avionics that will control vehicle during flight. The core stage will be built at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA using state-of-the-art manufacturing equipment. At the same time, the rocket's avionics computer software is being developed here at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. At Marshall, the Flight and Ground Software division provides comprehensive engineering expertise for development of flight and ground software. Within that division, the Software Systems Engineering Branch's test and verification (T&V) team uses an agile test approach in testing and verification of software. The agile software test method opens the door for regular short sprint release cycles. The idea or basic premise behind the concept of agile software development and testing is that it is iterative and developed incrementally. Agile testing has an iterative development methodology where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between cross-functional teams. With testing and development done incrementally, this allows for increased features and enhanced value for releases. This value can be seen throughout the T&V team processes that are documented in various work instructions within the branch. The T&V team produces procedural test results at a higher rate, resolves issues found in software with designers at an earlier stage versus at a later release, and team members gain increased knowledge of the system architecture by interfacing with designers. SLS Flight Software teams want to continue uncovering better ways of developing software in an efficient and project beneficial manner

  18. Emergency Flight Control Using Computer-Controlled Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Stewart, James F.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Conley, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) systems are digital electronic control systems undergoing development to provide limited maneuvering ability through variations of individual engine thrusts in multiple-engine airplanes. Provide landing capability when control surfaces inoperable. Incorporated on existing and future airplanes that include digital engine controls, digital flight controls, and digital data buses, adding no weight for additional hardware to airplane. Possible to handle total failure of hydraulic system, depending on how surfaces respond to loss of hydraulic pressure, and broken control cables or linkages. Future airplanes incorporate data from Global Positioning System for guidance to any suitable emergency runway in world.

  19. Hunter standoff killer team (HSKT) ground and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Balinda; Ennis, Mark; Yeates, Robert; Condon, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    Warfighter's Associate (WA) which was integrated onto the Apache Longbow, and the Mobile Commanders Associate (MCA) which was integrated onto the Army Airborne Command and Control System (A2C2S) UH-60 Blackhawk. In this paper we will discuss what WA and MCA provided to the warfighter, and the results of the HSKT ground and flight testing.

  20. Overview of the X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, D.; Sakahara, R.; Kremer, S.

    1998-01-01

    On July 1, 1996, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration signed a Cooperative Agreement No. NCC8-115 with Lockheed Martin Skunk Works to develop and flight test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The development of an Extended Test Range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications from Edwards Air Force Base Ca. to landing at Malmstrom Air Force Base Montana, was required to flight test the mach 15 vehicle over 950 nautical miles. The cooperative agreement approach makes Lockheed Martin Skunk Works responsible for the X-33 program. When additional Government help was required, Lockheed "subcontracted" to NASA Field Centers for certain work. It was through this mechanism that Dryden Flight Research Center became responsible for the Extended Test Range. The Extended Test Range Requirements come from two main sources: 1) Range Safety and 2) Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. The range safety requirements were the most challenging to define and meet. The X-33 represents a vehicle that launches like a rocket, reenters the atmosphere and lands autonomously like an aircraft. Historically, rockets have been launched over the oceans to allow failed rockets to be destroyed using explosive devices. Such approaches had to be reconsidered for the X-33 flying over land. Numerous range requirements come from Lockheed Martin Skunk Works for interface definitions with the vehicle communication subsystems and the primary ground operations center, defined the Operations Control Center. Another area of considerable interest was the reentry plasma shield that causes "blackout" of the radio frequency signals, such as the range safety commands. Significant work was spent to analyze and model the blackout problem using a cooperative team of experts from across the country. The paper describes the Extended Test Range a, an unique Government/industry team of personnel and range assets was established to resolve design issues and

  1. Exploration Flight Test 1 Afterbody Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam; Lessard, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle included roughly 100 near surface thermocouples on the after body of the vehicle. The temperature traces at each of these instruments have been used to perform inverse environment reconstruction to determine the aerothermal environment experienced during re-entry of the vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the reconstructed environments and identifies critical aspects of the environment. These critical aspects include transition and reaction control system jet influence. A blind test of the process and reconstruction tool was also performed to build confidence in the reconstructed environments. Finally, an uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed to identify the impact of each of the uncertainties on the reconstructed environments.

  2. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern...

  3. Status of a digital integrated propulsion/flight control system for the YF-12 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reukauf, P. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Holzman, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center is engaged in a program with the YF-12 airplane to study the control of interactions between the airplane and the propulsion system. The existing analog air data computer, autothrottle, autopilot, and inlet control system are to be converted to digital systems by using a general purpose airborne computer and interface unit. First, the existing control laws will be programmed in the digital computer and flight tested. Then new control laws are to be derived from a dynamic propulsion model and a total force and moment aerodynamic model to integrate the systems. These control laws are to be verified in a real time simulation and flight tested.

  4. MEMS-Based Low-Cost Flight Control System for Small UAVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xu; ZHOU Zhaoying; XIONG Wei; GUO Qi

    2008-01-01

    Small unmanned air vehicles(UAVs)can be used for vanous kinds of surveillance and data collection missions.The UAV flight control system is the key to a successful mission.This paper describes a low-cost micro-electro mechanical system-based flight control system for small UAVs.The integrated hardware flight control system weighs only 24 g.The system includes a highly-integrated wireless transmission link,which is lighter than traditional links.The flight control provides altitude hold control and global positioning system navigation based on gain scheduling proportional-integral-derivative control.Flight tests to survey the grass quality of a large lawn show that the small UAV can fly autonomously according to a series of pre-arranged waypoints with a controlled altitude while the wireless video system transmits images of the surveillance target to a ground control station.

  5. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  6. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  7. Plasma Vehicle Charging Analysis for Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, B.; Norgard, J.

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the upcoming experimental test flight for the Orion crew module, considerable interest was raised over the possibility of exposure to elevated levels of plasma activity and vehicle charging both externally on surfaces and internally on dielectrics during the flight test orbital operations. Initial analysis using NASCAP-2K indicated very high levels of exposure, and this generated additional interest in refining/defining the plasma and spacecraft models used in the analysis. This refinement was pursued, resulting in the use of specific AE8 and AP8 models, rather than SCATHA models, as well as consideration of flight trajectory, time duration, and other parameters possibly affecting the levels of exposure and the magnitude of charge deposition. Analysis using these refined models strongly indicated that, for flight test operations, no special surface coatings were necessary for the Thermal Protection System (TPS), but would definitely be required for future GEO, trans-lunar, and extra-lunar missions.

  8. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  9. Building A Flight Control System For A Modelled Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, Paul William; Rushton, Andrew; Yilmaz, Esat

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. We modelled an aircraft based on the Airbus A320 and constructed a synthesisable flight control system. The novel feature was the use of C and VHDL, Very High Speed Inte-grated Circuit Design Language, to allow the flight control system to reside in a Field Pro-grammable Gate Array in a model aircraft or an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle. The simulator models axial, normal, transverse, pitch, roll and yaw movements. The flight control system has automatic manoeuvre envelope protection a...

  10. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  11. H/OZ: PFD and Collaborative Flight Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With aircraft automation increasingly able to control flight autonomously, situational awareness and engagement of the crew can suffer. To improve aviation safety...

  12. Thermal Testing Facilities and Efforts at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Andrew; Kostyk, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation provides the thermal testing panel discussion with an overview of the thermal test facilities at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) as well as highlights from the thermal test efforts of the past year. This presentation is a little more in-depth than the corresponding material in the center overview presentation.

  13. System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1995-01-01

    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

  14. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  15. Flight Control of the High Altitude Wind Power System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podgaets, A.R.; Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed loop Laddermill flight control problem is considered in this paper. Laddermill is a high altitude kites system for energy production. The kites have been simulated as rigid bodies and the cable as a thin elastic line. Euler angles and cable speed are controls. Flight control is written as a f

  16. Instrumentation and data acquisition electronics for free-flight drop model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraway, Preston I., III

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents instrumentation and data acquisition electronics techniques used in free-flight drop model testing at the NASA Langley Research Center. Free-flight drop model testing is a technique for conducting complex aircraft controls research using reduced scale models of experimental aircraft. An introduction to the Free-Flight Drop Model Program is presented first. This is followed by a description of the recently upgraded airborne and ground based instrumentation and data acquisition electronics. Lastly current and future development efforts and opportunities are discussed.

  17. Flight test results for several light, canard-configured airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip W.

    1987-01-01

    Brief flight evaluations of two different, light, composite constructed, canard and winglet configured airplanes were performed to assess their handling qualities; one airplane was a single engine, pusher design and the other a twin engine, push-pull configuration. An emphasis was placed on the slow speed/high angle of attack region for both airplanes and on the engine-out regime for the twin. Mission suitability assessment included cockpit and control layout, ground and airborne handling qualities, and turbulence response. Very limited performance data was taken. Stall/spin tests and the effects of laminar flow loss on performance and handling qualities were assessed on an extended range, single engine pusher design.

  18. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    limitations to operate at the angle of attack the vehicle was programmed to fly for the speed and altitude of the flight. Detailed analysis conducted by the...that could possibly support the hypersonic and space transit flight test TM requirements are InmarSat [34], Iridium [35], Orbcomm [36], ViaSat [37...global-xpress-us-government/ [35] Iridium Satellite network - https://gigaom.com/2012/08/27/how- iridium -took-a- chance-on-spacex-and-won/ [36

  19. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  20. The impact of remote manipulator structural dynamics on Shuttle on-orbit flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of the Space Shuttle on-orbit flight control system during payload operations with the remote manipulator system is described. The changing mass and inertia distribution associated with payload manipulation can have a significant effect on the control authority provided by the orbiter's reaction control jets. Commanded payload motion and jet firings can excite significant flexure in the orbiter/manipulator/payload structure. These effects combine to stress the control capabilities of the flight control system. Data from recent flight tests is presented to illustrate these effects.

  1. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2 surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range.

  2. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Li; Yue, Tian Xiang; Wilson, John P.; Wang, Ding Yi; Zhao, Na; Liu, Yu; Liu, Dong Dong; Du, Zheng Ping; Wang, Yi Fu; Lin, Chao; Zheng, Yu Quan; Guo, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR) reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range. PMID:27809272

  3. Rapid development of the X-31 simulation to support flight-testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale; Norlin, Kenneth; Cohen, Dorothea; Kellogg, Gary; Schilling, Lawrence; Sheen, John

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program has been recognized to form the International Test Organization, with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) as the responsible test organization. The two X-31 research aircraft and engineering support personnel were colocated at NASA-Dryden, with flight test operations beginning in Apr. 1992. Therefore, rapid development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation was needed to support the flight test operations at NASA-Dryden, and to perform verification and validation of flight control software. The X-31 simulation system requirements, distributed simulation system architecture, simulation components math models to the visual system, and the advanced capabilities the X-31 simulation provides. In addition, unique software tools and the methods used to rapidly develop this simulation system will be highlighted.

  4. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  5. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  6. Haptic-Multimodal Flight Control System Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly advancing capabilities of autonomous aircraft suggest a future where many of the responsibilities of today s pilot transition to the vehicle, transforming the pilot s job into something akin to driving a car or simply being a passenger. Notionally, this transition will reduce the specialized skills, training, and attention required of the human user while improving safety and performance. However, our experience with highly automated aircraft highlights many challenges to this transition including: lack of automation resilience; adverse human-automation interaction under stress; and the difficulty of developing certification standards and methods of compliance for complex systems performing critical functions traditionally performed by the pilot (e.g., sense and avoid vs. see and avoid). Recognizing these opportunities and realities, researchers at NASA Langley are developing a haptic-multimodal flight control (HFC) system concept that can serve as a bridge between today s state of the art aircraft that are highly automated but have little autonomy and can only be operated safely by highly trained experts (i.e., pilots) to a future in which non-experts (e.g., drivers) can safely and reliably use autonomous aircraft to perform a variety of missions. This paper reviews the motivation and theoretical basis of the HFC system, describes its current state of development, and presents results from two pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies. These preliminary studies suggest the HFC reshapes human-automation interaction in a way well-suited to revolutionary ease-of-use.

  7. A system look at electromechanical actuation for primary flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the emergence of the ALL Electric flight control system (FCS) or power-by-wire (PBW) concept. The concept of fly-by-power refers to the actuator using electrical rather than hydraulic power. The development of the primary flight control Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

  8. A system look at electromechanical actuation for primary flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the emergence of the ALL Electric flight control system (FCS) or power-by-wire (PBW) concept. The concept of fly-by-power refers to the actuator using electrical rather than hydraulic power. The development of the primary flight control Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

  9. Flight testing vehicles for verification and validation of hypersonics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Peter W.

    1995-03-01

    Hypersonics technology has obtained renewed interest since various concepts for future completely reusable Space Transportation Systems (STS) using airbreathing propulsion for the parts of atmospheric flight have been proposed in different countries (e.g. US, CIS, Japan, France, Germany, and UK). To cover major developments in those countries, AGARD FDP has formed the Working Group 18 on 'Hypersonic Experimental and Computational Capabilities - Improvement and Validation'. Of major importance for the proof of feasibility for all these concepts is the definition of an overall convincing philosophy for a 'hypersonics technology development and verification concept' using ground simulation facilities (both experimental and numerical) and flight testing vehicles. Flying at hypersonic Mach numbers using airbreathing propulsion requires highly sophisticated design tools to provide reliable prediction of thrust minus aerodynamic drag to accelerate the vehicle during ascent. Using these design tools, existing uncertainties have to be minimized by a carefully performed code validation process. To a large degree the database required for this validation cannot be obtained on ground. In addition thermal loads due to hypersonic flow have to be predicted accurately by aerothermodynamic flow codes to provide the inputs needed to decide on materials and structures. Heat management for hypersonic flight vehicles is one of the key-issues for any kind of successful flight demonstration. This paper identifies and discusses the role of flight testing during the verification and validation process of advanced hypersonic technology needed for flight in the atmosphere with hypersonic Mach numbers using airbreathing propulsion systems both for weapons and space transportation systems.

  10. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system. The... The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to...

  11. Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, the Six-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a real-time, six degree-of-freedom, short range motion base simulator originally designed to simulate the relative dynamics of two bodies in space mating together (i.e., docking or berthing). The SDTS has the capability to test full scale docking and berthing systems utilizing a two body dynamic docking simulation for docking operations and a Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) simulation for berthing operations. The SDTS can also be used for nonmating applications such as sensors and instruments evaluations requiring proximity or short range motion operations. The motion base is a hydraulic powered Stewart platform, capable of supporting a 3,500 lb payload with a positional accuracy of 0.03 inches. The SDTS is currently being used for the NASA Docking System testing and has been also used by other government agencies. The SDTS is also under consideration for use by commercial companies. Examples of tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility integrates a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or de-mating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is used for input during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents unique challenges, one particular area of interest involves the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. The measurement systems for the test facility have two separate functions. The first is to take static measurements of facility and test hardware to determine both the static and moving frames used in the simulation and control system. The test hardware must be measured after each configuration change to determine both sets of reference frames. The second function is to take dynamic

  12. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles

  13. A benchmark for fault tolerant flight control evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaili, H.; Breeman, J.; Lombaerts, T.; Stroosma, O.

    2013-12-01

    A large transport aircraft simulation benchmark (REconfigurable COntrol for Vehicle Emergency Return - RECOVER) has been developed within the GARTEUR (Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe) Flight Mechanics Action Group 16 (FM-AG(16)) on Fault Tolerant Control (2004 2008) for the integrated evaluation of fault detection and identification (FDI) and reconfigurable flight control strategies. The benchmark includes a suitable set of assessment criteria and failure cases, based on reconstructed accident scenarios, to assess the potential of new adaptive control strategies to improve aircraft survivability. The application of reconstruction and modeling techniques, based on accident flight data, has resulted in high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft and fault models to evaluate new Fault Tolerant Flight Control (FTFC) concepts and their real-time performance to accommodate in-flight failures.

  14. UAV Research, Operations, and Flight Test at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the projects that have extended NASA Dryden's capabilities in designing, testing, and using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Some of the UAV's have been for Science and experimental applications, some have been for flight research and demonstration purposes, and some have been small UAV's for other customers.

  15. Real-time open-loop frequency response analysis of flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, J. T.; West, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A technique has been developed to compare the open-loop frequency response of a flight test aircraft real time with linear analysis predictions. The result is direct feedback to the flight control systems engineer on the validity of predictions and adds confidence for proceeding with envelope expansion. Further, gain and phase margins can be tracked for trends in a manner similar to the techniques used by structural dynamics engineers in tracking structural modal damping.

  16. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument: Flight Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) Acceptance Thermal Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Charles; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Grob, Eric; Swanson, Ted; Nikitkin, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two loop heat pipes (LHPs) are to be used for tight thermal control of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, planned for flight in late 2001. The LHPs are charged with Propylene as a working fluid. One LHP will be used to transport 110 W from a laser to a radiator, the other will transport 160 W from electronic boxes to a separate radiator. The application includes a large amount of thermal mass in each LHP system and low initial startup powers. The initial design had some non-ideal flight design compromises, resulted in a less than ideal charge level for this design concept with a symmetrical secondary wick. This less than ideal charge was identified as the source of inadequate performance of the flight LHPs during the flight thermal vacuum test in October of 2000. We modified the compensation chamber design, re-built and charged the LHPs for a final LHP acceptance thermal vacuum test. This test performed March of 2001 was 100% successful. This is the last testing to be performed on the LHPs prior to instrument thermal vacuum test. This sensitivity to charge level was shown through varying the charge on a Development Model Loop Heat Pipe (DM LHP) and evaluating performance at various fill levels. At lower fills similar to the original charge in the flight units, the same poor performance was observed. When the flight units were re-designed and filled to the levels similar to the initial successful DM LHP test, the flight units also successfully fulfilled all requirements. This final flight Acceptance test assessed performance with respect to startup, low power operation, conductance, and control heater power, and steady state control. The results of the testing showed that both LHPs operated within specification. Startup on one of the LHPs was better than the other LHP because of the starter heater placement and a difference in evaporator design. These differences resulted in a variation in the achieved superheat prior to startup. The LHP with

  17. Flight Operations Noise Tests of Eight Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    DF -EPENr FLIL3HT ALTITUDES AT VARk10US FIrlE. CI OFTHE L I HE FILOT B LLOON WIND t4H1A, 1 4 .EN- F ER1OLIC"’L~ L)URIN& EACH TESI DtAY, INDLUDES...8217, HELICOPTER: AGUSTi i(,t TEST DATE: --󈧏/84 OFERAT ON : LEVEL FLYOVER (1000 FT. D 145 LY.S (LEFT SIDE) ,RI3HT cIDE ’ EVENT OK’ 1000 50’ 5C0’ 1000’ 2000

  18. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  19. Armstrong Flight Research Center Flight Test Capabilities and Opportunities for the Applications of Wireless Data Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.

  20. Testing of a Buran flight-model fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schautz, M.; Dudley, G.; Baron, F.; Popov, V.; Pospelov, B.

    A demonstration test program has been performed at European Space Research & Technology Center (ESTEC) on a flight-model Russian 'Photon' fuel cell. The tests, conducted at various power levels up to 23 kW, included current/voltage characteristics, transient behavior, autothermal startup, and impedance measurements. In addition, the product water and the purge gas were analyzed. All test goals were met and no electrochemical limitations were apparent.

  1. Use of Heritage Hardware on MPCV Exploration Flight Test One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, George Edward; Cross, Cynthia D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to an aggressive schedule for the first orbital test flight of an unmanned Orion capsule, known as Exploration Flight Test One (EFT1), combined with severe programmatic funding constraints, an effort was made to identify heritage hardware, i.e., already existing, flight-certified components from previous manned space programs, which might be available for use on EFT1. With the end of the Space Shuttle Program, no current means exists to launch Multi Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLMs) to the International Space Station (ISS), and so the inventory of many flight-certified Shuttle and MPLM components are available for other purposes. Two of these items are the Shuttle Ground Support Equipment Heat Exchanger (GSE Hx) and the MPLM cabin Positive Pressure Relief Assembly (PPRA). In preparation for the utilization of these components by the Orion Program, analyses and testing of the hardware were performed. The PPRA had to be analyzed to determine its susceptibility to pyrotechnic shock, and vibration testing had to be performed, since those environments are predicted to be significantly more severe during an Orion mission than those the hardware was originally designed to accommodate. The GSE Hx had to be tested for performance with the Orion thermal working fluids, which are different from those used by the Space Shuttle. This paper summarizes the certification of the use of heritage hardware for EFT1.

  2. Somatosensory substrates of flight control in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kara L; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A; Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne J; Moss, Cynthia F; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2015-05-12

    Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  3. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L. Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  4. The Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) Flight Test: A Propulsion Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  5. Incremental approximate dynamic programming for nonlinear flight control design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    A self-learning adaptive flight control design for non-linear systems allows reliable and effective operation of flight vehicles in a dynamic environment. Approximate dynamic programming (ADP) provides a model-free and computationally effective process for designing adaptive linear optimal

  6. Integrated assurance assessment of a reconfigurable digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, W. G.; Davis, R. M.; Benson, J. W.; Smith, M. K.; Eldredge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated application of reliability, failure effects and system simulator methods in establishing the airworthiness of a flight critical digital flight control system (DFCS) is demonstrated. The emphasis was on the mutual reinforcement of the methods in demonstrating the system safety.

  7. Recent developments in the remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2010-01-01

    The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  8. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Research dealt with the general area of optimal flight control synthesis for manned flight vehicles. The work was generic; no specific vehicle was the focus of study. However, the class of vehicles generally considered were those for which high authority, multivariable control systems might be considered, for the purpose of stabilization and the achievement of optimal handling characteristics. Within this scope, the topics of study included several optimal control synthesis techniques, control-theoretic modeling of the human operator in flight control tasks, and the development of possible handling qualities metrics and/or measures of merit. Basic contributions were made in all these topics, including human operator (pilot) models for multi-loop tasks, optimal output feedback flight control synthesis techniques; experimental validations of the methods developed, and fundamental modeling studies of the air-to-air tracking and flared landing tasks.

  9. Application of Nonlinear Systems Inverses to Automatic Flight Control Design: System Concepts and Flight Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L.

    1981-01-01

    A practical method for the design of automatic flight control systems for aircraft with complex characteristics and operational requirements, such as the powered lift STOL and V/STOL configurations, is presented. The method is effective for a large class of dynamic systems requiring multi-axis control which have highly coupled nonlinearities, redundant controls, and complex multidimensional operational envelopes. It exploits the concept of inverse dynamic systems, and an algorithm for the construction of inverse is given. A hierarchic structure for the total control logic with inverses is presented. The method is illustrated with an application to the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft equipped with a digital flight control system. Results of flight evaluation of the control concept on this aircraft are presented.

  10. Operational Overview for UAS Integration in the NAS Project Flight Test Series 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Steffi B.; Sternberg, Daniel; Marston, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project has conducted a series of flight tests intended to support the reduction of barriers that prevent unmanned aircraft from flying without the required waivers from the Federal Aviation Administration. The 2015 Flight Test Series 3, supported two separate test configurations. The first configuration investigated the timing of Detect and Avoid alerting thresholds using a radar equipped unmanned vehicle and multiple live intruders flown at varying encounter geometries. The second configuration included a surrogate unmanned vehicle (flown from a ground control station, with a safety pilot on board) flying a mission in a virtual air traffic control airspace sector using research pilot displays and Detect and Avoid advisories to maintain separation from live and virtual aircraft. The test was conducted over an eight-week span within the R-2508 Special Use Airspace. Over 200 encounters were flown for the first configuration, and although the second configuration was cancelled after three data collection flights, Flight Test 3 proved to be invaluable for the purposes of planning, managing, and execution of this type of integrated flight test.

  11. Implementation and Test of the Automatic Flight Dynamics Operations for Geostationary Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwook; Lee, Young-Ran; Hwang, Yoola; Javier Santiago Noguero Galilea

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA) system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS) and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.

  12. The 747 primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The major operational characteristics of the 747 Primary Flight Control Systems (PFCS) are described. Results of reliability analysis for separate control functions are presented. The analysis makes use of a NASA computer program which calculates reliability of redundant systems. Costs for maintaining the 747 PFCS in airline service are assessed. The reliabilities and cost will provide a baseline for use in trade studies of future flight control system design.

  13. GPS Based Autonomous Flight Control System for an Unmanned Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu G Nair,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned airship, also known as a Unmanned aircraft System (UAS or a remotely piloted aircraft is a machine which functions either by the remote control of a navigator or pilot. The unmanned airship uses the autonomous flight, navigation and guidance based on the telemetry command of ground station. The Autonomous Flight Control System (AFCS [1] plays a key role in achieving the given requirements and missions. This paper introduces the overall design architecture of the hardware and software of the flight control systems in a 50m long unmanned airship

  14. A Ground Control Station for the UAV Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Sławomir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper implementation of a ground control station for UAV flight simulator is shown. The ground control station software is in cooperation with flight simulator, displaying various aircraft flight parameters. The software is programmed in C++ language and utilizes the windows forms for implementing graphical content. One of the main aims of the design of the application was to simplify the interface, simultaneously maintaining the functionality and the eligibility. A mission can be planned and monitored using the implemented map control supported by waypoint list.

  15. The Certification of Environmental Chambers for Testing Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The JPL chamber certification process for ensuring that test chambers used to test flight hardware meet a minimum standard is critical to the safety of the hardware and personnel. Past history has demonstrated that this process is important due to the catastrophic incidents that could occur if the chamber is not set up correctly. Environmental testing is one of the last phases in the development of a subsystem, and it typically occurs just before integration of flight hardware into the fully assembled flight system. A seemingly insignificant -miscalculation or missed step can necessitate rebuilding or replacing a subsystem due to over-testing or damage from the test chamber. Conversely, under-testing might fail to detect weaknesses that might cause failure when the hardware is in service. This paper describes the process that identifies the many variables that comprise the testing scenario and screening of as built chambers, the training of qualified operators, and a general "what-to-look-for" in minimum standards.

  16. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  17. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  18. Stabilization control of a bumblebee in hovering and forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study shows that the hovering and forward flight of a bumblebee do not have inherent stabil-ity (passive stability). But the bumblebees are observed to fly stably. Stabilization control must have been applied. In this study, we investigate the longitudinal stabilization con-trol of the bumblebee. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that at all flight speeds consid-ered, although inherently unstable, the flight is controllable. By feedbacking the state variables, i.e. vertical and horizon-tal velocities, pitching rate and pitch angle (which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect), to produce changes in stroke angle and angle of attack of the wings, the flight can be stabilized, explaining why the bumblebees can fly stably even if they are passively unstable.

  19. Flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control for the digital electronic engine control system in an F100 engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, K. R.; Burcham, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    The backup control (BUC) features, the operation of the BUC system, the BUC control logic, and the BUC flight test results are described. The flight test results include: (1) transfers to the BUC at military and maximum power settings; (2) a military power acceleration showing comparisons bvetween flight and simulation for BUC and primary modes; (3) steady-state idle power showing idle compressor speeds at different flight conditions; and (4) idle-to-military power BUC transients showing where cpmpressor stalls occurred for different ramp rates and idle speeds. All the BUC transfers which occur during the DEEC flight program are initiated by the pilot. Automatic transfers to the BUC do not occur.

  20. Unique Aspects of Flight Testing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    High Altitude Endurance HCI Human Computer Interface INS Inertial Navigation System IR Infrared JITC Joint Interoperability Testing Command...highlighting some of the unique aspects of flight testing unmanned air vehicle systems. It is intended to provide a practical set of guidelines in support of...of unmanned aviation systems, it is especially important that even minor changes to the baseline code be carefully reviewed, and that regression

  1. A Proposed Ascent Abort Flight Test for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Starr, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center initiated the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Project to investigate alternate crew escape system concepts that eliminate the conventional launch escape tower by integrating the escape system into an aerodynamic fairing that fully encapsulates the crew capsule and smoothly integrates with the launch vehicle. This paper proposes an ascent abort flight test for an all-propulsive towerless escape system concept that is actively controlled and sized to accommodate the Orion Crew Module. The goal of the flight test is to demonstrate a high dynamic pressure escape and to characterize jet interaction effects during operation of the attitude control thrusters at transonic and supersonic conditions. The flight-test vehicle is delivered to the required test conditions by a booster configuration selected to meet cost, manufacturability, and operability objectives. Data return is augmented through judicious design of the boost trajectory, which is optimized to obtain data at a range of relevant points, rather than just a single flight condition. Secondary flight objectives are included after the escape to obtain aerodynamic damping data for the crew module and to perform a high-altitude contingency deployment of the drogue parachutes. Both 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation results are presented that establish concept feasibility, and a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment is performed to provide confidence that test objectives can be met.

  2. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Lin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS and the Flight Control System (FCS. The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A* algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM.

  3. Flight Test 4 Preliminary Results: NASA Ames SSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Doug; Gong, Chester; Reardon, Scott; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements as well as the safety substantiation and end-to-end assessment of DAA system performance. The Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration into the National Airspace System (NAS) Project conducted flight test program, referred to as Flight Test 4, at Armstrong Flight Research Center from April -June 2016. Part of the test flights were dedicated to the NASA Ames-developed Detect and Avoid (DAA) System referred to as JADEM (Java Architecture for DAA Extensibility and Modeling). The encounter scenarios, which involved NASA's Ikhana UAS and a manned intruder aircraft, were designed to collect data on DAA system performance in real-world conditions and uncertainties with four different surveillance sensor systems. Flight test 4 has four objectives: (1) validate DAA requirements in stressing cases that drive MOPS requirements, including: high-speed cooperative intruder, low-speed non-cooperative intruder, high vertical closure rate encounter, and Mode CS-only intruder (i.e. without ADS-B), (2) validate TCASDAA alerting and guidance interoperability concept in the presence of realistic sensor, tracking and navigational errors and in multiple-intruder encounters against both cooperative and non-cooperative intruders, (3) validate Well Clear Recovery guidance in the presence of realistic sensor, tracking and navigational errors, and (4) validate DAA alerting and guidance requirements in the presence of realistic sensor, tracking and navigational errors. The results will be

  4. Sliding Mode Control Applied to Reconfigurable Flight Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.; Wells, S. R.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sliding mode control is applied to the design of a flight control system capable of operating with limited bandwidth actuators and in the presence of significant damage to the airframe and/or control effector actuators. Although inherently robust, sliding mode control algorithms have been hampered by their sensitivity to the effects of parasitic unmodeled dynamics, such as those associated with actuators and structural modes. It is known that asymptotic observers can alleviate this sensitivity while still allowing the system to exhibit significant robustness. This approach is demonstrated. The selection of the sliding manifold as well as the interpretation of the linear design that results after introduction of a boundary layer is accomplished in the frequency domain. The design technique is exercised on a pitch-axis controller for a simple short-period model of the High Angle of Attack F-18 vehicle via computer simulation. Stability and performance is compared to that of a system incorporating a controller designed by classical loop-shaping techniques.

  5. Test Control Center exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  6. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  7. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a maintainable and evolvable real-time control software system for Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). EMFF systems use...

  8. Reduction of Flight Control System/Structural Mode Interaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel approach is proposed for reducing the degree of interaction of a high gain flight control system with the airframe structural vibration modes, representing a...

  9. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  10. X-33 Attitude Control System Design for Ascent, Transition, and Entry Flight Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles E.; Gallaher, Michael W.; Hendrix, Neal D.

    1998-01-01

    The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control system for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Ascent flight control begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (NECO) while Transition and Entry flight control begins at MECO and concludes at the terminal area energy management (TAEM) interface. TAEM occurs at approximately Mach 3.0. This task includes not only the design of the vehicle attitude control systems but also the development of requirements for attitude control system components and subsystems. The X-33 attitude control system design is challenged by a short design cycle, the design environment (Mach 0 to about Mach 15), and the X-33 incremental test philosophy. The X-33 design-to-launch cycle of less than 3 years requires a concurrent design approach while the test philosophy requires design adaptation to vehicle variations that are a function of Mach number and mission profile. The flight attitude control system must deal with the mixing of aerosurfaces, reaction control thrusters, and linear aerospike engine control effectors and handle parasitic effects such as vehicle flexibility and propellant sloshing from the uniquely shaped propellant tanks. The attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems.

  11. Platform Precision Autopilot Overview and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, V.; Strovers, B.; Lee, J.; Beck, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Platform Precision Autopilot is an instrument landing system interfaced autopilot system, developed to enable an aircraft to repeatedly fly nearly the same trajectory hours, days, or weeks later. The Platform Precision Autopilot uses a novel design to interface with a NASA Gulfstream III jet by imitating the output of an instrument landing system approach. This technique minimizes, as much as possible, modifications to the baseline Gulfstream III jet and retains the safety features of the aircraft autopilot. The Platform Precision Autopilot requirement is to fly within a 5-m (16.4-ft) radius tube for distances to 200 km (108 nmi) in the presence of light turbulence for at least 90 percent of the time. This capability allows precise repeat-pass interferometry for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar program, whose primary objective is to develop a miniaturized, polarimetric, L-band synthetic aperture radar. Precise navigation is achieved using an accurate differential global positioning system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Flight-testing has demonstrated the ability of the Platform Precision Autopilot to control the aircraft within the specified tolerance greater than 90 percent of the time in the presence of aircraft system noise and nonlinearities, constant pilot throttle adjustments, and light turbulence.

  12. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  13. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua, E-mail: zhonghua-miao@163.com; Wang, Xiaohua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Wang, Xuyong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  14. An alternative flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flight control system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Agneta M.; Ştefan BALINT

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we build up a flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flightcontrol system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity. This task isaccomplished using only the system of differential equations, which governs the movement of theaircraft around its center of mass. Numerical simulation is given.

  15. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    Hummingbirds are nature's masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring. We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species (magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g, and blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) and two smaller species (broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris, 3.4 g, and black-chinned hummingbirds Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g). Starting from a steady hover, hummingbirds consistently manoeuvred away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid and significant alteration of the magnitude and direction of aerodynamic forces. Thus it appears that the flight control of hummingbirds does not obey the 'helicopter model' that is valid for similar escape manoeuvres in fruit flies. Except for broad-billed hummingbirds, the hummingbirds had faster reaction times than those reported for visual feedback control in insects. The two larger hummingbird species performed pitch rotations and global-yaw turns with considerably larger magnitude than the smaller species, but roll rates and cumulative roll angles were similar among the four species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Post-Flight Assessment of Avcoat Thermal Protection System for the Exploration Flight Test-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; Santos, Jose; Rodriguez, Erika; Mahzari, Milad; Remark, Brian; Muppidi, Suman

    2016-01-01

    On December 5, 2014 NASA conducted the first flight test of its next generation human-class Orion spacecraft. The flight was called the Exploration Flight Test -1 (EFT-1) which lasted for 4 hours and culminated into a re-entry trajectory at 9 km/s. This flight test of the 5-meter Orion Crew Module demonstrated various sub-systems including the Avcoat ablative thermal protection system (TPS) on the heat shield. The Avcoat TPS had been developed from the Apollo-era recipe with a few key modifications. The engineering for thermal sizing was supported by modeling, analysis, and ground tests in arc jet facilities. This paper will describe a postlfight analysis plan and present results from post-recovery inspections, data analysis from embedded sensors, TPS sample extraction and characterization in the laboratory. After the recovery of the vehicle, a full photographic survey and surface scans of the TPS were performed. The recovered vehicle showed physical evidence of flow disturbances, varying degrees of surface roughness, and excessive recession downstream of compression pads. The TPS recession was measured at more than 200 locations of interest on the Avcoat surface. The heat shield was then processed for sample extraction prior to TPS removal using the 7-Axis Milling machine at Marshall Space Flight Center. Around 182 rectangular TPS samples were extracted for subsequent analysis and investigation. The final paper will also present results of sample analysis. The planned investigation includes sidewall imaging, followed by image analysis to characterize TPS response by quantifying different layers in the char and pyrolysis zones. A full postmortem of the instrumentation and sensor ports will also be performed to confirm no adverse effects due to the sensors themselves. A subset of the samples will undergo structural testing and perform detailed characterization of any cracks and integrity of gore seams. Finally, the material will be characterized with layer

  17. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  18. APALS program status: preproduction flight test results and production implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvizd, James J.; Dieffenbach, Otto W.

    1996-05-01

    The APALS system is a precision approach and landing system designed to enable low visibility landings at many more airports than now possible. Engineering development of the APALS system began October 1992 culminating in the pre- production Advanced Development Model (ADM) system currently undergoing flight testing. The paper focuses on the Cat III accuracy and integrity requirements defined by ICAO, Annex 10 and the required navigation performance (RNP) tunnel concept. The resulting ADM architecture developed to meet them is described. The primary measurement is made with the aircraft's weather radar and provides range and range rate information to the ADM necessary to update the precision navigation state vector. The system uses stored terrain map data as references for map matching with synthetic aperture radar with synthetic aperture radar maps. A description of the pre-production flight test program is included. Testing is being conducted at six different airports around the country demonstrating system performance in various environmental conditions (precipitation, heavy foliage, sparse terrain, over water and turbulence). ADM flight test results of 131 successful CAT II hand-flown approaches at ALbuquerque, NM and Richmond, VA are presented. Detailed statistical analysis of these results indicate that the APALS system meets the RNP for Cat III.

  19. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  20. Flight Test Techniques for Quantifying Pitch Rate and Angle of Attack Rate Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murri, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    Three different types of maneuvers were designed to separately quantify pitch rate and angle of attack rate contributions to the nondimensional aerodynamic pitching moment coefficient. These maneuvers combined pilot inputs and automatic multisine excitations, and were own with the subscale T-2 and Bat-4 airplanes using the NASA AirSTAR flight test facility. Stability and control derivatives, in particular C(sub mq) and C(sub m alpha(.)) were accurately estimated from the flight test data. These maneuvers can be performed with many types of aircraft, and the results can be used to increase simulation prediction fidelity and facilitate more accurate comparisons with wind tunnel experiments or numerical investigations.

  1. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  2. Flight Testing Surfaces Engineered for Mitigating Insect Adhesion on a Falcon HU-25C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Michelle; Wohl, Chris J.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Penner, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Insect residue contamination on aircraft wings can decrease fuel efficiency in aircraft designed for natural laminar flow. Insect residues can cause a premature transition to turbulent flow, increasing fuel burn and making the aircraft less environmentally friendly. Surfaces, designed to minimize insect residue adhesion, were evaluated through flight testing on a Falcon HU-25C aircraft flown along the coast of Virginia and North Carolina. The surfaces were affixed to the wing leading edge and the aircraft remained at altitudes lower than 1000 feet throughout the flight to assure high insect density. The number of strikes on the engineered surfaces was compared to, and found to be lower than, untreated aluminum control surfaces flown concurrently. Optical profilometry was used to determine insect residue height and areal coverage. Differences in results between flight and laboratory tests suggest the importance of testing in realistic use environments to evaluate the effectiveness of engineered surface designs.

  3. Unfalsified Control; Application to automatic flight control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Mihail STOICA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfalsified Control Theory has been developed to provide a way for avoiding modeling uncertainties in controller design. It belongs to the class of control methods called Adaptive Supervisory Switching Control, which work by introducing in the control scheme a supervisory unit which chooses, from a set of candidate controllers the one most suited for the current plant. Unfalsified Control works by using a switching logic that dispenses with the need for a-priori knowledge of the dynamic model. At discrete moments of time, using the input/output data recorded up to that point, the supervisory calculates for each candidate controller a performance index, and compares it to a given threshold. Controllers surpassing that threshold are removed from the candidate controller set. This process is called falsification. If the controller in the loop is one such falsified controller it is replaced. In this paper we investigate the suitability of this method for aeronautical control applications. We review the theory behind this control scheme and adapt it to the case of controlling a fighter aircraft. We also provide a case study, where we test this control scheme on a simulated fighter aircraft.

  4. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them.

  5. Test Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the test observation periscope in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., visitors can observe a test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine exactly as test engineers might see it during a real engine test. The Test Control Center exhibit exactly simulates not only the test control environment, but also the procedure of testing a rocket engine. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative dispays and exhibits from NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion and remote sensing applications. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  6. Age and expertise effects in aviation decision making and flight control in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy L; Reade, Gordon; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2010-05-01

    Age (due to declines in cognitive abilities necessary for navigation) and level of aviation expertise are two factors that may affect aviation performance and decision making under adverse weather conditions. We examined the roles of age, expertise, and their relationship on aviation decision making and flight control performance during a flight simulator task. Seventy-two IFR-rated general aviators, aged 19-79 yr, made multiple approach, holding pattern entry, and landing decisions while navigating under Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions. Over three trials in which the fog level varied, subjects decided whether or not to land the aircraft. They also completed two holding pattern entries. Subjects' flight control during approaches and holding patterns was measured. Older pilots (41+ yr) were more likely than younger pilots to land when visibility was inadequate (older pilots' mean false alarm rate: 0.44 vs 0.25). They also showed less precise flight control for components of the approach, performing 0.16 SD below mean approach scores. Expertise attenuated an age-related decline in flight control during holding patterns: older IFR/CFI performed 0.73 SD below mean score; younger IFR/CFI, younger CFII/ATP, older CFII/ATP: 0.32, 0.26, 0.03 SD above mean score. Additionally, pilots with faster processing speed (by median split) had a higher mean landing decision false alarm rate (0.42 vs 0.28), yet performed 0.14 SD above the mean approach control score. Results have implications regarding specialized training for older pilots and for understanding processes involved in older adults' real world decision making and performance.

  7. Nonlinear and fault-tolerant flight control using multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on fault tolerant flight control of a high performance aircraft using multivariate splines. The controller is implemented by making use of spline model based adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). This method, indicated as SANDI, combines NDI control with nonlinear

  8. Nonlinear and fault-tolerant flight control using multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on fault tolerant flight control of a high performance aircraft using multivariate splines. The controller is implemented by making use of spline model based adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). This method, indicated as SANDI, combines NDI control with nonlinear c

  9. DYNAMICAL VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL OF A HELICOPTER IN VERTICAL FLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt; Zribi, Mohamed; Ahmad, Shaheen

    1991-01-01

    In this article, a dynamical multivariable discontinuous feedback control strategy of the sliding nlode type is proposed for the altitude stabilization of a nonlinear helicopter model in vertical flight. Vlrhile retaining the basic robustness features associated to sliding mode control policies, the proposed approach also results in smoothed out (i.e., non-chattering) input trajectories and controlled state variable responses.

  10. Reconfigurable Flight Control Design for Combat Flying Wing with Multiple Control Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; WANG Lixin

    2012-01-01

    With control using redundant multiple control surface arrangement and large-deflection drag rudders,a combat flying wing has a higher probability for control surface failures.Therefore,its flight control system must be able to reconfigure after such failures.Considering three types of typical control surface failures (lock-in-place (LIP),loss-of-effectiveness (LOE) and float),flight control reconfiguration characteristic and capability of such aircraft types are analyzed.Because of the control surface redundancy,the aircraft using the dynamic inversion flight control law already has a control allocation block.In this paper,its flight control configuration during the above failures is achieved by modifying this block.It is shown that such a reconfigurable flight control design is valid,through numerical simulations of flight attitude control task.Results indicate that,in the circumstances of control surface failures with limited degree and the degradation of the flying quality level,a combat flying wing adopting this flight control reconfiguration approach based on control allocation could guarantee its flight safety and perform some flight combat missions.

  11. Technical Evaluation Report on the Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium on Ground/Flight Test Techniques and Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    preferably at the flight test- centre itself and with some on-line output at least for continual programme control and guid, nc. For advanced data analysis...R.A. Wood 9 (AFFTC, US), 1). Jacob 5 (ncrnieroE) F. Mavriplis" (Canadair), J. Czincenheim (MDBA, FR), C. Bore (B.Ae., IK), and E. Obert (Fokker, NE...variation in vehicle centre -of-gravity position. Mutual interference effects between wing-fuselage-nacelle combinations, under both low-speed and hieh

  12. Recent Developments in the Remote Radio Control of Insect Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka eSato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  13. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  14. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  15. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  16. Research on flight stability performance of rotor aircraft based on visual servo control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    control method based on visual servo feedback is proposed, which is used to improve the attitude of a quad-rotor aircraft and to enhance its flight stability. Ground target images are obtained by a visual platform fixed on aircraft. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorism is used to extract image feature information. According to the image characteristic analysis, fast motion estimation is completed and used as an input signal of PID flight control system to realize real-time status adjustment in flight process. Imaging tests and simulation results show that the method proposed acts good performance in terms of flight stability compensation and attitude adjustment. The response speed and control precision meets the requirements of actual use, which is able to reduce or even eliminate the influence of environmental disturbance. So the method proposed has certain research value to solve the problem of aircraft's anti-disturbance.

  17. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  18. LISA and its in-flight test precursor SMART-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, S.; Bender, P.; Brillet, A.; Buchman, S.; Cavalleri, A.; Cerdonio, M.; Cruise, M.; Cutler, C.; Danzmann, K.; Dolesi, R.; Folkner, W.; Gianolio, A.; Jafry, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Heinzel, G.; Hogan, C.; Hueller, M.; Hough, J.; Phinney, S.; Prince, T.; Richstone, D.; Robertson, D.; Rodrigues, M.; Ruediger, A.; Sandford, M.; Schilling, R.; Shoemaker, D.; Schutz, B.; Stebbins, R.; Stubbs, C.; Sumner, T.; Thorne, K.; Tinto, M.; Touboul, P.; Ward, H.; Weber, W.; Winkler, W

    2002-07-01

    LISA will be the first space-home gravitational wave observatory. It aims to detect gravitational waves in the 0.1 mHz/1 Hz range from sources including galactic binaries, super-massive black-hole binaries, capture of objects by super-massive black-holes and stochastic background. LISA is an ESA approved Cornerstone Mission foreseen as a joint ESA-NASA endeavour to be launched in 2010-11. The principle of operation of LISA is based on laser ranging of test-masses under pure geodesic motion. Achieving pure geodesic motion at the level requested for LISA, 3x10{sup -15} ms{sup -2}/{radical}Hz at 0.1 mHz, is considered a challenging technological objective. To reduce the risk, both ESA and NASA are pursuing an in-flight test of the relevant technology. The goal of the test is to demonstrate geodetic motion within one order of magnitude from the LISA performance. ESA has given this test as the primary goal of its technology dedicated mission SMART-2 with a launch in 2006. This paper describes the basics of LISA, its key technologies, and its in-flight precursor test on SMART-2.

  19. Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

  20. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  1. Flight tests show potential benefits of data link as primary communication medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Charles H.; Knox, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Message exchange for air traffic control (ATC) purposes via data link offers the potential benefits of increasing the airspace system safety and efficiency. This is accomplished by reducing communication errors and relieving the overloaded ATC radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchanges during peak traffic periods in many busy terminal areas. However, the many uses and advantages of data link create additional questions concerning the interface among the human-users and the cockpit and ground systems. A flight test was conducted in the NASA Langley B-737 airplane to contrast flight operations using current voice communications with the use of data link for transmitting both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airline flight from takeoff to landing. Commercial airplane pilots were used as test subjects.

  2. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  3. Closed-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Closed-loop HIRF experiments were performed on a fault tolerant flight control computer (FCC) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The FCC used in the experiments was a quad-redundant flight control computer executing B737 Autoland control laws. The FCC was placed in one of the mode-stirred reverberation chambers in the HIRF Laboratory and interfaced to a computer simulation of the B737 flight dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators, and atmosphere in the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory. Disturbances to the aircraft associated with wind gusts and turbulence were simulated during tests. Electrical isolation between the FCC under test and the simulation computer was achieved via a fiber optic interface for the analog and discrete signals. Closed-loop operation of the FCC enabled flight dynamics and atmospheric disturbances affecting the aircraft to be represented during tests. Upset was induced in the FCC as a result of exposure to HIRF, and the effect of upset on the simulated flight of the aircraft was observed and recorded. This paper presents a description of these closed- loop HIRF experiments, upset data obtained from the FCC during these experiments, and closed-loop effects on the simulated flight of the aircraft.

  4. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  5. Flight Test of Advanced Digital Control Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the model (Equation 51). 34 OPTIONII .>-COFY, GMATr, MMArtCOPY, IMATvAMAT, COP’Y, JMAT, BmA, 87, >COPY , FMArNMAT, COPYY GMAT , GMAT Next, EKEY...YCMA;TFFMAT ,COPY, FMAT, AMATY,COPY, MMA-T, EMAr ,74, COPY, CMAT r (ThAT, ’:.COFY LMAT, AMAT YCOPYP NMAT, EMAT,73, COPY, GMAT , BmAr, *::COFY, pmA, AMAT...74, COPY, GMAT , UMA’TLMAT, MMAT, NMA T, MA-T, PFMAT, ’UMATPUMAT Next use CKEY to check the results. C B and CF are substituted into the "simulator

  6. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  7. Stable Hovering Flight for a Small Unmanned Helicopter Using Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable hover flight control for small unmanned helicopter under light air turbulent environment is presented. Intelligent fuzzy logic is chosen because it is a nonlinear control technique based on expert knowledge and is capable of handling sensor created noise and contradictory inputs commonly encountered in flight control. The fuzzy nonlinear control utilizes these distinct qualities for attitude, height, and position control. These multiple controls are developed using two-loop control structure by first designing an inner-loop controller for attitude angles and height and then by establishing outer-loop controller for helicopter position. The nonlinear small unmanned helicopter model used comes from X-Plane simulator. A simulation platform consisting of MATLAB/Simulink and X-Plane© flight simulator was introduced to implement the proposed controls. The main objective of this research is to design computationally intelligent control laws for hovering and to test and analyze this autopilot for small unmanned helicopter model on X-Plane under ideal and mild turbulent condition. Proposed fuzzy flight controls are validated using an X-Plane helicopter model before being embedded on actual helicopter. To show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy control method and its ability to cope with the external uncertainties, results are compared with a classical PD controller. Simulated results show that two-loop fuzzy controllers have a good ability to establish stable hovering for a class of unmanned rotorcraft in the presence of light turbulent environment.

  8. Development of a flight test maneuver autopilot for a highly maneuverable aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Jones, F. P.; Roncoli, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper details the development of a flight test maneuver autopilot for a highly maneuverable aircraft. This newly developed flight test technique is being applied at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center. The flight test maneuver autopilot (FTMAP) is designed to increase the quantity and quality of the data obtained in flight test. The vehicle with which it is being used is the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) vehicle. This paper describes the HiMAT vehicle systems, maneuver requirements, FTMAP development process, and flight results.

  9. Adaptive Backstepping Flight Control for Modern Fighter Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to investigate the potential of the nonlinear adaptive backstepping control technique in combination with online model identification for the design of a reconfigurable flight control system for a modern fighter aircraft. Adaptive backstepping is a recursive,

  10. A benchmark for fault tolerant flight control evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaili, H.; Breeman, J.; Lombaerts, T.; Stroosma, O.

    2013-01-01

    A large transport aircraft simulation benchmark (REconfigurable COntrol for Vehicle Emergency Return − RECOVER) has been developed within the GARTEUR (Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe) Flight Mechanics Action Group 16 (FM-AG(16)) on Fault Tolerant Control (2004 2008) for the

  11. UAV Formation Flight Based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a distributed collision-free formation flight control law in the framework of nonlinear model predictive control. Formation configuration is determined in the virtual reference point coordinate system. Obstacle avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty, and intervehicle collision avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty combined with a new priority strategy.

  12. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Flight Test Results and Results for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Cliatt, Larry J.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy program, a 747SP airplane was modified to carry a 2.5-m telescope in the aft section of the fuselage. The resulting airborne observatory allows for observations above 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The open cavity created by the modifications had the potential to significantly affect the airplane in the areas of aerodynamics and acoustics. Several series of flight tests were conducted to clear the operating envelope of the airplane for astronomical observations, planned to be performed between the altitudes of 35,000 ft and 45,000 ft. The flight tests were successfully completed. Cavity acoustics were below design limits, and the overall acoustic characteristics of the cavity were better than expected. The modification did have some effects on the stability and control of the airplane, but these effects were not significant. Airplane air data systems were not affected by the modifications. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics and acoustic data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of cavity acoustics, stability and control, and air data.

  13. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Flight Test Results for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Cliatt, Larry James; Frederick, Michael A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) program, a 747SP airplane was modified to carry a 2.5 meter telescope in the aft section of the fuselage. The resulting airborne observatory allows for observations above 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The open cavity created by the modifications had the potential to significantly affect the airplane in the areas of aerodynamics and acoustics. Several series of flight tests were conducted to clear the airplanes operating envelope for astronomical observations, planned to be performed between the altitudes of 39,000 feet and 45,000 feet. The flight tests were successfully completed. Cavity acoustics were below design limits, and the overall acoustic characteristics of the cavity were better than expected. The modification did have some effects on the stability and control of the airplane, but these effects were not significant. Airplane air data systems were not affected by the modifications. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics and acoustic data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight test results in the areas of cavity acoustics, stability and control, and air data.

  14. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects.

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center High Speed Turbopump Bearing Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; Moore, Chip; Thom, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a unique test rig that is used to test and develop rolling element bearings used in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. The tester is unique in that it uses liquid hydrogen as the coolant for the bearings. This test rig can simulate speeds and loads experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. With internal modifications, the tester can be used for evaluating fluid film, hydrostatic, and foil bearing designs. At the present time, the test rig is configured to run two ball bearings or a ball and roller bearing, both with a hydrostatic bearing. The rig is being used to evaluate the lifetimes of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride rolling elements and steel races.

  16. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  17. Qualitative Functional Decomposition Analysis of Evolved Neuromorphic Flight Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Boddhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.

  18. Visual control of prey-capture flight in dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olberg, Robert M

    2012-04-01

    Interacting with a moving object poses a computational problem for an animal's nervous system. This problem has been elegantly solved by the dragonfly, a formidable visual predator on flying insects. The dragonfly computes an interception flight trajectory and steers to maintain it during its prey-pursuit flight. This review summarizes current knowledge about pursuit behavior and neurons thought to control interception in the dragonfly. When understood, this system has the potential for explaining how a small group of neurons can control complex interactions with moving objects.

  19. Pilot-in-the-Loop Analysis of Propulsive-Only Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hwei-Lan; Biezad, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Longitudinal control system architectures are presented which directly couple flight stick motions to throttle commands for a multi-engine aircraft. This coupling enables positive attitude control with complete failure of the flight control system. The architectures chosen vary from simple feedback gains to classical lead-lag compensators with and without prefilters. Each architecture is reviewed for its appropriateness for piloted flight. The control systems are then analyzed with pilot-in-the-loop metrics related to bandwidth required for landing. Results indicate that current and proposed bandwidth requirements should be modified for throttles only flight control. Pilot ratings consistently showed better ratings than predicted by analysis. Recommendations are made for more robust design and implementation. The use of Quantitative Feedback Theory for compensator design is discussed. Although simple and effective augmented control can be achieved in a wide variety of failed configurations, a few configuration characteristics are dominant for pilot-in-the-loop control. These characteristics will be tested in a simulator study involving failed flight controls for a multi-engine aircraft.

  20. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  1. Dawn Spacecraft Reaction Control System Flight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Nakazono, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system's earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conventional blowdown hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) is used to provide external torques for attitude control. Reaction wheel assemblies were intended to provide attitude control in most cases. However, the spacecraft experienced one, then two apparent failures of reaction wheels. Also, similar thrusters experienced degradation in a long life application on another spacecraft. Those factors led to RCS being operated in ways completely different than anticipated prior to launch. Numerous mitigations and developments needed to be implemented. The Vesta mission was fully successful. Even with the compromises necessary due to those anomalies, the Ceres mission is also projected to be feasible.

  2. Flight tests of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

  3. FLIGHT PATH CONTROL FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Al-Mashhadani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the optimized control law specified criteria on UAV while hovering over a path defined by the reference points in the inertial frame. An illustrative example is the  theoretical efficiency of the proposed provisions. 

  4. Analog Flight Control Data Acquisition System Design And Associated Test Failure Analysis Based MDC103%基于MDC103的模拟飞控数据采集系统设计与联试故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新华; 尹川; 谷士鹏

    2014-01-01

    该文依据某飞行试验测试任务的需要,详细描述了基于通用采集系统KAM500下的MDC103板卡下模拟飞控数据测试系统的搭建和模拟飞控隔离器的设计,并通过分析模拟飞控的接口电路,解决了地面联试中飞控系统与数据采集系统之间的交联问题,实现了模拟飞控的数据采集,顺利保证了型号任务。%Based on a flight test mission requirements,a detailed description of building flight control data test system based on the use of the MDC103 card under the universal data acquisition KAM 500 system.And solved cross-linked problem between fight control system and data col ection system in the associated test by analyzing the flight control system interface circuit,and achieved the analog flight control data col ection,to ensure the task successful y.

  5. A new flight control and management system architecture and configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-e.; Chen, Zongji

    2006-11-01

    The advanced fighter should possess the performance such as super-sound cruising, stealth, agility, STOVL(Short Take-Off Vertical Landing),powerful communication and information processing. For this purpose, it is not enough only to improve the aerodynamic and propulsion system. More importantly, it is necessary to enhance the control system. A complete flight control system provides not only autopilot, auto-throttle and control augmentation, but also the given mission management. F-22 and JSF possess considerably outstanding flight control system on the basis of pave pillar and pave pace avionics architecture. But their control architecture is not enough integrated. The main purpose of this paper is to build a novel fighter control system architecture. The control system constructed on this architecture should be enough integrated, inexpensive, fault-tolerant, high safe, reliable and effective. And it will take charge of both the flight control and mission management. Starting from this purpose, this paper finishes the work as follows: First, based on the human nervous control, a three-leveled hierarchical control architecture is proposed. At the top of the architecture, decision level is in charge of decision-making works. In the middle, organization & coordination level will schedule resources, monitor the states of the fighter and switch the control modes etc. And the bottom is execution level which holds the concrete drive and measurement; then, according to their function and resources all the tasks involving flight control and mission management are sorted to individual level; at last, in order to validate the three-leveled architecture, a physical configuration is also showed. The configuration is distributed and applies some new advancement in information technology industry such line replaced module and cluster technology.

  6. A formal structure for advanced automatic flight-control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques were developed for the unified design of multimode, variable authority automatic flight-control systems for powered-lift STOL and VTOL aircraft. A structure for such systems is developed to deal with the strong nonlinearities inherent in this class of aircraft, to admit automatic coupling with advanced air traffic control, and to admit a variety of active control tasks. The aircraft being considered is the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  7. Orion Flight Test-1 Thermal Protection System Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, T. John

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was originally under development to provide crew transport to the International Space Station after the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and to provide a means for the eventual return of astronauts to the Moon. With the current changes in the future direction of the United States human exploration programs, the focus of the Orion project has shifted to the project s first orbital flight test, designated Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1). The OFT-1 is currently planned for launch in July 2013 and will demonstrate the Orion vehicle s capability for performing missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), as well as extensibility beyond LEO for select, critical areas. Among the key flight test objectives are those related to validation of the re-entry aerodynamic and aerothermal environments, and the performance of the thermal protection system (TPS) when exposed to these environments. A specific flight test trajectory has been selected to provide a high energy entry beyond that which would be experienced during a typical low Earth orbit return, given the constraints imposed by the possible launch vehicles. This trajectory resulted from a trade study that considered the relative benefit of conflicting objectives from multiple subsystems, and sought to provide the maximum integrated benefit to the re-entry state-of-the-art. In particular, the trajectory was designed to provide: a significant, measureable radiative heat flux to the windward surface; data on boundary transition from laminar to turbulent flow; and data on catalytic heating overshoot on non-ablating TPS. In order to obtain the necessary flight test data during OFT-1, the vehicle will need to have an adequate quantity of instrumentation. A collection of instrumentation is being developed for integration in the OFT-1 TPS. In part, this instrumentation builds upon the work performed for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Instrument (MEDLI) suite to instrument the

  8. An overview of integrated flight-propulsion controls flight research on the NASA F-15 research airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.; Stewart, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting integrated flight-propulsion control flight research using the NASA F-15 airplane for the past 12 years. The research began with the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) project, followed by the F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD). HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) became the umbrella name for a series of experiments including: the Advanced Digital Engine Controls System (ADECS), a twin jet acoustics flight experiment, self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS), performance-seeking control (PSC), and propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA). The upcoming F-15 project is ACTIVE (Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles). This paper provides a brief summary of these activities and provides background for the PCA and PSC papers, and includes a bibliography of all papers and reports from the NASA F-15 project.

  9. Integration of Online Parameter Identification and Neural Network for In-Flight Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Jacob J.; Smith, Mark S.; Stachowiak, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An indirect adaptive system has been constructed for robust control of an aircraft with uncertain aerodynamic characteristics. This system consists of a multilayer perceptron pre-trained neural network, online stability and control derivative identification, a dynamic cell structure online learning neural network, and a model following control system based on the stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique. The pre-trained neural network and model following control system have been flight-tested, but the online parameter identification and online learning neural network are new additions used for in-flight adaptation of the control system model. A description of the modification and integration of these two stand-alone software packages into the complete system in preparation for initial flight tests is presented. Open-loop results using both simulation and flight data, as well as closed-loop performance of the complete system in a nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom, flight validated simulation, are analyzed. Results show that this online learning system, in contrast to the nonlearning system, has the ability to adapt to changes in aerodynamic characteristics in a real-time, closed-loop, piloted simulation, resulting in improved flying qualities.

  10. Orion Launch Abort System Jettison Motor Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel J.; Davidson, John B.; Winski, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System performing Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. Although the Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Selected Launch Abort System flight test data is presented and discussed in the paper. Through flight test data, Launch Abort System performance trends have been derived that will prove valuable to future flights as well as the manned space program.

  11. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... system. This system provides an electronic interface between the pilot's flight controls and ] the flight...

  12. Vision-based flight control in the hawkmoth Hyles lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Shane P; Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-02-06

    Vision is a key sensory modality for flying insects, playing an important role in guidance, navigation and control. Here, we use a virtual-reality flight simulator to measure the optomotor responses of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata, and use a published linear-time invariant model of the flight dynamics to interpret the function of the measured responses in flight stabilization and control. We recorded the forces and moments produced during oscillation of the visual field in roll, pitch and yaw, varying the temporal frequency, amplitude or spatial frequency of the stimulus. The moths' responses were strongly dependent upon contrast frequency, as expected if the optomotor system uses correlation-type motion detectors to sense self-motion. The flight dynamics model predicts that roll angle feedback is needed to stabilize the lateral dynamics, and that a combination of pitch angle and pitch rate feedback is most effective in stabilizing the longitudinal dynamics. The moths' responses to roll and pitch stimuli coincided qualitatively with these functional predictions. The moths produced coupled roll and yaw moments in response to yaw stimuli, which could help to reduce the energetic cost of correcting heading. Our results emphasize the close relationship between physics and physiology in the stabilization of insect flight.

  13. Static tests of excess ground attenuation at Wallops Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, L. C.; Brown, R.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive experimental measurement program which evaluated the attenuation of sound for close to horizontal propagation over the ground was designed to replicate, under static conditions, results of the flight measurements carried out earlier by NASA at the same site (Wallops Flight Center). The program consisted of a total of 41 measurement runs of attenuation, in excess of spreading and air absorption losses, for one third octave bands over a frequency range of 50 to 4000 Hz. Each run consisted of measurements at 10 locations up to 675 m, from a source located at nominal elevations of 2.5, or 10 m over either a grassy surface or an adjacent asphalt concrete runway surface. The tests provided a total of over 8100 measurements of attenuation under conditions of low wind speed averaging about 1 m/s and, for most of the tests, a slightly positive temperature gradient, averaging about 0.3 C/m from 1.2 to 7 m. The results of the measurements are expected to provide useful experimental background for the further development of prediction models of near grazing incidence sound propagation losses.

  14. Static tests of excess ground attenuation at Wallops Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, L. C.; Brown, R.

    1981-06-01

    An extensive experimental measurement program which evaluated the attenuation of sound for close to horizontal propagation over the ground was designed to replicate, under static conditions, results of the flight measurements carried out earlier by NASA at the same site (Wallops Flight Center). The program consisted of a total of 41 measurement runs of attenuation, in excess of spreading and air absorption losses, for one third octave bands over a frequency range of 50 to 4000 Hz. Each run consisted of measurements at 10 locations up to 675 m, from a source located at nominal elevations of 2.5, or 10 m over either a grassy surface or an adjacent asphalt concrete runway surface. The tests provided a total of over 8100 measurements of attenuation under conditions of low wind speed averaging about 1 m/s and, for most of the tests, a slightly positive temperature gradient, averaging about 0.3 C/m from 1.2 to 7 m. The results of the measurements are expected to provide useful experimental background for the further development of prediction models of near grazing incidence sound propagation losses.

  15. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Synthetic Vision Display Concepts to Prevent Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents, where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground. The major hypothesis for a simulation experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center was that a Primary Flight Display (PFD) with synthetic terrain will improve pilots ability to detect and avoid potential CFITs compared to conventional instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Each pilot flew twenty-two approach departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into terrain. All pilots with a synthetic vision system (SVS) PFD (twelve of sixteen pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. The four pilots who flew the anomaly with the conventional baseline PFD configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event. Additionally, all the SVS display concepts enhanced the pilot s situational awareness, decreased workload and improved flight technical error (FTE) compared to the baseline configuration.

  16. An Overview of Adaptive Approaches in Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rajeshwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-mode switching between controllers corresponding to different modes of operation is needed in those cases when the transition from one mode to another results in substantial flight-critical variations in the aircraft dynamics. To address this problem, a general framework for multi-modal flight control is proposed. The framework is based on the Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST methodology, combined with Model-Predictive Control (MPC, and the use of different robust mechanisms for switching between the multi-modal controllers. It was shown that many different switching control strategies can be naturally derived from the basic framework, which demonstrates the generality of the proposed approach.

  17. Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

  18. Immersion and Invariance Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.; Van Oort, E.R.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework for nonlinear adaptive flight control is developed and applied to a simplified, over-actuated nonlinear fighter aircraft model. The framework is based on a modular adaptive backstepping scheme with a new type of nonlinear estimator. The nonlinear estimator is

  19. Immersion and Invariance Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.; Van Oort, E.R.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework for nonlinear adaptive flight control is developed and applied to a simplified, over-actuated nonlinear fighter aircraft model. The framework is based on a modular adaptive backstepping scheme with a new type of nonlinear estimator. The nonlinear estimator is co

  20. Structure Computation of Quiet Spike[Trademark] Flight-Test Data During Envelope Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2008-01-01

    System identification or mathematical modeling is used in the aerospace community for development of simulation models for robust control law design. These models are often described as linear time-invariant processes. Nevertheless, it is well known that the underlying process is often nonlinear. The reason for using a linear approach has been due to the lack of a proper set of tools for the identification of nonlinear systems. Over the past several decades, the controls and biomedical communities have made great advances in developing tools for the identification of nonlinear systems. These approaches are robust and readily applicable to aerospace systems. In this paper, we show the application of one such nonlinear system identification technique, structure detection, for the analysis of F-15B Quiet Spike(TradeMark) aeroservoelastic flight-test data. Structure detection is concerned with the selection of a subset of candidate terms that best describe the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description that may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modeling may be of critical importance for the development of robust parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion, which may save significant development time and costs. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate via analysis of F-15B Quiet Spike aeroservoelastic flight-test data for several flight conditions that 1) linear models are inefficient for modeling aeroservoelastic data, 2) nonlinear identification provides a parsimonious model description while providing a high percent fit for cross-validated data, and 3) the model structure and parameters vary as the flight condition is altered.

  1. Characterization of a Recoverable Flight Control Computer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar; Torres, Wilfredo

    1999-01-01

    The design and development of a Closed-Loop System to study and evaluate the performance of the Honeywell Recoverable Computer System (RCS) in electromagnetic environments (EME) is presented. The development of a Windows-based software package to handle the time-critical communication of data and commands between the RCS and flight simulation code in real-time while meeting the stringent hard deadlines is also submitted. The performance results of the RCS and characteristics of its upset recovery scheme while exercising flight control laws under ideal conditions as well as in the presence of electromagnetic fields are also discussed.

  2. Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics: Experience with HiMAT remotely piloted research vehicle - An alternate flight test approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deets, D. A.; Brown, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program explored the various and complex interactions of advanced technologies, such as aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canard, and relaxed static stability. A 0.44-subscale remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) of a hypothetical fighter airplane was designed and flight-tested to determine the effects of these interactions and to define the design techniques appropriate for advanced fighter technologies. Flexibility and high maneuverability were provided by flight control laws implemented in ground-based computers and telemetered to the vehicle control system during flight tests. The high quality of the flight-measured data and their close correlation with the analytical design modeling proved that the RPRV is a viable and cost-effective tool for developing aerodynamic, structure, and control law requirements for highly maneuverable fighter airplanes of the future.

  3. Multimodel Predictive Control Approach for UAV Formation Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation flight problem is the most important and interesting problem of multiple UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative control. In this paper, a novel approach for UAV formation flight based on multimodel predictive control is designed. Firstly, the state equation of relative motion is obtained and then discretized. By the geometrical method, the characteristic points of state are determined. Afterwards, based on the linearization technique, the standard linear discrete model is obtained at each characteristic state point. Then, weighted model set is proposed using the idea of T-S (Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control and the predictive control is carried out based on the multimodel method. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, two different simulation scenarios are performed.

  4. Overheating Anomalies during Flight Test Due to the Base Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry; Hafiychuck, Halyna; Osipov, Slava; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Dagostino, Mark; Canabal, Francisco; Mobley, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the analytical and numerical studies of the plume interaction with the base flow in the presence of base out-gassing. The physics-based analysis and CFD modeling of the base heating for single solid rocket motor performed in this research addressed the following questions: what are the key factors making base flow so different from that in the Shuttle [1]; why CFD analysis of this problem reveals small plume recirculation; what major factors influence base temperature; and why overheating was initiated at a given time in the flight. To answer these questions topological analysis of the base flow was performed and Korst theory was used to estimate relative contributions of radiation, plume recirculation, and chemically reactive out-gassing to the base heating. It was shown that base bleeding and small base volume are the key factors contributing to the overheating, while plume recirculation is effectively suppressed by asymmetric configuration of the flow formed earlier in the flight. These findings are further verified using CFD simulations that include multi-species gas environment both in the plume and in the base. Solid particles in the exhaust plume (Al2O3) and char particles in the base bleeding were also included into the simulations and their relative contributions into the base temperature rise were estimated. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the temperature and pressure in the base measured during the test.

  5. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  6. Observations of atmospheric effects for FALCON laser communication system flight test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, T. Matthew; Cunningham, James; Baber, Daniel; Wickholm, Dave; Goode, Timothy; Gaughan, Brian; Burgan, Stephen; Deck, Andrew; Young, David W.; Juarez, Juan; Sluz, Joseph; Cohen, Janette; Stallings, Patrick; Stadler, Brian K.

    2011-06-01

    Free-space optical communication terminals have been designed and extensively tested in various configurations. The FALCON terminals are designed to operate on large unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) or piloted aircraft. They provide a secure, two-way air-to-air and air-to-ground data link. In the latest flight test a successful 132km link was established. The beacon lasers operated at half of their available power, which was sufficient to establish and maintain link for the full flight track. The data and beacon links remained locked for approximately 30 minutes during which both aircraft turned, banked, and experienced air turbulence. This demonstration proved that laser communications is possible with tip-tilt correction as the primary control system compensation. It further demonstrated that compact, low cost free-space optical communications are now available for test and evaluation of operational scenarios.

  7. Electronics plus fluidics for V/STOL flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The redundant digital fly by wire flight control system coupled with a fluidic system, which uses hydraulic pressure as its signal transmission means to provide pilot and feedback sensor control of airframe forcing functions is considered for application to the V/STOL aircraft. A potential fluidics system is introduced, and anticipated performance, weight, and reliability is discussed. Integration with the redundant electronic channels is explored, with the safety and mission reliability of alternate configurations estimated.

  8. Development of helicopter attitude axes controlled hover flight without pilot assistance and vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Miguel

    In this work, we show how to computerize a helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight without the assistance of a pilot and without ever crashing. We start by developing a helicopter research test bed system including all hardware, software, and means for testing and training the helicopter to fly by computer. We select a Remote Controlled helicopter with a 5 ft. diameter rotor and 2.2 hp engine. We equip the helicopter with a payload of sensors, computers, navigation and telemetry equipment, and batteries. We develop a differential GPS system with cm accuracy and a ground computerized navigation system for six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) free flight while tracking navigation commands. We design feedback control loops with yet-to-be-determined gains for the five control "knobs" available to a flying radio-controlled (RC) miniature helicopter: engine throttle, main rotor collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, and tail rotor collective pitch. We develop helicopter flight equations using fundamental dynamics, helicopter momentum theory and blade element theory. The helicopter flight equations include helicopter rotor equations of motions, helicopter rotor forces and moments, helicopter trim equations, helicopter stability derivatives, and a coupled fuselage-rotor helicopter 6-DoF model. The helicopter simulation also includes helicopter engine control equations, a helicopter aerodynamic model, and finally helicopter stability and control equations. The derivation of a set of non-linear equations of motion for the main rotor is a contribution of this thesis work. We design and build two special test stands for training and testing the helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight, starting with one axis at a time and progressing to multiple axes. The first test stand is built for teaching and testing controlled flight of elevation and yaw (i.e., directional control). The second test stand is built for teaching and

  9. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  10. LISA and its in-flight test precursor SMART-2

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, S; Brillet, A; Buchman, S; Cavalleri, A; Cerdonio, M; Cruise, M; Cutler, C; Danzmann, K; Dolesi, R; Folkner, W; Gianolio, A; Jafry, Y; Hasinger, G; Heinzel, G; Hogan, C; Hüller, M; Hough, J; Phinney, S; Prince, T; Richstone, D O; Robertson, D; Rodrigues, M; Rüdiger, A; Sandford, M; Schilling, R; Shoemaker, D; Schutz, B; Stebbins, R; Stubbs, C; Sumner, T; Thorne, K; Tinto, M; Touboul, P; Ward, H; Weber, W; Winkler, W

    2002-01-01

    LISA will be the first space-home gravitational wave observatory. It aims to detect gravitational waves in the 0.1 mHz/1 Hz range from sources including galactic binaries, super-massive black-hole binaries, capture of objects by super-massive black-holes and stochastic background. LISA is an ESA approved Cornerstone Mission foreseen as a joint ESA-NASA endeavour to be launched in 2010-11. The principle of operation of LISA is based on laser ranging of test-masses under pure geodesic motion. Achieving pure geodesic motion at the level requested for LISA, 3x10 sup - sup 1 sup 5 ms sup - sup 2 /sq root Hz at 0.1 mHz, is considered a challenging technological objective. To reduce the risk, both ESA and NASA are pursuing an in-flight test of the relevant technology. The goal of the test is to demonstrate geodetic motion within one order of magnitude from the LISA performance. ESA has given this test as the primary goal of its technology dedicated mission SMART-2 with a launch in 2006. This paper describes the basi...

  11. Robust, Decoupled, Flight Control Design with Rate Saturating Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, S. A.; Hess, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for the design of control systems for manually controlled, high-performance aircraft must provide the following: (1) multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) solutions, (2) acceptable handling qualities including no tendencies for pilot-induced oscillations, (3) a tractable approach for compensator design, (4) performance and stability robustness in the presence of significant plant uncertainty, and (5) performance and stability robustness in the presence actuator saturation (particularly rate saturation). A design technique built upon Quantitative Feedback Theory is offered as a candidate methodology which can provide flight control systems meeting these requirements, and do so over a considerable part of the flight envelope. An example utilizing a simplified model of a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft demonstrates the proposed design methodology.

  12. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  13. Full-scale flight tests of aircraft morphing structures using SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, James H.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Ruggeri, Robert T.

    2007-04-01

    In August of 2005 The Boeing Company conducted a full-scale flight test utilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators to morph an engine's fan exhaust to correlate exhaust geometry with jet noise reduction. The test was conducted on a 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. The presence of chevrons, serrated aerodynamic surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of the thrust reverser, have been shown to greatly reduce jet noise by encouraging advantageous mixing of the free, and fan streams. The morphing, or Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), utilized compact, light weight, and robust SMA actuators to morph the chevron shape to optimize the noise reduction or meet acoustic test objectives. The VGC system was designed for two modes of operation. The entirely autonomous operation utilized changes in the ambient temperature from take-off to cruise to activate the chevron shape change. It required no internal heaters, wiring, control system, or sensing. By design this provided one tip immersion at the warmer take-off temperatures to reduce community noise and another during the cooler cruise state for more efficient engine operation, i.e. reduced specific fuel consumption. For the flight tests a powered mode was added where internal heaters were used to individually control the VGC temperatures. This enabled us to vary the immersions and test a variety of chevron configurations. The flight test demonstrated the value of SMA actuators to solve a real world aerospace problem, validated that the technology could be safely integrated into the airplane's structure and flight system, and represented a large step forward in the realization of SMA actuators for production applications. In this paper the authors describe the development of the actuator system, the steps required to integrate the morphing structure into the thrust reverser, and the analysis and testing that was required to gain approval for flight. Issues related to material strength, thermal environment, vibration

  14. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  15. Sliding Mode Implementation of an Attitude Command Flight Control System for a Helicopter in Hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. McGeoch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a decoupled non-linear sliding mode control structure, designed using a linearised, 9th order representation of the dynamics of a PUMA helicopter in hover. The controllers are then tested upon a higher order, non-linear helicopter model, called RASCAL. This design approach is used for attitude command flight control implementation and the control performance is assessed in the terms of handling qualities through the Aeronautical Design Standards for Rotorcraft (ADS-33. In this context a linearised approximation of the helicopter system is used to design an SMC control scheme. These controllers have been found to yield a system that satisfies the Level 1 handling qualities set out by ADS-33. 

  16. Access Control Enforcement Testing

    OpenAIRE

    El Kateb, Donia; Elrakaiby, Yehia; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Le Traon, Yves

    2012-01-01

    A policy-based access control architecture com- prises Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs), which are modules that intercept subjects access requests and enforce the access decision reached by a Policy Decision Point (PDP), the module implementing the access decision logic. In applications, PEPs are generally implemented manually, which can introduce errors in policy enforcement and lead to security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose an approach to systematically test and validate the co...

  17. Development of a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer for non-destructive analysis of isotope ratios in irradiated B4C pellets--Test measurements on an unirradiated control rod pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoravi, P.; Joseph, M.; Sivakumar, N.

    2008-09-01

    A laser mass spectrometric facility is developed using a home-built reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS) to analyze the boron isotopic ratio 10B/11B in the irradiated B4C pellets of the FBTR control rod. Compared to other mass spectrometry-based methods, the present method is practically non-destructive and makes it relatively easier to handle irradiated (radioactive) B4C pellets through remote operation. The results with inactive samples indicate that the method yields 10B percentage values, accurate to within ±1%.

  18. Nonlinear inversion flight control for a supermaneuverable aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, S. Antony; Garrard, William L., Jr.; Enns, Dale F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of nonlinear dynamic inversion for the design of a flight control system for a supermaneuverable aircraft. First, the dynamics to be controlled were separated into fast and slow variables. The fast variables were the angular rates and the slow variables were the attitude angles. Then a nonlinear inversion controller was designed for the fast variables. This stabilized the longitudinal short-period and improved the lateral-directional responses over a wide range of angle of attack by making use of a combination for aerodynamic surfaces and thrust vectoring control. Outer loops were then closed to allow the pilot to control the slow dynamics, the angle of attack, side-slip angle and the velocity bank angle. Nonlinear inversion was also used to design of the outer loop control laws. The dynamic inversion control laws were compared with more conventional, gain-scheduled control laws and were shown to yield much better performance.

  19. Motions Recognized through Visual Scene by Pilots and Flight Simulator Tests with Only Lateral-Directional Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Masahito; Kobayashi, Osamu

    A flight simulator must exactly simulate the aircraft motion. So, engineers check if the solution of equations of motion, the calculation of flight positions and attitudes, and then, the drawn-up of visual scenery from cockpit windows according to the calculated positions and attitudes are correct. This paper proposes an additional check if the aircraft motion perceived from visual scenery by pilot is same as the calculated motion. This opinion is applied to the simulation case that just lateral-directional flying qualities are evaluated, and it is found that the pitching motion rate (q) and Euler’s pitch attitude rate (Θ) should not be perfectly neglected (i.e. q=Θ=0) but (q and Θ) should be given assuming steady level turn flight should be given. The flight simulator test showed that the pilot felt more real flight motion and controlled some harder than in the condition of q=Θ=0.

  20. Open-Loop Flight Testing of COBALT GN&C Technologies for Precise Soft Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Seubert, Carl R.; Restrepo, Carolina I.

    2017-01-01

    A terrestrial, open-loop (OL) flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) platform was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed, with support through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES), Game Changing Development (GCD), and Flight Opportunities (FO) Programs. The COBALT platform integrates NASA Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) sensing technologies for autonomous, precise soft landing, including the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor and the Lander Vision System (LVS) Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) system. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuzes the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a precise navigation solution that is independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and suitable for future, autonomous planetary landing systems. The OL campaign tested COBALT as a passive payload, with COBALT data collection and filter execution, but with the Xodiac vehicle Guidance and Control (G&C) loops closed on a Masten GPS-based navigation solution. The OL test was performed as a risk reduction activity in preparation for an upcoming 2017 closed-loop (CL) flight campaign in which Xodiac G&C will act on the COBALT navigation solution and the GPS-based navigation will serve only as a backup monitor.

  1. Flight testing of the AIM/RIM-7M missile, preflight analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W.; Greenberg, E.

    1981-11-01

    The AIM/RIM-7M missile is the most recent version of the AIM-7 missile series. It is in the preproduction phase and has completed most of the preproduction flight test evaluation. A description is presented of the preflight simulation techniques used, taking into account the value of the techniques in predicting the results of actual flights. The AIM/RIM-7M is a semiactive, radar-guided homing missile with sophisticated onboard digital processing. It may be launched from either an aircraft or a surface system. To a large degree, the AIM/RIM-7M represents problems typical of all guided missiles. The described techniques are directly applicable to radar-guided missiles and generically to all types of guided missiles. Attention is given to simulation bay activities, the anechoic chamber, aspects of RF control, the target array, computer models, aspects of preflight simulations, and the test setup.

  2. Flight test report Focke Wulf Piaggio P149D-TP 2015

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barker, D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Barker_2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 12410 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Barker_2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Flight Test Report Focke Wulf... Piaggio P149D-TP IASSA 2015 Des Barker Flight Test Society of South Africa Scope • Executive Summary of Flight Test Programme: – Background – Objectives of Test Programme – Scope of Modifications – Flight Test Team – Conditions...

  3. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  4. Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    711th Human Performance Wing U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Int’l Expeditionary Educ & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical ...International Expeditionary Education & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical Skills Institute/C-STARS Cincinnati 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0008 Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight Thomas C. Blakeman

  5. Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator For Flight Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes use of shape-memory-alloy actuators, instead of hydraulic actuators, for aerodynamic flight-control surfaces. Actuator made of shape-memory alloy converts thermal energy into mechanical work by changing shape as it makes transitions between martensitic and austenitic crystalline phase states of alloy. Because both hot exhaust gases and cryogenic propellant liquids available aboard launch rockets, shape-memory-alloy actuators exceptionally suited for use aboard such rockets.

  6. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2016-09-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  7. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  8. Dynamic analysis and control of novel moving mass flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqing; Gao, Changsheng; Jing, Wuxing; Wei, Pengxin

    2017-02-01

    In terms of the moving mass control technology, the configuration of internal moving masses is a key challenge. In order to reduce the complexity of configuring these moving masses in a flight vehicle, a combination bank-to-turn control mode with the single moving mass and reaction jet is proposed in this paper. To investigate the dynamics and the potential of the control mechanism, an attitude dynamic model with single moving mass is generated. The dynamic analysis indicates that the control stability, control authority and dynamic behavior of the pitch channel are determined by the mass ratio of the moving mass to the system and the difference between the mass center of the moving mass and the mass center of the vehicle body. Interestingly, control authority increases proportionally with increasing mass ratio and also with decreasing the magnitude of the static margin. To deal with the coupling caused by the additional inertia moment which is generated by the motion of the moving mass, an adaptive control law by using dynamic inversion theory and the extended state observer is designed. Also, a compensator is designed for eliminating the influence of the servo actuator's dynamics on attitude of the flight vehicle. Finally, the simulation results validate the quality of the proposed adaptive controller which ensures a good performance in the novel configuration with internal moving mass.

  9. 14 CFR 417.305 - Command control system testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Command control system testing. 417.305..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.305 Command control system testing. (a) General. (1) A command control system, including its subsystems and components must...

  10. Simulation results of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Ostroff, A.

    1986-01-01

    The restructurable flight control system (RFCS) described by Weiss et al. (1986) is reviewed, and several results of an extensive six degrees of freedom nonlinear simulation of several aspects of this system are reported. It is concluded that the nontraditional use of standard control surfaces in a nominal feedback control system to spread control authority among many redundant control elements provides a significant amount of fault tolerance without any use of restructuring techniques. The use of new feedback gains alone following a failure can provide significantly improved recovery as long as the control elements remain within their travel limits and as long as uncertainty about the failure identity is properly handled. The use of the feed-forward trim solution in conjunction with redesigned feedback gains allows recovery to take place even when significant control saturation occurs.

  11. Simulation results of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Ostroff, A.

    1986-01-01

    The restructurable flight control system (RFCS) described by Weiss et al. (1986) is reviewed, and several results of an extensive six degrees of freedom nonlinear simulation of several aspects of this system are reported. It is concluded that the nontraditional use of standard control surfaces in a nominal feedback control system to spread control authority among many redundant control elements provides a significant amount of fault tolerance without any use of restructuring techniques. The use of new feedback gains alone following a failure can provide significantly improved recovery as long as the control elements remain within their travel limits and as long as uncertainty about the failure identity is properly handled. The use of the feed-forward trim solution in conjunction with redesigned feedback gains allows recovery to take place even when significant control saturation occurs.

  12. The Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test A Highly Successful Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert; Taylor, Anthony P. (Tony); Johnston, Justin

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test was designed as an early demonstration of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Orion capsule. The LAS was designed developed and manufactured by the Lockheed Martin/Orbital Sciences team. At inception it was realized that recovery of the Orion Capsule simulator would be useful from an engineering analysis and data recovery point of view. Additionally this test represented a flight opportunity for the Orion parachute system, which in a real abort would provide final landing deceleration. The Orion parachute program is named CPAS (CEV Parachute Assembly System). Thus CPAS became a part of the PA-1 flight, as a secondary test objective. At program kick off, the CPAS system was in the design state described below. Airbag land landing of the spacecraft was the program baseline. This affected the rigging of the parachutes. The system entry deployment conditions and vehicle mass have both evolved since that original design. It was decided to use the baseline CPAS Generation 1 (Gen 1) parachute system for the recovery of the PA-1 flight. As CPAS was a secondary test objective, the system would be delivered in its developmental state. As the PA-1 program evolved, the parachute recovery system (CPAS) moved from a secondary objective to a more important portion of the program. Tests were added, weights and deployment conditions changed and some hardware portions of the CPAS configuration were not up to the new challenges. Additional tests were added to provide confidence in the developmental system. This paper will review a few of these aspects with the goal of showing some preliminary and qualitative results from what we believe was a highly successful test.

  13. An LMI-based decoupling control for electromagnetic formation flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xianlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF leverages electromagnetic force to control the relative position of satellites. EMFF offers a promising alternative to traditional propellant-based spacecraft flight formation. This novel strategy is very attractive since it does not consume fuel. Due to the highly coupled nonlinearity of electromagnetic force, it is difficult to individually design a controller for one satellite without considering others, which poses challenges to communications. This paper is devoted to decoupling control of EMFF, including regulations, constraints and controller design. A learning-based adaptive sliding mode decoupling controller is analyzed to illustrate the problem of existing results, and input rate saturation is introduced to guarantee the validity of frequency division technique. Through transformation, the imposed input rate saturation is converted to state and input constraints. A linear matrix inequalities (LMI-based robust optimal control method can then be used and improved to solve the transformed problem. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling control.

  14. DARPA/USAF/USN J-UCAS X-45A System Demonstration Program: A Review of Flight Test Site Processes and Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) program is a collaborative effort between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), the US Air Force (USAF) and the US Navy (USN). Together they have reviewed X-45A flight test site processes and personnel as part of a system demonstration program for the UCAV-ATD Flight Test Program. The goal was to provide a disciplined controlled process for system integration and testing and demonstration flight tests. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) acted as the project manager during this effort and was tasked with the responsibilities of range and ground safety, the provision of flight test support and infrastructure and the monitoring of technical and engineering tasks. DFRC also contributed their engineering knowledge through their contributions in the areas of autonomous ground taxi control development, structural dynamics testing and analysis and the provision of other flight test support including telemetry data, tracking radars, and communications and control support equipment. The Air Force Flight Test Center acted at the Deputy Project Manager in this effort and was responsible for the provision of system safety support and airfield management and air traffic control services, among other supporting roles. The T-33 served as a J-UCAS surrogate aircraft and demonstrated flight characteristics similar to that of the the X-45A. The surrogate served as a significant risk reduction resource providing mission planning verification, range safety mission assessment and team training, among other contributions.

  15. Application of a flight test and data analysis technique to flutter of a drone aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Modal identification results presented were obtained from recent flight flutter tests of a drone vehicle with a research wing (DAST ARW-1 for Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing, Aeroelastic Research Wing-1). This vehicle is equipped with an active flutter suppression system (FSS). Frequency and damping of several modes are determined by a time domain modal analysis of the impulse response function obtained by Fourier transformations of data from fast swept sine wave excitation by the FSS control surface on the wing. Flutter points are determined for two different altitudes with the FSS off. Data are given for near the flutter boundary with the FSS on.

  16. A nonlinear trajectory command generator for a digital flight-control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-01-01

    Operational application of the command generator (CG) was examined in detail in a simulation of a flight control system with the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. The basic repertoire of single axis maneuvers and operational constraints are discussed, and the system behavior is tested on a rigorous STOL approach path and as affected by various approximations in the CG synthesis and types of disturbances found in the operational environment. The simulation results indicate that a satisfactory nonlinear system with general maneuvering capabilities throughout the flight envelope was developed which satisfies the basic design objectives while maintaining a practicable degree of simplicity.

  17. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  18. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  19. Aircraft automatic flight control system with model inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, George

    1990-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to verify the advantages of a Newton-Raphson model-inversion technique as a design basis for an automatic trajectory control system in an aircraft with highly nonlinear characteristics. The simulation employed a detailed mathematical model of the aerodynamic and propulsion system performance characteristics of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing tactical aircraft. The results obtained confirm satisfactory control system performance over a large portion of the flight envelope. System response to wind gusts was satisfactory for various plausible combinations of wind magnitude and direction.

  20. Aircraft automatic flight control system with model inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, George

    1990-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to verify the advantages of a Newton-Raphson model-inversion technique as a design basis for an automatic trajectory control system in an aircraft with highly nonlinear characteristics. The simulation employed a detailed mathematical model of the aerodynamic and propulsion system performance characteristics of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing tactical aircraft. The results obtained confirm satisfactory control system performance over a large portion of the flight envelope. System response to wind gusts was satisfactory for various plausible combinations of wind magnitude and direction.

  1. The effects of lightning on digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Malloy, W. A.; Craft, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Present practices in lightning protection of aircraft deal primarily with the direct effects of lightning, such as structural damage and ignition of fuel vapors. There is increasing evidence of troublesome electromagnetic effects, however, in aircraft employing solid-state microelectronics in critical navigation, instrumentation and control functions. The potential impact of these indirect effects on critical systems such as digital fly by wire (DFBW) flight controls was studied. The results indicate a need for positive steps to be taken during the design of future fly by wire systems to minimize the possibility of hazardous effects from lightning.

  2. Multiagent Flight Control in Dynamic Environments with Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Matthew D.; Colby, Mitchell; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic flight environments in which objectives and environmental features change with respect to time pose a difficult problem with regards to planning optimal flight paths. Path planning methods are typically computationally expensive, and are often difficult to implement in real time if system objectives are changed. This computational problem is compounded when multiple agents are present in the system, as the state and action space grows exponentially. In this work, we use cooperative coevolutionary algorithms in order to develop policies which control agent motion in a dynamic multiagent unmanned aerial system environment such that goals and perceptions change, while ensuring safety constraints are not violated. Rather than replanning new paths when the environment changes, we develop a policy which can map the new environmental features to a trajectory for the agent while ensuring safe and reliable operation, while providing 92% of the theoretically optimal performance

  3. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  4. H-infinity based integrated flight/propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle; Ouzts, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents results from an application of H(infinity) control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic STOVL fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC design with controller partitioning. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H(infinity) control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objective. The H(infinity) controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance.

  5. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...). Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This...

  6. Flying Boresight for Advanced Testing and Calibration of Tracking Antennas and Flight Path Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, D.

    2015-09-01

    The application of ground-based boresight sources for calibration and testing of tracking antennas usually entails various difficulties, mostly due to unwanted ground effects. To avoid this problem, DLR MORABA developed a small, lightweight, frequency-adjustable S-band boresight source, mounted on a small remote-controlled multirotor aircraft. Highly accurate GPS-supported, position and altitude control functions allow both, very steady positioning of the aircraft in mid-air, and precise waypoint-based, semi-autonomous flights. In contrast to fixed near-ground boresight sources this flying setup enables to avoid obstructions in the Fresnel zone between source and antenna. Further, it minimizes ground reflections and other multipath effects which can affect antenna calibration. In addition, the large operating range of a flying boresight simplifies measurements in the far field of the antenna and permits undisturbed antenna pattern tests. A unique application is the realistic simulation of sophisticated flight paths, including overhead tracking and demanding trajectories of fast objects such as sounding rockets. Likewise, dynamic tracking tests are feasible which provide crucial information about the antenna pedestal performance — particularly at high elevations — and reveal weaknesses in the autotrack control loop of tracking antenna systems. During acceptance tests of MORABA's new tracking antennas, a manned aircraft was never used, since the Flying Boresight surpassed all expectations regarding usability, efficiency, and precision. Hence, it became an integral part of MORABA's standard antenna setup and calibration procedures.

  7. Flight validation of ground-based assessment for control power requirements at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.; Abbott, Troy D.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented in viewgraph format of an ongoing NASA/U.S. Navy study to determine control power requirements at high angles of attack for the next generation high-performance aircraft. This paper focuses on recent flight test activities using the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which are intended to validate results of previous ground-based simulation studies. The purpose of this study is discussed, and the overall program structure, approach, and objectives are described. Results from two areas of investigation are presented: (1) nose-down control power requirements and (2) lateral-directional control power requirements. Selected results which illustrate issues and challenges that are being addressed in the study are discussed including test methodology, comparisons between simulation and flight, and general lessons learned.

  8. A new test environment for the SOFIA secondary mirror assembly to reduce the required time for in-flight testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammen, Yannick; Reinacher, Andreas; Brewster, Rick; Greiner, Benjamin; Graf, Friederike; Krabbe, Alfred

    2016-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) reached its full operational capability in 2014 and takes off from the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center to explore the universe about three times a week. Maximizing the program's scientific output naturally leaves very little flight time for implementation and test of improved soft- and hardware. Consequently, it is very important to have a comparable test environment and infrastructure to perform troubleshooting, verifications and improvements on ground without interfering with science missions. SOFIA's Secondary Mirror Mechanism is one of the most complex systems of the observatory. In 2012 a first simple laboratory mockup of the mechanism was built to perform basic controller tests in the lower frequency band of up to 50Hz. This was a first step to relocate required engineering tests from the active observatory into the laboratory. However, to test and include accurate filters and damping methods as well as to evaluate hardware modifications a more precise mockup is required that represents the system characteristics over a much larger frequency range. Therefore the mockup has been improved in several steps to a full test environment representing the system dynamics with high accuracy. This new ground equipment allows moving almost the entire secondary mirror test activities away from the observatory. As fast actuator in the optical path, the SMM also plays a major role in SOFIA's pointing stabilization concept. To increase the steering bandwidth, hardware changes are required that ultimately need to be evaluated using the telescope optics. One interesting concept presented in this contribution is the in- stallation of piezo stack actuators between the mirror and the chopping mechanism. First successful baseline tests are presented. An outlook is given about upcoming performance tests of the actively controlled piezo stage with local metrology and optical feedback. To minimize the impact on

  9. Visual Flight Control of a Quadrotor Using Bioinspired Motion Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection in the fly is extremely fast with low computational requirements. Inspired from the fly's vision system, we focus on a real-time flight control on a miniquadrotor with fast visual feedback. In this work, an elaborated elementary motion detector (EMD is utilized to detect local optical flow. Combined with novel receptive field templates, the yaw rate of the quadrotor is estimated through a lookup table established with this bioinspired visual sensor. A closed-loop control system with the feedback of yaw rate estimated by EMD is designed. With the motion of the other degrees of freedom stabilized by a camera tracking system, the yaw-rate of the quadrotor during hovering is controlled based on EMD feedback under real-world scenario. The control performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of conventional approach. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of utilizing EMD for quadrotor control.

  10. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) flight characterization experiments performed using an F/A-18 (TN 853). AAC was designed and developed specifically for launch vehicles, and is currently part of the baseline autopilot design for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The scope covered here includes a brief overview of the algorithm (covered in more detail elsewhere), motivation and benefits of flight testing, top-level SLS flight test objectives, applicability of the F/A-18 as a platform for testing a launch vehicle control design, test cases designed to fully vet the AAC algorithm, flight test results, and conclusions regarding the functionality of AAC. The AAC algorithm developed at Marshall Space Flight Center is a forward loop gain multiplicative adaptive algorithm that modifies the total attitude control system gain in response to sensed model errors or undesirable parasitic mode resonances. The AAC algorithm provides the capability to improve or decrease performance by balancing attitude tracking with the mitigation of parasitic dynamics, such as control-structure interaction or servo-actuator limit cycles. In the case of the latter, if unmodeled or mismodeled parasitic dynamics are present that would otherwise result in a closed-loop instability or near instability, the adaptive controller decreases the total loop gain to reduce the interaction between these dynamics and the controller. This is in contrast to traditional adaptive control logic, which focuses on improving performance by increasing gain. The computationally simple AAC attitude control algorithm has stability properties that are reconcilable in the context of classical frequency-domain criteria (i.e., gain and phase margin). The algorithm assumes that the baseline attitude control design is well-tuned for a nominal trajectory and is designed to adapt only when necessary. Furthermore, the adaptation is attracted to the nominal design and adapts only on an as-needed basis

  11. The experimental determination of atmospheric absorption from aircraft acoustic flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Oncley, P. B.

    1971-01-01

    A method for determining atmospheric absorption coefficients from acoustic flight test data is presented. Measurements from five series of acoustic flight tests were included in the study. The number of individual flights totaled 24: six Boeing 707 flights performed in May 1969 in connection with the turbofan nacelle modification program, eight flights from Boeing tests conducted during the same period, and 10 flights of the Boeing 747 airplane. The effects of errors in acoustic, meteorological, and aircraft performance and position measurements are discussed. Tabular data of the estimated sample variance of the data for each test are given for source directivity angles from 75 deg to 120 deg and each 1/3-octave frequency band. Graphic comparisons are made of absorption coefficients derived from ARP 866, using atmospheric profile data, with absorption coefficients determined by the experimental method described in the report.

  12. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  13. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  14. A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

  15. A Robust H∞ Controller for an UAV Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of a robust H∞ controller for an UAV to track all types of manoeuvres in the presence of noisy environment. A robust inner-outer loop strategy is implemented. To design the H∞ robust controller in the inner loop, H∞ control methodology is used. The two controllers that conform the outer loop are designed using the H∞ Loop Shaping technique. The reference vector used in the control architecture formed by vertical velocity, true airspeed, and heading angle, suggests a nontraditional way to pilot the aircraft. The simulation results show that the proposed control scheme works well despite the presence of noise and uncertainties, so the control system satisfies the requirements.

  16. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  17. Investigation and flight tests on control and stability of aircraft with after-mounted propeller and flexible wing%螺旋桨推进式柔性翼飞机操稳特性研究与试飞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大卫; 吴征; 张兰丁; 邓彦敏

    2011-01-01

    Small scale aircraft with flexible wing is relatively popular among utility aircrafts and in some special fields, but there are still confusions in conceptual design which is mainly according to experiences. These aircrafts u sually have the configuration of high wing with flexible fabric skin and after-mounted propeller, therefore the charac ters of aerodynamics, layout and power effect bring about some prominent particularities in flight dynamics. According to aerodynamic prediction, wind tunnel tests and flight tests, this paper shows some conclusions about longitudinal/ lateral contol and stability different from conventional aircrafts and gives the physical explanations for the results, then supplies the suitable methods of modeling these aircrafts for analyzing flight dynamics and recommends a series of range for designing parameters different from other conventional aircrafts.%采用柔性翼面的小型飞行器在通用航空器和特种飞行器领域得到了较广泛的应用.由于此类飞行器往往采用蒙皮为可变形柔性织物的高置上单翼以及推进式螺旋桨,其特殊的升阻特性、总体布局和动力影响使得其飞行动力学具有很大特殊性.结合气动力估算、风洞实验和飞行实验结果,在此类飞机的纵、横航向操纵性与稳定性方面得出了有别于传统飞机的一些结论,并给出了有关物理解释;提供了适合此类飞机的飞行动力学建模方法和一系列有别于传统飞机的设计参数取值范围.

  18. Celebrating 100 Years of Flight: Testing Wing Designs in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugalee, David K.; Nusinov, Chuck; Giersch, Chris; Royster, David; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation involving several designs of airplane wings in trial flight simulations based on a NASA CONNECT program. Students' experiences with data collection and interpretation are highlighted. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pmuscle performance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

  20. DESIGNING REDUCED-ORDER CONTROLLERS OF MIXED SENSITIVITY PROBLEM FOR FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI), the design method of reduced-order controllers of mixed sensitivity problem is studied for flight control systems. It is shown that there exists a controller with order not greater than the difference between the generalized plant order and the number of independent control variables, if the mixed sensitivity problem is solvable for strict regular flight control plants. The proof is constructive, and an approach to design such a controller can be obtained in terms of a pair of feasible solution to the well-known 3 LMI. Finally, an example of mixed sensitivity problem for a flight control system is given to demonstrate practice of the approach.

  1. Flight Control System Design with Rate Saturating Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.; Snell, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    Actuator rate saturation is an important factor adversely affecting the stability and performance of aircraft flight control systems. It has been identified as a catalyst in pilot-induced oscillations, some of which have been catastrophic. A simple design technique is described that utilizes software rate limiters to improve the performance of control systems operating in the presence of actuator rate saturation. As described, the technique requires control effectors to be ganged such that any effector is driven by only a single compensated error signal. Using an analysis of the steady-state behavior of the system, requirements are placed upon the type of the loop transmissions and compensators in the proposed technique. Application of the technique to the design of a multi-input/multi-output, lateral-directional control system for a simple model of a high-performance fighter is demonstrated as are the stability and performance improvements that can accrue with the technique.

  2. CFD to Flight: Some Recent Success Stories of X-Plane Design to Flight Test at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2007-01-01

    Several examples from the past decade of success stories involving the design and flight test of three true X-planes will be described: in particular, X-plane design techniques that relied heavily upon computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Three specific examples chosen from the author s personal experience are presented: the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, the X-45A Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle, and, most recently, the X-48B Blended Wing Body Demonstrator Aircraft. An overview will be presented of the uses of CFD analysis, comparisons and contrasts with wind tunnel testing, and information derived from the CFD analysis that directly related to successful flight test. Some lessons learned on the proper application, and misapplication, of CFD are illustrated. Finally, some highlights of the flight-test results of the three example X-planes will be presented. This overview paper will discuss some of the author s experience with taking an aircraft shape from early concept and three-dimensional modeling through CFD analysis, wind tunnel testing, further refined CFD analysis, and, finally, flight. An overview of the key roles in which CFD plays well during this process, and some other roles in which it does not, are discussed. How wind tunnel testing complements, calibrates, and verifies CFD analysis is also covered. Lessons learned on where CFD results can be misleading are also given. Strengths and weaknesses of the various types of flow solvers, including panel methods, Euler, and Navier-Stokes techniques, are discussed. The paper concludes with the three specific examples, including some flight test video footage of the X-36, the X-45A, and the X-48B.

  3. Use of ILTV Control Laws for LaNCETS Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A report discusses the Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) test to investigate the effects of lift distribution and nozzle-area ratio changes on tail shock strength of an F-15 aircraft. Specific research objectives are to obtain inflight shock strength for multiple combinations of nozzle-area ratio and lift distribution; compare results with preflight prediction tools; and update predictive tools with flight results. The objectives from a stability and control perspective are to ensure adequate aircraft stability for the changes in lift distribution and plume shape, and ensure manageable transient from engaging and disengaging the ILTV research control laws. In order to change the lift distribution and plume shape of the F-15 aircraft, a decade-old Inner Loop Thrust Vectoring (ILTV) research control law was used. Flight envelope expansion was performed for the test configuration and flight conditions prior to the probing test points. The approach for achieving the research objectives was to utilize the unique capabilities of NASA's NF-15B-837 aircraft to allow the adjustment of the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions by engaging the ILTV research control laws. The ILTV control laws provide the ability to add trim command biases to canard positions, nozzle area ratios, and thrust vectoring through the use of datasets. Datasets consist of programmed test inputs (PTIs) that define trims to change the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions. The trims are applied as increments to the normally commanded positions. A LaNCETS non-linear, six-degrees-of-freedom simulation capable of realtime pilot-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, and non-real-time batch support was developed and validated. Prior to first flight, extensive simulation analyses were performed to show adequate stability margins with the changes in lift distribution and plume shape. Additionally, engagement/disengagement transient analysis was also performed to show manageable

  4. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  5. Flight tests of a rotating cylinder flap on a North American Rockwell YOV-10 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, D. R.; Harris, J. W.; Mackay, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted of a twin engine airplane modified to a STOL configuration with rotating cylinder flaps and interconnected propellers. The flight tests included verification of the functional operation of the rotating cylinder flap system and the determination of the low speed flying qualities and performance characteristics with emphasis on approach and landing.

  6. Identification of a coupled flapping/inflow model for the PUMA helicopter from flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Val, Ronald; Bruhis, Ofer; Green, John

    1989-01-01

    A model validation procedure is applied to a coupled flapping/inflow model of a PUMA helicopter blade. The structure of the baseline model is first established. Model structure and flight test data are checked for consistency. Parameters of the model are then identified from the flight test data.

  7. The use of differential pressure feedback in an automatic flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D. W.; Roskam, J.; Finn, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study has been performed to evaluate the performance of a system whereby a control surface is positioned with differential pressure as the feedback variable. Analogous to a position command system, the control surface is commanded to move until a certain differential pressure is achieved at a given point on the surface. Frequency response tests and theoretical considerations indicate that the pressure feedback transfer function is first order, with a break frequency up to 50 rad/sec. There exist applications to the outer loops of flight control systems as well. Stability augmentation, gust alleviation, and stall prevention appear to be possible by feeding back differential pressure across lifting and control surfaces.

  8. Digital system identification and its application to digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotob, S.; Kaufman, H.

    1974-01-01

    On-line system identification of linear discrete systems for implementation in a digital adaptive flight controller is considered by the conventional extended Kalman filter and a decoupling process in which the linear state estimation problem and the linear parameter identification problem are each treated separately and alternately. Input requirements for parameter identifiability are established using the standard conditions of observability for a time variant system. Experimental results for simulated linearized lateral aircraft motion are included along with the effect of different initialization and updating procedures for the priming trajectory used by the filter.

  9. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multivariable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. In these example evaluations, the significance of these interactions was underscored. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important nonlinear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multivariable techniques, including model-following formulations of LQG and/or H infinity methods, showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods. The major contributions of the second phase of the grant was the development of conditions under which no decentralized controller could achieve closed loop system requirements on stability and/or performance. Sought were conditions that depended only on properties of the plant and the requirement, and independent of any particular control law or synthesis approach. Therefore, they could be applied a priori, before synthesis of a candidate control law. Under this grant, such conditions were found regarding stability, and encouraging initial results were obtained regarding performance.

  10. Information distribution in distributed microprocessor based flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Lee, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal control theory that accounts for variable time intervals in the information distribution to control effectors in a distributed microprocessor based flight control system. The theory is developed using a linear process model for the aircraft dynamics and the information distribution process is modeled as a variable time increment process where, at the time that information is supplied to the control effectors, the control effectors know the time of the next information update only in a stochastic sense. An optimal control problem is formulated and solved that provides the control law that minimizes the expected value of a quadratic cost function. An example is presented where the theory is applied to the control of the longitudinal motions of the F8-DFBW aircraft. Theoretical and simulation results indicate that, for the example problem, the optimal cost obtained using a variable time increment Markov information update process where the control effectors know only the past information update intervals and the Markov transition mechanism is almost identical to that obtained using a known uniform information update interval.

  11. Designing a Biomimetic Ornithopter Capable of Sustained and Controlled Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joon Hyuk Park; Kwang-Joon Yoon

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design of four ornithopters ranging in wing span from 10 cm to 40 cm, and in weight from 5 g to 45 g. The controllability and power supply are two major considerations, so we compare the efficiency and characteristics between different types of subsystems such as gearbox and tail shape. Our current ornithopter is radio-controlled with inbuilt visual sensing and capable of takeoff and landing. We also concentrate on its wing efficiency based on design inspired by a real insect wing and consider that aspects of insect flight such as delayed stall and wake capture are essential at such small size. Most importantly, the advance ratio, controlled either by enlarging the wing beat amplitude or raising the wing beat frequency, is the most significant factor in an ornithopter which mimics an insect.

  12. Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training for Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R. D.; Zbozinek, T. D.; Hentschel, P. G.; Smith, S, M.; O'Brien J.; Oftedal, A.; Craske, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Stress and anxiety-related problems are among the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society, and for those working in operational environments (i.e. astronauts, flight controllers, military) this can seriously impact crew performance, safety, and wellbeing. Technology-based interventions are effective for treating behavioral health problems, and can significantly improve the delivery of evidence-based health care. This study is evaluating the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of a self-guided multimedia stress management and resilience training program in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. The intervention, SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance), is a six-session, cognitive behavioral-based computer program that uses self-guided, interactive activities to teach skills that can help individuals build resilience and manage stress. In a prior RCT with a sample of stressed but otherwise healthy individuals, SMART-OP reduced perceived stress and increased perceived control over stress in comparison to an Attention Control (AC) group. SMART-OP was rated as "highly useful" and "excellent" in usability and acceptability. Based on a-amylase data, individuals in SMART-OP recovered quicker and more completely from a social stress test as compared to the AC group [1]. In the current study, flight controllers are randomized either to receive SMART-OP training, or to a 6-week waitlist control period (WLC) before beginning SMART-OP. Eligible participants include JSC flight controllers and instructors without any medical or psychiatric disorder, but who are stressed based on self-report. Flight controllers provide a valid analog sample to astronauts in that they work in an operational setting, use similar terminology to astronauts, are mission-focused, and work under the same broader work culture. The study began in December 2014, and to date 79 flight

  13. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Linda L.; Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, A. S.; Carrington, Connie; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success ofthe Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-Ioop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of "pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  14. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Linda L.; Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, A. S.; Carrington, Connie; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success ofthe Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-Ioop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of "pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  15. Aircraft Integration and Flight Testing of 4STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, E; Russell, P; Redemann, J; Dunagan, S; Holben, B

    2012-10-12

    Under funding from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, in conjunction with a funded NASA 2008 ROSES proposal, with internal support from Battelle Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD), and in collaboration with NASA Ames Research Center, we successfully integrated the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR-Air) instrument for flight operation aboard Battelle’s G-1 aircraft and conducted a series of airborne and ground-based intensive measurement campaigns (hereafter referred to as “intensives”) for the purpose of maturing the initial 4STAR-Ground prototype to a flight-ready science-ready configuration.

  16. Flight control synthesis for flexible aircraft using Eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. B.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magnitudes for selected system responses. Two of these are investigated. The first directly determines constant measurement feedback gains that will yield a close-loop system eigenspace close to a desired eigenspace. The second technique selects quadratic weighting matrices in a linear quadratic control synthesis that will asymptotically yield the close-loop achievable eigenspace. Finally, the possibility of using either of these techniques with state estimation is explored. Application of the methods to synthesize integrated flight-control and structural-mode-control laws for a large flexible aircraft is demonstrated and results discussed. Eigenspace selection criteria based on design goals are discussed, and for the study case it would appear that a desirable eigenspace can be obtained. In addition, the importance of state-space selection is noted along with problems with reduced-order measurement feedback. Since the full-state control laws may be implemented with dynamic compensation (state estimation), the use of reduced-order measurement feedback is less desirable. This is especially true since no change in the transient response from the pilot's input results if state estimation is used appropriately. The potential is also noted for high actuator bandwidth requirements if the linear quadratic synthesis approach is utilized. Even with the actuator pole location selected, a problem with unmodeled modes is noted due to high bandwidth. Some suggestions for future research include investigating how to choose an eigenspace that will achieve certain desired dynamics and stability robustness, determining how the choice of measurements effects synthesis results, and exploring how the phase relationships between desired

  17. Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    USAARL Report No. 2016-07 Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test By...pilot evaluation of The Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) during simulated flight . The objective was to evaluate the ability of TSAS to improve...summarizes recent findings obtained during a simulated helicopter flight employing TSAS. The objective was to evaluate the ability of TSAS to improve a

  18. Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching a...

  19. Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching...

  20. Contrasting Perspectives Of Junior versus Senior NASA ISS Flight Controllers On Leadership And Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Boyd, J. E.; Saylor, S.; Kanas, N.

    2007-01-01

    NASA flight controllers have always worked in a very demanding environment, but the International Space Station (ISS) poses even more challenges than prior missions. A recent NASA/Ames survey by Parke and Orasanu of NASA/Johnson flight controllers uncovered concerns about communications problems between American personnel and their international counterparts. To better understand these problems, we interviewed 14 senior and 12 junior ISS flight controllers at NASA/Johnson about leadership and cultural challenges they face and strategies for addressing these challenges. The qualitative interview data were coded and tabulated. Here we present quantitative analyses testing for differences between junior and senior controllers. Based on nonparametric statistical tests comparing responses across groups, the senior controllers were significantly more aware of the impact of working in dispersed teams, the context of constant change, and the upcoming multilateral challenges, while junior controllers were more aware of language and cultural issues. We consider our findings in light of other studies of controllers and other known differences between senior and junior controllers. For example, the fact that senior controllers had their formative early experience controlling pre-ISS short-duration Shuttle missions seems to have both positive and negative aspects, which are supported by our data. Our findings may also reflect gender differences, but we cannot unconfound this effect in our data because all the senior respondents were males. Many of the junior-senior differences are not only due to elapsed time on the job, but also due to a cohort effect. The findings of this study should be used for training curricula tailored differently for junior and senior controllers.

  1. Study of the feasibility aspects of flight testing an aeroelastically tailored forward swept research wing on a BQM-34F drone vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The aspects of flight testing an aeroelastically tailored forward swept research wing on a BQM-34F drone vehicle are examined. The geometry of a forward swept wing, which is incorporated into the BQM-34F to maintain satisfactory flight performance, stability, and control is defined. A preliminary design of the aeroelastically tailored forward swept wing is presented.

  2. TASAR Flight Trial 2: Assessment of Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of TASAR Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In support of the Flight Trial (FT-2) of NASA's prototype of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept, observations were conducted at the air traffic facilities to identify and assess the main factors that affect the acceptability of pilot requests by air traffic controllers. Two observers shadowed air traffic controllers at the Atlanta (ZTL) and Jacksonville (ZJX) air traffic control centers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed the observed and other controllers voluntarily. Fifty controllers were interviewed with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. All interviewed controllers were enthusiastic about the technology and accounting for sector boundaries in pilot requests, particularly if pilots can be made aware of high workload situations. All interviewed controllers accept more than fifty percent of pilot requests; forty percent of them reject less than ten percent of requests. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating letters of agreement (LOAs) and negatively impacting neighboring sector workload, major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Thirty-six requests were made during the test, eight of which were rejected due to: the aircraft already handed off to another sector, violating LOA, opposing traffic, intruding into an active special use airspace (SUA), intruding into another center, weather, and unfamiliarity with the requested waypoint. Nine requests were accepted with delay mostly because the controller needed to locate unfamiliar waypoints or to coordinate with other controllers.

  3. Day/night ANVIS/HUD-24 (day HUD) flight test and pilot evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yona, Zvi; Weiser, Ben; Hamburger, Oded

    2004-09-01

    The Day/Night ANVIS/HUD-24 gives pilots the ultimate head-out flight solution: 24-hour operational capability from a single integrated system. The basic integrated system combines the standard Night Vision Goggle (NVG) image with vital aircraft flight and navigation information, currently operational on over 4500 helicopters worldwide. Introducing the new Day HUD add-on module the same flight information is displayed for day use. The Day Head Up Display (HUD) is an add-on, complimentary to the basic night ANVIS/HUD system (AN/AVS-7). A lightweight optical module enhancing the day flight operation is designed to allow utility and reconnaissance helicopter day-mission operation by providing complete daytime head-out flight information. This add-on unit enhances flight safety, maximizes tactical survivability, and increases situational awareness during critical landing and takeoff phases. The Day HUD offers a unique 25° field-of-view, monocular, see-through flight information display. It mounts directly to the standard NVG mounting, incorporating a state of the art AMLCD flat panel display, high brightness solid-state backlight and compact optics resulting in a high contrast, high visibility display. The Day HUD test and evaluation program included extensive man-machine interface tests and numerous flight test aircraft in more than six separate countries. This paper will also address flight training, customer acceptance and expand on these findings and observations.

  4. Design and test of an NLF wing glove for the variable-sweep transition flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Ed G.; Campbell, Richard L.; Phillips, Pam S.; Hallissy, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Gloves for M = 0.7 and 0.8 design points were computationally designed and analyzed at conditions over the proposed flight test envelope. The resulting computational pressure distributions were analyzed in a boundary layer stability code. These results indicate that the available pressure distributions offer a wide range of combinations of cross flow and Tollmien-Schlichting N-factors. The glove designs along with the baseline configuration were tested in an entry into the National Transonic Facility. Analysis of the force and moment data showed no significant differences in the performance and stability and control characteristics between the baseline and gloved configurations. The rolling moment constraint was met over the entire flight test envelope for the gloved configuration. Pressure distributions for the NTF test confirmed the design pressure distributions were achieved. However, it was decided that with minor modifications to the inboard region of the glove, useful available data could be significantly increased by adding another row of pressure orifices at span station 167.

  5. Emergency Flight Control Using Only Engine Thrust and Lateral Center-of-Gravity Offset: A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.; Bull, John

    1997-01-01

    Normally, the damage that results in a total loss of the primary flight controls of a jet transport airplane, including all engines on one side, would be catastrophic. In response, NASA Dryden has conceived an emergency flight control system that uses only the thrust of a wing-mounted engine along with a lateral center-of-gravity (CGY) offset from fuel transfer. Initial analysis and simulation studies indicate that such a system works, and recent high-fidelity simulation tests on the MD-11 and B-747 suggest that the system provides enough control for a survivable landing. This paper discusses principles of flight control using only a wing engine thrust and CGY offset, along with the amount of CGY offset capability of some transport airplanes. The paper also presents simulation results of the throttle-only control capability and closed-loop control of ground track using computer-controlled thrust.

  6. F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft analytic redundancy management flight test experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The formulation and flight test results of an algorithm to detect and isolate the first failure of any one of twelve duplex control sensors being monitored are described. The technique uses like sensor output differences for fault detection while relying upon analytic redundancy relationships among unlike quantities to isolate the faulty sensor. The fault isolation logic utilizes the modified sequential probability ratio test, which explicitly accommodates the inevitable irreducible low frequency errors present in the analytic redundancy residuals. In addition, the algorithm uses sensor output selftest, which takes advantage of the duplex sensor structure by immediately removing a highly erratic sensor from control calculations and analytic redundancy relationships while awaiting a definitive fault isolation decision via analytic redundancy.

  7. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  8. Flight control design using a blend of modern nonlinear adaptive and robust techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong

    In this dissertation, the modern control techniques of feedback linearization, mu synthesis, and neural network based adaptation are used to design novel control laws for two specific applications: F/A-18 flight control and reusable launch vehicle (an X-33 derivative) entry guidance. For both applications, the performance of the controllers is assessed. As a part of a NASA Dryden program to develop and flight test experimental controllers for an F/A-18 aircraft, a novel method of combining mu synthesis and feedback linearization is developed to design longitudinal and lateral-directional controllers. First of all, the open-loop and closed-loop dynamics of F/A-18 are investigated. The production F/A-18 controller as well as the control distribution mechanism are studied. The open-loop and closed-loop handling qualities of the F/A-18 are evaluated using low order transfer functions. Based on this information, a blend of robust mu synthesis and feedback linearization is used to design controllers for a low dynamic pressure envelope of flight conditions. For both the longitudinal and the lateral-directional axes, a robust linear controller is designed for a trim point in the center of the envelope. Then by including terms to cancel kinematic nonlinearities and variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments over the flight envelope, a complete nonlinear controller is developed. In addition, to compensate for the model uncertainty, linearization error and variations between operating points, neural network based adaptation is added to the designed longitudinal controller. The nonlinear simulations, robustness and handling qualities analysis indicate that the performance is similar to or better than that for the production F/A-18 controllers. When the dynamic pressure is very low, the performance of both the experimental and the production flight controllers is degraded, but Level I handling qualities are still achieved. A new generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles

  9. X-38: Parachute Canister Fired from Plywood Mockup during Flight Termination System Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    , an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March

  10. X-38: Plywood Mockup of Aft End Used for Flight Termination System Parachute Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further

  11. X-38: Close-up of Pyrotechnic Firing during Test of Flight Termination System Parachute Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research with the X-38 at Dryden began with an unpiloted captive-carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, Dryden's B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998

  12. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  13. Fault Tolerant Flight Control Using Sliding Modes and Subspace Identification-Based Predictive Control

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    2016-07-26

    In this work, a cascade structure of a time-scale separated integral sliding mode and model predictive control is proposed as a viable alternative for fault-tolerant control. A multi-variable sliding mode control law is designed as the inner loop of the flight control system. Subspace identification is carried out on the aircraft in closed loop. The identified plant is then used for model predictive controllers in the outer loop. The overall control law demonstrates improved robustness to measurement noise, modeling uncertainties, multiple faults and severe wind turbulence and gusts. In addition, the flight control system employs filters and dead-zone nonlinear elements to reduce chattering and improve handling quality. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controller using conventional fighter aircraft without control redundancy.

  14. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  15. H/OZ: PFD and Collaborative Flight Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition invented OZ, a primary flight display that provides a single, unified graphic display of critical flight...

  16. The B-747 flight control system maintenance and reliability data base for cost effectiveness tradeoff studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Primary and automatic flight controls are combined for a total flight control reliability and maintenance cost data base using information from two previous reports and additional cost data gathered from a major airline. A comparison of the current B-747 flight control system effects on reliability and operating cost with that of a B-747 designed for an active control wing load alleviation system is provided.

  17. MSFC Doppler Lidar Science experiments and operations plans for 1981 airborne test flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.

  18. X-51A Scramjet Demonstrator Program: Waverider Ground and Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    USAF) WaveRider program. The overall test objective of the X-51A program was to demonstrate a scramjet engine using endothermic hydrocarbon fuel...Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) scramjet engine , integrated into the vehicle, used endothermic hydrocarbon fuel (JP-7). The X-51A was designed to be...unlimited, 412TW-PA-13417 X-51A SCRAMJET DEMONSTRATOR PROGRAM: WAVERIDER GROUND AND FLIGHT TEST Maj Christopher M. Rondeau Chief Flight Test Engineer

  19. Piloted Simulator Evaluation Results of New Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Smaili, M.H.; Stroosma, O.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.; Joosten, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A high fidelity aircraft simulation model, reconstructed using the Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) of the 1992 Amsterdam Bijlmermeer aircraft accident (Flight 1862), has been used to evaluate a new Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm in an online piloted evaluation. This paper focuses on the

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-28

    Up to four lithium ion and lithium thionyl chloride batteries , each weighing between 1 and 40 lb (0.5 and 18.5 kg) Propulsion Approximately 3 lb...Record HCl Hydrogen Chloride HTV Hypersonic Technology Vehicle ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile INRMP Integrated Natural Resources Management...dual flight termination receivers, radar transponder, batteries , and harnesses. Onboard transmitter (radio frequency) power output varies from 10 to

  1. Environmental Assessment for Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Up to four lithium ion and lithium thionyl chloride batteries , each weighing between 1 and 40 lb (0.5 and 18.5 kg) Propulsion Approximately 3 lb...Record HCl Hydrogen Chloride HTV Hypersonic Technology Vehicle ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile INRMP Integrated Natural Resources Management...dual flight termination receivers, radar transponder, batteries , and harnesses. Onboard transmitter (radio frequency) power output varies from 10 to

  2. Ground test for vibration control demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.

    2016-09-01

    In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.

  3. Configuration management issues and objectives for a real-time research flight test support facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergensen, Stephen; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are some of the critical issues and objectives pertaining to configuration management for the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of Ames Research Center. The primary mission of the WATR is to provide a capability for the conduct of aeronautical research flight test through real-time processing and display, tracking, and communications systems. In providing this capability, the WATR must maintain and enforce a configuration management plan which is independent of, but complimentary to, various research flight test project configuration management systems. A primary WATR objective is the continued development of generic research flight test project support capability, wherein the reliability of WATR support provided to all project users is a constant priority. Therefore, the processing of configuration change requests for specific research flight test project requirements must be evaluated within a perspective that maintains this primary objective.

  4. Anthropometric considerations for a 4-axis side-arm flight controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debellis, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A data base on multiaxis side-arm flight controls was generated. The rapid advances in fly-by-light technology, automatic stability systems, and onboard computers have combined to create flexible flight control systems which could reduce the workload imposed on the operator by complex new equipment. This side-arm flight controller combines four controls into one unit and should simplify the pilot's task. However, the use of a multiaxis side-arm flight controller without complete cockpit integration may tend to increase the pilot's workload.

  5. Flexibility and control of thorax deformation during hawkmoth flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between neuromuscular systems and body mechanics plays an important role in the production of coordinated movements in animals. Lepidopteran insects move their wings by distortion of the thorax structure via the indirect flight muscles (IFMs), which are activated by neural signals at every stroke. However, how the action of these muscles affects thorax deformation and wing kinematics is poorly understood. We measured the deformation of the dorsal thorax (mesonotum) of tethered flying hawkmoths, Agrius convolvuli, using a high-speed laser profilometer combined with simultaneous recordings of electromyograms and wing kinematics. We observed that locally amplified mesonotum deformation near the wing hinges ensures sufficient wing movement. Furthermore, phase asymmetry in IFM activity leads to phase asymmetry in mesonotum oscillations and wingbeats. Our results revealed the flexibility and controllability of the single structure of the mesonotum by neurogenic action of the IFMs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. A mathematical perspective on flight dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    L'Afflitto, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This brief presents several aspects of flight dynamics, which are usually omitted or briefly mentioned in textbooks, in a concise, self-contained, and rigorous manner. The kinematic and dynamic equations of an aircraft are derived starting from the notion of the derivative of a vector and then thoroughly analysed, interpreting their deep meaning from a mathematical standpoint and without relying on physical intuition. Moreover, some classic and advanced control design techniques are presented and illustrated with meaningful examples. Distinguishing features that characterize this brief include a definition of angular velocity, which leaves no room for ambiguities, an improvement on traditional definitions based on infinitesimal variations. Quaternion algebra, Euler parameters, and their role in capturing the dynamics of an aircraft are discussed in great detail. After having analyzed the longitudinal- and lateral-directional modes of an aircraft, the linear-quadratic regulator, the linear-quadratic Gaussian r...

  7. Flight Dynamics and Control of Elastic Hypersonic Vehicles Uncertainty Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown previously that hypersonic air-breathing aircraft exhibit strong aeroelastic/aeropropulsive dynamic interactions. To investigate these, especially from the perspective of the vehicle dynamics and control, analytical expressions for key stability derivatives were derived, and an analysis of the dynamics was performed. In this paper, the important issue of model uncertainty, and the appropriate forms for representing this uncertainty, is addressed. It is shown that the methods suggested in the literature for analyzing the robustness of multivariable feedback systems, which as a prerequisite to their application assume particular forms of model uncertainty, can be difficult to apply on real atmospheric flight vehicles. Also, the extent to which available methods are conservative is demonstrated for this class of vehicle dynamics.

  8. Selecting a software development methodology. [of digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art analytical techniques for the development and verification of digital flight control software is studied and a practical designer oriented development and verification methodology is produced. The effectiveness of the analytic techniques chosen for the development and verification methodology are assessed both technically and financially. Technical assessments analyze the error preventing and detecting capabilities of the chosen technique in all of the pertinent software development phases. Financial assessments describe the cost impact of using the techniques, specifically, the cost of implementing and applying the techniques as well as the relizable cost savings. Both the technical and financial assessment are quantitative where possible. In the case of techniques which cannot be quantitatively assessed, qualitative judgements are expressed about the effectiveness and cost of the techniques. The reasons why quantitative assessments are not possible will be documented.

  9. Operational Lessons Learned from the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle

  10. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  11. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  12. Discrete Sliding Mode control of small UAS in tight formation flight under information constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Bolting , Jan; Fergani, Soheib; Biannic, Jean-Marc; Defay, François; Stolle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a new control strategy based on discrete sliding mode control of small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in tight formation flight under information constraints. Tight formation flight enables, among other advantages, significant performance benefits due to wake vortex interactions. A discrete robust control strategy based on the sliding mode approach and a leader-follower scheme is proposed to achieve the desired flight performances while assuming realistic informati...

  13. Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible Tiltrotor Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT CR-RDMR-AF-14-01 FLIGHT DYNAMICS SIMULATION MODELING AND CONTROL OF A LARGE FLEXIBLE TILTROTOR AIRCRAFT...September 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible...18 298-102 i/ii (Blank) FLIGHT DYNAMICS SIMULATION MODELING AND CONTROL OF A LARGE FLEXIBLE TILTROTOR AIRCRAFT by Ondrej Juhasz Dissertation

  14. Remote Manipulator System (RMS)-based Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) flight experiment feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Martha E.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of an experiment which will provide an on-orbit validation of Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology, was investigated. The experiment will demonstrate the on-orbit characterization and flexible-body control of large flexible structure dynamics using the shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with an attached payload as a test article. By utilizing existing hardware as well as establishing integration, operation and safety algorithms, techniques and procedures, the experiment will minimize the costs and risks of implementing a flight experiment. The experiment will also offer spin-off enhancement to both the Shuttle RMS (SRMS) and the Space Station RMS (SSRMS).

  15. Novel SiL evaluation of an optimal H∞ controller on the stability of a MAV in flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Rafael C. B.; Becker, Marcelo; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Freschi, Leonardo W.; Montanher, Marcelo P.

    This paper introduces a novel methodology to assist the evaluation of control algorithms for MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) using Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) based flight simulation. The originality of this paper is to use © Microsoft Flight Simulator (MSFS) as the environment to embed both the dynamic and graphic models of © Ascending Technologies Pelican MAV flying robot. The resulting is a reliable model of the Pelican quadrotor. The full duplex communication between the virtual aircraft and the control algorithm is achieved by a custom C++/C software named FVMS (Flight Variables Management System), developed by Aerial Robots Team (ART), which is able to reach (read/write) a great number of flight variables from MSFS. To illustrate the effectiveness of such method, we first completely present FVMS architecture and main features. Later, the synthesis and then the application of the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm and its operation into the FVMS SiL context are explained. Regarding MAVs control evaluation, SiL simulation considerably contributes to save battery time, to ease control synthesis and prototyping and to prevent accidents during tests with the real robot. The final goal is to evaluate the stability of the Pelican platform in hovering tasks in flight simulation focusing on the efficiency of FVMS to properly run the optimal H∞ robust control algorithm. The SiL control of the MAV has proven FVMS capabilities, which may be extended to assist the design of other classes of controllers.

  16. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the flight test from the autonomous airborne refueling system. It includes information on the prototype system that can autonomously perform fueling, including during a turn or mild turbulence, and the autonomous rendezvous capability.

  17. Aeroelastic Modeling of X-56A Stiff-Wing Configuration Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Boucher, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Aeroelastic stability and control derivatives for the X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed (MUTT), in the stiff-wing configuration, were estimated from flight test data using the output-error method. Practical aspects of the analysis are discussed. The orthogonal phase-optimized multisine inputs provided excellent data information for aeroelastic modeling. Consistent parameter estimates were determined using output error in both the frequency and time domains. The frequency domain analysis converged faster and was less sensitive to starting values for the model parameters, which was useful for determining the aeroelastic model structure and obtaining starting values for the time domain analysis. Including a modal description of the structure from a finite element model reduced the complexity of the estimation problem and improved the modeling results. Effects of reducing the model order on the short period stability and control derivatives were investigated.

  18. Using ATCOM to enhance long-range imagery collected by NASA's flight test tracking cameras at Armstrong Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Aaron; Tow, David; Kelmelis, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Located at Edwards Air Force Base, Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) is NASA's premier site for aeronautical research and operates some of the most advanced aircraft in the world. As such, flight tests for advanced manned and unmanned aircraft are regularly performed there. All such tests are tracked through advanced electro-optic imaging systems to monitor the flight status in real-time and to archive the data for later analysis. This necessitates the collection of imagery from long-range camera systems of fast moving targets from a significant distance away. Such imagery is severely degraded due to the atmospheric turbulence between the camera and the object of interest. The result is imagery that becomes blurred and suffers a substantial reduction in contrast, causing significant detail in the video to be lost. In this paper, we discuss the image processing techniques located in the ATCOM software, which uses a multi-frame method to compensate for the distortions caused by the turbulence.

  19. Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunchul

    the identification, control and general operation. A high-fidelity helicopter model is established with the lumped-parameter approach. With the lift and torque aerodynamic model of the main and tail rotors, a nonlinear simulation model is first constructed. The control models of the RUAVs used in our research are derived by the application of a time-domain parametric identification method to the flight data of target RUAVs. Two distinct control theories, namely classical control theory and modern linear robust control theory, are applied to the identified model. The proposed controllers are validated in a nonlinear simulation environment and tested in a series of test flights. With the successful implementation of the low-level vehicle controller, the guidance layer is designed. The waypoint navigator, which decides the adequate flight mode and the associated reference trajectory, serves as an intermediary between the low-level vehicle control layer and the high-level mission-planning layer. In order to interpret the abstract mission planning to commands that are compatible with the low-level structure, a novel framework called Vehicle Control Language (VCL) is developed. The key idea of VCL is to provide a mission-independent methodology to describe given flight patterns. The VCL processor and vehicle control layer are integrated into the hierarchical control structure, which is the backbone of our intelligent UAV system. The proposed idea is validated in the simulation environment and then fully tested in a series of flight tests.

  20. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  1. Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Vijgen, Paul M.; Reimer, Heidi M.; Gallegos, Joey L.; Spalart, Philippe R.

    1998-01-01

    A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.

  2. Flight Control Design for an Autonomous Rotorcraft Using Pseudo-Sliding Mode Control and Waypoint Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Nicolas Joseph

    The design of robust automated flight control systems for aircraft of varying size and complexity is a topic of continuing interest for both military and civilian industries. By merging the benefits of robustness from sliding mode control (SMC) with the familiarity and transparency of design tradeoff offered by frequency domain approaches, this thesis presents pseudo-sliding mode control as a viable option for designing automated flight control systems for complex six degree-of-freedom aircraft. The infinite frequency control switching of SMC is replaced, by necessity, with control inputs that are continuous in nature. An introduction to SMC theory is presented, followed by a detailed design of a pseudo-sliding mode control and automated flight control system for a six degree-of-freedom model of a Hughes OH6 helicopter. This model is then controlled through three different waypoint missions that demonstrate the stability of the system and the aircraft's ability to follow certain maneuvers despite time delays, large changes in model parameters and vehicle dynamics, actuator dynamics, sensor noise, and atmospheric disturbances.

  3. The flight test of Pi-SAR(L) for the repeat-pass interferometric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohmi, Hitoshi; Shimada, Masanobu; Miyawaki, Masanori

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the experiment of the repeat pass interferometric SAR using Pi-SAR(L). The air-borne repeat-pass interferometric SAR is expected as an effective method to detect landslide or predict a volcano eruption. To obtain a high-quality interferometric image, it is necessary to make two flights on the same flight pass. In addition, since the antenna of the Pi-SAR(L) is secured to the aircraft, it is necessary to fly at the same drift angle to keep the observation direction same. We built a flight control system using an auto pilot which has been installed in the airplane. This navigation system measures position and altitude precisely with using a differential GPS, and the PC Navigator outputs a difference from the desired course to the auto pilot. Since the air density is thinner and the speed is higher than the landing situation, the gain of the control system is required to be adjusted during the repeat pass flight. The observation direction could be controlled to some extent by adjusting a drift angle with using a flight speed control. The repeat-pass flight was conducted in Japan for three days in late November. The flight was stable and the deviation was within a few meters for both horizontal and vertical direction even in the gusty condition. The SAR data were processed in time domain based on range Doppler algorism to make the complete motion compensation. Thus, the interferometric image processed after precise phase compensation is shown.

  4. Small UAV Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System Design Considerations and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.

  5. Functional integration of vertical flight path and speed control using energy principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambregts, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized automatic flight control system was developed which integrates all longitudinal flight path and speed control functions previously provided by a pitch autopilot and autothrottle. In this design, a net thrust command is computed based on total energy demand arising from both flight path and speed targets. The elevator command is computed based on the energy distribution error between flight path and speed. The engine control is configured to produce the commanded net thrust. The design incorporates control strategies and hierarchy to deal systematically and effectively with all aircraft operational requirements, control nonlinearities, and performance limits. Consistent decoupled maneuver control is achieved for all modes and flight conditions without outer loop gain schedules, control law submodes, or control function duplication.

  6. Advanced nonlinear control: Robustness and stability with applications to aircraft flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Michael Takaichi

    This dissertation examines the problem of global decentralized control by output feedback for large-scale uncertain nonlinear systems whose subsystems are interconnected not only by their outputs but also by their unmeasurable states. Several innovative techniques will be developed to create decentralized output feedback controllers rendering the closed-loop systems globally asymptotically stable. This is accomplished by extending an output feedback domination design that requires only limited information about the nonlinear system. We will apply our design to lower, upper, and non-triangular nonlinear systems. A time-varying output feedback controller is also constructed for use with large-scale systems that have unknown parameters. Furthermore, a mixed large-scale system consisting of both lower and upper triangular systems is shown to be stabilizable by employing a combined high and low gain domination technique. The significance of our results is that we do not need to have prior information about the nonlinearities of the system. In addition, a new design technique was developed using homogeneous system theory, which allows for the design of nonsmooth controllers and observers to stabilize a class of feedforward system with uncontrollable and unobservable linearization. An example of a large-scale system is a group of autonomous airships performing the function of a temporary mobile cell phone network. An airship mobile cell phone network is a novel solution to the problem of maintaining communication during the advent of extensive damage to the communication infrastructure; be it from a flood, earthquake, hurricane, or terrorist attack. A first principle force-based dynamic model for the Tri-Turbofan Airship was developed and will be discussed in detail. The mathematical model was based on actual flight test data that has been collected at the Gait Analysis and Innovative Technologies Laboratory. This model was developed to research autonomous airship

  7. Advanced control techniques for post-buckled precompressed (PBP) flight control actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Barrett, R.; Vos, R.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic response of a new class of flight control actuators that rely on post-buckled recompressed (PBP) piezoelectric elements is investigated. While past research has proven that PBP actuators are capable of generating deflections three times higher than conventional bimorph actuators, this pa

  8. Free-flight investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a STOL model with an externally blown jet flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlett, L. P.; Emerling, S. J.; Phelps, A. E., III

    1974-01-01

    The stability and control characteristics of a four-engine turbofan STOL transport model having an externally blown jet flap have been investigated by means of the flying-model technique in the Langley full-scale tunnel. The flight characteristics of the model were investigated under conditions of symmetric and asymmetric (one engine inoperative) thrust at lift coefficients up to 9.5 and 5.5, respectively. Static characteristics were studied by conventional power-on force tests over the flight-test angle-of-attack range including the stall. In addition to these tests, dynamic longitudinal and lateral stability calculations were performed for comparison with the flight-test results and for use in correlating the model results with STOL handling-qualities criteria.

  9. Ground testing and flight demonstration of charge management of insulated test masses using UV-LED electron photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; Suwaidan, Badr Al; AlRashed, Abdullah; Al-Nassban, Badr; Alaqeel, Faisal; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin; Qasim, Bandar Bin; Alfauwaz, Abdulrahman; Al-Majed, Mohammed; DeBra, Daniel; Byer, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The UV-LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses. Test mass charge control is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag-free sensors which are at the core of geodesy, aeronomy and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational wave experiments and observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on Gravity Probe B and is presently part of the LISA Pathfinder technology demonstration. The UV-LED mission and prior ground testing demonstrates that AlGaN UVLEDs operating at 255 nm are superior to Hg lamps because of their smaller size, lower power draw, higher dynamic range, and higher control authority. We show laboratory data demonstrating the effectiveness and survivability of the UV-LED devices and performance of the charge management system. We also show flight data from a small satellite experiment that was one of the payloads on KACST’s SaudiSat-4 mission that demonstrates ‘AC charge control’ (UV-LEDs and bias are AC modulated with adjustable relative phase) between a spherical test mass and its housing. The result of the mission brings the UV-LED device Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to TRL-9 and the charge management system to TRL-7. We demonstrate the ability to control the test mass potential on an 89 mm diameter spherical test mass over a 20 mm gap in a drag-free system configuration, with potential measured using an ultra-high impedance contact probe. Finally, the key electrical and optical characteristics of the UV-LEDs showed less than 7.5% change in performance after 12 months in orbit.

  10. Intelligent adaptive nonlinear flight control for a high performance aircraft with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Aydogan; Tasaltin, Ramazan; Becerikli, Yasar

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a neural network (NN) based adaptive flight control system for a high performance aircraft. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed control system is able to compensate the system uncertainties, adapt to the changes in flight conditions, and accommodate the system failures. The underlying study can be considered in two phases. The objective of the first phase is to model the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear F-16 model using NNs. Therefore a NN-based adaptive identification model is developed for three angular rates of the aircraft. An on-line training procedure is developed to adapt the changes in the system dynamics and improve the identification accuracy. In this procedure, a first-in first-out stack is used to store a certain history of the input-output data. The training is performed over the whole data in the stack at every stage. To speed up the convergence rate and enhance the accuracy for achieving the on-line learning, the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method with a trust region approach is adapted to train the NNs. The objective of the second phase is to develop intelligent flight controllers. A NN-based adaptive PID control scheme that is composed of an emulator NN, an estimator NN, and a discrete time PID controller is developed. The emulator NN is used to calculate the system Jacobian required to train the estimator NN. The estimator NN, which is trained on-line by propagating the output error through the emulator, is used to adjust the PID gains. The NN-based adaptive PID control system is applied to control three angular rates of the nonlinear F-16 model. The body-axis pitch, roll, and yaw rates are fed back via the PID controllers to the elevator, aileron, and rudder actuators, respectively. The resulting control system has learning, adaptation, and fault-tolerant abilities. It avoids the storage and interpolation requirements for the too many controller parameters of a typical flight control

  11. Ground Testing and Flight Demonstration of Charge Management of Insulated Test Masses Using UV LED Electron Photoemission

    CERN Document Server

    Saraf, Shailendhar; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; AlRashed, Abdullah; Nassban, Badr Al; Suwaidan, Badr Al; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin; Qasim, Bandar Bin; DeBra, Daniel; Byer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The UV LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses that is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag free sensors. Accelerometers and drag free sensors were and remain at the core of geodesy, aeronomy, and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational science experiments and gravitational wave observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on Gravity Probe B and is presently part of the LISA Pathfinder technology demonstration. The UV LED mission and prior ground testing demonstrates that AlGaN UV LEDs operating at 255 nm are superior to Mercury vapor lamps because of their smaller size, lower draw, higher dynamic range, and higher control authority. We show flight data from a small satellite mission on a Saudi Satellite that demonstrates AC charge control (UV LEDs and bias are AC modulated with adjustable relative phase) between a spherical test mass and its h...

  12. SST Technology Follow-On Program-Phase 2. ADEDS Flight Test Report. Volume 3. Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    EADl. FPAC went oil screen in ’Takeoff*; will limit to 10° 2) MFD. Alt Range symbol was too noisy; 3-see filter will be added. • Nav errors at...filter to FPAC i Add GS and nav mode annunciation to MFD text I’ Correct interface protection mechanization I" for bad MFD bus 1 transmissions Correct...2 station search 1 148 13 EADI Flight director gain change and 3 sec filter P 149 15 EADI Limit FPAC to t10c P 150 15 MFD Add 3-sec filter to

  13. Methodology for Flight Relevant Arc-Jet Testing of Flexible Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Sutton, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A methodology to correlate flight aeroheating environments to the arc-jet environment is presented. For a desired hot-wall flight heating rate, the methodology provides the arcjet bulk enthalpy for the corresponding cold-wall heating rate. A series of analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the test sample model holder geometry to the overall performance of the test sample. The analyses were compared with arc-jet test samples and challenges and issues are presented. The transient flight environment was calculated for the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Earth Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle, which is a planned demonstration vehicle using a large inflatable, flexible thermal protection system to reenter the Earth's atmosphere from the International Space Station. A series of correlations were developed to define the relevant arc-jet test environment to properly approximate the HEART flight environment. The computed arcjet environments were compared with the measured arc-jet values to define the uncertainty of the correlated environment. The results show that for a given flight surface heat flux and a fully-catalytic TPS, the flight relevant arc-jet heat flux increases with the arc-jet bulk enthalpy while for a non-catalytic TPS the arc-jet heat flux decreases with the bulk enthalpy.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Thermal Vacuum Thermal Balance Test Campaign at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart; Comber, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed as a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope when launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments contained within the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K with radiators, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. Thermal-vacuum testing of the flight science instruments at the ISIM element level has taken place in three separate highly challenging and extremely complex thermal tests within a gaseous helium-cooled shroud inside Goddard Space Flight Centers Space Environment Simulator. Special data acquisition software was developed for these tests to monitor over 1700 flight and test sensor measurements, track over 50 gradients, component rates, and temperature limits in real time against defined constraints and limitations, and guide the complex transition from ambient to final cryogenic temperatures and back. This extremely flexible system has proven highly successful in safeguarding the nearly $2B science payload during the 3.5-month-long thermal tests. Heat flow measurement instrumentation, or Q-meters, were also specially developed for these tests. These devices provide thermal boundaries o the flight hardware while measuring instrument heat loads up to 600 mW with an estimated uncertainty of 2 mW in test, enabling accurate thermal model correlation, hardware design validation, and workmanship verification. The high accuracy heat load measurements provided first evidence of a potentially serious hardware design issue that was subsequently corrected. This paper provides an overview of the ISIM-level thermal-vacuum tests and thermal objectives; explains the thermal test configuration and thermal balances; describes special measurement instrumentation and monitoring and control software; presents key test thermal results

  15. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  16. Computerized triaxial test control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    capabilities of the setup are extended by using a programmable hydraulic piston with real time feedback loops. The control methods provided by the controller mimic those applied in computer simulations. Force control, displacement control or a combination of both can be used. Single diameter height sample...... control methods provide access to testing both direct and inverse stiffness matrix response as well as to observe strain creep and stress relaxation directly....

  17. Rotorcraft flight control design using quantitative feedback theory and dynamic crossfeeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rendy P.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output controls design with robust crossfeeds is presented for a rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Decoupling criteria are developed for dynamic crossfeed design and implementation. Frequency dependent performance metrics focusing on piloted flight are developed and tested on 23 flight configurations. The metrics show that the resulting design is superior to alternative control system designs using conventional fixed-gain crossfeeds and to feedback-only designs which rely on high gains to suppress undesired off-axis responses. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets current handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensator successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective.

  18. Neutron Particle Effects on a Quad-Redundant Flight Control Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eure, Kenneth; Belcastro, Celeste M.; Gray, W Steven; Gonzalex, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a single-event upset experiment performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. A closed-loop control system consisting of a Quad-Redundant Flight Control Computer (FCC) and a B737 simulator was operated while the FCC was exposed to a neutron beam. The purpose of this test was to analyze the effects of neutron bombardment on avionics control systems operating at altitudes where neutron strikes are probable. The neutron energy spectrum produced at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is similar in shape to the spectrum of atmospheric neutrons but much more intense. The higher intensity results in accelerated life tests that are representative of the actual neutron radiation that a FCC may receive over a period of years.

  19. Development of an Autonomous Flight Control System for Small Size Unmanned Helicopter Based on Dynamical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is devoted to the development of an autonomous flight control system for small size unmanned helicopter based on dynamical model. At first, the mathematical model of a small size helicopter is described. After that simple but effective MTCV control algorithm was proposed. The whole flight control algorithm is composed of two parts:orientation controller based on the model for rotation dynamics and a robust position controller for a double integrator. The MTCV block is also used to achieve translation velocity control. To demonstrate the performance of the presented algorithm, simulation results and results achieved in real flight experiments were presented.

  20. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.