WorldWideScience

Sample records for flight control augmentation

  1. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  2. Initial virtual flight test for a dynamically similar aircraft model with control augmentation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linliang Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the validation requirements of flight control law for advanced aircraft, a wind tunnel based virtual flight testing has been implemented in a low speed wind tunnel. A 3-degree-of-freedom gimbal, ventrally installed in the model, was used in conjunction with an actively controlled dynamically similar model of aircraft, which was equipped with the inertial measurement unit, attitude and heading reference system, embedded computer and servo-actuators. The model, which could be rotated around its center of gravity freely by the aerodynamic moments, together with the flow field, operator and real time control system made up the closed-loop testing circuit. The model is statically unstable in longitudinal direction, and it can fly stably in wind tunnel with the function of control augmentation of the flight control laws. The experimental results indicate that the model responds well to the operator’s instructions. The response of the model in the tests shows reasonable agreement with the simulation results. The difference of response of angle of attack is less than 0.5°. The effect of stability augmentation and attitude control law was validated in the test, meanwhile the feasibility of virtual flight test technique treated as preliminary evaluation tool for advanced flight vehicle configuration research was also verified.

  3. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) flight characterization experiments performed using an F/A-18 (TN 853). AAC was designed and developed specifically for launch vehicles, and is currently part of the baseline autopilot design for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The scope covered here includes a brief overview of the algorithm (covered in more detail elsewhere), motivation and benefits of flight testing, top-level SLS flight test objectives, applicability of the F/A-18 as a platform for testing a launch vehicle control design, test cases designed to fully vet the AAC algorithm, flight test results, and conclusions regarding the functionality of AAC. The AAC algorithm developed at Marshall Space Flight Center is a forward loop gain multiplicative adaptive algorithm that modifies the total attitude control system gain in response to sensed model errors or undesirable parasitic mode resonances. The AAC algorithm provides the capability to improve or decrease performance by balancing attitude tracking with the mitigation of parasitic dynamics, such as control-structure interaction or servo-actuator limit cycles. In the case of the latter, if unmodeled or mismodeled parasitic dynamics are present that would otherwise result in a closed-loop instability or near instability, the adaptive controller decreases the total loop gain to reduce the interaction between these dynamics and the controller. This is in contrast to traditional adaptive control logic, which focuses on improving performance by increasing gain. The computationally simple AAC attitude control algorithm has stability properties that are reconcilable in the context of classical frequency-domain criteria (i.e., gain and phase margin). The algorithm assumes that the baseline attitude control design is well-tuned for a nominal trajectory and is designed to adapt only when necessary. Furthermore, the adaptation is attracted to the nominal design and adapts only on an as-needed basis

  4. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  5. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  6. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  7. Flight evaluation of highly augmented controls and electronic displays for precision approach and landing of powered-lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. A.; Hynes, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on simulators and on the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft to evaluate the effect of highly augmented control modes and electronic displays on the ability of pilots to execute precision approaches and landings on a short runway. It is found that the primary benefits of highly augmented flightpath and airspeed controls and electronic displays are realized when the pilot is required to execute precisely a complex transition and approach under instrument conditions and in the presence of a wide range of wind and turbulence conditions. A flightpath and airspeed command and stabilization system incorporating nonlinear, inverse system concepts produced fully satisfactory flightpath control throughout the aircraft's terminal operating envelope.

  8. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  9. The Propulsive-Only Flight Control Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blezad, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Attitude control of aircraft using only the throttles is investigated. The long time constants of both the engines and of the aircraft dynamics, together with the coupling between longitudinal and lateral aircraft modes make piloted flight with failed control surfaces hazardous, especially when attempting to land. This research documents the results of in-flight operation using simulated failed flight controls and ground simulations of piloted propulsive-only control to touchdown. Augmentation control laws to assist the pilot are described using both optimal control and classical feedback methods. Piloted simulation using augmentation shows that simple and effective augmented control can be achieved in a wide variety of failed configurations.

  10. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  11. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  12. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  13. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  14. Experimental Investigations of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Stability Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    A team of researchers from the Army Research Laboratory, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Bell Helicopter-Textron, Inc. have completed hover-cell and wind-tunnel testing of a 1/5-size aeroelastically-scaled tiltrotor model using a new active control system for stability augmentation. The active system is based on a generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm originally developed at NASA LaRC in 1997 for un-known disturbance rejection. Results of these investigations show that GPC combined with an active swashplate can significantly augment the damping and stability of tiltrotors in both hover and high-speed flight.

  15. Design of a Helicopter Stability and Control Augmentation System Using Optimal Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    technique is described for the design of multivariable feedback controllers based upon results in optimal control theory . For a specified performance...helicopter flight envelope. The results show that optimal control theory can be used to design a helicopter stability and control augmentation system

  16. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  17. Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several experiments in integrated flight-propulsion control. Benefits have included improved maneuverability; increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits. The F-111E experiment integrated the engine and inlet control systems. The YF-12C incorporated an integral control system involving the inlet, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and stability augmentation systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real-time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self-repairing flight control system; and an engines-only control concept for emergency control. The F-18A aircraft incorporated thrust vectoring integrated with the flight control system to provide enhanced maneuvering at high angles of attack. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits of each program are described.

  18. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  19. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  20. Optical illusions and augmented graphics in guidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Robert S.; Tuggle, Francis D.

    1993-03-01

    Piloting and many related control activities, especially remote manipulation via teleoperations and robotics, stand to benefit substantially from better means of communication between controller and controlled. We have investigated one such approach: the use of augmented displays on a cathode ray terminal (CRT) for controlling simulation motion is microgravity. Such displays, which have been shown to be highly effective in a variety of applications, provide information to the operator which goes beyond that which is found in nature, and thereby emphasize important aspects of a task and minimize irrelevant ones. Using this approach, we attempted to develop stylized graphical displays, incorporating augmented feedback by distorting the background of the scene under display, for purposes of flight control and/or control of a robotic arm. Besides attempting to utilize transformations of the scene itself for informational purposes, the displays we developed represent significant departures from previous methods in two notable respects. First, we have attempted to design our instrumentation to make use of peripheral rather than exclusively foveal vision, thus broadening the bandwidth of perception by vision. Second, we attempted to incorporate optical illusions intended to enhance the perception of depth and apparent motion to provide better and more compelling feedback for the operator performing the task.

  1. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  2. Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) will evaluate, for the first time in a space environment, the performance of a feedback-controlled variable conductance heat pipe and a heat pipe thermal diode. In addition, the temperature control aspects of a phase-change material (PCM) will be demonstrated. The methanol/stainless steel feedback-controlled heat pipe uses helium control gas that is stored in a wicked reservoir. This reservoir is electrically heated through a solid state controller that senses the temperature of the heat source directly. The ammonia/stainless steel diode heat pipe uses excess liquid to block heat transfer in the reverse direction. The PCM is octadecane. Design tradeoffs, fabrication problems, and performance during qualification and flight acceptance tests are discussed.

  3. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  4. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  5. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  6. An Integrated Approach to Aircraft Modelling and Flight Control Law Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looye, G.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The design of flight control laws (FCLs) for automatic and manual (augmented) control of aircraft is a complicated task. FCLs have to fulfil large amounts of performance criteria and must work reliably in all flight conditions, for all aircraft configurations, and in adverse weather conditions.

  7. An Integrated Approach to Aircraft Modelling and Flight Control Law Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looye, G.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The design of flight control laws (FCLs) for automatic and manual (augmented) control of aircraft is a complicated task. FCLs have to fulfil large amounts of performance criteria and must work reliably in all flight conditions, for all aircraft configurations, and in adverse weather conditions. Cons

  8. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  9. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  10. Aerodynamic Control-Augmentation Devices For Saturn-Class Launch Vehicles With Aft Centers Of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of aerodynamic flight-control-augmentation devices proposed for use in increasing payload capabilities of future launch vehicles by allowing more aft centers of gravity. Proposed all-movable devices not only provide increased control authority during ascent trajectory, but also reduce engine gimballing requirements and enhance crew safety. Report proposes various aerodynamic control surfaces mounted fore and aft on Saturn-class launch vehicle.

  11. Robust Control Design for Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    to achieve desired performance over the full flight envelope when linear feedback is employed. Exact linearization methods [48] provide means for...designing nonlinear feedback laws which satisfy these requirements. However, exact linearization is not always compatible with control authority...specific situations. The most promising approaches appear to be those associated with methods of exact linearization . This procedure is based on some

  12. Merging Autopilot/Flight Control and Navigation-Flight Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Qutbodin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this abstract the following commercial aircraft 3 avionics systems will be merged together: (1 Autopilot Flight Director System (APFDS, (2 Flight Control System (FCS and (3 Flight Management Systems (FMS. Problem statement: These systems perform functions that are dependant and related to each other, also they consists of similar hardware components. Each of these systems consists of at least one computer, control panel and displays that place on view the selection and aircraft response. They receive several similar sensor inputs, or outputs of one system are fed as input to the other system. By combining the three systems, repeated and related functions are reduced. Since these systems perform related functions, designers and programmers verify that conflict between these systems is not present. Combining the three systems will eliminate such possibility. Also used space, weight, wires and connections are decreased, consequently electrical consumption is reduced. To keep redundancy, the new system can be made of multiple channels. Approach: The new system (called Autopilot Navigation Management System, APNMS is more efficient and resolves the above mention drawbacks. Results: The APFDS system functions (as attitude-hold or heading-hold are merged with the FCS system main function which is controlling flight control surfaces as well as other functions as flight protection, Turn coordination and flight stability augmentation. Also the Flight Management system functions (as flight planning, aircraft flight performance/engine thrust management are merged in the new system. All this is done through combining all 3 systems logic software’s. Conclusion/Recommendations: The new APNMS system can be installed and tested on prototype aircraft in order to verify its benefits and fruits to the aviation industry.

  13. Digital Flight Control System Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Uperioust languages and formal progrmiag Logic (Such was the cae ina the formation of the Radio end design, hag resulted in the accelerated Technical...wee In defined , dM tin Osytm e all as wssLuete Ohe 0esig of these same- Isei to btop ues eM m defined . "UK""t fault coie am ep~es syste prior ft Mo... Softwre Cost etilstift, 131 Computer Society 17. ’Simulator Investigation Plan for Digital 1977, Pages 13-177. Flight Controls Validation Technology

  14. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  15. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  16. Aircraft Control Augmentation and Health Monitoring Using FADS Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of an innovative architecture comprising control augmentation and on-line health monitoring...

  17. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  18. A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

  19. Unpower aerocraft augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at designing the unpower aerocraft attitude control system in a simple and practical way,the guaranteed cost control is adopted.To eliminate the steady-error,a novel tracking control approach-augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is proposed.Firstly,the unpower aerocraft is modeled as a linear system with norm bounded parameter uncertain,then the linear matrix inequality based state feedback gnaranteed cost control law is combined with the augmented state feedback tracking control from a new point of view.The sufficient condition of the existence of the augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is derived and converted to the feasible problem of the linear matrix inequality.Finally,the proposed approach is applied to a specified unpower aerocraft.The six dimensions of freedom simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective and feasible.

  20. Research in digital adaptive flight controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

  1. Flight Dynamics and Controls Discipline Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.

  2. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  3. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  4. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  5. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  6. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  7. A new flight control and management system architecture and configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-e.; Chen, Zongji

    2006-11-01

    The advanced fighter should possess the performance such as super-sound cruising, stealth, agility, STOVL(Short Take-Off Vertical Landing),powerful communication and information processing. For this purpose, it is not enough only to improve the aerodynamic and propulsion system. More importantly, it is necessary to enhance the control system. A complete flight control system provides not only autopilot, auto-throttle and control augmentation, but also the given mission management. F-22 and JSF possess considerably outstanding flight control system on the basis of pave pillar and pave pace avionics architecture. But their control architecture is not enough integrated. The main purpose of this paper is to build a novel fighter control system architecture. The control system constructed on this architecture should be enough integrated, inexpensive, fault-tolerant, high safe, reliable and effective. And it will take charge of both the flight control and mission management. Starting from this purpose, this paper finishes the work as follows: First, based on the human nervous control, a three-leveled hierarchical control architecture is proposed. At the top of the architecture, decision level is in charge of decision-making works. In the middle, organization & coordination level will schedule resources, monitor the states of the fighter and switch the control modes etc. And the bottom is execution level which holds the concrete drive and measurement; then, according to their function and resources all the tasks involving flight control and mission management are sorted to individual level; at last, in order to validate the three-leveled architecture, a physical configuration is also showed. The configuration is distributed and applies some new advancement in information technology industry such line replaced module and cluster technology.

  8. On Introspection, Metacognitive Control and Augmented Data Mining Live Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Sonntag, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We discuss metacognitive modelling as enhancement to cognitive modelling and computing. Metacognitive control mechanisms should enable AI systems to self-reflect, reason about their actions, and to adapt to new situations. In this respect, we propose implementation details of a knowledge taxonomy and an augmented data mining life cycle.

  9. Dynamics and control of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft relative motion

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Ye; Yang, Yueneng

    2017-01-01

    This book develops a dynamical model of the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in both unperturbed and J2-perturbed environments. It explicitly discusses three kinds of typical space missions involving relative orbital control: spacecraft hovering, rendezvous, and formation flying. Subsequently, it puts forward designs for both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes propelled or augmented by the geomagnetic Lorentz force. These control schemes are entirely novel and represent a significantly departure from previous approaches.

  10. Active member bridge feedback control for damping augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gun-Shing; Lurie, Boris J.

    1992-01-01

    An active damping augmentation approach using active members in a structural system is described. The problem of maximizing the vibration damping in a lightly damped structural system is considered using the analogy of impedance matching between the load and source impedances in an electrical network. The proposed active damping augmentation approach therefore consists of finding the desired active member impedances that maximize the vibration damping, and designing a feedback control in order to achieve desired active member impedances. This study uses a bridge feedback concept that feeds back a combination of signals from sensors of the axial force and relative velocity across the active member to realize the desired active member impedance. The proposed active damping augmentation approach and bridge feedback concept were demonstrated on a three-longeron softly suspended truss structure.

  11. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  12. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  13. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for prototype development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as...

  14. Engines-only flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W. (Inventor); Gilyard, Glenn B (Inventor); Conley, Joseph L. (Inventor); Stewart, James F. (Inventor); Fullerton, Charles G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A backup flight control system for controlling the flightpath of a multi-engine airplane using the main drive engines is introduced. The backup flight control system comprises an input device for generating a control command indicative of a desired flightpath, a feedback sensor for generating a feedback signal indicative of at least one of pitch rate, pitch attitude, roll rate and roll attitude, and a control device for changing the output power of at least one of the main drive engines on each side of the airplane in response to the control command and the feedback signal.

  15. The Control Anticipation Parameter for Augmented Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    time delay - sec Te2 - Pitch rate numerator time constant - sec-i V - Freestream velocity - ft/sec Z~ eZw - Normal force stability derivative due to...reference (f)) SHORT PERIOD CHARACTERISTICS CONTROL - 18.5 g/RAD "la 50 g/RAD SYSTEM V 1d 250 KT Vind350 KT CHARACTERISTICS t/;ir d - 1.25 SECI 1/t-,p

  16. Flight Controller Design of Transport Airdrop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; SHIZhongke

    2011-01-01

    During airdrop of heavy load,the flight paramctcrs vary continuously as the load moves in the hold,and change suddenly when the load drops out.This process deteriorates the flight quality and control characteristic as the load becomes heavier.Based on the simplified airdrop flight equations,the backstepping and switch control methods are developed to tackle the flight state holding and disturbance/uncertainty(such as large scale flight condition,pilot manipulation error,system measure delay,etc.)attenuation problem in this paper.Moreover,these methods can be used as a reference for pilot manipulating during airdrop.With the backstepping theory,an adaptive controller is synthesized for the purpose of stabilizing the transport when the load moves in the hold,and then a coordinated switch control method is used to control the aircraft when the condition jumps from the existence of load at the rear of fuselage to no load in the fuselage.Simulation results show that the proposed controllers not only provide effective state holding during airdrop,but also achieve robust performance within wide flight conditions.

  17. Compound control methodology for flight vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuanqing

    2013-01-01

    “Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles” focuses on new control methods for flight vehicles. In this monograph the concept of compound control is introduced. It is demonstrated that both Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) have their own advantages and limitations, i.e., chattering of SMC and the observability of extended state observer (ESO), respectively. It is shown that compound control combines their advantages and improves the performance of the closed-loop systems. The book is self-contained, providing sufficient mathematical foundations for understanding the contents of each chapter. It will be of significant interest to scientists and engineers engaged in the field of flight vehicle control.

  18. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  19. Dual control vibration tests of flight hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1991-01-01

    A vibration retest of a spacecraft flight instrument, the Mars Observer Camera (MOC), was conducted using extremal dual control to automatically limit the shaker force and notch the shaker acceleration at resonances. This was the first application of extremal dual control with flight hardware at JPL. The retest was successful in that the environment was representative of flight plus some margin, the instrument survived without any structural or performance degradation, and the force limiting worked very well. The test set-up, force limiting procedure, and test results are described herein. It is concluded that dual control should be utilized when there is a concern about overtesting in hard-base-drive tests and the instrumentation for force measurement and control is available. Recommendations for improving the implementation of dual control are provided as a result of this first experience.

  20. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  1. Structural Pain Compensating Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.

  2. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G K

    2001-11-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

  3. Piloted simulator investigation of helicopter control systems effects on handling qualities during instrument flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, R. D.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Alderete, T. S.; Gee, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An exploratory piloted simulation was conducted to investigate the effects of the characteristics of helicopter flight control systems on instrument flight handling qualities. This joint FAA/NASA study was motivated by the need to improve instrument flight capability. A near-term objective is to assist in updating the airworthiness criteria for helicopter instrument flight. The experiment consisted of variations of single-rotor helicopter types and levels of stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS). These configurations were evaluated during an omnirange approach task under visual and instrument flight conditions. The levels of SCAS design included a simple rate damping system, collective decoupling plus rate damping, and an attitude command system with collective decoupling. A limited evaluation of stick force versus airspeed stability was accomplished. Some problems were experienced with control system mechanization which had a detrimental effect on longitudinal stability. Pilot ratings, pilot commentary, and performance data related to the task are presented.

  4. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  5. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  6. Time-of-flight camera technique for augmented reality in computer-assisted interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersmann, Sven; Müller, Michael; Seitel, Alexander; Arnegger, Florian; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Dinkel, Julien; Baumhauer, Matthias; Schmied, Bruno; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2011-03-01

    Augmented reality (AR) for enhancement of intra-operative images is gaining increasing interest in the field of navigated medical interventions. In this context, various imaging modalities such as ultrasound (US), C-Arm computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic images have been applied to acquire intra-operative information about the patient's anatomy. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential of the novel Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera technique as means for markerless intra-operative registration. For this purpose, ToF range data and corresponding CT images were acquired from a set of explanted non-transplantable human and porcine organs equipped with a set of marker that served as targets. Based on a rigid matching of the surfaces generated from the ToF images with the organ surfaces generated from the CT data, the targets extracted from the planning images were superimposed on the 2D ToF intensity images, and the target visualization error (TVE) was computed as quality measure. Color video data of the same organs were further used to assess the TVE of a previously proposed marker-based registration method. The ToF-based registration showed promising accuracy yielding a mean TVE of 2.5+/-1.1 mm compared to 0.7+/-0.4 mm with the marker-based approach. Furthermore, the target registration error (TRE) was assessed to determine the anisotropy in the localization error of ToF image data. The TRE was 8.9+/- 4.7 mm on average indicating a high localization error in the viewing direction of the camera. Nevertheless, the young ToF technique may become a valuable means for intra-operative surface acquisition. Future work should focus on the calibration of systematic distance errors.

  7. Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

  8. Pilot control through the TAFCOS automatic flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The set of flight control logic used in a recently completed flight test program to evaluate the total automatic flight control system (TAFCOS) with the controller operating in a fully automatic mode, was used to perform an unmanned simulation on an IBM 360 computer in which the TAFCOS concept was extended to provide a multilevel pilot interface. A pilot TAFCOS interface for direct pilot control by use of a velocity-control-wheel-steering mode was defined as well as a means for calling up conventional autopilot modes. It is concluded that the TAFCOS structure is easily adaptable to the addition of a pilot control through a stick-wheel-throttle control similar to conventional airplane controls. Conventional autopilot modes, such as airspeed-hold, altitude-hold, heading-hold, and flight path angle-hold, can also be included.

  9. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    system, the answer was by a comprehensive programme of simulation and rig testing. ix In the only paper in the programme deailing with systems for civil ...be used otherwise. At one time there was an explosive growth in the application of automatic flight control to civil transport aircraft, culminating in...nombre at l’ampleur des 6quipesenta de maintenance extgrieurs a lavion, 11 faut s’efforcer I ce qua 1. mayan privil~gif pareattant lea 6changss

  10. Learning control of a flight simulator stick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, W.J.R.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Vrielink, Koen H.J.; Wierda, G.J.; Borghuis, André

    1998-01-01

    Aimportant part of a flight simulator is its control loading system, which is the part that emulates the behaviour of an aircraft as experienced by the pilot through the stick. Such a system consists of a model of the aircraft that is to be simulated and a stick that is driven by an electric motor.

  11. NASA develops new digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This news release reports on the development and testing of a new integrated flight and propulsion automated control system that aerospace engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center have been working on. The system is being tested in the V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA).

  12. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  13. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  14. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to the...

  15. Flight simulation for flight control computer S/N 0104-1 (ASTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Flight control computer (FCC) 0104-I has been designated the prime unit for the SA-210 launch vehicle. The results of the final flight simulation for FCC S/N 0104-I are documented. These results verify satisfactory implementation of the design release and proper interfacing of the FCC with flight-type control sensor elements and simulated thrust vector control system.

  16. Evaluating the Stability of NASA's Space Launch System with Adaptive Augmenting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hannan, Michael R.; Wall, John H.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's baseline Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system (FCS) design includes an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) component that modifies the attitude control system response to provide the classical gain-scheduled control architecture with additional performance and robustness. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) teamed with the Space Launch System (SLS) Program to perform a comprehensive assessment of the stability and robustness of the FCS with AAC. This paper provides an overview of the approach, specific analysis techniques, and outcomes that were particularly relevant for the SLS Program. Multiple analysis techniques that specifically target the nonlinear AAC were commissioned as part of this assessment, which was completed outside of the Program's standard design analysis cycle. The following analyses were included, with each technique adding its own valuable insights: Lyapunov-based stability analysis, classical stability analysis with static AAC gain variations, circle criterion-based analysis of the FCS with a time-varying element, time-domain stability margin assessment, Monte Carlo simulations with expanded dispersions, and an extensive set of stressing cases. Several of the completed analyses focused on determining whether the inclusion of AAC introduced risk to the FCS, while others quantified the benefits of the adaptive augmentation.

  17. Self-tuning Generalized Predictive Control applied to terrain following flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.; Jung, Y. C.

    1989-01-01

    Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) describes an algorithm for the control of dynamic systems in which a control input is generated which minimizes a quadratic cost function consisting of a weighted sum of errors between desired and predicted future system output and future predicted control increments. The output predictions are obtained from an internal model of the plant dynamics. Self-tuning GPC refers to an implementation of the GPC algorithm in which the parameters of the internal model(s) are estimated on-line and the predictive control law tuned to the parameters so identified. The self-tuning GPC algorithm is applied to a problem of rotorcraft longitudinal/vertical terrain-following flight. The ability of the algorithm to tune to the initial vehicle parameters and to successfully adapt to a stability augmentation failure is demonstrated. Flight path performance is compared to a conventional, classically designed flight path control system.

  18. Flight telerobotic servicer control from the Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Texas M.; Harlan, Don L.

    1989-01-01

    The research and work conducted on the development of a testbed for a display and control panel for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) are presented. Research was conducted on both software and hardware needed to control the FTS. A breadboard was constructed and placed into a mockup of the aft station of the Orbiter spacecraft. This breadboard concept was then evaluated using a computer graphics representation of the Tinman FTS. Extensive research was conducted on the software requirements and implementation. The hardware selected for the breadboard was 'flight like' and in some cases fit and function evaluated. The breadboard team studied some of the concepts without pursuing in depth their impact on the Orbiter or other missions. Assumptions are made concerning payload integration.

  19. Hermes flight control center: Definition status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letalle, Pierre

    1990-10-01

    The Hermes Flight Control Center (HFCC) located in Toulouse (France) is described. The center is the third in the world after the American center in Houston and the Soviet center in Kaliningrad. All the Hermes elements, both on board and on the ground will be coordinated by the HFCC for all phases of each mission. Aspects of the detailed definition phase still in the requirements analysis subphase are described. Diagrams are used to illustrate the interplay between the different systems.

  20. Technology research for digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  1. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  2. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  3. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James

    1993-01-01

    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  4. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  5. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  6. Improved methods in neural network-based adaptive output feedback control, with applications to flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nakwan

    Utilizing the universal approximation property of neural networks, we develop several novel approaches to neural network-based adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems, and illustrate these approaches for several flight control applications. In particular, we address the problem of non-affine systems and eliminate the fixed point assumption present in earlier work. All of the stability proofs are carried out in a form that eliminates an algebraic loop in the neural network implementation. An approximate input/output feedback linearizing controller is augmented with a neural network using input/output sequences of the uncertain system. These approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. All physical systems also have control position and rate limits, which may either deteriorate performance or cause instability for a sufficiently high control bandwidth. Here we apply a method for protecting an adaptive process from the effects of input saturation and time delays, known as "pseudo control hedging". This method was originally developed for the state feedback case, and we provide a stability analysis that extends its domain of applicability to the case of output feedback. The approach is illustrated by the design of a pitch-attitude flight control system for a linearized model of an R-50 experimental helicopter, and by the design of a pitch-rate control system for a 58-state model of a flexible aircraft consisting of rigid body dynamics coupled with actuator and flexible modes. A new approach to augmentation of an existing linear controller is introduced. It is especially useful when there is limited information concerning the plant model, and the existing controller. The approach is applied to the design of an adaptive autopilot for a guided munition. Design of a neural network adaptive control that ensures asymptotically stable tracking performance is also addressed.

  7. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  8. Quadrocopter Control Design and Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwoski, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    A limiting factor in control system design and analysis for spacecraft is the inability to physically test new algorithms quickly and cheaply. Test flights of space vehicles are costly and take much preparation. As such, EV41 recently acquired a small research quadrocopter that has the ability to be a test bed for new control systems. This project focused on learning how to operate, fly, and maintain the quadrocopter, as well as developing and testing protocols for its use. In parallel to this effort, developing a model in Simulink facilitated the design and analysis of simple control systems for the quadrocopter. Software provided by the manufacturer enabled testing of the Simulink control system on the vehicle.

  9. Nonlinear region of attraction analysis for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by polynomial equation. And then the region of attraction estimation method based on V–s iteration is presented to complete the stability analysis. Finally, with the controller law, the closed-loop system stability is analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack

    . This project is thus concentrating on developing a method by which an entire, ecient, control system compensating for the disturbances from the space environment and thereby enabling precision formation flight can be realized. The space environment is initially studied and the knowledge gained is used...... to deduce the requirements for a propulsion system consituting the actuator part of a control system eliminating the disturbances from the space environment. Due to the minute magnitudes of the forces to be delivered, this type of propulsion has been denoted Micropropulsion. Initially a theoretical study...... of the disturbance forces and their influence on a precision controlled spacecraft, is used to deduce the requirements for a micropropulsion system compensating for these. Following this an LTCC based resistojet microthruster is developed and fabricated, utilizing water as fuel. Towards the end of the project...

  11. An augmented reality binocular system (ARBS) for air traffic controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbrook, Jim E.; Ruffner, John W.; Labbe, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The primary means by which air traffic tower controllers obtain information is through direct out-thewindow viewing, although a considerable amount of time is spent looking at electronic displays and other information sources inside the tower cab. The Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored the development of a prototype Augmented Reality Binocular System (ARBS) that enhances tower controller performance, situation awareness, and safety. The ARBS is composed of a virtual binocular (VB) that displays real-time imagery from high resolution telephoto cameras and sensors mounted on pan/tilt units (PTUs). The selected PTU tracks to the movement of the VB, which has an inertial heading and elevation sensor. Relevant airfield situation text and graphic depictions that identify airfield features are overlaid on the imagery. In addition, the display is capable of labeling and tracking vehicles on which an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system has been installed. The ARBS provides air traffic controllers and airfield security forces with the capability to orient toward, observe, and conduct continuous airfield operations and surveillance/security missions from any number of viewing aspects in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we describe the ARBS in detail, discuss the results of a Usability Test of the prototype ARBS, and discuss ideas for follow-on efforts to develop the ARBS to a fieldable level.

  12. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  13. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  14. Pilot-in-the-Loop Analysis of Propulsive-Only Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hwei-Lan; Biezad, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Longitudinal control system architectures are presented which directly couple flight stick motions to throttle commands for a multi-engine aircraft. This coupling enables positive attitude control with complete failure of the flight control system. The architectures chosen vary from simple feedback gains to classical lead-lag compensators with and without prefilters. Each architecture is reviewed for its appropriateness for piloted flight. The control systems are then analyzed with pilot-in-the-loop metrics related to bandwidth required for landing. Results indicate that current and proposed bandwidth requirements should be modified for throttles only flight control. Pilot ratings consistently showed better ratings than predicted by analysis. Recommendations are made for more robust design and implementation. The use of Quantitative Feedback Theory for compensator design is discussed. Although simple and effective augmented control can be achieved in a wide variety of failed configurations, a few configuration characteristics are dominant for pilot-in-the-loop control. These characteristics will be tested in a simulator study involving failed flight controls for a multi-engine aircraft.

  15. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  16. The use of differential pressure feedback in an automatic flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D. W.; Roskam, J.; Finn, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study has been performed to evaluate the performance of a system whereby a control surface is positioned with differential pressure as the feedback variable. Analogous to a position command system, the control surface is commanded to move until a certain differential pressure is achieved at a given point on the surface. Frequency response tests and theoretical considerations indicate that the pressure feedback transfer function is first order, with a break frequency up to 50 rad/sec. There exist applications to the outer loops of flight control systems as well. Stability augmentation, gust alleviation, and stall prevention appear to be possible by feeding back differential pressure across lifting and control surfaces.

  17. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  18. Emergency Flight Control Using Computer-Controlled Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Stewart, James F.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Conley, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) systems are digital electronic control systems undergoing development to provide limited maneuvering ability through variations of individual engine thrusts in multiple-engine airplanes. Provide landing capability when control surfaces inoperable. Incorporated on existing and future airplanes that include digital engine controls, digital flight controls, and digital data buses, adding no weight for additional hardware to airplane. Possible to handle total failure of hydraulic system, depending on how surfaces respond to loss of hydraulic pressure, and broken control cables or linkages. Future airplanes incorporate data from Global Positioning System for guidance to any suitable emergency runway in world.

  19. Use of augmented reality in command and control situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is not completely new technology, but rather an interesting combination of existing technologies, facilitated by the rapid progress made on ultra-portable devices such as smart cellular telephones. It has the potential to enhance...

  20. Building A Flight Control System For A Modelled Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, Paul William; Rushton, Andrew; Yilmaz, Esat

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. We modelled an aircraft based on the Airbus A320 and constructed a synthesisable flight control system. The novel feature was the use of C and VHDL, Very High Speed Inte-grated Circuit Design Language, to allow the flight control system to reside in a Field Pro-grammable Gate Array in a model aircraft or an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle. The simulator models axial, normal, transverse, pitch, roll and yaw movements. The flight control system has automatic manoeuvre envelope protection a...

  1. H/OZ: PFD and Collaborative Flight Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With aircraft automation increasingly able to control flight autonomously, situational awareness and engagement of the crew can suffer. To improve aviation safety...

  2. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  3. Flight Control of the High Altitude Wind Power System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podgaets, A.R.; Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed loop Laddermill flight control problem is considered in this paper. Laddermill is a high altitude kites system for energy production. The kites have been simulated as rigid bodies and the cable as a thin elastic line. Euler angles and cable speed are controls. Flight control is written as a f

  4. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  5. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  6. A unified flight control methodology for a compound rotorcraft in fundamental and aerobatic maneuvering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Adam

    This study investigates a novel approach to flight control for a compound rotorcraft in a variety of maneuvers ranging from fundamental to aerobatic in nature. Fundamental maneuvers are a class of maneuvers with design significance that are useful for testing and tuning flight control systems along with uncovering control law deficiencies. Aerobatic maneuvers are a class of aggressive and complex maneuvers with more operational significance. The process culminating in a unified approach to flight control includes various control allocation studies for redundant controls in trim and maneuvering flight, an efficient methodology to simulate non-piloted maneuvers with varying degrees of complexity, and the setup of an unconventional control inceptor configuration along with the use of a flight simulator to gather pilot feedback in order to improve the unified control architecture. A flight path generation algorithm was developed to calculate control inceptor commands required for a rotorcraft in aerobatic maneuvers. This generalized algorithm was tailored to generate flight paths through optimization methods in order to satisfy target terminal position coordinates or to minimize the total time of a particular maneuver. Six aerobatic maneuvers were developed drawing inspiration from air combat maneuvers of fighter jet aircraft: Pitch-Back Turn (PBT), Combat Ascent Turn (CAT), Combat Descent Turn (CDT), Weaving Pull-up (WPU), Combat Break Turn (CBT), and Zoom and Boom (ZAB). These aerobatic maneuvers were simulated at moderate to high advance ratios while fundamental maneuvers of the compound including level accelerations/decelerations, climbs, descents, and turns were investigated across the entire flight envelope to evaluate controller performance. The unified control system was developed to allow controls to seamlessly transition between manual and automatic allocations while ensuring that the axis of control for a particular inceptor remained constant with flight

  7. Cassini Attitude Control Flight Software: from Development to In-Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) Flight Software (FSW) has achieved its intended design goals by successfully guiding and controlling the Cassini-Huygens planetary mission to Saturn and its moons. This paper describes an overview of AACS FSW details from early design, development, implementation, and test to its fruition of operating and maintaining spacecraft control over an eleven year prime mission. Starting from phases of FSW development, topics expand to FSW development methodology, achievements utilizing in-flight autonomy, and summarize lessons learned during flight operations which can be useful to FSW in current and future spacecraft missions.

  8. Cassini Attitude Control Flight Software: from Development to In-Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) Flight Software (FSW) has achieved its intended design goals by successfully guiding and controlling the Cassini-Huygens planetary mission to Saturn and its moons. This paper describes an overview of AACS FSW details from early design, development, implementation, and test to its fruition of operating and maintaining spacecraft control over an eleven year prime mission. Starting from phases of FSW development, topics expand to FSW development methodology, achievements utilizing in-flight autonomy, and summarize lessons learned during flight operations which can be useful to FSW in current and future spacecraft missions.

  9. Haptic-Multimodal Flight Control System Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly advancing capabilities of autonomous aircraft suggest a future where many of the responsibilities of today s pilot transition to the vehicle, transforming the pilot s job into something akin to driving a car or simply being a passenger. Notionally, this transition will reduce the specialized skills, training, and attention required of the human user while improving safety and performance. However, our experience with highly automated aircraft highlights many challenges to this transition including: lack of automation resilience; adverse human-automation interaction under stress; and the difficulty of developing certification standards and methods of compliance for complex systems performing critical functions traditionally performed by the pilot (e.g., sense and avoid vs. see and avoid). Recognizing these opportunities and realities, researchers at NASA Langley are developing a haptic-multimodal flight control (HFC) system concept that can serve as a bridge between today s state of the art aircraft that are highly automated but have little autonomy and can only be operated safely by highly trained experts (i.e., pilots) to a future in which non-experts (e.g., drivers) can safely and reliably use autonomous aircraft to perform a variety of missions. This paper reviews the motivation and theoretical basis of the HFC system, describes its current state of development, and presents results from two pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies. These preliminary studies suggest the HFC reshapes human-automation interaction in a way well-suited to revolutionary ease-of-use.

  10. A system look at electromechanical actuation for primary flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the emergence of the ALL Electric flight control system (FCS) or power-by-wire (PBW) concept. The concept of fly-by-power refers to the actuator using electrical rather than hydraulic power. The development of the primary flight control Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

  11. A system look at electromechanical actuation for primary flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the emergence of the ALL Electric flight control system (FCS) or power-by-wire (PBW) concept. The concept of fly-by-power refers to the actuator using electrical rather than hydraulic power. The development of the primary flight control Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

  12. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system. The... The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to...

  13. A benchmark for fault tolerant flight control evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaili, H.; Breeman, J.; Lombaerts, T.; Stroosma, O.

    2013-12-01

    A large transport aircraft simulation benchmark (REconfigurable COntrol for Vehicle Emergency Return - RECOVER) has been developed within the GARTEUR (Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe) Flight Mechanics Action Group 16 (FM-AG(16)) on Fault Tolerant Control (2004 2008) for the integrated evaluation of fault detection and identification (FDI) and reconfigurable flight control strategies. The benchmark includes a suitable set of assessment criteria and failure cases, based on reconstructed accident scenarios, to assess the potential of new adaptive control strategies to improve aircraft survivability. The application of reconstruction and modeling techniques, based on accident flight data, has resulted in high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft and fault models to evaluate new Fault Tolerant Flight Control (FTFC) concepts and their real-time performance to accommodate in-flight failures.

  14. Formation Flight Control for Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Microbiotics , Inc. The IMU data were recorded on a flight of a Cessna 172, and a representative time slice was reproduced for all of the simulations...nothing about. The final position relative Data Source: Flight Test MIDG II IMU Cessna 172 Microbiotics , Inc. 48 to the boom will obviously...Embedded PC ATH-400 Athena Diamond Systems, Inc GPS Receiver Card JNS100 OEM Javad Navigation Systems MEMS IMU MIDG II INS/GPS Microbiotics , Inc UHF

  15. THE USE OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN COMMAND AND CONTROL SITUATION AWARENESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Roux, Willem

    2011-01-01

    .... It has the potential to enhance the situation awareness of military operators. This study identifies possible uses of augmented reality in command and control applications with specific attention to situation awareness in the South African context...

  16. Simulation to Flight Test for a UAV Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.

  17. Investigation of Inner Loop Flight Control Strategies for High-Speed Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Brett; Kassem, Ayman

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the activities and findings conducted under contract NAS1-19858 with NASA Langley Research Center. Subject matter is the investigation of suitable flight control design methodologies and solutions for large, flexible high-speed vehicles. Specifically, methodologies are to address the inner control loops used for stabilization and augmentation of a highly coupled airframe system possibly involving rigid-body motion, structural vibrations, unsteady aerodynamics, and actuator dynamics. Techniques considered in this body of work are primarily conventional-based, and the vehicle of interest is the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Major findings include 1) current aeroelastic vehicle modeling procedures require further emphasis and refinement, 2) traditional and nontraditional inner loop flight control strategies employing a single feedback loop do not appear sufficient for highly flexible HSCT class vehicles, 3) inner loop flight control systems will, in all likelihood, require multiple interacting feedback loops, and 4) Ref. H HSCT configuration presents major challenges to designing acceptable closed-loop flight dynamics.

  18. Somatosensory substrates of flight control in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kara L; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A; Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne J; Moss, Cynthia F; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2015-05-12

    Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  19. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L. Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  20. Controlling Bone Graft Substitute Microstructure to Improve Bone Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Drager, Justin; Zhang, Yu Ling; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Tamimi, Faleh; Barralet, Jake

    2016-07-01

    Vertical bone augmentation procedures are frequently carried out to allow successful placement of dental implants in otherwise atrophic ridges and represent one of the most common bone grafting procedures currently performed. Onlay autografting is one of the most prevalent and predictable techniques to achieve this; however, there are several well documented complications and drawbacks associated with it and synthetic alternatives are being sought. Monetite is a bioresorbable dicalcium phosphate with osteoconductive and osteoinductive potential that has been previously investigated for onlay bone grafting and it is routinely made by autoclaving brushite to simultaneously sterilize and phase convert. In this study, monetite disc-shaped grafts are produced by both wet and dry heating methods which alter their physical properties such as porosity, surface area, and mechanical strength. Histological observations after 12 weeks of onlay grafting on rabbit calvaria reveal higher bone volume (38%) in autoclaved monetite grafts in comparison with the dry heated monetite grafts (26%). The vertical bone height gained is similar for both the types of monetite grafts (up to 3.2 mm). However, it is observed that the augmented bone height is greater in the lateral than the medial areas of both types of monetite grafts. It is also noted that the higher porosity of autoclaved monetite grafts increases the bioresorbability, whereas the dry heated monetite grafts having lower porosity but higher surface area resorb to a significantly lesser extent. This study provides information regarding two types of monetite onlay grafts prepared with different physical properties that can be further investigated for clinical vertical bone augmentation applications.

  1. Control Design and Performance Analysis for Autonomous Formation Flight Experimentss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Caleb Michael

    Autonomous Formation Flight is a key approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and managing traffic in future high density airspace. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) have made it possible for the physical demonstration and validation of autonomous formation flight concepts inexpensively and eliminates the flight risk to human pilots. This thesis discusses the design, implementation, and flight testing of three different formation flight control methods, Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID); Fuzzy Logic (FL); and NonLinear Dynamic Inversion (NLDI), and their respective performance behavior. Experimental results show achievable autonomous formation flight and performance quality with a pair of low-cost unmanned research fixed wing aircraft and also with a solo vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) quadrotor.

  2. Incremental approximate dynamic programming for nonlinear flight control design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    A self-learning adaptive flight control design for non-linear systems allows reliable and effective operation of flight vehicles in a dynamic environment. Approximate dynamic programming (ADP) provides a model-free and computationally effective process for designing adaptive linear optimal

  3. Integrated assurance assessment of a reconfigurable digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, W. G.; Davis, R. M.; Benson, J. W.; Smith, M. K.; Eldredge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated application of reliability, failure effects and system simulator methods in establishing the airworthiness of a flight critical digital flight control system (DFCS) is demonstrated. The emphasis was on the mutual reinforcement of the methods in demonstrating the system safety.

  4. Recent developments in the remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2010-01-01

    The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  5. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Research dealt with the general area of optimal flight control synthesis for manned flight vehicles. The work was generic; no specific vehicle was the focus of study. However, the class of vehicles generally considered were those for which high authority, multivariable control systems might be considered, for the purpose of stabilization and the achievement of optimal handling characteristics. Within this scope, the topics of study included several optimal control synthesis techniques, control-theoretic modeling of the human operator in flight control tasks, and the development of possible handling qualities metrics and/or measures of merit. Basic contributions were made in all these topics, including human operator (pilot) models for multi-loop tasks, optimal output feedback flight control synthesis techniques; experimental validations of the methods developed, and fundamental modeling studies of the air-to-air tracking and flared landing tasks.

  6. Software Considerations for Subscale Flight Testing of Experimental Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.

  7. Application of Nonlinear Systems Inverses to Automatic Flight Control Design: System Concepts and Flight Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L.

    1981-01-01

    A practical method for the design of automatic flight control systems for aircraft with complex characteristics and operational requirements, such as the powered lift STOL and V/STOL configurations, is presented. The method is effective for a large class of dynamic systems requiring multi-axis control which have highly coupled nonlinearities, redundant controls, and complex multidimensional operational envelopes. It exploits the concept of inverse dynamic systems, and an algorithm for the construction of inverse is given. A hierarchic structure for the total control logic with inverses is presented. The method is illustrated with an application to the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft equipped with a digital flight control system. Results of flight evaluation of the control concept on this aircraft are presented.

  8. Singularity-free integral-augmented sliding mode control for combined energy and attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Samira; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2017-01-01

    A combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) is a synergized system in which flywheels are used as attitude control actuators and simultaneously as a power storage system. This paper, a subsequent to previous research on CEACS, addresses the attitude-tracking problem. Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL), a locally asymptotically stable controller, is developed to provide a robust and accurate solution for the CEACS's attitude-tracking problem. The controller alleviates the chattering phenomenon associated with the sliding mode using a boundary-layer technique. Simultaneously, it reduces the steady-state error using an integral action. This paper highlights the uncertainty of inertia matrix as a contributing factor to singularity problem. The inversion of the uncertain inertia matrix in simulation of a spacecraft dynamics is also identified as a leading factor to a singular situation. Therefore, an avoidance strategy is proposed in this paper to guarantee a singular-free dynamics behavior in faces of the uncertainties. This maiden work attempts to employ the singularity-free Integral Augmented Sliding Mode Control with Boundary-Layer (IASMC-BL) to provide a robust, accurate and nonsingular attitude-tracking solution for CEACS.

  9. The 747 primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The major operational characteristics of the 747 Primary Flight Control Systems (PFCS) are described. Results of reliability analysis for separate control functions are presented. The analysis makes use of a NASA computer program which calculates reliability of redundant systems. Costs for maintaining the 747 PFCS in airline service are assessed. The reliabilities and cost will provide a baseline for use in trade studies of future flight control system design.

  10. GPS Based Autonomous Flight Control System for an Unmanned Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu G Nair,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned airship, also known as a Unmanned aircraft System (UAS or a remotely piloted aircraft is a machine which functions either by the remote control of a navigator or pilot. The unmanned airship uses the autonomous flight, navigation and guidance based on the telemetry command of ground station. The Autonomous Flight Control System (AFCS [1] plays a key role in achieving the given requirements and missions. This paper introduces the overall design architecture of the hardware and software of the flight control systems in a 50m long unmanned airship

  11. A Ground Control Station for the UAV Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Sławomir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper implementation of a ground control station for UAV flight simulator is shown. The ground control station software is in cooperation with flight simulator, displaying various aircraft flight parameters. The software is programmed in C++ language and utilizes the windows forms for implementing graphical content. One of the main aims of the design of the application was to simplify the interface, simultaneously maintaining the functionality and the eligibility. A mission can be planned and monitored using the implemented map control supported by waypoint list.

  12. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  13. Stabilization control of a bumblebee in hovering and forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study shows that the hovering and forward flight of a bumblebee do not have inherent stabil-ity (passive stability). But the bumblebees are observed to fly stably. Stabilization control must have been applied. In this study, we investigate the longitudinal stabilization con-trol of the bumblebee. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that at all flight speeds consid-ered, although inherently unstable, the flight is controllable. By feedbacking the state variables, i.e. vertical and horizon-tal velocities, pitching rate and pitch angle (which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect), to produce changes in stroke angle and angle of attack of the wings, the flight can be stabilized, explaining why the bumblebees can fly stably even if they are passively unstable.

  14. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  15. Flight-testing of the self-repairing flight control system using the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control flight research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Shuck, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests conducted with the self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS) installed on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control aircraft are described. The development leading to the current SRFCS configuration is highlighted. Key objectives of the program are outlined: (1) to flight-evaluate a control reconfiguration strategy with three types of control surface failure; (2) to evaluate a cockpit display that will inform the pilot of the maneuvering capacity of the damage aircraft; and (3) to flight-evaluate the onboard expert system maintenance diagnostics process using representative faults set to occur only under maneuvering conditions. Preliminary flight results addressing the operation of the overall system, as well as the individual technologies, are included.

  16. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Lin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS and the Flight Control System (FCS. The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A* algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM.

  17. Sliding Mode Control Applied to Reconfigurable Flight Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.; Wells, S. R.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sliding mode control is applied to the design of a flight control system capable of operating with limited bandwidth actuators and in the presence of significant damage to the airframe and/or control effector actuators. Although inherently robust, sliding mode control algorithms have been hampered by their sensitivity to the effects of parasitic unmodeled dynamics, such as those associated with actuators and structural modes. It is known that asymptotic observers can alleviate this sensitivity while still allowing the system to exhibit significant robustness. This approach is demonstrated. The selection of the sliding manifold as well as the interpretation of the linear design that results after introduction of a boundary layer is accomplished in the frequency domain. The design technique is exercised on a pitch-axis controller for a simple short-period model of the High Angle of Attack F-18 vehicle via computer simulation. Stability and performance is compared to that of a system incorporating a controller designed by classical loop-shaping techniques.

  18. Multimodal user input to supervisory control systems - Voice-augmented keyboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Forren, Michelle G.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a voice-augmented keyboard input modality is evaluated in a supervisory control application. An implementation of voice recognition technology in supervisory control is proposed: voice is used to request display pages, while the keyboard is used to input system reconfiguration commands. Twenty participants controlled GT-MSOCC, a high-fidelity simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system, via a workstation equipped with either a single keyboard or a voice-augmented keyboard. Experimental results showed that in all cases where significant performance differences occurred, performance with the voice-augmented keyboard modality was inferior to and had greater variance than the keyboard-only modality. These results suggest that current moderately priced voice recognition systems are an inappropriate human-computer interaction technology in supervisory control systems.

  19. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a maintainable and evolvable real-time control software system for Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). EMFF systems use...

  20. Reduction of Flight Control System/Structural Mode Interaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel approach is proposed for reducing the degree of interaction of a high gain flight control system with the airframe structural vibration modes, representing a...

  1. New Methodology for Optimal Flight Control using Differential Evolution Algorithms applied on the Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft – Part 2. Validation on Aircraft Research Flight Level D Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina BOUGHARI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Cessna Citation X clearance criteria were evaluated for a new Flight Controller. The Flight Control Law were optimized and designed for the Cessna Citation X flight envelope by combining the Deferential Evolution algorithm, the Linear Quadratic Regulator method, and the Proportional Integral controller during a previous research presented in part 1. The optimal controllers were used to reach satisfactory aircraft’s dynamic and safe flight operations with respect to the augmentation systems’ handling qualities, and design requirements. Furthermore the number of controllers used to control the aircraft in its flight envelope was optimized using the Linear Fractional Representations features. To validate the controller over the whole aircraft flight envelope, the linear stability, eigenvalue, and handling qualities criteria in addition of the nonlinear analysis criteria were investigated during this research to assess the business aircraft for flight control clearance and certification. The optimized gains provide a very good stability margins as the eigenvalue analysis shows that the aircraft has a high stability, and a very good flying qualities of the linear aircraft models are ensured in its entire flight envelope, its robustness is demonstrated with respect to uncertainties due to its mass and center of gravity variations.

  2. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) takes off for first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The F-16XL #1 (NASA 849) takes off for the first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) on December 16, 1997. Like most first flight, the DFCS required months of preparations. During July 1997, crews worked on the engine, cockpit, canopy, seat, and instrumentation. By late August, the aircraft began combined systems tests and a flight readiness review. Although the Air Force Safety Review Board (AFSRB)- a group that provided double checks on all flight operations - approved the program in late November 1997, a problem with the aircraft flight computer delayed the functional check flight until mid-December.

  3. Formation Flight Control System for In-Flight Sweet Spot Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodecki, M.; Subbarao, K.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    A formation flight control system has been designed that addresses the unique environment encountered by aircraft flying in formation and in the upwash of the leading aircraft. In order to test the control system a simulation environment has been created that adequately represents the aerodynamic co

  4. Formation Flight Control System for In-Flight Sweet Spot Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodecki, M.; Subbarao, K.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    A formation flight control system has been designed that addresses the unique environment encountered by aircraft flying in formation and in the upwash of the leading aircraft. In order to test the control system a simulation environment has been created that adequately represents the aerodynamic co

  5. An alternative flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flight control system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Agneta M.; Ştefan BALINT

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we build up a flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flightcontrol system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity. This task isaccomplished using only the system of differential equations, which governs the movement of theaircraft around its center of mass. Numerical simulation is given.

  6. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them.

  7. Age and expertise effects in aviation decision making and flight control in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy L; Reade, Gordon; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2010-05-01

    Age (due to declines in cognitive abilities necessary for navigation) and level of aviation expertise are two factors that may affect aviation performance and decision making under adverse weather conditions. We examined the roles of age, expertise, and their relationship on aviation decision making and flight control performance during a flight simulator task. Seventy-two IFR-rated general aviators, aged 19-79 yr, made multiple approach, holding pattern entry, and landing decisions while navigating under Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions. Over three trials in which the fog level varied, subjects decided whether or not to land the aircraft. They also completed two holding pattern entries. Subjects' flight control during approaches and holding patterns was measured. Older pilots (41+ yr) were more likely than younger pilots to land when visibility was inadequate (older pilots' mean false alarm rate: 0.44 vs 0.25). They also showed less precise flight control for components of the approach, performing 0.16 SD below mean approach scores. Expertise attenuated an age-related decline in flight control during holding patterns: older IFR/CFI performed 0.73 SD below mean score; younger IFR/CFI, younger CFII/ATP, older CFII/ATP: 0.32, 0.26, 0.03 SD above mean score. Additionally, pilots with faster processing speed (by median split) had a higher mean landing decision false alarm rate (0.42 vs 0.28), yet performed 0.14 SD above the mean approach control score. Results have implications regarding specialized training for older pilots and for understanding processes involved in older adults' real world decision making and performance.

  8. A Primal-Dual Augmented Lagrangian Method for Optimal Control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Primal-Dual Augmented Lagrangian Method for Optimal Control of ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... In this paper we are concerned with time-varying optimal control problems whose cost is quadratic and whose ...

  9. Nonlinear and fault-tolerant flight control using multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on fault tolerant flight control of a high performance aircraft using multivariate splines. The controller is implemented by making use of spline model based adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). This method, indicated as SANDI, combines NDI control with nonlinear

  10. Nonlinear and fault-tolerant flight control using multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on fault tolerant flight control of a high performance aircraft using multivariate splines. The controller is implemented by making use of spline model based adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). This method, indicated as SANDI, combines NDI control with nonlinear c

  11. DYNAMICAL VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL OF A HELICOPTER IN VERTICAL FLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt; Zribi, Mohamed; Ahmad, Shaheen

    1991-01-01

    In this article, a dynamical multivariable discontinuous feedback control strategy of the sliding nlode type is proposed for the altitude stabilization of a nonlinear helicopter model in vertical flight. Vlrhile retaining the basic robustness features associated to sliding mode control policies, the proposed approach also results in smoothed out (i.e., non-chattering) input trajectories and controlled state variable responses.

  12. Flight Controllability Limits and Related Human Transfer Functions as Determined from Simulator and Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Day, Richard E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study and flight tests were performed to determine the levels of static stability and damping necessary to enable a pilot to control the longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics of a vehicle for short periods of time. Although a basic set of aerodynamic characteristics was used, the study was conducted so that the results would be applicable to a wide range of flight conditions and configurations. Novel piloting techniques were found which enabled the pilot to control the vehicle at conditions that were otherwise uncontrollable. The influence of several critical factors in altering the controllability limits was also investigated. Several human transfer functions were used which gave fairly good representations of the controllability limits determined experimentally for the short-period longitudinal, directional, and lateral modes. A transfer function with approximately the same gain and phase angle as the pilot at the controlling frequencies along the controllability limits was also derived.

  13. Reconfigurable Flight Control Design for Combat Flying Wing with Multiple Control Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; WANG Lixin

    2012-01-01

    With control using redundant multiple control surface arrangement and large-deflection drag rudders,a combat flying wing has a higher probability for control surface failures.Therefore,its flight control system must be able to reconfigure after such failures.Considering three types of typical control surface failures (lock-in-place (LIP),loss-of-effectiveness (LOE) and float),flight control reconfiguration characteristic and capability of such aircraft types are analyzed.Because of the control surface redundancy,the aircraft using the dynamic inversion flight control law already has a control allocation block.In this paper,its flight control configuration during the above failures is achieved by modifying this block.It is shown that such a reconfigurable flight control design is valid,through numerical simulations of flight attitude control task.Results indicate that,in the circumstances of control surface failures with limited degree and the degradation of the flying quality level,a combat flying wing adopting this flight control reconfiguration approach based on control allocation could guarantee its flight safety and perform some flight combat missions.

  14. Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

  15. Recent Developments in the Remote Radio Control of Insect Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka eSato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  16. Use of feedback control to address flight safety issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata

    This thesis addresses three control problems related to flight safety. The first problem relates to the scope of improvement in performance of conventional flight control laws. In particular, aircraft longitudinal axis control based on the Total Energy Control System (TECS) is studied. The research draws attention to a potentially sluggish and undesirable aircraft response when the engine dynamics is slow (typically the case). The proposed design method uses a theoretically well-developed modern design method based on Hinfinity optimization to improve the aircraft dynamic behavior in spite of slow engine characteristics. At the same time, the proposed design method achieves other desirable performance goals such as insensitivity to sensor noise and wind gust rejection: all addressed in one unified framework. The second problem is based on a system level analysis of control structure hierarchy for aircraft flight control. The objective of the analysis problem is to translate outer-loop stability and performance specifications into a comprehensive inner-loop metric. The prime motivation is to make the flight control design process more systematic and the system-integration reliable and independent of design methodology. The analysis problem is posed within the robust control analysis framework. Structured singular value techniques and free controller parameterization ideas are used to impose a hierarchical structure for flight control architecture. The third problem involves development and demonstration of a new reconfiguration strategy in the flight control architecture that has the potential of improving flight safety while keeping cost and complexity low. This research proposes a fault tolerant feature based on active robust reconfiguration. The fault tolerant control problem is formulated in the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) design framework. A prime advantage of this approach is that the synthesis results in a single nonlinear controller (as opposed to a bank

  17. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  18. F-8C digital CCV flight control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Hauge, J. A.; Hendrick, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A set of digital flight control laws were designed for the NASA F-8C digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The control laws emphasize Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) benefits. Specific pitch axis objectives were improved handling qualities, angle-of-attack limiting, gust alleviation, drag reduction in steady and maneuvering flight, and a capability to fly with reduced static stability. The lateral-directional design objectives were improved Dutch roll damping and turn coordination over a wide range in angle-of-attack. An overall program objective was to explore the use of modern control design methodilogy to achieve these specific CCV benefits. Tests for verifying system integrity, an experimental design for handling qualities evaluation, and recommended flight test investigations were specified.

  19. Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

  20. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  1. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) with Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) in flight over desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An image of the F-16XL #1 during its functional flight check of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) on December 16, 1997. The mission was flown by NASA research pilot Dana Purifoy, and lasted 1 hour and 25 minutes. The tests included pilot familiarly, functional check, and handling qualities evaluation maneuvers to a speed of Mach 0.6 and 300 knots. Purifoy completed all the briefed data points with no problems, and reported that the DFCS handled as well, if not better than the analog computer system that it replaced.

  2. Satellite Dynamic Damping via Active Force Control Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2012-07-01

    An approach that incorporates the Active Force Control (AFC) technique into a conventional Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller is proposed for a satellite active dynamic damping towards a full attitude control. The AFC method has been established to facilitate a robust motion control of dynamical systems in the presence of disturbances, parametric uncertainties and changes that are commonly prevalent in the real-world environment. The usefulness of the method can be extended by introducing intelligent mechanisms to approximate the mass or inertia matrix of the dynamic system to trigger the compensation effect of the controller. AFC is a technique that relies on the appropriate estimation of the inertial or mass parameters of the dynamic system and the measurements of the acceleration and force signals induced by the system if practical implementation is ever considered. In AFC, it is shown that the system subjected to a number of disturbances remains stable and robust via the compensating action of the control strategy. We demonstrate that it is possible to design a spacecraft attitude feedback controller that will ensure the system dynamics set point remains unchanged even in the presence of the disturbances provided that the actual disturbances can be modeled effectively. In order to further facilitate this analysis, a combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) is proposed as a model satellite attitude control actuator. All the governing equations are established and the proposed satellite attitude control architecture is made amenable to numerical treatments. The results show that the PD-AFC attitude damping performances are superiorly better than that of the solely PD type. It is also shown that the tunings of the AFC system gains are crucial to ensure a better attitude damping performance and this process is mandatory for AFC systems. Finally, the results demonstrate an important satellite dynamic damping enhancement capability using the AFC

  3. Adaptive Backstepping Flight Control for Modern Fighter Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to investigate the potential of the nonlinear adaptive backstepping control technique in combination with online model identification for the design of a reconfigurable flight control system for a modern fighter aircraft. Adaptive backstepping is a recursive,

  4. A benchmark for fault tolerant flight control evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaili, H.; Breeman, J.; Lombaerts, T.; Stroosma, O.

    2013-01-01

    A large transport aircraft simulation benchmark (REconfigurable COntrol for Vehicle Emergency Return − RECOVER) has been developed within the GARTEUR (Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe) Flight Mechanics Action Group 16 (FM-AG(16)) on Fault Tolerant Control (2004 2008) for the

  5. UAV Formation Flight Based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a distributed collision-free formation flight control law in the framework of nonlinear model predictive control. Formation configuration is determined in the virtual reference point coordinate system. Obstacle avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty, and intervehicle collision avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty combined with a new priority strategy.

  6. Flight Test Results for the F-16XL With a Digital Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Susan J.; Bosworth, John T.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1980s, two F-16 airplanes were modified to extend the fuselage length and incorporate a large area delta wing planform. These two airplanes, designated the F-16XL, were designed by the General Dynamics Corporation (now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems) (Fort Worth, Texas) and were prototypes for a derivative fighter evaluation program conducted by the United States Air Force. Although the concept was never put into production, the F-16XL prototypes provided a unique planform for testing concepts in support of future high-speed supersonic transport aircraft. To extend the capabilities of this testbed vehicle the F-16XL ship 1 aircraft was upgraded with a digital flight control system. The added flexibility of a digital flight control system increases the versatility of this airplane as a testbed for aerodynamic research and investigation of advanced technologies. This report presents the handling qualities flight test results covering the envelope expansion of the F-16XL with the digital flight control system.

  7. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects.

  8. The roles of parasitoid foraging for hosts, food and mates in the augmentative control of Tephritidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, to the choic...

  9. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  10. Augmented models for improving vision control of a mobile robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gert Lysgaard; Christensen, Anders C.; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling phases for the design of a path tracking vision controller for a three wheeled mobile robot. It is shown that, by including the dynamic characteristics of vision and encoder sensors and implementing the total system in one multivariable control loop, one can...... obtain good performance even when using standard low cost equipment and a comparatively low sampling rate. The plant model is a compound of kinematic, dynamic and sensor submodels, all integrated into a discrete state space representation. An intelligent strategy is applied for the vision sensor......, including the start up, normal operation, exception handling and shut down phases. Laboratory experiments show the validity of the approach using standard Kalman filter/LQR control design...

  11. Qualitative Functional Decomposition Analysis of Evolved Neuromorphic Flight Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Boddhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.

  12. Visual control of prey-capture flight in dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olberg, Robert M

    2012-04-01

    Interacting with a moving object poses a computational problem for an animal's nervous system. This problem has been elegantly solved by the dragonfly, a formidable visual predator on flying insects. The dragonfly computes an interception flight trajectory and steers to maintain it during its prey-pursuit flight. This review summarizes current knowledge about pursuit behavior and neurons thought to control interception in the dragonfly. When understood, this system has the potential for explaining how a small group of neurons can control complex interactions with moving objects.

  13. The development and flight test of an electronic integrated propulsion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. J.; Painter, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced technical features of the electronic integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) and flight evaluation tests of IPCS (F-111E with TF30-P-9 engines as test vehicle) are described. Nine baseline flight tests and 15 IPCS flight tests were conducted. Instrumentation, data acquisition and data processing systems, software maintenance procedures, flight test procedures, flight safety criteria, flight test results, and ground and flight testing of the aircraft system are described. Advantages conferred by IPCS include: faster accelerations (both gas generator and afterburner performance), better thrust and flight control, reduced flight idle thrust, reduced engine ground trim, extended service ceiling, automatic stall detection, and stall recovery detection.

  14. Dawn Spacecraft Reaction Control System Flight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Nakazono, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system's earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conventional blowdown hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) is used to provide external torques for attitude control. Reaction wheel assemblies were intended to provide attitude control in most cases. However, the spacecraft experienced one, then two apparent failures of reaction wheels. Also, similar thrusters experienced degradation in a long life application on another spacecraft. Those factors led to RCS being operated in ways completely different than anticipated prior to launch. Numerous mitigations and developments needed to be implemented. The Vesta mission was fully successful. Even with the compromises necessary due to those anomalies, the Ceres mission is also projected to be feasible.

  15. FLIGHT PATH CONTROL FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Al-Mashhadani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the optimized control law specified criteria on UAV while hovering over a path defined by the reference points in the inertial frame. An illustrative example is the  theoretical efficiency of the proposed provisions. 

  16. A formal structure for advanced automatic flight-control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques were developed for the unified design of multimode, variable authority automatic flight-control systems for powered-lift STOL and VTOL aircraft. A structure for such systems is developed to deal with the strong nonlinearities inherent in this class of aircraft, to admit automatic coupling with advanced air traffic control, and to admit a variety of active control tasks. The aircraft being considered is the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  17. Augmenting Plant Immune Responses and Biological Control by Microbial Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant have developed sophisticated defence mechanisms against microbial pathogens. The recent accumulated information allow us to understand the nature of plant immune responses followed by recognition of microbial factors/determinants through cutting-edge genomics and multi-omics techniques. However, the practical approaches to sustain plant health using enhancement of plant immunity is yet to be fully appreciated. Here, we overviewed the general concept and representative examples on the plant immunity. The fungal, bacterial, and viral determinants that was previously reported as the triggers of plant immune responses are introduced and described as the potential protocol of biological control. Specifically, the role of chitin, glucan, lipopolysaccharides/extracellular polysaccharides, microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antibiotics, mimic-phytohormones, N-acyl homoserine lactone, harpin, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds are considered. We hope that this review stimulates scientific community and farmers to broaden their knowledge on the microbial determinant-based biological control and to apply the technology on the integrated pest management program.

  18. An overview of integrated flight-propulsion controls flight research on the NASA F-15 research airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.; Stewart, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting integrated flight-propulsion control flight research using the NASA F-15 airplane for the past 12 years. The research began with the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) project, followed by the F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD). HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) became the umbrella name for a series of experiments including: the Advanced Digital Engine Controls System (ADECS), a twin jet acoustics flight experiment, self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS), performance-seeking control (PSC), and propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA). The upcoming F-15 project is ACTIVE (Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles). This paper provides a brief summary of these activities and provides background for the PCA and PSC papers, and includes a bibliography of all papers and reports from the NASA F-15 project.

  19. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... system. This system provides an electronic interface between the pilot's flight controls and ] the flight...

  20. Vision-based flight control in the hawkmoth Hyles lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Shane P; Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-02-06

    Vision is a key sensory modality for flying insects, playing an important role in guidance, navigation and control. Here, we use a virtual-reality flight simulator to measure the optomotor responses of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata, and use a published linear-time invariant model of the flight dynamics to interpret the function of the measured responses in flight stabilization and control. We recorded the forces and moments produced during oscillation of the visual field in roll, pitch and yaw, varying the temporal frequency, amplitude or spatial frequency of the stimulus. The moths' responses were strongly dependent upon contrast frequency, as expected if the optomotor system uses correlation-type motion detectors to sense self-motion. The flight dynamics model predicts that roll angle feedback is needed to stabilize the lateral dynamics, and that a combination of pitch angle and pitch rate feedback is most effective in stabilizing the longitudinal dynamics. The moths' responses to roll and pitch stimuli coincided qualitatively with these functional predictions. The moths produced coupled roll and yaw moments in response to yaw stimuli, which could help to reduce the energetic cost of correcting heading. Our results emphasize the close relationship between physics and physiology in the stabilization of insect flight.

  1. Using an Augmented Wobble Board as a Game Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    and evaluation of three prototypes intended to provide individuals in need of ankle rehabilitation with the necessary motivation. The prototypes leverage video games potential as a source of intrinsic motivation by allowing individuals to control a game by means of a wobble board—an instrument used for ankle...... vibrotactile feedback during wobble board games since the feedback may distract the user, but also has the potential to make the experience more involving......., and a user study suggested that participants generally found the act of playing intrinsically motivating. In a second study we compared a the wobble board interface with to commercially available input devices (the Wii balance board, and keyboard and mouse). The results provided insights about...

  2. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Synthetic Vision Display Concepts to Prevent Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents, where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground. The major hypothesis for a simulation experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center was that a Primary Flight Display (PFD) with synthetic terrain will improve pilots ability to detect and avoid potential CFITs compared to conventional instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Each pilot flew twenty-two approach departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into terrain. All pilots with a synthetic vision system (SVS) PFD (twelve of sixteen pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. The four pilots who flew the anomaly with the conventional baseline PFD configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event. Additionally, all the SVS display concepts enhanced the pilot s situational awareness, decreased workload and improved flight technical error (FTE) compared to the baseline configuration.

  3. An Overview of Adaptive Approaches in Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rajeshwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-mode switching between controllers corresponding to different modes of operation is needed in those cases when the transition from one mode to another results in substantial flight-critical variations in the aircraft dynamics. To address this problem, a general framework for multi-modal flight control is proposed. The framework is based on the Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST methodology, combined with Model-Predictive Control (MPC, and the use of different robust mechanisms for switching between the multi-modal controllers. It was shown that many different switching control strategies can be naturally derived from the basic framework, which demonstrates the generality of the proposed approach.

  4. Immersion and Invariance Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.; Van Oort, E.R.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework for nonlinear adaptive flight control is developed and applied to a simplified, over-actuated nonlinear fighter aircraft model. The framework is based on a modular adaptive backstepping scheme with a new type of nonlinear estimator. The nonlinear estimator is

  5. Immersion and Invariance Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.; Van Oort, E.R.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework for nonlinear adaptive flight control is developed and applied to a simplified, over-actuated nonlinear fighter aircraft model. The framework is based on a modular adaptive backstepping scheme with a new type of nonlinear estimator. The nonlinear estimator is co

  6. Characterization of a Recoverable Flight Control Computer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar; Torres, Wilfredo

    1999-01-01

    The design and development of a Closed-Loop System to study and evaluate the performance of the Honeywell Recoverable Computer System (RCS) in electromagnetic environments (EME) is presented. The development of a Windows-based software package to handle the time-critical communication of data and commands between the RCS and flight simulation code in real-time while meeting the stringent hard deadlines is also submitted. The performance results of the RCS and characteristics of its upset recovery scheme while exercising flight control laws under ideal conditions as well as in the presence of electromagnetic fields are also discussed.

  7. Design of a Stability Augmentation System for an Unmanned Helicopter Based on Adaptive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The task of control of unmanned helicopters is rather complicated in the presence of parametric uncertainties and measurement noises. This paper presents an adaptive model feedback control algorithm for an unmanned helicopter stability augmentation system. The proposed algorithm can achieve a guaranteed model reference tracking performance and speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, even when the plant parameters vary rapidly. Moreover, the model feedback strategy in the algorithm further contributes to the improvement in the control quality of the stability augmentation system in the case of low signal to noise ratios, mainly because the model feedback path is noise free. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated through a series of tests.

  8. Multimodel Predictive Control Approach for UAV Formation Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation flight problem is the most important and interesting problem of multiple UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative control. In this paper, a novel approach for UAV formation flight based on multimodel predictive control is designed. Firstly, the state equation of relative motion is obtained and then discretized. By the geometrical method, the characteristic points of state are determined. Afterwards, based on the linearization technique, the standard linear discrete model is obtained at each characteristic state point. Then, weighted model set is proposed using the idea of T-S (Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control and the predictive control is carried out based on the multimodel method. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, two different simulation scenarios are performed.

  9. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  10. Electronics plus fluidics for V/STOL flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The redundant digital fly by wire flight control system coupled with a fluidic system, which uses hydraulic pressure as its signal transmission means to provide pilot and feedback sensor control of airframe forcing functions is considered for application to the V/STOL aircraft. A potential fluidics system is introduced, and anticipated performance, weight, and reliability is discussed. Integration with the redundant electronic channels is explored, with the safety and mission reliability of alternate configurations estimated.

  11. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  12. Robust, Decoupled, Flight Control Design with Rate Saturating Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, S. A.; Hess, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for the design of control systems for manually controlled, high-performance aircraft must provide the following: (1) multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) solutions, (2) acceptable handling qualities including no tendencies for pilot-induced oscillations, (3) a tractable approach for compensator design, (4) performance and stability robustness in the presence of significant plant uncertainty, and (5) performance and stability robustness in the presence actuator saturation (particularly rate saturation). A design technique built upon Quantitative Feedback Theory is offered as a candidate methodology which can provide flight control systems meeting these requirements, and do so over a considerable part of the flight envelope. An example utilizing a simplified model of a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft demonstrates the proposed design methodology.

  13. Nonlinear inversion flight control for a supermaneuverable aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, S. Antony; Garrard, William L., Jr.; Enns, Dale F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of nonlinear dynamic inversion for the design of a flight control system for a supermaneuverable aircraft. First, the dynamics to be controlled were separated into fast and slow variables. The fast variables were the angular rates and the slow variables were the attitude angles. Then a nonlinear inversion controller was designed for the fast variables. This stabilized the longitudinal short-period and improved the lateral-directional responses over a wide range of angle of attack by making use of a combination for aerodynamic surfaces and thrust vectoring control. Outer loops were then closed to allow the pilot to control the slow dynamics, the angle of attack, side-slip angle and the velocity bank angle. Nonlinear inversion was also used to design of the outer loop control laws. The dynamic inversion control laws were compared with more conventional, gain-scheduled control laws and were shown to yield much better performance.

  14. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  15. Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    711th Human Performance Wing U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Int’l Expeditionary Educ & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical ...International Expeditionary Education & Training Dept Air Force Expeditionary Medical Skills Institute/C-STARS Cincinnati 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0008 Automated Control of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure during Simulated Flight Thomas C. Blakeman

  16. Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator For Flight Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes use of shape-memory-alloy actuators, instead of hydraulic actuators, for aerodynamic flight-control surfaces. Actuator made of shape-memory alloy converts thermal energy into mechanical work by changing shape as it makes transitions between martensitic and austenitic crystalline phase states of alloy. Because both hot exhaust gases and cryogenic propellant liquids available aboard launch rockets, shape-memory-alloy actuators exceptionally suited for use aboard such rockets.

  17. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2016-09-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  18. Flight Control of Biomimetic Air Vehicles Using Vibrational Control and Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Sevak; Woolsey, Craig A.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of vibrational inputs and state feedback is applied to control the flight of a biomimetic air vehicle. First, a control strategy is developed for longitudinal flight, using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and neglecting wing inertial effects. Vertical and forward motion is controlled by modulating the wings' stroke and feather angles, respectively. Stabilizing control parameter values are determined using the time-averaged dynamic model. Simulations of a system resembling a hawkmoth show that the proposed controller can overcome modeling error associated with the wing inertia and small parameter uncertainties when following a prescribed trajectory. After introducing the approach through an application to longitudinal flight, the control strategy is extended to address flight in three-dimensional space.

  19. Dynamic analysis and control of novel moving mass flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqing; Gao, Changsheng; Jing, Wuxing; Wei, Pengxin

    2017-02-01

    In terms of the moving mass control technology, the configuration of internal moving masses is a key challenge. In order to reduce the complexity of configuring these moving masses in a flight vehicle, a combination bank-to-turn control mode with the single moving mass and reaction jet is proposed in this paper. To investigate the dynamics and the potential of the control mechanism, an attitude dynamic model with single moving mass is generated. The dynamic analysis indicates that the control stability, control authority and dynamic behavior of the pitch channel are determined by the mass ratio of the moving mass to the system and the difference between the mass center of the moving mass and the mass center of the vehicle body. Interestingly, control authority increases proportionally with increasing mass ratio and also with decreasing the magnitude of the static margin. To deal with the coupling caused by the additional inertia moment which is generated by the motion of the moving mass, an adaptive control law by using dynamic inversion theory and the extended state observer is designed. Also, a compensator is designed for eliminating the influence of the servo actuator's dynamics on attitude of the flight vehicle. Finally, the simulation results validate the quality of the proposed adaptive controller which ensures a good performance in the novel configuration with internal moving mass.

  20. Simulation results of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Ostroff, A.

    1986-01-01

    The restructurable flight control system (RFCS) described by Weiss et al. (1986) is reviewed, and several results of an extensive six degrees of freedom nonlinear simulation of several aspects of this system are reported. It is concluded that the nontraditional use of standard control surfaces in a nominal feedback control system to spread control authority among many redundant control elements provides a significant amount of fault tolerance without any use of restructuring techniques. The use of new feedback gains alone following a failure can provide significantly improved recovery as long as the control elements remain within their travel limits and as long as uncertainty about the failure identity is properly handled. The use of the feed-forward trim solution in conjunction with redesigned feedback gains allows recovery to take place even when significant control saturation occurs.

  1. Simulation results of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Ostroff, A.

    1986-01-01

    The restructurable flight control system (RFCS) described by Weiss et al. (1986) is reviewed, and several results of an extensive six degrees of freedom nonlinear simulation of several aspects of this system are reported. It is concluded that the nontraditional use of standard control surfaces in a nominal feedback control system to spread control authority among many redundant control elements provides a significant amount of fault tolerance without any use of restructuring techniques. The use of new feedback gains alone following a failure can provide significantly improved recovery as long as the control elements remain within their travel limits and as long as uncertainty about the failure identity is properly handled. The use of the feed-forward trim solution in conjunction with redesigned feedback gains allows recovery to take place even when significant control saturation occurs.

  2. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  3. An LMI-based decoupling control for electromagnetic formation flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xianlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF leverages electromagnetic force to control the relative position of satellites. EMFF offers a promising alternative to traditional propellant-based spacecraft flight formation. This novel strategy is very attractive since it does not consume fuel. Due to the highly coupled nonlinearity of electromagnetic force, it is difficult to individually design a controller for one satellite without considering others, which poses challenges to communications. This paper is devoted to decoupling control of EMFF, including regulations, constraints and controller design. A learning-based adaptive sliding mode decoupling controller is analyzed to illustrate the problem of existing results, and input rate saturation is introduced to guarantee the validity of frequency division technique. Through transformation, the imposed input rate saturation is converted to state and input constraints. A linear matrix inequalities (LMI-based robust optimal control method can then be used and improved to solve the transformed problem. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling control.

  4. Sensor-augmented pump therapy lowers HbA(1c) in suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanides, J; Nørgaard, K; Bruttomesso, D

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes.......To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes....

  5. A new strategy for transient stability using augmented generator control and local dynamic braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsey, J.; Jiang, H.; Habetler, T. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Z. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A decentralized automatic control strategy for significantly improving the transient stability of a large power system is introduced. The strategy combines local dynamic braking and a straightforward augmentation of the existing turbine / governor control system that uses only local feedback. The brake resistor, which employs thick film, metal oxide technology, has no inductance and is of very low resistance, allowing its use during fault to show a generator`s acceleration. Simulation results using the 39 Bus New England system show that the strategy dramatically increases the global stability of a power system. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Unfalsified Control; Application to automatic flight control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Mihail STOICA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfalsified Control Theory has been developed to provide a way for avoiding modeling uncertainties in controller design. It belongs to the class of control methods called Adaptive Supervisory Switching Control, which work by introducing in the control scheme a supervisory unit which chooses, from a set of candidate controllers the one most suited for the current plant. Unfalsified Control works by using a switching logic that dispenses with the need for a-priori knowledge of the dynamic model. At discrete moments of time, using the input/output data recorded up to that point, the supervisory calculates for each candidate controller a performance index, and compares it to a given threshold. Controllers surpassing that threshold are removed from the candidate controller set. This process is called falsification. If the controller in the loop is one such falsified controller it is replaced. In this paper we investigate the suitability of this method for aeronautical control applications. We review the theory behind this control scheme and adapt it to the case of controlling a fighter aircraft. We also provide a case study, where we test this control scheme on a simulated fighter aircraft.

  7. Augmented Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Poststroke Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Lem, Frederik C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety poststroke. Multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Patients who had a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale (HADS-D) score >7 at least 3 months poststroke (N=61). Participants were randomly allocated to either augmented CBT or computerized cognitive training (CCT). The CBT intervention was based on the principles of recognizing, registering, and altering negative thoughts and cognitions. CBT was augmented with goal-directed real-life activity training given by an occupational or movement therapist. HADS-D was the primary outcome, and measures of participation and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, immediately posttreatment, and at 4- and 8-month follow-up. Analysis was performed with linear mixed models using group (CBT vs CCT) as the between-subjects factor and time (4 assessments) as the within-subjects factor. Mixed model analyses showed a significant and persistent time effect for HADS-D (mean difference, -4.6; 95% confidence interval, -5.7 to -3.6; Peffect for any of the outcome measures. Our augmented CBT intervention was not superior to CCT for the treatment of mood disorders after stroke. Future studies should determine whether both interventions are better than natural history. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  9. Aircraft automatic flight control system with model inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, George

    1990-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to verify the advantages of a Newton-Raphson model-inversion technique as a design basis for an automatic trajectory control system in an aircraft with highly nonlinear characteristics. The simulation employed a detailed mathematical model of the aerodynamic and propulsion system performance characteristics of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing tactical aircraft. The results obtained confirm satisfactory control system performance over a large portion of the flight envelope. System response to wind gusts was satisfactory for various plausible combinations of wind magnitude and direction.

  10. Aircraft automatic flight control system with model inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, George

    1990-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to verify the advantages of a Newton-Raphson model-inversion technique as a design basis for an automatic trajectory control system in an aircraft with highly nonlinear characteristics. The simulation employed a detailed mathematical model of the aerodynamic and propulsion system performance characteristics of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing tactical aircraft. The results obtained confirm satisfactory control system performance over a large portion of the flight envelope. System response to wind gusts was satisfactory for various plausible combinations of wind magnitude and direction.

  11. The effects of lightning on digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Malloy, W. A.; Craft, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Present practices in lightning protection of aircraft deal primarily with the direct effects of lightning, such as structural damage and ignition of fuel vapors. There is increasing evidence of troublesome electromagnetic effects, however, in aircraft employing solid-state microelectronics in critical navigation, instrumentation and control functions. The potential impact of these indirect effects on critical systems such as digital fly by wire (DFBW) flight controls was studied. The results indicate a need for positive steps to be taken during the design of future fly by wire systems to minimize the possibility of hazardous effects from lightning.

  12. Multiagent Flight Control in Dynamic Environments with Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Matthew D.; Colby, Mitchell; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic flight environments in which objectives and environmental features change with respect to time pose a difficult problem with regards to planning optimal flight paths. Path planning methods are typically computationally expensive, and are often difficult to implement in real time if system objectives are changed. This computational problem is compounded when multiple agents are present in the system, as the state and action space grows exponentially. In this work, we use cooperative coevolutionary algorithms in order to develop policies which control agent motion in a dynamic multiagent unmanned aerial system environment such that goals and perceptions change, while ensuring safety constraints are not violated. Rather than replanning new paths when the environment changes, we develop a policy which can map the new environmental features to a trajectory for the agent while ensuring safe and reliable operation, while providing 92% of the theoretically optimal performance

  13. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  14. H-infinity based integrated flight/propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle; Ouzts, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents results from an application of H(infinity) control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic STOVL fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC design with controller partitioning. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H(infinity) control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objective. The H(infinity) controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance.

  15. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...). Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This...

  16. Visual Flight Control of a Quadrotor Using Bioinspired Motion Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection in the fly is extremely fast with low computational requirements. Inspired from the fly's vision system, we focus on a real-time flight control on a miniquadrotor with fast visual feedback. In this work, an elaborated elementary motion detector (EMD is utilized to detect local optical flow. Combined with novel receptive field templates, the yaw rate of the quadrotor is estimated through a lookup table established with this bioinspired visual sensor. A closed-loop control system with the feedback of yaw rate estimated by EMD is designed. With the motion of the other degrees of freedom stabilized by a camera tracking system, the yaw-rate of the quadrotor during hovering is controlled based on EMD feedback under real-world scenario. The control performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of conventional approach. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of utilizing EMD for quadrotor control.

  17. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  18. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  19. Design and Testing of Flight Control Laws on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chad R.; Hindson, William S.; Moralez. Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Dryfoos, James B.

    2001-01-01

    Two unique sets of flight control laws were designed, tested and flown on the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The first set of control laws used a simple rate feedback scheme, intended to facilitate the first flight and subsequent flight qualification of the RASCAL research flight control system. The second set of control laws comprised a more sophisticated model-following architecture. Both sets of flight control laws were developed and tested extensively using desktop-to-flight modeling, analysis, and simulation tools. Flight test data matched the model predicted responses well, providing both evidence and confidence that future flight control development for RASCAL will be efficient and accurate.

  20. Development of a remote digital augmentation system and application to a remotely piloted research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J. W.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective approach to flight testing advanced control concepts with remotely piloted vehicles is described. The approach utilizes a ground based digital computer coupled to the remotely piloted vehicle's motion sensors and control surface actuators through telemetry links to provide high bandwidth feedback control. The system was applied to the control of an unmanned 3/8-scale model of the F-15 airplane. The model was remotely augmented; that is, the F-15 mechanical and control augmentation flight control systems were simulated by the ground-based computer, rather than being in the vehicle itself. The results of flight tests of the model at high angles of attack are discussed.

  1. A Robust H∞ Controller for an UAV Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of a robust H∞ controller for an UAV to track all types of manoeuvres in the presence of noisy environment. A robust inner-outer loop strategy is implemented. To design the H∞ robust controller in the inner loop, H∞ control methodology is used. The two controllers that conform the outer loop are designed using the H∞ Loop Shaping technique. The reference vector used in the control architecture formed by vertical velocity, true airspeed, and heading angle, suggests a nontraditional way to pilot the aircraft. The simulation results show that the proposed control scheme works well despite the presence of noise and uncertainties, so the control system satisfies the requirements.

  2. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  3. Simple Augmented Current Controller with OHC Technique for grid current compensation in the Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajalingam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel control technique on four leg inverter with which the distribution grid is interconnected with the domestic houses. Most of the houses in the distribution side possess inverter for the usage of Electricity. With the advancement in Solar & wind, it will become easy to see houses, often with solar & a small Wind power system. The excess power generated can be exchanged with the Electricity Board for providing uninterruptible power supply. During this exchange there may be a deterioration in the quality of power, most often the grid current gets affected with a large harmonic distortion, and also there exists unbalanced grid currents. Thus, it is necessary to provide uninterruptible power supply with good quality of power. In spite of several controllers, the proposed augmented controller has its own reliability & quick response with Overall Harmonic Compensation (OHC technique which relies on DSP based filter. This Augmented based control technique with OHC is demonstrated extensively with MATLAB/Simulink simulation.

  4. System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1995-01-01

    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

  5. DESIGNING REDUCED-ORDER CONTROLLERS OF MIXED SENSITIVITY PROBLEM FOR FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI), the design method of reduced-order controllers of mixed sensitivity problem is studied for flight control systems. It is shown that there exists a controller with order not greater than the difference between the generalized plant order and the number of independent control variables, if the mixed sensitivity problem is solvable for strict regular flight control plants. The proof is constructive, and an approach to design such a controller can be obtained in terms of a pair of feasible solution to the well-known 3 LMI. Finally, an example of mixed sensitivity problem for a flight control system is given to demonstrate practice of the approach.

  6. Adaptive estimation and control with application to vision-based autonomous formation flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattigeri, Ramachandra

    2007-05-01

    Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are equipped with vision sensors because of their light-weight, low-cost characteristics and also their ability to provide a rich variety of information of the environment in which the UAVs are navigating in. The problem of vision based autonomous flight is very difficult and challenging since it requires bringing together concepts from image processing and computer vision, target tracking and state estimation, and flight guidance and control. This thesis focuses on the adaptive state estimation, guidance and control problems involved in vision-based formation flight. Specifically, the thesis presents a composite adaptation approach to the partial state estimation of a class of nonlinear systems with unmodeled dynamics. In this approach, a linear time-varying Kalman filter is the nominal state estimator which is augmented by the output of an adaptive neural network (NN) that is trained with two error signals. The benefit of the proposed approach is in its faster and more accurate adaptation to the modeling errors over a conventional approach. The thesis also presents two approaches to the design of adaptive guidance and control (G&C) laws for line-of-sight formation flight. In the first approach, the guidance and autopilot systems are designed separately and then combined together by assuming time-scale separation. The second approach is based on integrating the guidance and autopilot design process. The developed G&C laws using both approaches are adaptive to unmodeled leader aircraft acceleration and to own aircraft aerodynamic uncertainties. The thesis also presents theoretical justification based on Lyapunov-like stability analysis for integrating the adaptive state estimation and adaptive G&C designs. All the developed designs are validated in nonlinear, 6DOF fixed-wing aircraft simulations. Finally, the thesis presents a decentralized coordination strategy for vision-based multiple-aircraft formation control. In this

  7. Flight Control System Design with Rate Saturating Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.; Snell, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    Actuator rate saturation is an important factor adversely affecting the stability and performance of aircraft flight control systems. It has been identified as a catalyst in pilot-induced oscillations, some of which have been catastrophic. A simple design technique is described that utilizes software rate limiters to improve the performance of control systems operating in the presence of actuator rate saturation. As described, the technique requires control effectors to be ganged such that any effector is driven by only a single compensated error signal. Using an analysis of the steady-state behavior of the system, requirements are placed upon the type of the loop transmissions and compensators in the proposed technique. Application of the technique to the design of a multi-input/multi-output, lateral-directional control system for a simple model of a high-performance fighter is demonstrated as are the stability and performance improvements that can accrue with the technique.

  8. A control-volume method for analysis of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for predicting transient thrust augmenting ejector characteristics is presented. The analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with a control volume mixing region discretization to solicit transient effects in a new way. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region corresponds with the assumption of viscous-dominated phenomenon in the latter. Inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady analysis, justified by the assumptions that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Details of the theoretical foundation, the solution algorithm, and sample calculations are given.

  9. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  10. An Optimal Augmented Monotonic Tracking Controller for Aircraft Engines with Output Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiakun Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel min-max control scheme for aircraft engines, with the aim of transferring a set of regulated outputs between two set-points, while ensuring a set of auxiliary outputs remain within prescribed constraints. In view of this, an optimal augmented monotonic tracking controller (OAMTC is proposed, by considering a linear plant with input integration, to enhance the ability of the control system to reject uncertainty in system parameters and ensure no crossing limits. The key idea is to use the eigenvalue and eigenvector placement method and genetic algorithms to shape the output responses. The approach is validated by numerical simulation. The results show that the designed OAMTC controller can achieve a satisfactory dynamic and steady performance and keep the auxiliary outputs within constraints in the transient regime.

  11. Effectiveness of basic display augmentation in vehicular control by visual field cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, A. J.; Merhav, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of different basic display augmentation concepts - fixed reticle, velocity vector, and predicted future vehicle path - for RPVs controlled by a vehicle-mounted TV camera. The task is lateral manual control of a low flying RPV along a straight reference line in the presence of random side gusts. The man-machine system and the visual interface are modeled as a linear time-invariant system. Minimization of a quadratic performance criterion is assumed to underlie the control strategy of a well-trained human operator. The solution for the optimal feedback matrix enables the explicit computation of the variances of lateral deviation and directional error of the vehicle and of the control force that are used as performance measures.

  12. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  13. Digital system identification and its application to digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotob, S.; Kaufman, H.

    1974-01-01

    On-line system identification of linear discrete systems for implementation in a digital adaptive flight controller is considered by the conventional extended Kalman filter and a decoupling process in which the linear state estimation problem and the linear parameter identification problem are each treated separately and alternately. Input requirements for parameter identifiability are established using the standard conditions of observability for a time variant system. Experimental results for simulated linearized lateral aircraft motion are included along with the effect of different initialization and updating procedures for the priming trajectory used by the filter.

  14. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    Hummingbirds are nature's masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring. We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species (magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g, and blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) and two smaller species (broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris, 3.4 g, and black-chinned hummingbirds Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g). Starting from a steady hover, hummingbirds consistently manoeuvred away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid and significant alteration of the magnitude and direction of aerodynamic forces. Thus it appears that the flight control of hummingbirds does not obey the 'helicopter model' that is valid for similar escape manoeuvres in fruit flies. Except for broad-billed hummingbirds, the hummingbirds had faster reaction times than those reported for visual feedback control in insects. The two larger hummingbird species performed pitch rotations and global-yaw turns with considerably larger magnitude than the smaller species, but roll rates and cumulative roll angles were similar among the four species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Cooperative control theory and integrated flight and propulsion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.; Schierman, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The major contribution of this research was the exposition of the fact that airframe and engine interactions could be present, and their effects could include loss of stability and performance of the control systems. Also, the significance of two directional, as opposed to one-directional, coupling was identified and explained. A multivariable stability and performance analysis methodology was developed, and applied to several candidate aircraft configurations. In these example evaluations, the significance of these interactions was underscored. Also exposed was the fact that with interactions present along with some integrated control approaches, the engine command/limiting logic (which represents an important nonlinear component of the engine control system) can impact closed-loop airframe/engine system stability. Finally, a brief investigation of control-law synthesis techniques appropriate for the class of systems was pursued, and it was determined that multivariable techniques, including model-following formulations of LQG and/or H infinity methods, showed promise. However, for practical reasons, decentralized control architectures are preferred, which is an architecture incompatible with these synthesis methods. The major contributions of the second phase of the grant was the development of conditions under which no decentralized controller could achieve closed loop system requirements on stability and/or performance. Sought were conditions that depended only on properties of the plant and the requirement, and independent of any particular control law or synthesis approach. Therefore, they could be applied a priori, before synthesis of a candidate control law. Under this grant, such conditions were found regarding stability, and encouraging initial results were obtained regarding performance.

  16. Information distribution in distributed microprocessor based flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Lee, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal control theory that accounts for variable time intervals in the information distribution to control effectors in a distributed microprocessor based flight control system. The theory is developed using a linear process model for the aircraft dynamics and the information distribution process is modeled as a variable time increment process where, at the time that information is supplied to the control effectors, the control effectors know the time of the next information update only in a stochastic sense. An optimal control problem is formulated and solved that provides the control law that minimizes the expected value of a quadratic cost function. An example is presented where the theory is applied to the control of the longitudinal motions of the F8-DFBW aircraft. Theoretical and simulation results indicate that, for the example problem, the optimal cost obtained using a variable time increment Markov information update process where the control effectors know only the past information update intervals and the Markov transition mechanism is almost identical to that obtained using a known uniform information update interval.

  17. Designing a Biomimetic Ornithopter Capable of Sustained and Controlled Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joon Hyuk Park; Kwang-Joon Yoon

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design of four ornithopters ranging in wing span from 10 cm to 40 cm, and in weight from 5 g to 45 g. The controllability and power supply are two major considerations, so we compare the efficiency and characteristics between different types of subsystems such as gearbox and tail shape. Our current ornithopter is radio-controlled with inbuilt visual sensing and capable of takeoff and landing. We also concentrate on its wing efficiency based on design inspired by a real insect wing and consider that aspects of insect flight such as delayed stall and wake capture are essential at such small size. Most importantly, the advance ratio, controlled either by enlarging the wing beat amplitude or raising the wing beat frequency, is the most significant factor in an ornithopter which mimics an insect.

  18. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  19. Flight control synthesis for flexible aircraft using Eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. B.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magnitudes for selected system responses. Two of these are investigated. The first directly determines constant measurement feedback gains that will yield a close-loop system eigenspace close to a desired eigenspace. The second technique selects quadratic weighting matrices in a linear quadratic control synthesis that will asymptotically yield the close-loop achievable eigenspace. Finally, the possibility of using either of these techniques with state estimation is explored. Application of the methods to synthesize integrated flight-control and structural-mode-control laws for a large flexible aircraft is demonstrated and results discussed. Eigenspace selection criteria based on design goals are discussed, and for the study case it would appear that a desirable eigenspace can be obtained. In addition, the importance of state-space selection is noted along with problems with reduced-order measurement feedback. Since the full-state control laws may be implemented with dynamic compensation (state estimation), the use of reduced-order measurement feedback is less desirable. This is especially true since no change in the transient response from the pilot's input results if state estimation is used appropriately. The potential is also noted for high actuator bandwidth requirements if the linear quadratic synthesis approach is utilized. Even with the actuator pole location selected, a problem with unmodeled modes is noted due to high bandwidth. Some suggestions for future research include investigating how to choose an eigenspace that will achieve certain desired dynamics and stability robustness, determining how the choice of measurements effects synthesis results, and exploring how the phase relationships between desired

  20. Fault Tolerant Flight Control Using Sliding Modes and Subspace Identification-Based Predictive Control

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    2016-07-26

    In this work, a cascade structure of a time-scale separated integral sliding mode and model predictive control is proposed as a viable alternative for fault-tolerant control. A multi-variable sliding mode control law is designed as the inner loop of the flight control system. Subspace identification is carried out on the aircraft in closed loop. The identified plant is then used for model predictive controllers in the outer loop. The overall control law demonstrates improved robustness to measurement noise, modeling uncertainties, multiple faults and severe wind turbulence and gusts. In addition, the flight control system employs filters and dead-zone nonlinear elements to reduce chattering and improve handling quality. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controller using conventional fighter aircraft without control redundancy.

  1. H/OZ: PFD and Collaborative Flight Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition invented OZ, a primary flight display that provides a single, unified graphic display of critical flight...

  2. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Aluja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research.

  3. Treadmill training as an augmentation treatment for Alzheimer?s disease: a pilot randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Arcoverde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the effect of aerobic exercise on the cognition and functional capacity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Method Elderly (n=20 with mild dementia (NINCDS-ADRDA/CDR1 were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG on a treadmill (30 minutes, twice a week and moderate intensity of 60% VO2max and control group (GC 10 patients. The primary outcome measure was the cognitive function using Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG. Specifics instruments were also applied to evaluate executive function, memory, attention and concentration, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and functional capacity. Results After 16 weeks, the EG showed improvement in cognition CAMCOG whereas the CG declined. Compared to the CG, the EG presented significant improvement on the functional capacity. The analysis of the effect size has shown a favorable response to the physical exercise in all dependent variables. Conclusion Walking on treadmill may be recommended as an augmentation treatment for patients with AD.

  4. The B-747 flight control system maintenance and reliability data base for cost effectiveness tradeoff studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Primary and automatic flight controls are combined for a total flight control reliability and maintenance cost data base using information from two previous reports and additional cost data gathered from a major airline. A comparison of the current B-747 flight control system effects on reliability and operating cost with that of a B-747 designed for an active control wing load alleviation system is provided.

  5. Piloted Simulator Evaluation Results of New Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Smaili, M.H.; Stroosma, O.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.; Joosten, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A high fidelity aircraft simulation model, reconstructed using the Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) of the 1992 Amsterdam Bijlmermeer aircraft accident (Flight 1862), has been used to evaluate a new Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm in an online piloted evaluation. This paper focuses on the

  6. Flight control systems properties and problems. Volume 2: Block diagram compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A compendium of stability augmentation system and autopilot block diagrams is presented. Descriptive materials for 48 different types of aircraft systems are provided. A broad representation of the many mechanical approaches which have been used for aircraft control is developed.

  7. Stereovision and augmented reality for closed-loop control of grasping in hand prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Cipriani, Christian; Popovic, Dejan; Farina, Dario

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Technologically advanced assistive devices are nowadays available to restore grasping, but effective and effortless control integrating both feed-forward (commands) and feedback (sensory information) is still missing. The goal of this work was to develop a user friendly interface for the semi-automatic and closed-loop control of grasping and to test its feasibility. Approach. We developed a controller based on stereovision to automatically select grasp type and size and augmented reality (AR) to provide artificial proprioceptive feedback. The system was experimentally tested in healthy subjects using a dexterous hand prosthesis to grasp a set of daily objects. The subjects wore AR glasses with an integrated stereo-camera pair, and triggered the system via a simple myoelectric interface. Main results. The results demonstrated that the subjects got easily acquainted with the semi-autonomous control. The stereovision grasp decoder successfully estimated the grasp type and size in realistic, cluttered environments. When allowed (forced) to correct the automatic system decisions, the subjects successfully utilized the AR feedback and achieved close to ideal system performance. Significance. The new method implements a high level, low effort control of complex functions in addition to the low level closed-loop control. The latter is achieved by providing rich visual feedback, which is integrated into the real life environment. The proposed system is an effective interface applicable with small alterations for many advanced prosthetic and orthotic/therapeutic rehabilitation devices.

  8. Anthropometric considerations for a 4-axis side-arm flight controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debellis, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A data base on multiaxis side-arm flight controls was generated. The rapid advances in fly-by-light technology, automatic stability systems, and onboard computers have combined to create flexible flight control systems which could reduce the workload imposed on the operator by complex new equipment. This side-arm flight controller combines four controls into one unit and should simplify the pilot's task. However, the use of a multiaxis side-arm flight controller without complete cockpit integration may tend to increase the pilot's workload.

  9. Flexibility and control of thorax deformation during hawkmoth flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between neuromuscular systems and body mechanics plays an important role in the production of coordinated movements in animals. Lepidopteran insects move their wings by distortion of the thorax structure via the indirect flight muscles (IFMs), which are activated by neural signals at every stroke. However, how the action of these muscles affects thorax deformation and wing kinematics is poorly understood. We measured the deformation of the dorsal thorax (mesonotum) of tethered flying hawkmoths, Agrius convolvuli, using a high-speed laser profilometer combined with simultaneous recordings of electromyograms and wing kinematics. We observed that locally amplified mesonotum deformation near the wing hinges ensures sufficient wing movement. Furthermore, phase asymmetry in IFM activity leads to phase asymmetry in mesonotum oscillations and wingbeats. Our results revealed the flexibility and controllability of the single structure of the mesonotum by neurogenic action of the IFMs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. A mathematical perspective on flight dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    L'Afflitto, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This brief presents several aspects of flight dynamics, which are usually omitted or briefly mentioned in textbooks, in a concise, self-contained, and rigorous manner. The kinematic and dynamic equations of an aircraft are derived starting from the notion of the derivative of a vector and then thoroughly analysed, interpreting their deep meaning from a mathematical standpoint and without relying on physical intuition. Moreover, some classic and advanced control design techniques are presented and illustrated with meaningful examples. Distinguishing features that characterize this brief include a definition of angular velocity, which leaves no room for ambiguities, an improvement on traditional definitions based on infinitesimal variations. Quaternion algebra, Euler parameters, and their role in capturing the dynamics of an aircraft are discussed in great detail. After having analyzed the longitudinal- and lateral-directional modes of an aircraft, the linear-quadratic regulator, the linear-quadratic Gaussian r...

  11. Flight Dynamics and Control of Elastic Hypersonic Vehicles Uncertainty Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown previously that hypersonic air-breathing aircraft exhibit strong aeroelastic/aeropropulsive dynamic interactions. To investigate these, especially from the perspective of the vehicle dynamics and control, analytical expressions for key stability derivatives were derived, and an analysis of the dynamics was performed. In this paper, the important issue of model uncertainty, and the appropriate forms for representing this uncertainty, is addressed. It is shown that the methods suggested in the literature for analyzing the robustness of multivariable feedback systems, which as a prerequisite to their application assume particular forms of model uncertainty, can be difficult to apply on real atmospheric flight vehicles. Also, the extent to which available methods are conservative is demonstrated for this class of vehicle dynamics.

  12. Selecting a software development methodology. [of digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art analytical techniques for the development and verification of digital flight control software is studied and a practical designer oriented development and verification methodology is produced. The effectiveness of the analytic techniques chosen for the development and verification methodology are assessed both technically and financially. Technical assessments analyze the error preventing and detecting capabilities of the chosen technique in all of the pertinent software development phases. Financial assessments describe the cost impact of using the techniques, specifically, the cost of implementing and applying the techniques as well as the relizable cost savings. Both the technical and financial assessment are quantitative where possible. In the case of techniques which cannot be quantitatively assessed, qualitative judgements are expressed about the effectiveness and cost of the techniques. The reasons why quantitative assessments are not possible will be documented.

  13. Discrete Sliding Mode control of small UAS in tight formation flight under information constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Bolting , Jan; Fergani, Soheib; Biannic, Jean-Marc; Defay, François; Stolle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a new control strategy based on discrete sliding mode control of small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in tight formation flight under information constraints. Tight formation flight enables, among other advantages, significant performance benefits due to wake vortex interactions. A discrete robust control strategy based on the sliding mode approach and a leader-follower scheme is proposed to achieve the desired flight performances while assuming realistic informati...

  14. Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible Tiltrotor Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT CR-RDMR-AF-14-01 FLIGHT DYNAMICS SIMULATION MODELING AND CONTROL OF A LARGE FLEXIBLE TILTROTOR AIRCRAFT...September 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible...18 298-102 i/ii (Blank) FLIGHT DYNAMICS SIMULATION MODELING AND CONTROL OF A LARGE FLEXIBLE TILTROTOR AIRCRAFT by Ondrej Juhasz Dissertation

  15. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  16. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  17. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  18. Flight Control Design for an Autonomous Rotorcraft Using Pseudo-Sliding Mode Control and Waypoint Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Nicolas Joseph

    The design of robust automated flight control systems for aircraft of varying size and complexity is a topic of continuing interest for both military and civilian industries. By merging the benefits of robustness from sliding mode control (SMC) with the familiarity and transparency of design tradeoff offered by frequency domain approaches, this thesis presents pseudo-sliding mode control as a viable option for designing automated flight control systems for complex six degree-of-freedom aircraft. The infinite frequency control switching of SMC is replaced, by necessity, with control inputs that are continuous in nature. An introduction to SMC theory is presented, followed by a detailed design of a pseudo-sliding mode control and automated flight control system for a six degree-of-freedom model of a Hughes OH6 helicopter. This model is then controlled through three different waypoint missions that demonstrate the stability of the system and the aircraft's ability to follow certain maneuvers despite time delays, large changes in model parameters and vehicle dynamics, actuator dynamics, sensor noise, and atmospheric disturbances.

  19. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  20. Functional integration of vertical flight path and speed control using energy principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambregts, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized automatic flight control system was developed which integrates all longitudinal flight path and speed control functions previously provided by a pitch autopilot and autothrottle. In this design, a net thrust command is computed based on total energy demand arising from both flight path and speed targets. The elevator command is computed based on the energy distribution error between flight path and speed. The engine control is configured to produce the commanded net thrust. The design incorporates control strategies and hierarchy to deal systematically and effectively with all aircraft operational requirements, control nonlinearities, and performance limits. Consistent decoupled maneuver control is achieved for all modes and flight conditions without outer loop gain schedules, control law submodes, or control function duplication.

  1. MEMS-Based Low-Cost Flight Control System for Small UAVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xu; ZHOU Zhaoying; XIONG Wei; GUO Qi

    2008-01-01

    Small unmanned air vehicles(UAVs)can be used for vanous kinds of surveillance and data collection missions.The UAV flight control system is the key to a successful mission.This paper describes a low-cost micro-electro mechanical system-based flight control system for small UAVs.The integrated hardware flight control system weighs only 24 g.The system includes a highly-integrated wireless transmission link,which is lighter than traditional links.The flight control provides altitude hold control and global positioning system navigation based on gain scheduling proportional-integral-derivative control.Flight tests to survey the grass quality of a large lawn show that the small UAV can fly autonomously according to a series of pre-arranged waypoints with a controlled altitude while the wireless video system transmits images of the surveillance target to a ground control station.

  2. A randomised controlled study comparing Drotaverine hydrochloride and Valethamate bromide in the augmentation of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Chendrimada; Mahavarkar, Suvarna; Bhave, Sudhir

    2010-07-01

    Cervical dilatation is a poorly understood process. Various drugs have been used to facilitate this process and reduce the duration of labour and thereby reduce feto-maternal complications. The present study is an attempt to compare and evaluate the efficacy of Drotaverine hydrochloride and Valethamate bromide in the process of cervical dilatation and labour augmentation. A prospective randomised trial of 146 low-risk women in spontaneous labour was conducted. 49 women were given Drotaverine (Group 1), 49 women were given Valethamate (Group 2) and 48 women were given placebo (Group 3). At 4 cm of cervical dilatation, elective amniotomy was done and the injection was given intramuscularly, and repeated every hour for a maximum of three doses. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean injection-delivery times (time from first injection to delivery of the baby), which was 183.2 min (SD 78.8) in the Drotaverine group compared to 206.5 min (SD 69.7) in the Valethamate group, and 245 min (SD 70.9) in the control group. The mean cervical dilatation rate (cm/h) was 3 (SD 1.4), 2.4 (SD 0.9) and 1.9 (SD 0.6) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in the duration of second and third stage of labour. Transient side effects such as foeto-maternal tachycardia, flushing of the face and dryness of mouth were noted with Valethamate. A few patients complained of headache in the Drotaverine group. Both Drotaverine and Valethamate appear to significantly help cervical dilatation and augment first stage of labour. But, Drotaverine is superior to Valethamate with fewer side effects.

  3. Advanced control techniques for post-buckled precompressed (PBP) flight control actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Barrett, R.; Vos, R.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic response of a new class of flight control actuators that rely on post-buckled recompressed (PBP) piezoelectric elements is investigated. While past research has proven that PBP actuators are capable of generating deflections three times higher than conventional bimorph actuators, this pa

  4. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  5. Three-Axis Fluidic/Electronic Automatic Flight Control System Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    sustained vertical bounce which could be due tc the location of the rate vortex sensor being in the cockpit rather than under the transmission. 3...29,000 lbs vs U7,000 lbs). A very minor reduction in dampening was incorporater"—but the response of the SAS to vertical bounce was critical in a...Sensitivity to vertical bounce in hover flight was increased with SAS on or off over that experience on the previous flight. Aircraft buzz and

  6. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella

    Full Text Available Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31 versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32 in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  7. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. "One-session treatment" guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants' expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants.

  8. In Vivo versus Augmented Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Small Animal Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias, some acceptability problems have been associated with it. Virtual Reality exposure has been shown to be as effective as in vivo exposure, and it is widely accepted for the treatment of specific phobias, but only preliminary data are available in the literature about the efficacy of Augmented Reality. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy and acceptance of two treatment conditions for specific phobias in which the exposure component was applied in different ways: In vivo exposure (N = 31) versus an Augmented Reality system (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial. “One-session treatment” guidelines were followed. Participants in the Augmented Reality condition significantly improved on all the outcome measures at post-treatment and follow-ups. When the two treatment conditions were compared, some differences were found at post-treatment, favoring the participants who received in vivo exposure. However, these differences disappeared at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Regarding participants’ expectations and satisfaction with the treatment, very positive ratings were reported in both conditions. In addition, participants from in vivo exposure condition considered the treatment more useful for their problem whereas participants from Augmented Reality exposure considered the treatment less aversive. Results obtained in this study indicate that Augmented Reality exposure is an effective treatment for specific phobias and well accepted by the participants. PMID:26886423

  9. Tantalum acetabular augments in one-stage exchange of infected total hip arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Till Orla; Kendoff, Daniel; Sabihi, Reza; Kamath, Atul F; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    During the one-stage exchange procedure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), acetabular defects challenge reconstructive options. Porous tantalum augments are an established tool for addressing acetabular destruction in aseptic cases, but their utility in septic exchange is unknown. This retrospective case-control study presents the initial results of tantalum augmentation during one-stage exchange for PJI. Primary endpoints were rates of re-infection and short-term complications associated with this technique. Study patients had no higher risk of re-infection with equivalent durability at early follow-up with a re-infection rate in both groups of 4%. In conclusion, tantalum augments are a viable option for addressing acetabular defects in one-stage exchange for septic THA. Further study is necessary to assess long-term durability when compared to traditional techniques for acetabular reconstruction.

  10. Development of an Autonomous Flight Control System for Small Size Unmanned Helicopter Based on Dynamical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is devoted to the development of an autonomous flight control system for small size unmanned helicopter based on dynamical model. At first, the mathematical model of a small size helicopter is described. After that simple but effective MTCV control algorithm was proposed. The whole flight control algorithm is composed of two parts:orientation controller based on the model for rotation dynamics and a robust position controller for a double integrator. The MTCV block is also used to achieve translation velocity control. To demonstrate the performance of the presented algorithm, simulation results and results achieved in real flight experiments were presented.

  11. Augmented Command and Control Table to Support Network-Centric Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zocco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The success in network-centric warfare requires information superiority to obtain dominant battlespace awareness. The time required to take a decision has been reduced by orders of magnitude, while the volume of accessible data has been increased exponentially. When this volume is displayed to an operator, the risk of reaching a state of information overload is real and great care shall be taken to make sure that what is provided is actually information and not noise. In this paper we propose a novel interaction environment that leverages the augmented reality technology to provide a digitally enhanced view of a real command and control table. The operator equipped with an optical see-through head-mounted display controls the virtual context, a synthetic view of the common operational picture, remaining connected to the real world. Technical details of the system are described together with the evaluation method. The results showed effectiveness of the proposed system in terms of understanding perception, depth impression, and level of immersion. A relevant reduction of the reaction time and of the number of errors made during the execution of complex tasks, have been obtained.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.39-45, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.6713

  12. A Hybrid Flight Control for a Simulated Raptor-30 V2 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter?s model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode.

  13. Pseudo Control Hedging and its Application for Safe Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Looye, G.H.N.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how the previously developed concept of Pseudo Control Hedging (PCH) can be integrated in a Fault Tolerant Flight Controller (FTFC) as a safe flight envelope protection system of the first degree. This PCH algorithm adapts the reference model for the system output in case of

  14. Model and Sensor Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control with Online System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Consensus exists that many loss-of-control (LOC) in flight accidents caused by severe aircraft damage or system failure could be prevented if flight performance could be recovered using the valid and remaining control authorities. However, the safe maneuverability of a post-failure aircraft will

  15. 14 CFR 417.415 - Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls. 417.415 Section 417.415 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...-flight-attempt hazard controls. (a) A launch operator must establish, maintain and perform procedures...

  16. Model and Sensor Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control with Online System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Consensus exists that many loss-of-control (LOC) in flight accidents caused by severe aircraft damage or system failure could be prevented if flight performance could be recovered using the valid and remaining control authorities. However, the safe maneuverability of a post-failure aircraft will ine

  17. Pseudo Control Hedging and its Application for Safe Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Looye, G.H.N.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how the previously developed concept of Pseudo Control Hedging (PCH) can be integrated in a Fault Tolerant Flight Controller (FTFC) as a safe flight envelope protection system of the first degree. This PCH algorithm adapts the reference model for the system output in case of una

  18. A design procedure and handling quality criteria for lateral directional flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G.; Henke, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    A practical design procedure for aircraft augmentation systems is described based on quadratic optimal control technology and handling-quality-oriented cost functionals. The procedure is applied to the design of a lateral-directional control system for the F4C aircraft. The design criteria, design procedure, and final control system are validated with a program of formal pilot evaluation experiments.

  19. Optimal Airline Multi-Leg Flight Seat Inventory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.

  20. Sliding Mode Controller Design for Position and Speed Control of Flight Simulator Servo System with Large Friction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金琨; 尔联洁

    2003-01-01

    Flight simulator is an important device and a typical high-performance position and speed servo system used in the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of flight control system. Friction is the main nonlinear resistance in the flight simulator servo system, especially in a low-speed state. Based on the description of dynamic and static models of a nonlinear Stribeck friction model, this paper puts forward sliding mode controller to overcome the friction, whose stability is proved. Simulation example indicates that the controller can guarantee a high robust performance and have a high precision of position tracking and speed tracking for a flight simulator servo system.

  1. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  2. Investigation of a Simple Visual System for Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    wings or ocelli Mizunami, The diversity of insect ocellar systems, 1994 Fleas lice proturans Dragonflies and damselflies mayflies 7 Identifying...and some do not). – Dragonflies vs. nearctic owlflies •Same sensor suites different behaviors – Very different flight, but all have the same sensor...Flight setup, by David Forester. Network 13 Similar behaving insects, different sensors. \\.J ••• • AFR .!;l 14 Dragonfly in field \\.J ••• • , AFR

  3. The impact of remote manipulator structural dynamics on Shuttle on-orbit flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of the Space Shuttle on-orbit flight control system during payload operations with the remote manipulator system is described. The changing mass and inertia distribution associated with payload manipulation can have a significant effect on the control authority provided by the orbiter's reaction control jets. Commanded payload motion and jet firings can excite significant flexure in the orbiter/manipulator/payload structure. These effects combine to stress the control capabilities of the flight control system. Data from recent flight tests is presented to illustrate these effects.

  4. Status of a digital integrated propulsion/flight control system for the YF-12 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reukauf, P. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Holzman, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center is engaged in a program with the YF-12 airplane to study the control of interactions between the airplane and the propulsion system. The existing analog air data computer, autothrottle, autopilot, and inlet control system are to be converted to digital systems by using a general purpose airborne computer and interface unit. First, the existing control laws will be programmed in the digital computer and flight tested. Then new control laws are to be derived from a dynamic propulsion model and a total force and moment aerodynamic model to integrate the systems. These control laws are to be verified in a real time simulation and flight tested.

  5. H-infinity based integrated flight-propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle M.; Ouzts, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an application of H-infinity control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC controller design with controller partitioning. Only the feedback controller design portion of the methodology is addressed. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H-infinity control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objectives. The H-infinity controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance. A discussion is presented of the areas in which the controller performance needs to be improved, and ways in which these improvements can be achieved within the framework of an H-infinity based linear control design.

  6. Possible applications of the LEAP motion controller for more interactive simulated experiments in augmented or virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Peter; Vauderwange, Oliver; Mandal, Avikarsha; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Practical exercises are a crucial part of many curricula. Even simple exercises can improve the understanding of the underlying subject. Most experimental setups require special hardware. To carry out e. g. a lens experiments the students need access to an optical bench, various lenses, light sources, apertures and a screen. In our previous publication we demonstrated the use of augmented reality visualization techniques in order to let the students prepare with a simulated experimental setup. Within the context of our intended blended learning concept we want to utilize augmented or virtual reality techniques for stationary laboratory exercises. Unlike applications running on mobile devices, stationary setups can be extended more easily with additional interfaces and thus allow for more complex interactions and simulations in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). The most significant difference is the possibility to allow interactions beyond touching a screen. The LEAP Motion controller is a small inexpensive device that allows for the tracking of the user's hands and fingers in three dimensions. It is conceivable to allow the user to interact with the simulation's virtual elements by the user's very hand position, movement and gesture. In this paper we evaluate possible applications of the LEAP Motion controller for simulated experiments in augmented and virtual reality. We pay particular attention to the devices strengths and weaknesses and want to point out useful and less useful application scenarios.

  7. Augmented Reality for Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Pankratz, Frieder

    2016-01-01

    A recurring challenge when setting up any augmented reality system is the correct calibration and registration of the involved devices. Augmented Reality for Augmented Reality (AR4AR) generates augmented reality guides by using the already existing knowledge about the AR system which stems from the setup of the AR system itself. As these guides involve plenty of 3D information, it is again best presented through means of Augmented Reality, thus the name AR4AR. Eine wiederkehrende Herausfor...

  8. Computer program to simulate digital computer based longitudinal flight control laws in a high performance aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, James Robert

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The IEH Company's Continuous Systems Modeling Program was used to simulate the longitudinal flight control system of the F/A-18 aircraft. The model is intended for use in investigations cf aircraft response to flight conditions which approach spin or stall and is restricted to the automatic flaps up (AFU) flight mode. Program outputs include stabilator deflection, leading and trailing edge flap positions, and cress-ax...

  9. Augmented reality-based postural control training improves gait function in patients with stroke: Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ho Lee, PT, MSc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality (AR-based postural control training on balance and gait function in stroke patients. Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to either an experimental group (n = 10 or a control group (n = 11. Patients in both groups received a general physical therapy program for a duration of 30 minutes per session, 5 days per week, for a period of 4 weeks. Participants in the experimental group received additional AR-based postural control training for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 4 weeks. Patients were assessed with the timed up-and-go test, Berg Balance Scale test, and spatiotemporal parameters using the GAITRite system. Results of repeated-measures analysis of covariance showed a significant main effect of time on timed up-and-go test, Berg Balance Scale, velocity, cadence, step length and stride length of paretic and nonparetic sides. In addition, walking velocity, step length, and stride length on both the paretic and nonparetic sides showed a significant group × time interaction effect. The results of this study provide evidence in support of incorporating an AR environment into postural control training for improving gait of stroke patients.

  10. Design of a flight control architecture using a non-convex bundle method

    OpenAIRE

    Gabarrou, Marion; Alazard, Daniel; Noll, Dominikus

    2013-01-01

    We design a feedback control architecture for longitudinal flight of an aircraft. The multi-level architecture includes the flight control loop to govern the short term dynamics of the aircraft, and the autopilot to control the long term modes. Using H1 performance and robustness criteria, the problem is cast as a non-convex and non-smooth optimization program. We present a non-convex bundle method, prove its convergence, and show that it is apt to solve the longitudinal flight control pro...

  11. Integrated digital flight-control system for the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.

  12. Robust bounded control for uncer tain flight dynamics using disturbance observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mou Chen; Bin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The robust bounded flight control scheme is developed for the uncertain longitudinal flight dynamics of the fighter with con-trol input saturation invoking the backstepping technique. To en-hance the disturbance rejection ability of the robust flight control for fighters, the sliding mode disturbance observer is designed to esti-mate the compounded disturbance including the unknown external disturbance and the effect of the control input saturation. Based on the backstepping technique and the compounded disturbance estimated output, the robust bounded flight control scheme is pro-posed for the fighter with the unknown external disturbance and the control input saturation. The closed-loop system stability under the developed robust bounded flight control scheme is rigorously proved using the Lyapunov method and the uniformly asymptotical convergences of al closed-loop signals are guaranteed. Final y, simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed robust bounded flight control scheme for the uncertain longitudinal flight dynamics of the fighter.

  13. A new ball launching system with controlled flight parameters for catching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, A; Cesqui, B; Portone, A; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-03-30

    Systematic investigations of sensorimotor control of interceptive actions in naturalistic conditions, such as catching or hitting a ball moving in three-dimensional space, requires precise control of the projectile flight parameters and of the associated visual stimuli. Such control is challenging when air drag cannot be neglected because the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters cannot be computed analytically. We designed, calibrated, and experimentally validated an actuated launching apparatus that can control the average spatial position and flight duration of a ball at a given distance from a fixed launch location. The apparatus was constructed by mounting a ball launching machine with adjustable delivery speed on an actuated structure capable of changing the spatial orientation of the launch axis while projecting balls through a hole in a screen hiding the apparatus. The calibration procedure relied on tracking the balls with a motion capture system and on approximating the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters by means of polynomials functions. Polynomials were also used to estimate the variability of the flight parameters. The coefficients of these polynomials were obtained using the launch and flight parameters of 660 launches with 65 different initial conditions. The relative accuracy and precision of the apparatus were larger than 98% for flight times and larger than 96% for ball heights at a distance of 6m from the screen. Such novel apparatus, by reliably and automatically controlling desired ball flight characteristics without neglecting air drag, allows for a systematic investigation of naturalistic interceptive tasks.

  14. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  15. Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Research at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    A brief introductory overview of multi-vehicle cooperative control research conducted at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center from 2000 - 2014. Both flight research projects and paper studies are included. Since 2000, AFRC has been almost continuously pursuing research in the areas of formation flight for drag reduction and automated cooperative trajectories. An overview of results is given, including flight experiments done on the FA-18 and with the C-17. Other multi-vehicle cooperative research is discussed, including small UAV swarming projects and automated aerial refueling.

  16. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachum, Zohar; Garmi, Gali; Kadan, Yfat; Zafran, Noah; Shalev, Eliezer; Salim, Raed

    2010-11-07

    A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1), oxytocin (group 2) or both (group 3). A group of women who progressed spontaneously without intervention composed the control group (group 4). The primary outcome was the duration of time from initiation of augmentation until delivery. A total of 213 women were consented and randomized to group 1 (70 women), group 2 (72 women) and group 3 (71 women). Group 4 was composed from additional 70 women. A mean reduction of 120 minutes in labor duration was observed among group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.08) and 180 minutes compared to group 2 and 4 (p = 0.001). Women in group 3 had a shorter length of time from augmentation until the beginning of the active phase and a shorter first stage of labor than group 1 (p = 0.03), group 2 (p = 0.001) and group 4 (p = 0.001). Satisfaction was greater among group 3 and 4. Mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable between the groups. Labor augmentation by combined amniotomy and oxytocin among women with a prolonged latent phase at term seems superior compared to either of them alone.

  17. A Flight-Path Control of Aircraft Based on Required Acceleration Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitani, Naoharu

    This paper presents an automatic flight-path control of aircraft. In the control, a desired flight trajectory is first determined as a sequence of straight lines, arcs and spirals in the three-dimensional space. Commands and command rates of heading and flight-path (climb) angles are then obtained from the desired trajectory. A required acceleration vector of the aircraft is calculated based on the command rates and angle deviations. Desired roll, pitch and yaw rates are then obtained by acceleration controller and are fed to attitude control. The feedback control of acceleration employs conventional PID control technology, without using inverse dynamics of the aircraft, and the attitude control can employ any existing control technologies suitable for the aircraft to be controlled. These make the proposed control relatively simple and easy to implement. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the control.

  18. Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  19. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba at aft flight deck controls in JSC mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing flight suit, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. During the training session, Malerba adjusts a control on the A3 panel closed circuit television (CCTV). Onorbit station panels appear in front of Malerba and payload station controls behind him.

  20. A Survey on Open-Source Flight Control Platforms of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Jin, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), so-called drones, have gotten a lot of attention in academic research and commercial applications due to their simple structure, ease of operations and low-cost hardware components. Flight controller, embedded electronics component, represents the core part...... of the drone. It aims at performing the main operations of the drone (e.g., autonomous control and navigation). There are various types of flight controllers and each of them has its own characteristics and features. This paper presents an extensive survey on the publicly available open-source flight...

  1. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  2. Augmented Nonlinear Controller for Maximum Power-Point Tracking with Artificial Neural Network in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems have non-linear characteristics that generate maximum power at one particular operating point. Environmental factors such as irradiance and temperature variations greatly affect the maximum power point (MPP). Diverse offline and online techniques have been introduced for tracking the MPP. Here, to track the MPP, an augmented-state feedback linearized (AFL) non-linear controller combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed. This approach linearizes the...

  3. Flight testing the Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) A unique management experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Kock, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    The concept for the DEEC had its origin in the early 1970s. At that time it was recognized that the F100 engine performance, operability, reliability, and cost could be substantially improved by replacing the original mechanical/supervisory electronic control system with a full-authority digital control system. By 1978, the engine manufacturer had designed and initiated the procurement of flight-qualified control system hardware. As a precursor to an integrated controls program, a flight evaluation of the DEEC system on the F-15 aircraft was proposed. Questions regarding the management of the DEEC flight evaluation program are discussed along with the program elements, the technical results of the F-15 evaluation, and the impact of the flight evaluation on after-burning turbofan controls technology and its use in and application to military aircraft. The lessons learned through the conduct of the program are discussed.

  4. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  5. F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test results viewed from an active controls perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, K. J.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test program are presented, along with the implications for active controls applications. The closed loop performance of the digital control system agreed well with the sampled-data system design predictions. The digital fly-by-wire mechanization also met pilot flying qualities requirements. The advantages of mechanizing the control laws in software became apparent during the flight program and were realized without sacrificing overall system reliability. This required strict software management. The F-8 flight test results are shown to be encouraging in light of the requirements that must be met by control systems for flight-critical active controls applications.

  6. Validation of Flight Control Law Based on LFT and Structured Singular Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xi; LIU Lin; CHEN Zong-ji; DUAN Hai-bin

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of flight clearance is to use the structured singular value (μ) analysis of the flight control system when some parameters in the system vary in a certain range. As theμ-analysis can only be done on a linear fractional transformation (LFT) model, the first step of flight clearance is to generate the LFT model of the flight control system. In this paper, based on the introduction of basic theory of LFT and μ-analysis, an X-fighter is chosen as an example to utilize the proposed methods. In order to realize the flight clearance process automatically, a novel software package based on MATLAB programming language is developed. The results of simulation experiments validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the novel methods proposed in this paper.

  7. Flight Investigation of a Normal-Acceleration Automatic Longitudinal Control System in a Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, S. A.; Russell, Walter R.; Alford, William L.

    1958-01-01

    A flight investigation was made to obtain experimental information on the handling qualities of a normal-acceleration type of automatic longitudinal control system. The control system was installed in a subsonic fighter-type airplane. In hands-off (stick-free) flight the normal-acceleration control system attempted to regulate the normal acceleration to a constant value which is dependent on the automatic-control-system trim setting. In maneuvering flight a given pilot's stick deflection produced a proportional change in normal acceleration, the change in acceleration being independent of flight condition. A small side-located controller stick was used by the pilot to introduce signals into the automatic control system. In the flight program emphasis was placed on the acceleration-limiting capabilities of the control system. The handling qualities were investigated in maneuvers such as slow and rapid pull-ups and turns and also in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking. Good acceleration limiting was obtained with the normal-acceleration control system by limiting the magnitude of the input signal that the pilot could introduce into the control system. The same values of control-system gain settings could be used from an acceleration-limiting stand-point at both 10,000 and 30,000 feet for the complete speed range of the airplane. The response characteristics of the airplane-control system combination were also satisfactory at both high and low altitude with these same values of control-system gain setting. In the pilot's opinion, the normal-acceleration control system provided good stability and control characteristics in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking.

  8. X-33 Attitude Control System Design for Ascent, Transition, and Entry Flight Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles E.; Gallaher, Michael W.; Hendrix, Neal D.

    1998-01-01

    The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Systems Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control system for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Ascent flight control begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (NECO) while Transition and Entry flight control begins at MECO and concludes at the terminal area energy management (TAEM) interface. TAEM occurs at approximately Mach 3.0. This task includes not only the design of the vehicle attitude control systems but also the development of requirements for attitude control system components and subsystems. The X-33 attitude control system design is challenged by a short design cycle, the design environment (Mach 0 to about Mach 15), and the X-33 incremental test philosophy. The X-33 design-to-launch cycle of less than 3 years requires a concurrent design approach while the test philosophy requires design adaptation to vehicle variations that are a function of Mach number and mission profile. The flight attitude control system must deal with the mixing of aerosurfaces, reaction control thrusters, and linear aerospike engine control effectors and handle parasitic effects such as vehicle flexibility and propellant sloshing from the uniquely shaped propellant tanks. The attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems.

  9. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  10. Grafting Acoustic Instruments and Signal Processing: Creative Control and Augmented Expressivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Freed, Adrian

    the musician’s movements. For example, gestural tilting of the instrument is tracked via an embedded Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which can be assigned to alter parameters such as the wet/dry mix of a simple octave-doubler or other more advanced audio effect, further augmenting the expressivity...

  11. Dynamic Performances of the Automatic Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains why the combination of programming codes represents a true engineering tool in aircraft systems investigating. Flight safety and flying quality are extremely important to modern aviation industry. The aircraft responses, which are measured during real flight, are compared to the responses that are obtained from the simulations. Typically, aircraft problems consist in finding the solutions for basic work in all kind of areas, using knowledge from fields of science such as physics, mathematics and computer science. The purpose is to present such problems solved by computer simulations. Some of the advantages of performing numerical simulations are the low risk and low cost involved as compared to performing aircraft experiments. Another major advantage is the physical insight which one can gain in the behavior of the system subjected to different conditions and different values of the characteristic parameters of the aircraft's dynamic performances.

  12. Bifurcation Tools for Flight Dynamics Analysis and Control System Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern bifurcation analysis methods have been proposed for investigating flight dynamics and control system design in highly nonlinear regimes and also for the...

  13. ADAPTIVE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM OF ARMED HELICOPTER USING WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHURong-gang; JIANGChangsheng; FENGBin

    2004-01-01

    A discussion is devoted to the design of an adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method. Firstly, the control loop of the attitude angle is designed with a dynamic inversion scheme in a quick loop and a slow loop. respectively. Then, in order to compensate the error caused by dynamic inversion, the adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method is put forward, so the BP wavelet neural network and the Lyapunov stable wavelet neural network are used to design the helicopter flight control system. Finally, the typical maneuver flight is simulated to demonstrate its validity and effectiveness. Result proves that the wavelet neural network has an engineering practical value and the effect of WNN is good.

  14. Bifurcation Tools for Flight Dynamics Analysis and Control System Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the project is the development of a computational package for bifurcation analysis and advanced flight control of aircraft. The development of...

  15. Self-Repairing Flight Control System for Online Health Monitoring and Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a reliable self-repairing Flight Control System (FCS) will be developed. To achieve this goal, an artificial Neural Network based Sensor...

  16. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  17. Flight Services and Aircraft Access: Active Flow Control Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the Flight Services and Aircraft Access task order NNL14AA57T as part of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project ITD12A+. It includes descriptions of flight test preparations and execution for the Active Flow Control (AFC) Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) experiments conducted on the 757 ecoDemonstrator. For the AFC Vertical Tail, this is the culmination of efforts under two task orders. The task order was managed by Boeing Research & Technology and executed by an enterprise-wide Boeing team that included Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense and Space and Boeing Test and Evaluation. Boeing BR&T in St. Louis was responsible for overall Boeing project management and coordination with NASA. The 757 flight test asset was provided and managed by the BCA ecoDemonstrator Program, in partnership with Stifel Aircraft Leasing and the TUI Group. With this report, all of the required deliverables related to management of this task order have been met and delivered to NASA as summarized in Table 1. In addition, this task order is part of a broader collaboration between NASA and Boeing.

  18. Flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control for the digital electronic engine control system in an F100 engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, K. R.; Burcham, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    The backup control (BUC) features, the operation of the BUC system, the BUC control logic, and the BUC flight test results are described. The flight test results include: (1) transfers to the BUC at military and maximum power settings; (2) a military power acceleration showing comparisons bvetween flight and simulation for BUC and primary modes; (3) steady-state idle power showing idle compressor speeds at different flight conditions; and (4) idle-to-military power BUC transients showing where cpmpressor stalls occurred for different ramp rates and idle speeds. All the BUC transfers which occur during the DEEC flight program are initiated by the pilot. Automatic transfers to the BUC do not occur.

  19. Benzodiazepine augmentation of antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis and Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Markus; Li, Chunbo; Gillies, Donna; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Applying various psychopharmacological combination and augmentation strategies in schizophrenia is common clinical practice. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of benzodiazepines added to antipsychotics. The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group trial register (until February 2011) and PubMed/Medline (until July 2012) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a minimum duration of one week that compared benzodiazepine augmentation of antipsychotics with a control group receiving antipsychotic monotherapy in schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Study selection and data extraction were conducted independently by at least two authors. The primary outcome was response to treatment. Secondary outcomes were positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and dropouts due to any reason, inefficacy of treatment, and adverse events. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, with number-needed-to-treat/harm (NNT/H) calculations where appropriate. Overall, 16 relevant RCTs with 1045 participants were identified. Benzodiazepine augmentation was not associated with statistically significantly more responders (N=6; n=511; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77-1.22). Adjunctive benzodiazepines were well accepted and tolerated according to dropout-rates and adverse effects apart from dizziness (N=3; n=190; RR 2.58, 95% CI 1.08-6.15) and somnolence (N=2; n=118; RR 3.30, 95% CI 1.04-10.40). There is no evidence for antipsychotic efficacy of additional benzodiazepine medication in schizophrenia. Therefore, benzodiazepines should be considered primarily for desired ultra short-term sedation of acutely agitated patients but not for augmentation of antipsychotics in the medium- and long-term pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and related disorders.

  20. Stable Hovering Flight for a Small Unmanned Helicopter Using Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable hover flight control for small unmanned helicopter under light air turbulent environment is presented. Intelligent fuzzy logic is chosen because it is a nonlinear control technique based on expert knowledge and is capable of handling sensor created noise and contradictory inputs commonly encountered in flight control. The fuzzy nonlinear control utilizes these distinct qualities for attitude, height, and position control. These multiple controls are developed using two-loop control structure by first designing an inner-loop controller for attitude angles and height and then by establishing outer-loop controller for helicopter position. The nonlinear small unmanned helicopter model used comes from X-Plane simulator. A simulation platform consisting of MATLAB/Simulink and X-Plane© flight simulator was introduced to implement the proposed controls. The main objective of this research is to design computationally intelligent control laws for hovering and to test and analyze this autopilot for small unmanned helicopter model on X-Plane under ideal and mild turbulent condition. Proposed fuzzy flight controls are validated using an X-Plane helicopter model before being embedded on actual helicopter. To show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy control method and its ability to cope with the external uncertainties, results are compared with a classical PD controller. Simulated results show that two-loop fuzzy controllers have a good ability to establish stable hovering for a class of unmanned rotorcraft in the presence of light turbulent environment.

  1. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  2. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  3. NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center Dynamics and Controls Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    NASA Armstrong continues its legacy of exciting work in the area of Dynamics and Control of advanced vehicle concepts. This presentation describes Armstrongs research in control of flexible structures, peak seeking control and adaptive control in the Spring of 2015.

  4. Research on flight stability performance of rotor aircraft based on visual servo control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    control method based on visual servo feedback is proposed, which is used to improve the attitude of a quad-rotor aircraft and to enhance its flight stability. Ground target images are obtained by a visual platform fixed on aircraft. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorism is used to extract image feature information. According to the image characteristic analysis, fast motion estimation is completed and used as an input signal of PID flight control system to realize real-time status adjustment in flight process. Imaging tests and simulation results show that the method proposed acts good performance in terms of flight stability compensation and attitude adjustment. The response speed and control precision meets the requirements of actual use, which is able to reduce or even eliminate the influence of environmental disturbance. So the method proposed has certain research value to solve the problem of aircraft's anti-disturbance.

  5. Discrete Neural Altitude Control for Hypersonic Vehicle Via Flight Path Angle Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixing Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the altitude control is analyzed for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic Hypersonic Flight Vehicle (HFV. By transforming altitude command into the tracking of flight path angle with fast dynamics, the system design is focusing on the control of the attitude subsystem. The virtual control is designed with nominal feedback and Neural Network (NN approximation via back-stepping. Under the proposed controller, the Semiglobal Uniform Ultimate Boundedness (SGUUB stability is guaranteed. The slow dynamics are transformed into the parameter estimation problem and the update law is designed. The simulation is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  6. 77 FR 57039 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety... electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller to the control surface...

  7. Sentinel lymph node detection after transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Heitor Naoki; Yamada, Airton Seiji [Centro de Radioimunoensaio e Medicina Nuclear do Parana (CERMEN), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: heitor@cermen.com.br; Graf, Ruth Maria; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Cirurgia Plastica; Urban, Cicero Andrade [Universidade Posotivo (UnicenP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Universitario Positivo; Woellner, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Medicina Nuclear; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital Universitario

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the potential influence of transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. Materials and methods: Prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control) corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group) evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar {sup 99m}Tc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p 0.488). The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 {+-} 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 {+-} 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895). The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 {+-} 4.42 minutes in the post mammoplasty group, and 5.48 {+-} 5.06 minutes in the control group (p 0.136). Conclusion: Transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node. (author)

  8. Sentinel lymph node detection after trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Heitor Naoki; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Program of Post-Graduation in Surgical Practice]. E-mail: heitor@cermen.com.br; Graf, Ruth Maria [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Urban, Cicero Andrade [UnicenP, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamada, Airton Seiji [CERMEN - Centro de Radioimunoensaio e Medicina Nuclear de Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Woellner, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unit of Nuclear Medicine; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    2008-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the potential influence of trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. Materials and methods: prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control) corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group) evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar {sup 99m}Tc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: all the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p 0.488). The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 {+-} 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 {+-} 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895). The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 {+-} 4.42 minutes in the post mammoplasty group, and 5.48 {+-} 5.06 minutes in the control group (p 0.136). Conclusion: transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node. (author)

  9. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  10. Fault Tolerant Architecture For A Fly-By-Light Flight Control Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin; Stipanovich, John; Smith, Brian; Reddy, Mahesh C.

    1990-02-01

    The next generation of flight control computers will utilize fiber optic technology to produce a fly-by-light flight control system. Optical transducers and optical fibers will take the place of electrical position transducers and wires, torsion bars, bell cranks, and cables. Applications for this fly-by-light technology include space launch vehicles, upperstages, space-craft, and commercial/military aircraft. Optical fibers are lighter than mechanical transmission media and unlike conven-tional wire transmissions are not susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and high energy emission sources. This paper will give an overview of a fault tolerant In-Line Monitored optical flight control system being developed at Boeing Aerospace & Electronics in Seattle, Washington. This system uses passive transducers with fiber optic interconnections which hold promises to virtually eliminate EMI threats to flight control system performance and flight safety and also provide significant weight savings. The main emphasis of this paper will be the In-Line Monitored architecture of the optical transducer system required for use in a fault tolerant flight control system.

  11. Titrated oral misoprostol solution compared with intravenous oxytocin for labor augmentation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2010-09-01

    To compare titrated oral misoprostol to intravenous oxytocin for labor augmentation among women at 36 to 42 weeks of gestation with spontaneous onset of active labor. Women meeting the general selection criteria with regular contractions and an effaced cervix dilated between 3 and 9 cm, and who had inadequate uterine contractions (two or fewer contractions every 10 minutes) during the first stage of labor, were randomly assigned to titrated oral misoprostol or intravenous oxytocin. Augmentation-to-vaginal delivery interval and vaginal delivery within 12 or 24 hours were the primary outcomes. The data were analyzed by intention to treat. Of the 231 women, 118 (51.1%) were randomized to titrated oral misoprostol and 113 (48.9%) to titrated intravenous oxytocin. The median interval from the start of augmentation to vaginal delivery was 5.22 hours (3.77-8.58 hours, 25th-75th percentile) in the misoprostol group, and 5.20 hours (3.23-6.50 hours, 25th-75th percentile) in the intravenous oxytocin group (P=.019). Complete vaginal delivery occurred within 12 hours for 92 women (78.0%) in the misoprostol group and for 97 women (85.8%) in the oxytocin group (P=.121; relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.03). There were no significant differences between the two groups who delivered vaginally within 24 hours. Side effects and neonatal outcomes also did not differ between the two groups. Labor augmentation with titrated oral misoprostol or intravenous oxytocin resulted in similar rates of vaginal delivery within 12 and 24 hours. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00695331. I.

  12. Galantamine efficacy and tolerability as an augmentative therapy in autistic children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Ghyasvand, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Yadegari, Noorollah; Tabrizi, Mina; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Yekehtaz, Habibeh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-07-01

    The role of cholinergic abnormalities in autism was recently evidenced and there is a growing interest in cholinergic modulation, emerging for targeting autistic symptoms. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and an allosteric potentiator of nicotinic receptors. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of galantamine as an augmentative therapy to risperidone, in autistic children. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 40 outpatients aged 4-12 years whom had a diagnosis of autism (DSM IV-TR) and a score of 12 or higher on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Irritability subscale were equally randomized to receive either galantamine (up to 24 mg/day) or placebo, in addition to risperidone (up to 2 mg/day), for 10 weeks. We rated participants by ABC-C and a side effects checklist, at baseline and at weeks 5 and 10. By the study endpoint, the galantamine-treated patients showed significantly greater improvement in the Irritability (P = 0.017) and Lethargy/Social Withdrawal (P = 0.005) subscales than the placebo group. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant. In conclusion, galantamine augmentation was shown to be a relatively effective and safe augmentative strategy for alleviating some of the autism-related symptoms.

  13. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: I. Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daehan; Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Heesu; Ahn, Eunhye; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we construct a model of a ski jumper by using three-dimensional surface data obtained by scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). An experiment on this model is conducted in a wind tunnel. We consider four posture parameters (forward leaning angle, ski opening angle, ski rolling angle, and ski spacing) and measure the drag and lift forces for various flight postures at various angles of attack (α = 0° - 40°) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 5.4 × 105 - 1.6 × 106) based on the length of the jump ski. Then, we derive optimum values of posture parameters for maximum lift-to-drag ratio using a response surface method. We also conduct a full-scale wind tunnel experiment with members of the Korean national team and confirm the results obtained from the experiment on the model. Supported by the NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848).

  14. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: II. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungil; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Woojin; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we conduct a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a model ski jumper which is obtained by 3D scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). The angle of attack of the jump ski is 30° and the Reynolds number based on the length of the jump ski is 540,000. The flow statistics including the drag and lift coefficients in flight are in good agreements with our own experimental data. We investigate the flow characteristics such as the flow separation and three-dimensional vortical structures and their effects on the drag and lift. In addition to LES, we construct a simple geometric model of a ski jumper where each part of the ski jumper is modeled as a canonical bluff body such as the sphere, cylinder and flat plate, to find its optimal posture. The results from this approach will be compared with those by LES and discussed. Supported by NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848, 2014R1A1A1002671).

  15. Comparison between amniotomy, oxytocin or both for augmentation of labor in prolonged latent phase: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Eliezer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prolonged latent phase is independently associated with an increased incidence of subsequent labor abnormalities. We aimed to compare between oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy and a combination of both on the duration of labor among women with a prolonged latent phase. Methods Women with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation who have a prolonged latent phase, were randomly allocated to amniotomy (group 1, oxytocin (group 2 or both (group 3. A group of women who progressed spontaneously without intervention composed the control group (group 4. The primary outcome was the duration of time from initiation of augmentation until delivery. Results A total of 213 women were consented and randomized to group 1 (70 women, group 2 (72 women and group 3 (71 women. Group 4 was composed from additional 70 women. A mean reduction of 120 minutes in labor duration was observed among group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.08 and 180 minutes compared to group 2 and 4 (p = 0.001. Women in group 3 had a shorter length of time from augmentation until the beginning of the active phase and a shorter first stage of labor than group 1 (p = 0.03, group 2 (p = 0.001 and group 4 (p = 0.001. Satisfaction was greater among group 3 and 4. Mode of delivery and neonatal outcome were comparable between the groups. Conclusion Labor augmentation by combined amniotomy and oxytocin among women with a prolonged latent phase at term seems superior compared to either of them alone.

  16. Flight Test Experiment Design for Characterizing Stability and Control of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2008-01-01

    A maneuver design method that is particularly well-suited for determining the stability and control characteristics of hypersonic vehicles is described in detail. Analytical properties of the maneuver design are explained. The importance of these analytical properties for maximizing information content in flight data is discussed, along with practical implementation issues. Results from flight tests of the X-43A hypersonic research vehicle (also called Hyper-X) are used to demonstrate the excellent modeling results obtained using this maneuver design approach. A detailed design procedure for generating the maneuvers is given to allow application to other flight test programs.

  17. Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N

    2011-02-06

    Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles.

  18. Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei

    This research focuses on dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of large flexible launch vehicles such as the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A complete set of six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic models of the Ares-I, incorporating its propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, and structural flexibility, is developed. NASA's Ares-I reference model and the SAVANT Simulink-based program are utilized to develop a Matlab-based simulation and linearization tool for an independent validation of the performance and stability of the ascent flight control system of large flexible launch vehicles. A linearized state-space model as well as a non-minimum-phase transfer function model (which is typical for flexible vehicles with non-collocated actuators and sensors) are validated for ascent flight control design and analysis. This research also investigates fundamental principles of flight control analysis and design for launch vehicles, in particular the classical "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack can significantly improve overall performance and stability, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbances. For a typical "non-collocated actuator and sensor" control problem for large flexible launch vehicles, non-minimum-phase filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes is also shown to be effective. The uncertainty model of a flexible launch vehicle is derived. The robust stability of an ascent flight control system design, which directly controls the inertial attitude-error quaternion and also employs the non-minimum-phase filters, is verified by the framework of structured singular value (mu) analysis. Furthermore, nonlinear coupled dynamic simulation results are presented for a reference model of the Ares-I CLV as another validation of the feasibility of the ascent flight control system design. Another important issue for a single main engine launch vehicle is

  19. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  20. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua, E-mail: zhonghua-miao@163.com; Wang, Xiaohua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Wang, Xuyong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  1. Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. The development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements is discussed. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  2. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. A simple active controller to suppress helicopter air resonance in hover and forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, P. P.; Takahashi, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    A coupled rotor/fuselage helicopter analysis with the important effects of blade torsional flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics, and forward flight is presented. This model is used to illustrate the effect of unsteady aerodynamics, forward flight, and torsional flexibility on air resonance. Next, a nominal configuration, which experiences air resonance in forward flight, is selected. A simple multivariable compensator using conventional swashplate inputs and a single body roll rate measurement is then designed. The controller design is based on a linear estimator in conjunction with optimal feedback gains, and the design is done in the frequency domain using the loop-transfer recovery method. The controller is shown to suppress the air resonance instability throughout wide range helicopter loading conditions and forward flight speeds.

  4. ZERO PHASE ERROR REAL TIME CONTROL FOR FLIGHT SIMULATOR SERVO SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinkun; Liu Qiang; Er Lianjie

    2004-01-01

    Flight simulator is an important device and a typical high performance position servo system used in the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of flight control system.Without using the future desired output, zero phase error controller makes the overall system's frequency response exhibit zero phase shift for all frequencies and a very small gain error at low frequency range can be achieved.A new algorithm to design the feedforward controller is presented, in order to reduce the phase error, the design of proposed feedforward controller uses a modified plant model, which is a closed loop transfer function, through which the system tracking precision performance can be improved greatly.Real-time control results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in flight simulator servo system.

  5. A Hassle a Day May Keep the Pathogens Away: The Fight-or-Flight Stress Response and the Augmentation of Immune Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Firdaus S. Dhabhar

    2009-01-01

    .... Paradoxically, the short-term fìght-or-flight stress response is one of nature's fundamental defense mechanisms that galvanizes the neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems into action to enable survival...

  6. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  7. Flight Control System Design by Quadratic Stabilization with Partial Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Kenji

    The most fundamental requirements for flight control system are ensuring robust stability and improving flying quality. Quadratic stabilization is a powerful technique ensuring robust stability against parameter change of aircraft due to flight condition. Furthermore, flying quality requirements are regarded as eigenstructure assignment specifications. This paper proposes a new design method of feedback gain which simultaneously achieves quadratic stabilization and partial pole placement. This design method is reduced to a numerical optimization problem including linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints.

  8. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal... control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety... a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller...

  9. Closed-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Closed-loop HIRF experiments were performed on a fault tolerant flight control computer (FCC) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The FCC used in the experiments was a quad-redundant flight control computer executing B737 Autoland control laws. The FCC was placed in one of the mode-stirred reverberation chambers in the HIRF Laboratory and interfaced to a computer simulation of the B737 flight dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators, and atmosphere in the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory. Disturbances to the aircraft associated with wind gusts and turbulence were simulated during tests. Electrical isolation between the FCC under test and the simulation computer was achieved via a fiber optic interface for the analog and discrete signals. Closed-loop operation of the FCC enabled flight dynamics and atmospheric disturbances affecting the aircraft to be represented during tests. Upset was induced in the FCC as a result of exposure to HIRF, and the effect of upset on the simulated flight of the aircraft was observed and recorded. This paper presents a description of these closed- loop HIRF experiments, upset data obtained from the FCC during these experiments, and closed-loop effects on the simulated flight of the aircraft.

  10. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  11. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  12. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  13. Stability of simulated flight path control at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiera, Simon; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2010-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that naïve subjects and experienced jet pilots produce exaggerated manual forces when exposed to increased acceleration (+Gz). This study was designed to evaluate whether this exaggeration affects the stability of simulated flight path control. We evaluated naïve subjects' performance in a flight simulator which either remained stationary (+1 Gz), or rotated to induce an acceleration in accordance to the simulated flight path with a mean acceleration of about +3 Gz. In either case, subjects were requested to produce a series of altitude changes in pursuit of a visual target airplane. Resulting flight paths were analyzed to determine the largest oscillation after an altitude change (Oscillation) and the mean deviation between subject and target flight path (Tracking Error). Flight stability after an altitude change was degraded in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz, as evidenced by larger Oscillations (+11%) and increased Tracking Errors (+80%). These deficits correlated significantly with subjects' +3 Gz deficits in a manual-force production task. We conclude that force exaggeration in +3 Gz may impair flight stability during simulated jet maneuvers in naïve subjects, most likely as a consequence of vestibular stimulation.

  14. International Space Station Mechanisms and Maintenance Flight Control Documentation and Training Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Colin C.

    2010-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) crew and flight controller training documentation is used to aid in training operations. The Generic Simulations References SharePoint (Gen Sim) site is a database used as an aid during flight simulations. The Gen Sim site is used to make individual mission segment timelines, data, and flight information easily accessible to instructors. The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) training schematic includes simple and complex fluid schematics, as well as overall hardware locations. It is used as a teaching aid during WHC lessons for both ISS crew and flight controllers. ISS flight control documentation is used to support all aspects of ISS mission operations. The Quick Look Database and Consolidated Tool Page are imagery-based references used in real-time to help the Operations Support Officer (OSO) find data faster and improve discussions with the Flight Director and Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM). A Quick Look page was created for the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) by locating photos of the module interior, labeling specific hardware, and organizing them in schematic form to match the layout of the PMM interior. A Tool Page was created for the Maintenance Work Area (MWA) by gathering images, detailed drawings, safety information, procedures, certifications, demonstration videos, and general facts of each MWA component and displaying them in an easily accessible and consistent format. Participation in ISS mechanisms and maintenance lessons, mission simulation On-the-Job Training (OJT), and real-time flight OJT was used as an opportunity to train for day-to-day operations as an OSO, as well as learn how to effectively respond to failures and emergencies during mission simulations and real-time flight operations.

  15. A Discrete-Time Chattering Free Sliding Mode Control with Multirate Sampling Method for Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tracking accuracy of flight simulator and expend its frequency response, a multirate-sampling-method-based discrete-time chattering free sliding mode control is developed and imported into the systems. By constructing the multirate sampling sliding mode controller, the flight simulator can perfectly track a given reference signal with an arbitrarily small dynamic tracking error, and the problems caused by a contradiction of reference signal period and control period in traditional design method can be eliminated. It is proved by theoretical analysis that the extremely high dynamic tracking precision can be obtained. Meanwhile, the robustness is guaranteed by sliding mode control even though there are modeling mismatch, external disturbances and measure noise. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments on flight simulator.

  16. Control for going from hovering to small speed flight of a model insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghao Wu; Mao Sun

    2009-01-01

    The longitudinal steady-state control for going from hovering to small speed flight of a model insect is studied, using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control for deter-mining the non-zero equilibrium points. Morphological and certain kinematical data of droneflies are used for the model insect. A change in the mean stroke angle (δφ) results in a horizontal forward or backward flight; a change in the stroke amplitude (δΦ) or a equal change in the down- and upstroke angles of attack (δα1) results in a vertical climb or decent; a proper combination of δφ and δΦ controls (or δφ and δα1 controls) can give a flight of any (small) speed in any desired direction.

  17. ISS emergency scenarios and a virtual training simulator for Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Thomas; Roshani, Frank-Cyrus; Amodio, Ciro; Rovera, Alessandro; Zekusic, Nikola; Helmholz, Hannes; Fairchild, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    The current emergency response concept for the International Space Station (ISS) includes the support of the Flight Control Team. Therefore, the team members need to be trained in emergencies and the corresponding crew procedures to ensure a smooth collaboration between crew and ground. In the case where the astronaut and ground personnel training is not collocated it is a challenging endeavor to ensure and maintain proper knowledge and skills for the Flight Control Team. Therefore, a virtual 3D simulator at the Columbus Control Center (Col-CC) is presented, which is used for ground personnel training in the on-board emergency response. The paper briefly introduces the main ISS emergency scenarios and the corresponding response strategy, details the resulting learning objectives for the Flight Controllers and elaborates on the new simulation method, which will be used in the future. The status of the 3D simulator, first experiences and further plans are discussed.

  18. Integration of Online Parameter Identification and Neural Network for In-Flight Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Jacob J.; Smith, Mark S.; Stachowiak, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An indirect adaptive system has been constructed for robust control of an aircraft with uncertain aerodynamic characteristics. This system consists of a multilayer perceptron pre-trained neural network, online stability and control derivative identification, a dynamic cell structure online learning neural network, and a model following control system based on the stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique. The pre-trained neural network and model following control system have been flight-tested, but the online parameter identification and online learning neural network are new additions used for in-flight adaptation of the control system model. A description of the modification and integration of these two stand-alone software packages into the complete system in preparation for initial flight tests is presented. Open-loop results using both simulation and flight data, as well as closed-loop performance of the complete system in a nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom, flight validated simulation, are analyzed. Results show that this online learning system, in contrast to the nonlearning system, has the ability to adapt to changes in aerodynamic characteristics in a real-time, closed-loop, piloted simulation, resulting in improved flying qualities.

  19. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The proposed security controls were integrated into the GRC flight test system aboard our S-3B Viking surrogate aircraft and several network tests were conducted during a flight on November 15th, 2014 to determine whether the controls were working properly within the flight environment. The flight test was also the first to integrate Robust Header Compression (ROHC) as a means of reducing the additional overhead introduced by the security controls and Mobile IPv6. The effort demonstrated the complete end-to-end secure CNPC link in a relevant flight environment.

  20. Multistrand, Fast Reaction, Shape Memory Alloy System for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brennison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details an investigation of shape memory alloy (SMA filaments which are used to drive a flight control system with precision control in a real flight environment. An antagonistic SMA actuator was developed with an integrated demodulator circuit from a JR NES 911 subscale UAV actuator. Most SMA actuator studies concentrate on modeling the open-loop characteristics of such a system with full actuator performance modeling. This paper is a bit different in that it is very practically oriented and centered on development of a flight-capable system which solves the most tricky, practical problems associated with using SMA filaments for aircraft flight control. By using well-tuned feedback loops, it is shown that intermediate SMA performance prediction is not appropriate for flight control system (FCS design. Rather, capturing the peak behavior is far more important, along with appropriate feedback loop design. To prove the system, an SMA actuator was designed and installed in the fuselage of a 2 m uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV and used to control the rudder through slips and coordinated turns. The actuator was capable of 20 degrees of positive and negative deflection and was capable of 7.5 in-oz (5.29 N cm of torque at a bandwidth of 2.8 Hz.

  1. Flight testing the digital electronic engine control in the F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine which was flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The DEEC hardware and software throughout the F-15 flight envelope was evaluated. Real-time data reduction and data display systems were implemented. New test techniques and stronger coordination between the propulsion test engineer and pilot were developed which produced efficient use of test time, reduced pilot work load, and greatly improved quality data. The engine pressure ratio (EPR) control mode is demonstrated. It is found that the nonaugmented throttle transients and engine performance are satisfactory.

  2. Mechanics of Flapping Flight: Analytical Formulations of Unsteady Aerodynamics, Kinematic Optimization, Flight Dynamics, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Jayant Kumar

    Electricity is an indispensable commodity to modern society, yet it is delivered via a grid architecture that remains largely unchanged over the past century. A host of factors are conspiring to topple this dated yet venerated design: developments in renewable electricity generation technology, policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and advances in information technology for managing energy systems. Modern electric grids are emerging as complex distributed systems in which a portfolio of power generation resources, often incorporating fluctuating renewable resources such as wind and solar, must be managed dynamically to meet uncontrolled, time-varying demand. Uncertainty in both supply and demand makes control of modern electric grids fundamentally more challenging, and growing portfolios of renewables exacerbate the challenge. We study three electricity grids: the state of California, the province of Ontario, and the country of Germany. To understand the effects of increasing renewables, we develop a methodology to scale renewables penetration. Analyzing these grids yields key insights about rigid limits to renewables penetration and their implications in meeting long-term emissions targets. We argue that to achieve deep penetration of renewables, the operational model of the grid must be inverted, changing the paradigm from load-following supplies to supply-following loads. To alleviate the challenge of supply-demand matching on deeply renewable grids, we first examine well-known techniques, including altering management of existing supply resources, employing utility-scale energy storage, targeting energy efficiency improvements, and exercising basic demand-side management. Then, we create several instantiations of supply-following loads -- including refrigerators, heating and cooling systems, and laptop computers -- by employing a combination of sensor networks, advanced control techniques, and enhanced energy storage. We examine the capacity of each load

  3. Management of flight control for "ExoMars-2018" robotic interplanetary space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshakov, A. E.; Artyukhov, M. I.; Kazakevich, Yu. V.; Kalashnikov, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The article covers the current status of activities on development of "ExoMars-2018" robotic interplanetary space station in terms of SC Composite flight program, results of onboard systems interaction functional design study. Organizational structure of p]Russian part of ground control and management of its interaction with European part of ground control are proposed.

  4. 75 FR 80886 - Ninth Meeting-RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting--RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 220... and Control meeting. The agenda will include: Welcome/Agenda Overview. Presentation of progress WG...

  5. Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP) piezoelectric actuators for UAV flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Barrett, R.; Krakers, L.; Van Tooren, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a new class of flight control actuators employing Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP) piezoelectric elements in morphing wing Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The new actuator relieson axial compression to amplify deflections and control forces simultaneously. Two desi

  6. Adaptive Missile Flight Control for Complex Aerodynamic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    e.g., top -right fin at beginning of animation while the vehicle is at a high angle of attack). These data illustrate these complex aerodynamic...optimal controllers. The poor roll control performance of the optimal controller means that the airframe flies at those aerodynamic angles while spinning ...corrected spinning projectile. J Spacecraft Rockets. 1975;12(12):733–738. 2. Chandgadkar S, Costello M, Dano B, Liburdy J, Pence D. Performance of a

  7. On the synthesis of sliding mode controller for the autopilot design of free flight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devika K., B.; Thomas, Susy

    2017-01-01

    Today's rapid growth in air transportation demand leads to the problem of congestion in air traffic routes. In recent years, free flight concept is widely discussed as the solution to this problem. Free flight is a decentralized method of air traffic management, in which each aircraft has the freedom to self optimize its own route. Conflict detection and its subsequent resolution are the major challenges in the realization of this concept. Today's modern navigation and surveillance equipment can ensure accurate conflict predictions. Once a conflict is detected, it should be avoided through suitable conflict avoidance maneuvers. An autopilot capable of initiating these conflict free maneuvers should be a necessary part of any aircraft in free flight to ensure conflict avoided flight. Controller design based on Sliding Mode Control (SMC) strategy is presented in this paper for the purpose of free flight autopilot implementation. Since SMC has the inherent property of robustness in sliding mode, it can ensure a highly efficient autopilot design. Conventional and reaching law approaches of SMC design are considered here for controller design. Conventional SMC technique usually exhibits an unacceptable phenomenon, viz., chattering. Reaching law approaches for SMC design are being investigated here so as to identify an appropriate strategy that can ensure near chattering free operation. Considering typical free flight conflict avoidance modes of operation, the performance of all the considered SMC strategies are compared through simulation studies. The comparison is based on their ability to reduce chattering and the effectiveness in ensuring quick conflict resolution maneuvers, so that an efficient controller for free flight autopilot system can be recommended.

  8. Bumblebee calligraphy: the design and control of flight motifs in the learning and return flights of Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippides, Andrew; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Riabinina, Olena; Collett, Thomas S

    2013-03-15

    Many wasps and bees learn the position of their nest relative to nearby visual features during elaborate 'learning' flights that they perform on leaving the nest. Return flights to the nest are thought to be patterned so that insects can reach their nest by matching their current view to views of their surroundings stored during learning flights. To understand how ground-nesting bumblebees might implement such a matching process, we have video-recorded the bees' learning and return flights and analysed the similarities and differences between the principal motifs of their flights. Loops that take bees away from and bring them back towards the nest are common during learning flights and less so in return flights. Zigzags are more prominent on return flights. Both motifs tend to be nest based. Bees often both fly towards and face the nest in the middle of loops and at the turns of zigzags. Before and after flight direction and body orientation are aligned, the two diverge from each other so that the nest is held within the bees' fronto-lateral visual field while flight direction relative to the nest can fluctuate more widely. These and other parallels between loops and zigzags suggest that they are stable variations of an underlying pattern, which enable bees to store and reacquire similar nest-focused views during learning and return flights.

  9. Assessment of Augmented Electronic Fuel Controls for Modular Engine Diagnostics and Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    fault isolating eachi nono-FADE C 1700 LIMU. Of special interest is the obsor- vation that only 10 LlHt’s or 󈧎% 4re strong candidateos for fault...Systems ( EHMS ). These systems were previously utilized on Air Force T38 aircraft. In-flight data is stored In memory and transferred to PGSE postflight...VII of this report. Application of diagnostic and monitoring methods to an Army engine is a system problem with strong human factors overtones

  10. Pseudospectral Optimal Control: Hidden Properties and Flight Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    on solving optimal control problems , we focus on developing PS methods over arbitrary grids for Problem B. Such research can provides a unified...more efficient algorithms for solving optimal control problems , for example, multiscale PS methods for dynamical systems with different timescales

  11. Management Control of Flight Operations (OFC-01) Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Air Wing Commander level. It would require a statement in the fitness reports of Sguadron 79 Commanding Officers regarling their zinagement of...01 funds provides filuciary control and is a sound basis for improved zinagement control of )FC-01 funds. The recommendations presented provids an

  12. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  13. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  14. Flying qualities - A costly lapse in flight-control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Generic problems in advanced aircraft with advanced control systems which suffer from control sensitivity, sluggish response, and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies are examined, with a view to improving techniques for eliminating the problems in the design phase. Results of two NASA and NASA/AIAA workshops reached a consensus that flying qualities criteria do not match control system development, control system designers are not relying on past experience in their field, ground-based simulation is relied on too heavily, and communications between flying qualities and control systems engineers need improvement. A summation is offered in that hardware and software have outstripped the pilot's capacity to use the capabilities which new aircraft offer. The flying qualities data base is stressed to be dynamic, and continually redefining the man/machine relationships.

  15. Simpler ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Cowart, Hugh; Stevens, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The heart of flight operations control involves a) communicating effectively in real time with other controllers in the room and/or in remote locations and b) tracking significant events, decisions, and rationale to support the next set of decisions, provide a thorough shift handover, and troubleshoot/improve operations. International Space Station (ISS) flight controllers speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops, each with a particular purpose and constituency. Controllers monitor and/or respond to several loops concurrently. The primary tracking tools are console logs, typically kept by a single operator and not visible to others in real-time. Information from telemetry, commanding, and planning systems also plays into decision-making. Email is very secondary/tertiary due to timing and archival considerations. Voice communications and log entries supporting ISS operations have increased by orders of magnitude because the number of control centers, flight crew, and payload operations have grown. This paper explores three developmental ground system concepts under development at Johnson Space Center s (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) and Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC). These concepts could reduce ISS control center voice traffic and console logging yet increase the efficiency and effectiveness of both. The goal of this paper is to kindle further discussion, exploration, and tool development.

  16. Adaptive and Resilient Flight Control System for a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop an onboard adaptive and robust flight control system that improves control, stability, and survivability of a small unmanned aerial system in off-nominal or out-of-envelope conditions. The aerodynamics of aircraft associated with hazardous and adverse onboard conditions is inherently nonlinear and unsteady. The presented flight control system improves functionalities required to adapt the flight control in the presence of aircraft model uncertainties. The fault tolerant inner loop is enhanced by an adaptive real-time artificial neural network parameter identification to monitor important changes in the aircraft’s dynamics due to nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamics. The real-time artificial neural network parameter identification is done using the sliding mode learning concept and a modified version of the self-adaptive Levenberg algorithm. Numerically estimated stability and control derivatives are obtained by delta-based methods. New nonlinear guidance logic, stable in Lyapunov sense, is developed to guide the aircraft. The designed flight control system has better performance compared to a commercial off-the-shelf autopilot system in guiding and controlling an unmanned air system during a trajectory following.

  17. Sliding Mode Implementation of an Attitude Command Flight Control System for a Helicopter in Hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. McGeoch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a decoupled non-linear sliding mode control structure, designed using a linearised, 9th order representation of the dynamics of a PUMA helicopter in hover. The controllers are then tested upon a higher order, non-linear helicopter model, called RASCAL. This design approach is used for attitude command flight control implementation and the control performance is assessed in the terms of handling qualities through the Aeronautical Design Standards for Rotorcraft (ADS-33. In this context a linearised approximation of the helicopter system is used to design an SMC control scheme. These controllers have been found to yield a system that satisfies the Level 1 handling qualities set out by ADS-33. 

  18. Flight dynamics and control modelling of damaged asymmetric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwa, T. T.; Abdullah, E. J.

    2016-10-01

    This research investigates the use of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller to assist commercial Boeing 747-200 aircraft regains its stability in the event of damage. Damages cause an aircraft to become asymmetric and in the case of damage to a fraction (33%) of its left wing or complete loss of its vertical stabilizer, the loss of stability may lead to a fatal crash. In this study, aircraft models for the two damage scenarios previously mentioned are constructed using stability derivatives. LQR controller is used as a direct adaptive control design technique for the observable and controllable system. Dynamic stability analysis is conducted in the time domain for all systems in this study.

  19. Helicopter Flight Control Research - A Demanding Application of Piloted Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Sigma-8 digital computer (used to run the aircraft mathematical model) and an Applied Dynamics AD-4 analogue computer (used principally as a flexible...interface to cockpit instruments, and for motion and visual systems operation) (Fig 4). The first helicopter simulation to use a digital aircraft...34 Control Technology for helicopters. For fixed-wing aircraft, impresive claims were being made for electrically (and later optically) signalled control

  20. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  1. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  2. Markov Jump-Linear Performance Models for Recoverable Flight Control Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Gray, W. Steven; Gonzalez, Oscar R.

    2004-01-01

    Single event upsets in digital flight control hardware induced by atmospheric neutrons can reduce system performance and possibly introduce a safety hazard. One method currently under investigation to help mitigate the effects of these upsets is NASA Langley s Recoverable Computer System. In this paper, a Markov jump-linear model is developed for a recoverable flight control system, which will be validated using data from future experiments with simulated and real neutron environments. The method of tracking error analysis and the plan for the experiments are also described.

  3. Control and flight test of a tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles have attracted increasing attention due to their ability to perform vertical take-off and landing and their high-speed cruising abilities, thereby presenting broad application prospects. Considering portability and applications in tasks characterized by constrained or small scope areas, this article presents a compact tricopter configuration tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with full modes of flight from the rotor mode to the fixed-wing mode and vice versa. The unique multiple modes make the tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle a multi-input multi-output, non-affine, multi-channel cross coupling, and nonlinear system. Considering these characteristics, a control allocation method is designed to make the controller adaptive to the full modes of flight. To reduce the cost, the accurate dynamic model of the tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle is not obtained, so a full-mode flight strategy is designed in view of this situation. An autonomous flight test was conducted, and the results indicate the satisfactory performance of the control allocation method and flight strategy.

  4. Remediation of time-delay effects in tokamak axisymmetric control loops by optimal tuning and robust predictor augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondak, D.; Arastoo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Schuster, E., E-mail: schuster@lehigh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    It is sometimes incorrectly assumed that, because superconducting tokamaks already have significant intrinsic or imposed sources of control delay, introducing extra delays/lags into the axisymmetric control loops will have negligible detrimental impact on the plasma control. This study exposes and quantifies the detrimental effects imposed by time delays/lags in the control loop in superconducting tokamaks, using as an example the plasma current control and radial position control in a vertically stable circular plasma in the KSTAR tokamak. Delays and lags in the power supplies, data acquisition, and vessel structure are taken into account. Optimal tuning of PID controllers in combination with an ohmic-flux control strategy is proposed as a possible method for remediating the negative effects of time delays/lags. In addition, an augmentation of the control loop by the introduction of a robust predictor has been proposed to improve the performance of the time-delayed closed-loop system when the amount of delay/lag in the loop is unknown. The Nyquist dual locus technique based on the Argument Principle in complex theory is employed to assess stability of the optimally tuned closed-loop system in the presence of time delays.

  5. Cassini Attitude Control Operations Flight Rules and How They are Enforced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas; Bates, David

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. Cassini deployed the European-built Huygens probe which descended through the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface on January 14, 2005. Operating the Cassini spacecraft is a complex scientific, engineering, and management job. In order to safely operate the spacecraft, a large number of flight rules were developed. These flight rules must be enforced throughout the lifetime of the Cassini spacecraft. Flight rules are defined as any operational limitation imposed by the spacecraft system design, hardware, and software, violation of which would result in spacecraft damage, loss of consumables, loss of mission objectives, loss and/or degradation of science, and less than optimal performance. Flight rules require clear description and rationale. Detailed automated methods have been developed to insure the spacecraft is continuously operated within these flight rules. An overview of all the flight rules allocated to the Cassini Attitude Control and Articulation Subsystem and how they are enforced is presented in this paper.

  6. Cassini Attitude Control Operations Flight Rules and How They are Enforced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas; Bates, David

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. Cassini deployed the European-built Huygens probe which descended through the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface on January 14, 2005. Operating the Cassini spacecraft is a complex scientific, engineering, and management job. In order to safely operate the spacecraft, a large number of flight rules were developed. These flight rules must be enforced throughout the lifetime of the Cassini spacecraft. Flight rules are defined as any operational limitation imposed by the spacecraft system design, hardware, and software, violation of which would result in spacecraft damage, loss of consumables, loss of mission objectives, loss and/or degradation of science, and less than optimal performance. Flight rules require clear description and rationale. Detailed automated methods have been developed to insure the spacecraft is continuously operated within these flight rules. An overview of all the flight rules allocated to the Cassini Attitude Control and Articulation Subsystem and how they are enforced is presented in this paper.

  7. Augmented reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-01-01

    .... In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality...

  8. Breast Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery might even improve your body image and self-esteem. If you're looking for perfection, however, you ... www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/breast-augmentation/basics/definition/prc-20021493 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  9. Robust Predictive Functional Control for Flight Vehicles Based on Nonlinear Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel robust predictive functional control based on nonlinear disturbance observer is investigated in order to address the control system design for flight vehicles with significant uncertainties, external disturbances, and measurement noise. Firstly, the nonlinear longitudinal dynamics of the flight vehicle are transformed into linear-like state-space equations with state-dependent coefficient matrices. And then the lumped disturbances are considered in the linear structure predictive model of the predictive functional control to increase the precision of the predictive output and resolve the intractable mismatched disturbance problem. As the lumped disturbances cannot be derived or measured directly, the nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the lumped disturbances, which are then introduced to the predictive functional control to replace the unknown actual lumped disturbances. Consequently, the robust predictive functional control for the flight vehicle is proposed. Compared with the existing designs, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control are illustrated and validated in various simulation conditions.

  10. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  11. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  12. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  13. A self-reorganizing digital flight control system for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents a design method for digital self-reorganizing control systems which is optimally tolerant of failures in aircraft sensors. The functions of this system are accomplished with software instead of the popular and costly technique of hardware duplication. The theoretical development, based on M-ary hypothesis testing, results in a bank of M Kalman filters operating in parallel in the failure detection logic. A moving window of the innovations of each Kalman filter drives the detection logic to decide the failure state of the system. The detection logic also selects the optimal state estimate (for control logic) from the bank of Kalman filters. The design process is applied to the design of a self-reorganizing control system for a current configuration of the space shuttle orbiter at Mach 5 and 120,000 feet. The failure detection capabilities of the system are demonstrated using a real-time simulation of the system with noisy sensors.

  14. Case Study: Test Results of a Tool and Method for In-Flight, Adaptive Control System Verification on a NASA F-15 Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed [3]. This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.

  15. Integrated Flight/Structural Mode Control for Very Flexible Aircraft Using L1 Adaptive Output Feedback Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jiaxing; Cao, Chengyu; Gregory, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores application of adaptive control architecture to a light, high-aspect ratio, flexible aircraft configuration that exhibits strong rigid body/flexible mode coupling. Specifically, an L(sub 1) adaptive output feedback controller is developed for a semi-span wind tunnel model capable of motion. The wind tunnel mount allows the semi-span model to translate vertically and pitch at the wing root, resulting in better simulation of an aircraft s rigid body motion. The control objective is to design a pitch control with altitude hold while suppressing body freedom flutter. The controller is an output feedback nominal controller (LQG) augmented by an L(sub 1) adaptive loop. A modification to the L(sub 1) output feedback is proposed to make it more suitable for flexible structures. The new control law relaxes the required bounds on the unmatched uncertainty and allows dependence on the state as well as time, i.e. a more general unmatched nonlinearity. The paper presents controller development and simulated performance responses. Simulation is conducted by using full state flexible wing models derived from test data at 10 different dynamic pressure conditions. An L(sub 1) adaptive output feedback controller is designed for a single test point and is then applied to all the test cases. The simulation results show that the L(sub 1) augmented controller can stabilize and meet the performance requirements for all 10 test conditions ranging from 30 psf to 130 psf dynamic pressure.

  16. Advanced nonlinear control: Robustness and stability with applications to aircraft flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Michael Takaichi

    This dissertation examines the problem of global decentralized control by output feedback for large-scale uncertain nonlinear systems whose subsystems are interconnected not only by their outputs but also by their unmeasurable states. Several innovative techniques will be developed to create decentralized output feedback controllers rendering the closed-loop systems globally asymptotically stable. This is accomplished by extending an output feedback domination design that requires only limited information about the nonlinear system. We will apply our design to lower, upper, and non-triangular nonlinear systems. A time-varying output feedback controller is also constructed for use with large-scale systems that have unknown parameters. Furthermore, a mixed large-scale system consisting of both lower and upper triangular systems is shown to be stabilizable by employing a combined high and low gain domination technique. The significance of our results is that we do not need to have prior information about the nonlinearities of the system. In addition, a new design technique was developed using homogeneous system theory, which allows for the design of nonsmooth controllers and observers to stabilize a class of feedforward system with uncontrollable and unobservable linearization. An example of a large-scale system is a group of autonomous airships performing the function of a temporary mobile cell phone network. An airship mobile cell phone network is a novel solution to the problem of maintaining communication during the advent of extensive damage to the communication infrastructure; be it from a flood, earthquake, hurricane, or terrorist attack. A first principle force-based dynamic model for the Tri-Turbofan Airship was developed and will be discussed in detail. The mathematical model was based on actual flight test data that has been collected at the Gait Analysis and Innovative Technologies Laboratory. This model was developed to research autonomous airship

  17. Design criteria for integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the US/UK STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  18. Nonlinear Robust Control of a Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Using Fuzzy Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a novel tracking controller design for a hypersonic flight vehicle in complex and volatile environment. The attitude control model is challengingly constructed with multivariate uncertainties and external disturbances, such as structure dynamic and stochastic wind disturbance. In order to resist the influence of uncertainties and disturbances on the flight control system, nonlinear disturbance observer is introduced to estimate them. Moreover, for the sake of high accuracy and sensitivity, fuzzy theory is adopted to improve the performance of the nonlinear disturbance observer. After the total disturbance is eliminated by dynamic inversion method, a cascade system is obtained and then stabilized by a sliding-mode controller. Finally, simulation results show that the strong robust controller achieves excellent performance when the closed-loop control system is influenced by mass uncertainties and external disturbances.

  19. Pitch Controllability Based on Airplane Model without Short-Period Approximation—Flight Simulator Experiment—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Osamu; Kobayashi, Osamu

    Pitch controllability of an airplane is very important for longitudinal flying qualities, therefore, much research has been conducted. However, it has not been clarified why pitch handling qualities degrades in the low speed, e.g. take-off and landing flight phases. On this topic, this paper investigates the effect of several parameters of the short-period mode and phugoid mode using a flight simulator. The results show the following conclusions: The difference between the initial phase angles in two modal components in the pitch attitude response to elevator step input plays the most important role in the pitch handling qualities among modal parameters; and the difference of the two modal natural frequencies has small effect on the pitch controllability even when flight speed decreases.

  20. UAV Flight Control using Distributed Actuation and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell, William G.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona; Raney, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An array of effectors and sensors has been designed, tested and implemented on a Blended Wing Body Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This UAV is modified to serve as a flying, controls research, testbed. This effectorhensor array provides for the dynamic vehicle testing of controller designs and the study of decentralized control techniques. Each wing of the UAV is equipped with 12 distributed effectors that comprise a segmented array of independently actuated, contoured control surfaces. A single pressure sensor is installed near the base of each effector to provide a measure of deflections of the effectors. The UAV wings were tested in the North Carolina State University Subsonic Wind Tunnel and the pressure distribution that result from the deflections of the effectors are characterized. The results of the experiments are used to develop a simple, but accurate, prediction method, such that for any arrangement of the effector array the corresponding pressure distribution can be determined. Numerical analysis using the panel code CMARC verifies this prediction method.

  1. Vectored Thrust Digital Flight Control for Crew Escape. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    no. 24. Lecrique, J., A. Rault, M. Tessier and J.L. Testud (1978), - "Multivariable Regulation of a Thermal Power Plant Steam Generator," presented...and Extended Kalman Observers," presented at the Conf. Decision and Control, San Diego, CA. Testud , J.L. (1977), Commande Numerique Multivariable du

  2. Investigation of Practical Flight Control Systems for Small Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkena, W.

    2012-01-01

    Personal air transportation utilizing small aircraft is a market that is expected to grow significantly in the near future. However, seventy times more accidents occur in this segment as compared with the commercial aviation sector. The majority of these accidents is related to handling and control

  3. The Role of Vision and Mechanosensation in Insect Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    intensity. We used bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), honeybees (Apis mellifera ), the common wasp (Vespa vulgaris), hornets (Vespa crabro) flies (Mousca...bees (Apis mellifera L.). J. Exp. Biol. 209, 978-984. Beyeler, A., Zufferey, J.-C. and Floreano, D. (2009). Vision-based control of near- obstacle

  4. Development Of Maneuvering Autopilot For Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes recent efforts to develop automatic control system operating under supervision of pilot and making airplane follow prescribed trajectories during flight tests. Report represents additional progress on this project. Gives background information on technology of control of test-flight trajectories; presents mathematical models of airframe, engine and command-augmentation system; focuses on mathematical modeling of maneuvers; addresses design of autopilots for maneuvers; discusses numerical simulation and evaluation of results of simulation of eight maneuvers under control of simulated autopilot; and presents summary and discussion of future work.

  5. Balance and Gait Training With Augmented Feedback Improves Balance Confidence in People With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xia; Mak, Margaret K Y

    2014-07-01

    Background Fear of falling has been identified as an important and independent fall-risk predictor in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there are inconsistent findings on the effects of balance and gait training on balance confidence. Objective To explore whether balance and gait training with augmented feedback can enhance balance confidence in PD patients immediately after treatment and at 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Methods A total of 51 PD patients were randomly assigned to a balance and gait training (BAL) group or to an active control (CON) group. The BAL group received balance and gait training with augmented feedback, whereas CON participants received lower-limb strength training for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, limits-of-stability test, single-leg-stance test, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics. All tests were administered before intervention (Pre), immediately after training (Post), and at 3 months (Post3m) and 12 months (Post12m) after treatment completion. Results The ABC score improved marginally at Post and significantly at Post3m and Post12m only in the BAL group (P confidence and balance and gait performance in patients with PD.

  6. Structural-parametric synthesis of the digital robust flight control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.A. Тунік

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to the synthesis of the digital controller for a system with stochastic disturbances and incomplete measurements of the state vector. Then parametric robust optimization of obtained system is conducted to achieve stabilization and acceptable performance for nominal and parametrically disturbed plants using the same controller. Research is performed at the example of the small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight control system.

  7. Neural Network-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles with Prescribed Tracking Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Guoqiang; Liu Jinkun

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for a class of generic hypersonic flight vehicles. The main advantages of the proposed scheme include the following: (1) a new constraint variable is defined to generate the virtual control that forces the tracking error to fall within prescribed boundaries; (2) RBF NNs are employed to compensate for complex and uncertain terms to solve the problem of controller complexity; (3) only one parameter needs to be updated online at each design step, whi...

  8. Adaptive support vector regression for UAV flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Jin Kim, H; Kim, Youdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores an application of support vector regression for adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Unlike neural networks, support vector regression (SVR) generates global solutions, because SVR basically solves quadratic programming (QP) problems. With this advantage, the input-output feedback-linearized inverse dynamic model and the compensation term for the inversion error are identified off-line, which we call I-SVR (inversion SVR) and C-SVR (compensation SVR), respectively. In order to compensate for the inversion error and the unexpected uncertainty, an online adaptation algorithm for the C-SVR is proposed. Then, the stability of the overall error dynamics is analyzed by the uniformly ultimately bounded property in the nonlinear system theory. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller, numerical simulations are performed on the UAV model.

  9. Development of Analysis Tools for Certification of Flight Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    In Proc. Conf. on Decision and Control, pages 881-886, Bahamas, 2004. [7] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi , and A. Vicino. LMI-based computation of...Minneapolis, MN, 2006, pp. 117-122. [10] G. Chesi, A. Garulli, A. Tesi . and A. Vicino, "LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov functions...Convex Optimization. Cambridge Univ. Press. Chesi, G., A. Garulli, A. Tesi and A. Vicino (2005). LMI-based computation of optimal quadratic Lyapunov

  10. Investigating Maneuverability, Stability and Control of Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-10

    TELEPHONE NUMBER Itai Cohen Itai Cohen, Tsevi Beatus 611102 c. THIS PAGE The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to...TOTAL: 11/10/2014 Received Paper 1.00 Tsevi Beatus, John Guckenheimer, Itai Cohen. Roll Control in Fruit Flies, Royal Society Interface Foxus (11 2014...engineering, or technology fields:...... ...... ...... ...... ...... PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: National Academy Member Itai Cohen

  11. Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

  12. Tracking performance and global stability guaranteed neural control of uncertain hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Teng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.

  13. THE INVARIANT ADAPTATION OF THE AIRCRAFT CONTROL SYSTEM IN EMERGENCY SITUATION DURING THE FLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop a method for compensating the effects of failures of the aircraft automatic control system during the flight. Methods: This article reviews an approach based on the methods of theory of absolute nonlinear invariance. Results: In this paper, we present the example of a case of compensation of failure of the elevator with using the solution of the equation of the absolute invariance for pitch angle. Synthesis of automatic control device of aircraft orientation angles based on the analysis of the equations of the absolute nonlinear invariance is presented. Discussion: The use of the reconfiguration of the aircraft control system to ensure its survivability in flight is a perspective direction. However, the development of the concept of motion control of the aircraft with the use of the theory of absolute invariance will allow to realize an effective developed aircraft control method that will have advantages compared with the existing methods.

  14. Singular perturbations and time scales in the design of digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Desineni S.; Price, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of application of the methodology of Singular Perturbations and Time Scales (SPATS) to the control of digital flight systems. A block diagonalization method is described to decouple a full order, two time (slow and fast) scale, discrete control system into reduced order slow and fast subsystems. Basic properties and numerical aspects of the method are discussed. A composite, closed-loop, suboptimal control system is constructed as the sum of the slow and fast optimal feedback controls. The application of this technique to an aircraft model shows close agreement between the exact solutions and the decoupled (or composite) solutions. The main advantage of the method is the considerable reduction in the overall computational requirements for the evaluation of optimal guidance and control laws. The significance of the results is that it can be used for real time, onboard simulation. A brief survey is also presented of digital flight systems.

  15. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  16. Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

  17. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  18. Post-buckled precompressed (PBP) subsonic micro flight control actuators and surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, R.; Vos, R.; De Breuker, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of flight control actuators using Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP) piezoelectric elements to provide much improved actuator performance. These PBP actuator elements are modeled using basic large deflection Euler-beam estimations accounting for laminated plate effects

  19. 76 FR 79754 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Return to general plenary meeting Review of WG 2 status--progress, issues and plan Review of WG 3...

  20. 76 FR 50809 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Correction of Notice of RTCA... plenary meeting RTCA paper no. 011-11/SC220-024 Presentation of progress of Working Group-2...

  1. SIFT - Multiprocessor architecture for Software Implemented Fault Tolerance flight control and avionics computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, P.; Moses, K.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of a SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) Flight Control Computer with emphasis on implementation is presented. A multiprocessor system that relies on software-implemented fault detection and reconfiguration algorithms is described. A high level reliability and fault tolerance is achieved by the replication of computing tasks among processing units.

  2. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  3. Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Flight Control of Agile Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    AUG 2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01-02-2007 to 30-11-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Flight Control...non-physical. First, it is impossible to command in experiments or simulations, because it would correspond to a body instanta- neously dematerializing

  4. Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training for Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R. D.; Zbozinek, T. D.; Hentschel, P. G.; Smith, S, M.; O'Brien J.; Oftedal, A.; Craske, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Stress and anxiety-related problems are among the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society, and for those working in operational environments (i.e. astronauts, flight controllers, military) this can seriously impact crew performance, safety, and wellbeing. Technology-based interventions are effective for treating behavioral health problems, and can significantly improve the delivery of evidence-based health care. This study is evaluating the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of a self-guided multimedia stress management and resilience training program in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. The intervention, SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance), is a six-session, cognitive behavioral-based computer program that uses self-guided, interactive activities to teach skills that can help individuals build resilience and manage stress. In a prior RCT with a sample of stressed but otherwise healthy individuals, SMART-OP reduced perceived stress and increased perceived control over stress in comparison to an Attention Control (AC) group. SMART-OP was rated as "highly useful" and "excellent" in usability and acceptability. Based on a-amylase data, individuals in SMART-OP recovered quicker and more completely from a social stress test as compared to the AC group [1]. In the current study, flight controllers are randomized either to receive SMART-OP training, or to a 6-week waitlist control period (WLC) before beginning SMART-OP. Eligible participants include JSC flight controllers and instructors without any medical or psychiatric disorder, but who are stressed based on self-report. Flight controllers provide a valid analog sample to astronauts in that they work in an operational setting, use similar terminology to astronauts, are mission-focused, and work under the same broader work culture. The study began in December 2014, and to date 79 flight

  5. Development of helicopter attitude axes controlled hover flight without pilot assistance and vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Miguel

    In this work, we show how to computerize a helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight without the assistance of a pilot and without ever crashing. We start by developing a helicopter research test bed system including all hardware, software, and means for testing and training the helicopter to fly by computer. We select a Remote Controlled helicopter with a 5 ft. diameter rotor and 2.2 hp engine. We equip the helicopter with a payload of sensors, computers, navigation and telemetry equipment, and batteries. We develop a differential GPS system with cm accuracy and a ground computerized navigation system for six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) free flight while tracking navigation commands. We design feedback control loops with yet-to-be-determined gains for the five control "knobs" available to a flying radio-controlled (RC) miniature helicopter: engine throttle, main rotor collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, and tail rotor collective pitch. We develop helicopter flight equations using fundamental dynamics, helicopter momentum theory and blade element theory. The helicopter flight equations include helicopter rotor equations of motions, helicopter rotor forces and moments, helicopter trim equations, helicopter stability derivatives, and a coupled fuselage-rotor helicopter 6-DoF model. The helicopter simulation also includes helicopter engine control equations, a helicopter aerodynamic model, and finally helicopter stability and control equations. The derivation of a set of non-linear equations of motion for the main rotor is a contribution of this thesis work. We design and build two special test stands for training and testing the helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight, starting with one axis at a time and progressing to multiple axes. The first test stand is built for teaching and testing controlled flight of elevation and yaw (i.e., directional control). The second test stand is built for teaching and

  6. GASP cloud encounter statistics - Implications for laminar flow control flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is analyzed in order to derive the probability of cloud encounter at altitudes normally flown by commercial airliners, for application to a determination of the feasability of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) on long-range routes. The probability of cloud encounter is found to vary significantly with season. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover. The cloud encounter data are shown to be consistent with the classical midlatitude cyclone model with more clouds encountered in highs than in lows. Aircraft measurements of route-averaged time-in-clouds fit a gamma probability distribution model which is applied to estimate the probability of extended cloud encounter, and the associated loss of LFC effectiveness along seven high-density routes. The probability is demonstrated to be low.

  7. SILEX ground segment control facilities and flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelenne, Benoit; Tolker-Nielsen, Toni; Guillen, Jean-Claude

    1999-04-01

    The European Space Agency is going to conduct an inter orbit link experiment which will connect a low Earth orbiting satellite and a Geostationary satellite via optical terminals. This experiment has been called SILEX (Semiconductor Inter satellite Link Experiment). Two payloads have been built. One called PASTEL (PASsager de TELecommunication) has been embarked on the French Earth observation satellite SPOT4 which has been launched successfully in March 1998. The future European experimental data relay satellite ARTEMIS (Advanced Relay and TEchnology MISsion), which will route the data to ground, will carry the OPALE terminal (Optical Payload Experiment). The European Space Agency is responsible for the operation of both terminals. Due to the complexity and experimental character of this new optical technology, the development, preparation and validation of the ground segment control facilities required a long series of technical and operational qualification tests. This paper is presenting the operations concept and the early results of the PASTEL in orbit operations.

  8. Augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we can obtain in a simple and rapid way most of the information that we need. Devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones, enable access to information in different formats (written, pictorial, audio or video whenever and wherever. Daily we use and encounter information that can be seen as virtual objects or objects that are part of the virtual world of computers. Everyone, at least once, wanted to bring these virtual objects from the virtual world of computers into real environments and thus mix virtual and real worlds. In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality. In this article we describe the main properties of augmented reality. In addition to the basic properties that define a reality as augmented reality, we present the various building elements (possible hardware and software that provide an insight into such a reality and practical applications of augmented reality. The applications are divided into three groups depending on the information and functions that augmented reality offers, such as help, guide and simulator.

  9. A nonlinear trajectory command generator for a digital flight-control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-01-01

    Operational application of the command generator (CG) was examined in detail in a simulation of a flight control system with the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. The basic repertoire of single axis maneuvers and operational constraints are discussed, and the system behavior is tested on a rigorous STOL approach path and as affected by various approximations in the CG synthesis and types of disturbances found in the operational environment. The simulation results indicate that a satisfactory nonlinear system with general maneuvering capabilities throughout the flight envelope was developed which satisfies the basic design objectives while maintaining a practicable degree of simplicity.

  10. 基于LQR的无人机增稳控制系统设计及仿真%Augmented-stability controller design and its simulation for a UAV based on LQR theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢小军; 闫建国; 袁冬莉

    2011-01-01

    为解决小型无人机易受大气紊流干扰、飞行稳定性较差等问题,根据固定翼飞机GJBI85-86及C*规范要求,应用鲁棒性较强的LQR理论设计了无人机纵向增稳控制器,以使其飞行品质满足相关规范要求.仿真结果表明,所设计的增稳控制系统不仅提高了无人机飞行的稳定性,还有效改善了其动态响应和鲁棒性.%In order to overcome the defect that unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are easily disturbed by air current and tend to be unstable, an augmented-stability controller was developed for a certain UAV's longitudinal motion based on linear quadratic regulator ( LQR) theory according to flight qualities specifications of GJB185-86 and C *. The simulation results show that the augmented-stability controller not only improves the UAV' s stability and dynamic characteristics but also enhances the UAV' s robustness.

  11. A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle L; Papini, Santiago; Rosenfield, David; Roelofs, Karin; Kolb, Sarah; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-09-18

    This manuscript details a randomized controlled study designed to test the efficacy of power posing (i.e., briefly holding postures associated with dominance and power) as an augmentative strategy for exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Seventy-three individuals diagnosed with SAD were assigned to one of three conditions: power posing, submissive posing, or rest (no posing) prior to participating in an exposure therapy session. Participants were assessed for between-group differences in pre- and post-manipulation salivary hormone levels, within-session subjective experiences of fear, and pre- and 1-week post-treatment SAD severity outcome measures. Though the intervention resulted in decreased SAD symptom severity one week later, analyses revealed no significant between-group differences on any tested variables. Accordingly, this study provides no evidence to suggest that power posing impacts hormone levels or exposure therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF AERONAUTICAL LOCAL SATELLITE AUGMENTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Ilcev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  13. Sleep patterns among shift-working flight controllers of the International Space Station: an observational study on the JAXA Flight Control Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koh; Matsumoto, Akiko; Aiba, Tatsuya; Abe, Takashi; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Flight controllers of the International Space Station (ISS) are engaged in shift work to provide 24-h coverage to support ISS systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) among Japanese ISS flight controllers. A questionnaire study was conducted using the Standard Shiftwork Index to evaluate sleep-related problems and possible associated variables. Among 52 respondents out of 73 flight controllers, 30 subjects were identified as night shift workers who worked 3 or more night shifts per month. Those night shift workers who answered "almost always" to questions about experiencing insomnia or excessive sleepiness in any case of work shifts and days off were classified as having SWSD. Additionally, 7 night shift workers participated in supplemental wrist actigraphy data collection for 7 to 8 days including 3 to 4 days of consecutive night shifts. Fourteen of 30 night shift workers were classified as having SWSD. Significant group differences were observed where the SWSD group felt that night shift work was harder and reported more frequent insomniac symptoms after a night shift. However, no other variables demonstrated remarkable differences between groups. Actigraphy results characterized 5 subjects reporting better perceived adaptation as having regular daytime sleep, for 6 to 9 h in total, between consecutive night shifts. On the other hand, 2 subjects reporting perceived maladaptation revealed different sleep patterns, with longer daytime sleep and large day-to-day variation in daytime sleep between consecutive night shifts, respectively. As the tasks for flight control require high levels of alertness and cognitive function, several characteristics, namely shift-working schedule (2 to 4 consecutive night shifts), very short break time (5 to 10 min/h) during work shifts, and cooperative work with onboard astronauts during the evening/night shift, accounted for increasing

  14. Flight control design using a blend of modern nonlinear adaptive and robust techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong

    In this dissertation, the modern control techniques of feedback linearization, mu synthesis, and neural network based adaptation are used to design novel control laws for two specific applications: F/A-18 flight control and reusable launch vehicle (an X-33 derivative) entry guidance. For both applications, the performance of the controllers is assessed. As a part of a NASA Dryden program to develop and flight test experimental controllers for an F/A-18 aircraft, a novel method of combining mu synthesis and feedback linearization is developed to design longitudinal and lateral-directional controllers. First of all, the open-loop and closed-loop dynamics of F/A-18 are investigated. The production F/A-18 controller as well as the control distribution mechanism are studied. The open-loop and closed-loop handling qualities of the F/A-18 are evaluated using low order transfer functions. Based on this information, a blend of robust mu synthesis and feedback linearization is used to design controllers for a low dynamic pressure envelope of flight conditions. For both the longitudinal and the lateral-directional axes, a robust linear controller is designed for a trim point in the center of the envelope. Then by including terms to cancel kinematic nonlinearities and variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments over the flight envelope, a complete nonlinear controller is developed. In addition, to compensate for the model uncertainty, linearization error and variations between operating points, neural network based adaptation is added to the designed longitudinal controller. The nonlinear simulations, robustness and handling qualities analysis indicate that the performance is similar to or better than that for the production F/A-18 controllers. When the dynamic pressure is very low, the performance of both the experimental and the production flight controllers is degraded, but Level I handling qualities are still achieved. A new generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles

  15. Zero phase error control based on neural compensation for flight simulator servo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinkun; He Peng; Er Lianjie

    2006-01-01

    Using the future desired input value, zero phase error controller enables the overall system's frequency response exhibit zero phase shift for all frequencies and a small gain error at low frequency range, and based on this, a new algorithm is presented to design the feedforward controller. However, zero phase error controller is only suitable for certain linear system. To reduce the tracking error and improve robustness, the design of the proposed feedforward controller uses a neural compensation based on diagonal recurrent neural network. Simulation and real-time control results for flight simulator servo system show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Augmented Nonlinear Controller for Maximum Power-Point Tracking with Artificial Neural Network in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems have non-linear characteristics that generate maximum power at one particular operating point. Environmental factors such as irradiance and temperature variations greatly affect the maximum power point (MPP. Diverse offline and online techniques have been introduced for tracking the MPP. Here, to track the MPP, an augmented-state feedback linearized (AFL non-linear controller combined with an artificial neural network (ANN is proposed. This approach linearizes the non-linear characteristics in PV systems and DC/DC converters, for tracking and optimizing the PV system operation. It also reduces the dependency of the designed controller on linearized models, to provide global stability. A complete model of the PV system is simulated. The existing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT and DC/DC boost-converter controller techniques are compared with the proposed ANN method. Two case studies, which simulate realistic circumstances, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. The AFL with ANN controller can provide good dynamic operation, faster convergence speed, and fewer operating-point oscillations around the MPP. It also tracks the global maxima under different conditions, especially irradiance-mutating situations, more effectively than the conventional methods. Detailed mathematical models and a control approach for a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system are proposed using MATLAB/Simulink.

  17. Adaptive Neural Network Dynamic Inversion with Prescribed Performance for Aircraft Flight Control

    OpenAIRE

    Wendong Gai; Honglun Wang; Jing Zhang; Yuxia Li

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive neural network dynamic inversion with prescribed performance method is proposed for aircraft flight control. The aircraft nonlinear attitude angle model is analyzed. And we propose a new attitude angle controller design method based on prescribed performance which describes the convergence rate and overshoot of the tracking error. Then the model error is compensated by the adaptive neural network. Subsequently, the system stability is analyzed in detail. Finally, the proposed meth...

  18. Reconfigurable Flight Control Design using a Robust Servo LQR and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of a Robust Servo Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and a Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network in reconfigurable flight control designs in adaptation to a aircraft part failure. The method uses a robust LQR servomechanism design with model Reference adaptive control, and RBF neural networks. During the failure the LQR servomechanism behaved well, and using the neural networks improved the tracking.

  19. Integrated Flight Mechanic and Aeroelastic Modelling and Control of a Flexible Aircraft Considering Multidimensional Gust Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    INTEGRATED FLIGHT MECHANIC AND AEROELASTIC MODELLING AND CONTROL OF A FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT CONSIDERING MULTIDIMENSIONAL GUST INPUT Patrick Teufel, Martin Hanel...the lateral separation distance have been developed by ’ = matrix of two dimensional spectrum function Eichenbaum 4 and are described by Bessel...Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1993 Relations to Risk Sensitivity, System & Control Letters 11, [4] Eichenbaum F.D., Evaluation of 3D

  20. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  1. Robust Near-Hovering Flight Controller for Model-Scale Helicopters Via Parametric Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Zhou; Yongan Zhang∗

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a parametric design for robust flight controller of the model⁃scale helicopter. The main contributions lie in two aspects. Firstly, under near⁃hovering condition, a procedure is presented for simplification of the highly nonlinear and under⁃actuated model of the model⁃scale helicopter. This nonlinear system is linearized around the trim values of the chosen flight mode, followed by decomposing this high⁃order linear model into three lower⁃order subsystems according to the coupling properties among channels. After decomposition, the three subsystems are obtained which include the coupling subsystem between the roll ( pitch) motion and the lateral ( longitudinal) motion, the subsystem of the yaw motion and the subsystem of the vertical motion. Secondly, by using eigenstructure assignment, the problem of flight controller design can be converted into solving two optimization problems and the linear robust controllers of these subsystems are designed through solving these optimization problems. Besides, this paper contrasts and analyzed the performances of the LQR controller and the parametric controller. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness against the parametric perturbations of the parametric controller.

  2. Integrating Flight Dynamics & Control Analysis and Simulation in Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ben; Berger, Tom; Tischler, Mark B.; Theodore, Colin R; Elmore, Josh; Gallaher, Andrew; Tobias, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a toolset, SIMPLI-FLYD ('SIMPLIfied FLight dynamics for conceptual Design') is described. SIMPLI-FLYD is a collection of tools that perform flight dynamics and control modeling and analysis of rotorcraft conceptual designs including a capability to evaluate the designs in an X-Plane-based real-time simulation. The establishment of this framework is now facilitating the exploration of this new capability, in terms of modeling fidelity and data requirements, and the investigation of which stability and control and handling qualities requirements are appropriate for conceptual design. Illustrative design variation studies for single main rotor and tiltrotor vehicle configurations show sensitivity of the stability and control characteristics and an approach to highlight potential weight savings by identifying over-design.

  3. Flight validation of ground-based assessment for control power requirements at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Sternberg, Charles A.; Traven, Ricardo; Lackey, James B.; Abbott, Troy D.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented in viewgraph format of an ongoing NASA/U.S. Navy study to determine control power requirements at high angles of attack for the next generation high-performance aircraft. This paper focuses on recent flight test activities using the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which are intended to validate results of previous ground-based simulation studies. The purpose of this study is discussed, and the overall program structure, approach, and objectives are described. Results from two areas of investigation are presented: (1) nose-down control power requirements and (2) lateral-directional control power requirements. Selected results which illustrate issues and challenges that are being addressed in the study are discussed including test methodology, comparisons between simulation and flight, and general lessons learned.

  4. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Radmer, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer resultater fra pilotafprøvning i 7.-klasses fysik/kemi og biologi af to Augmented Reality (AR)-apps til naturfagsundervisning. Muligheder og udfordringer ved lærerens stilladsering af elevernes undersøgende samtale og modelleringskompetence er undersøgt med interview...

  5. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in term...

  6. Clinical Efficacy of Two Different Methods to Initiate Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pumps: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Francisco Javier; Gálvez Moreno, Maria Ángeles; Castaño, Justo P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze clinical effect of a novel approach to initiate sensor-augmented insulin pumps in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients through early real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) initiation. Methods. A 26-week pilot study with T1DM subjects randomized (1 : 1) to start RT-CGM three weeks before continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM pre-CSII) or adding RT-CGM three weeks after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM post-CSII). Results. Twenty-two patients were enrolled with a mean age of 36.6 yr. (range 19–59 yr.) and T1DM duration of 16.8 ± 10.6 yr. Higher adherence in CGM pre-CSII patients was confirmed at study end (84.6 ± 11.1% versus 64.0 ± 25.4%; P = 0.01). The two intervention groups had similar HbA1c reduction at study end of −0.6% (P = 0.9). Hypoglycemic event frequency reduction was observed from baseline to study end only in CGM pre-CSII group (mean difference in change, −6.3%; 95% confidence interval, −12.0 to −0.5; P = 0.04). Moreover, no severe hypoglycemia was detected among CGM pre-CSII subjects during the study follow-up (0.0 ± 0.0 events versus 0.63 ± 1.0 events; P = 0.03). CGM pre-CSII patients showed better satisfaction than CGM post-CSII patients at the end of the study (27.3 ± 9.3 versus 32.9 ± 7.2; P = 0.04). Conclusions. CGM pre-CSII is a novel approach to improve glycemic control and satisfaction in type 1 diabetes sensor-augmented pump treated patients. PMID:28004007

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Two Different Methods to Initiate Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pumps: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Moreno-Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze clinical effect of a novel approach to initiate sensor-augmented insulin pumps in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM patients through early real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM initiation. Methods. A 26-week pilot study with T1DM subjects randomized (1 : 1 to start RT-CGM three weeks before continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM pre-CSII or adding RT-CGM three weeks after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM post-CSII. Results. Twenty-two patients were enrolled with a mean age of 36.6 yr. (range 19–59 yr. and T1DM duration of 16.8±10.6 yr. Higher adherence in CGM pre-CSII patients was confirmed at study end (84.6±11.1% versus 64.0±25.4%; P=0.01. The two intervention groups had similar HbA1c reduction at study end of −0.6% (P=0.9. Hypoglycemic event frequency reduction was observed from baseline to study end only in CGM pre-CSII group (mean difference in change, −6.3%; 95% confidence interval, −12.0 to −0.5; P=0.04. Moreover, no severe hypoglycemia was detected among CGM pre-CSII subjects during the study follow-up (0.0±0.0 events versus 0.63±1.0 events; P=0.03. CGM pre-CSII patients showed better satisfaction than CGM post-CSII patients at the end of the study (27.3±9.3 versus 32.9±7.2; P=0.04. Conclusions. CGM pre-CSII is a novel approach to improve glycemic control and satisfaction in type 1 diabetes sensor-augmented pump treated patients.

  8. Contrasting Perspectives Of Junior versus Senior NASA ISS Flight Controllers On Leadership And Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Boyd, J. E.; Saylor, S.; Kanas, N.

    2007-01-01

    NASA flight controllers have always worked in a very demanding environment, but the International Space Station (ISS) poses even more challenges than prior missions. A recent NASA/Ames survey by Parke and Orasanu of NASA/Johnson flight controllers uncovered concerns about communications problems between American personnel and their international counterparts. To better understand these problems, we interviewed 14 senior and 12 junior ISS flight controllers at NASA/Johnson about leadership and cultural challenges they face and strategies for addressing these challenges. The qualitative interview data were coded and tabulated. Here we present quantitative analyses testing for differences between junior and senior controllers. Based on nonparametric statistical tests comparing responses across groups, the senior controllers were significantly more aware of the impact of working in dispersed teams, the context of constant change, and the upcoming multilateral challenges, while junior controllers were more aware of language and cultural issues. We consider our findings in light of other studies of controllers and other known differences between senior and junior controllers. For example, the fact that senior controllers had their formative early experience controlling pre-ISS short-duration Shuttle missions seems to have both positive and negative aspects, which are supported by our data. Our findings may also reflect gender differences, but we cannot unconfound this effect in our data because all the senior respondents were males. Many of the junior-senior differences are not only due to elapsed time on the job, but also due to a cohort effect. The findings of this study should be used for training curricula tailored differently for junior and senior controllers.

  9. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  10. Flight test results of the fuzzy logic adaptive controller-helicopter (FLAC-H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert L.; Walker, Gregory W.

    1996-05-01

    The fuzzy logic adaptive controller for helicopters (FLAC-H) demonstration is a cooperative effort between the US Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM), the US Army Aviation and Troop Command, and the US Army Missile Command to demonstrate a low-cost drone control system for both full-scale and sub-scale helicopters. FLAC-H was demonstrated on one of STRICOM's fleet of full-scale rotary-winged target drones. FLAC-H exploits fuzzy logic in its flight control system to provide a robust solution to the control of the helicopter's dynamic, nonlinear system. Straight forward, common sense fuzzy rules governing helicopter flight are processed instead of complex mathematical models. This has resulted in a simplified solution to the complexities of helicopter flight. Incorporation of fuzzy logic reduced the cost of development and should also reduce the cost of maintenance of the system. An adaptive algorithm allows the FLAC-H to 'learn' how to fly the helicopter, enabling the control system to adjust to varying helicopter configurations. The adaptive algorithm, based on genetic algorithms, alters the fuzzy rules and their related sets to improve the performance characteristics of the system. This learning allows FLAC-H to automatically be integrated into a new airframe, reducing the development costs associated with altering a control system for a new or heavily modified aircraft. Successful flight tests of the FLAC-H on a UH-1H target drone were completed in September 1994 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper discuses the objective of the system, its design, and performance.

  11. Augmented Adaptive Control of a Wind Turbine in the Presence of Structural Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines operate in highly turbulent environments resulting in aerodynamic loads that can easily excite turbine structural modes, potentially causing component fatigue and failure. Two key technology drivers for turbine manufacturers are increasing turbine up time and reducing maintenance costs. Since the trend in wind turbine design is towards larger, more flexible turbines with lower frequency structural modes, manufacturers will want to develop methods to operate in the presence of these modes. Accurate models of the dynamic characteristics of new wind turbines are often not available due to the complexity and expense of the modeling task, making wind turbines ideally suited to adaptive control. In this paper, we develop theory for adaptive control with rejection of disturbances in the presence of modes that inhibit the controller. We use this method to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed wind turbine operating in Region 3. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller is to regulate generator speed, accommodate wind gusts, and reduce the interference of certain structural modes in feedback. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. The adaptive pitch controller for Region 3 is compared in simulations with a baseline classical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller.

  12. Effects of Inboard Horizontal Field of View Display Limitations on Pilot Path Control During Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.; Lavell, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    A flight test was conducted aboard Calspan's Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft by researchers within the External Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research program. The purpose was to investigate the effects of inboard horizontal field of view (FOV) display limitations on pilot path control and to learn about the TIFS capabilities and limitations for possible use in future XVS flight tests. The TIFS cockpit windows were masked to represent the front XVS display area and the High-Speed Civil Transport side windows, as viewed by the pilot. Masking limited the forward FOV to 40 deg. horizontal and 50 deg. vertical for the basic flight condition, With an increase of 10 deg. horizontal in the inboard direction for the increased FOV flight condition. Two right-hand approach tasks (base-downwind-final) with a left crosswind on final were performed by three pilots using visual flight rules at Niagara Falls Airport. Each of the two tasks had three replicates for both horizontal FOV conditions, resulting in twelve approaches per test subject. Limited objective data showed that an increase of inboard FOV had no effect (deficiences in objective data measurement capabilities were noted). However, subjective results showed that a 50 deg. FOV was preferred over the 40 deg. FOV.

  13. ROBUST STABILIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM WITH STATE FEEDBACK AND FUZZY LOGICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Komnatska

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  This paper deals with combination of two powerful and modern control tools as linear matrix inequality that is used for synthesis a ‘crisp’ controller and a fuzzy control approach for designing a soft controller. The control design consists of two stages. The first stage investigates the problem of a robust an controller design with parameters uncertainties of the handled plant in the presence of external disturbances. Stability conditions are obtained via a quadratic Lyapunov function and represented in the form of linear matrix inequalities. The second stage consists of the outer loop controller construction based on fuzzy inference system that utilizes for altitude hold mode. The parameters of the fuzzy controller are adjusted with a gradient descent method in order to improve the performance of the overall system. The case study illustrates the efficiency of the proposed approach to the flight control of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

  14. Design and Experiment of Flight Path Control System of Unmanned Autogyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture of flight tracking control system for unmanned autogyro, and designs the control law based on the control characteristics of unmanned autogyro. To reduce the lift force loss during turning and maintain the altitude, the feedforward control method of pitching rudder for propeller is adopted (during rolling; To reduce the influence of propeller anti-twisting effect on the roll attitude and course, feedforward control method of the propeller rolling rudder (during throttle changing, is adopted; to reduce the slide slipping and achieve coordinated turning, a hybrid control strategy of the yaw rudder and rolling rud-der of propeller is developed. The flying platform is built to verify the flying. It is proved that this control system can effectively control the altitude and horizontal path of the unmanned autogyro, the control accuracy is better than ± 5m.

  15. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility.

  16. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  17. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  18. Augmented cognitive behavioral therapy for poststroke depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.C.; Lem, F.C.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety poststroke. DESIGN: Multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Ambulatory rehabilitation setting. PARTICIPANTS:

  19. Augmented cognitive behavioral therapy for post stroke depressive symptoms : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha Mc; Lem, Frederik C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano; Geurts, Alexander C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety post stroke. DESIGN: Multi-center, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Six ambulatory rehabilitation settings in The Nethe

  20. Use of ILTV Control Laws for LaNCETS Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A report discusses the Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) test to investigate the effects of lift distribution and nozzle-area ratio changes on tail shock strength of an F-15 aircraft. Specific research objectives are to obtain inflight shock strength for multiple combinations of nozzle-area ratio and lift distribution; compare results with preflight prediction tools; and update predictive tools with flight results. The objectives from a stability and control perspective are to ensure adequate aircraft stability for the changes in lift distribution and plume shape, and ensure manageable transient from engaging and disengaging the ILTV research control laws. In order to change the lift distribution and plume shape of the F-15 aircraft, a decade-old Inner Loop Thrust Vectoring (ILTV) research control law was used. Flight envelope expansion was performed for the test configuration and flight conditions prior to the probing test points. The approach for achieving the research objectives was to utilize the unique capabilities of NASA's NF-15B-837 aircraft to allow the adjustment of the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions by engaging the ILTV research control laws. The ILTV control laws provide the ability to add trim command biases to canard positions, nozzle area ratios, and thrust vectoring through the use of datasets. Datasets consist of programmed test inputs (PTIs) that define trims to change the nozzle-area ratio and/or canard positions. The trims are applied as increments to the normally commanded positions. A LaNCETS non-linear, six-degrees-of-freedom simulation capable of realtime pilot-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, and non-real-time batch support was developed and validated. Prior to first flight, extensive simulation analyses were performed to show adequate stability margins with the changes in lift distribution and plume shape. Additionally, engagement/disengagement transient analysis was also performed to show manageable

  1. Planform, aero-structural, and flight control optimization for tailless morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Giulio; Arrieta, Andres F.; Ermanni, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Tailless airplanes with swept wings rely on variations of the spanwise lift distribution to provide controllability in roll, pitch and yaw. Conventionally, this is achieved utilizing multiple control surfaces, such as elevons, on the wing trailing edge. As every flight condition requires different control moments (e.g. to provide pitching moment equilibrium), these surfaces are practically permanently displaced. Due to their nature, causing discontinuities, corners and gaps, they bear aerodynamic penalties, mostly in terms of shape drag. Shape adaptation, by means of chordwise morphing, has the potential of varying the lift of a wing section by deforming its profile in a way that minimizes the resulting drag. Furthermore, as the shape can be varied differently along the wingspan, the lift distribution can be tailored to each specific flight condition. For this reason, tailless aircraft appear as a prime choice to apply morphing techniques, as the attainable benefits are potentially significant. In this work, we present a methodology to determine the optimal planform, profile shape, and morphing structure for a tailless aircraft. The employed morphing concept is based on a distributed compliance structure, actuated by Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric elements. The multidisciplinary optimization is performed considering the static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the resulting structure. The goal is the maximization of the aerodynamic efficiency while guaranteeing the controllability of the plane, by means of morphing, in a set of flight conditions.

  2. A Heading and Flight-Path Angle Control of Aircraft Based on Required Acceleration Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitani, Naoharu

    This paper describes a control of heading and flight-path angles of aircraft to time-varying command angles. The controller first calculates an acceleration command vector (acV), which is vertical to the velocity vector. acV consists of two components; the one is feedforward acceleration obtained from the rates of command angles, and the other is feedback acceleration obtained from angle deviations by using PID control law. A bank angle command around the velocity vector and commands of pitch and yaw rates are then obtained to generate the required acceleration. A roll rate command is calculated from bank angle deviation. Roll, pitch and yaw rate commands are put into the attitude controller, which can be composed of any suitable control laws such as PID control. The control requires neither aerodynamic coefficients nor online calculation of the inverse dynamics of the aircraft. A numerical simulation illustrates the effects of the control.

  3. An application of generalized predictive control to rotorcraft terrain-following flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Jung, Yoon C.

    1989-01-01

    Generalized predictive control (GPC) describes an algorithm for the control of dynamic systems in which a control input is generated which minimizes a quadratic cost function consisting of a weighted sum of errors between desired and predicted future system output and future predicted control increments. The output predictions are obtained from an internal model of the plant dynamics. The GPC algorithm is first applied to a simplified rotorcraft terrain-following problem, and GPC performance is compared to that of a conventional compensatory automatic system in terms of flight-path following, control activity, and control law implementation. Next, more realistic vehicle dynamics are utilized, and the GPC algorithm is applied to simultaneous terrain following and velocity control in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and errors in the internal model of the vehicle. The online computational and sensing requirements for implementing the GPC algorithm are minimal. Its use for manual control models appears promising.

  4. TASAR Flight Trial 2: Assessment of Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of TASAR Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In support of the Flight Trial (FT-2) of NASA's prototype of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept, observations were conducted at the air traffic facilities to identify and assess the main factors that affect the acceptability of pilot requests by air traffic controllers. Two observers shadowed air traffic controllers at the Atlanta (ZTL) and Jacksonville (ZJX) air traffic control centers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed the observed and other controllers voluntarily. Fifty controllers were interviewed with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. All interviewed controllers were enthusiastic about the technology and accounting for sector boundaries in pilot requests, particularly if pilots can be made aware of high workload situations. All interviewed controllers accept more than fifty percent of pilot requests; forty percent of them reject less than ten percent of requests. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating letters of agreement (LOAs) and negatively impacting neighboring sector workload, major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Thirty-six requests were made during the test, eight of which were rejected due to: the aircraft already handed off to another sector, violating LOA, opposing traffic, intruding into an active special use airspace (SUA), intruding into another center, weather, and unfamiliarity with the requested waypoint. Nine requests were accepted with delay mostly because the controller needed to locate unfamiliar waypoints or to coordinate with other controllers.

  5. FLIGHT SAFETY CONTROL OF THE BASIS OF UNCERTAIN RISK EVALUATION WITH NON-ROUTINE FLIGHT CONDITIONS INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods of forecasting the level of aviation safety operation of aircraft systems on the basis of methods of evaluation the risks of negative situations as a consequence of a functional loss of initial properties of the system with critical violations of standard modes of the aircraft. Mathematical Models of Risks as a Danger Measure of Discrete Random Events in Aviation Systems are presented. Technological Schemes and Structure of Risk Control Proce- dures without the Probability are illustrated as Methods of Risk Management System in Civil Aviation. The assessment of the level of safety and quality and management of aircraft, made not only from the standpoint of reliability (quality and consumer properties, but also from the position of ICAO on the basis of a risk-based approach. According to ICAO, the security assessment is performed by comparing the calculated risk with an acceptable level. The approach justifies the use of qualitative evaluation techniques safety in the forms of proactive forecasted and predictive risk management adverse impacts to aviation operations of various kinds, including the space sector and nuclear energy. However, for the events such as accidents and disasters, accidents with the aircraft, fighters in a training flight, during the preparation of the pilots on the training aircraft, etc. there is no required statistics. Density of probability distribution (p. d. f. of these events are only hypothetical, unknown with "hard tails" that completely eliminates the application of methods of confidence intervals in the traditional approaches to the assessment of safety in the form of the probability analysis.

  6. Design of passive fault-tolerant flight controller against actuator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of designing passive fault-tolerant flight controller is addressed when the normal and faulty cases are prescribed. First of all, the considered fault and fault-free cases are formed by polytopes. As considering that the safety of a post-fault system is directly related to the maximum values of physical variables in the system, peak-to-peak gain is selected to represent the relationships among the amplitudes of actuator outputs, system outputs, and reference commands. Based on the parameter dependent Lyapunov and slack methods, the passive fault-tolerant flight controllers in the absence/presence of system uncertainty for actuator failure cases are designed, respectively. Case studies of an airplane under actuator failures are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Design of passive fault-tolerant flight controller against actuator failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiang; Zhang Youmin

    2015-01-01

    The problem of designing passive fault-tolerant flight controller is addressed when the normal and faulty cases are prescribed. First of all, the considered fault and fault-free cases are formed by polytopes. As considering that the safety of a post-fault system is directly related to the maximum values of physical variables in the system, peak-to-peak gain is selected to represent the relationships among the amplitudes of actuator outputs, system outputs, and reference com-mands. Based on the parameter dependent Lyapunov and slack methods, the passive fault-tolerant flight controllers in the absence/presence of system uncertainty for actuator failure cases are designed, respectively. Case studies of an airplane under actuator failures are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. The use of minimum order state observers in digital flight-control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Hatch, H. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of selecting the 'arbitrary' design parameters of digital state observers when they are being used as a part of a digital flight-control system. A cost index is developed which indicates the output noise caused by input quantization due to analog-to-digital conversion. The cost index assumes that the input quantization error is uniformly distributed over the least-significant-bit of the conversion. Formulas relating the cost index to the observer design parameters are presented. The cost index is minimized with respect to the design parameters using a conjugate gradient algorithm. An example of the theory is presented in which a digital observer is designed so that a satisfactory digital flight-control system is obtained starting from an unacceptable one.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of automatic flight control systems using singular value concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vaillard, A.; Paduano, J.; Downing, D.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis is presented that can be used to judge the impact of vehicle dynamic model variations on the relative stability of multivariable continuous closed-loop control systems. The sensitivity analysis uses and extends the singular-value concept by developing expressions for the gradients of the singular value with respect to variations in the vehicle dynamic model and the controller design. Combined with a priori estimates of the accuracy of the model, the gradients are used to identify the elements in the vehicle dynamic model and controller that could severely impact the system's relative stability. The technique is demonstrated for a yaw/roll damper stability augmentation designed for a business jet.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of automatic flight control systems using singular value concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vaillard, A.; Paduano, J.; Downing, D.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis is presented that can be used to judge the impact of vehicle dynamic model variations on the relative stability of multivariable continuous closed-loop control systems. The sensitivity analysis uses and extends the singular-value concept by developing expressions for the gradients of the singular value with respect to variations in the vehicle dynamic model and the controller design. Combined with a priori estimates of the accuracy of the model, the gradients are used to identify the elements in the vehicle dynamic model and controller that could severely impact the system's relative stability. The technique is demonstrated for a yaw/roll damper stability augmentation designed for a business jet.

  11. Autonomy and control: augmenting the validity of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Tracey A; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Pretty, Grace M

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) along with additional constructs in predicting exercise, and explored the motivational antecedents of exercise intentions. Participants included 162 Canadian University College students (61% females). Measures of TPB, autonomous and controlling intention, perceived autonomy support and core autonomous intention were completed during phase 1 of data collection. Two and three weeks later behaviour was assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: (a) attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted TPB intention and core autonomous intention; (b) subjective norm predicted controlling intention; and (c) perceived autonomy support predicted autonomous and core autonomous intention. TPB intention significantly predicted behaviour. TPB is a fairly useful model for predicting behaviour and important information can be gained when other measures of intention are explored.

  12. Augmentation of Real & Reactive Power in Grid by Unified Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Rajasekar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Power Flow Control in transmission line with respect to voltage condition (L-G, L-L-G, L-L over come by using unified power flow controller. The existing system employs UPFC with transformer less connection with both series and shunt converter. This converter have been cascaded with multilevel inverters which is more complicated to enhance the performance of UPFC.A proposed system consist of three terminal transformer for shunt converter and six terminal transformer for series converter. Shunt converter & series converter is coupled with common DC capacitor. DC link capacitor voltage is maintained using PID controller and synchronous reference frame theory (SRF is used to generate reference voltage & current signal. Simulation studies are carried out for (L-G, L-L-G, L-L real & reactive power compensation results will be shown in this paper.

  13. Adaptive Neural Network Dynamic Inversion with Prescribed Performance for Aircraft Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Gai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neural network dynamic inversion with prescribed performance method is proposed for aircraft flight control. The aircraft nonlinear attitude angle model is analyzed. And we propose a new attitude angle controller design method based on prescribed performance which describes the convergence rate and overshoot of the tracking error. Then the model error is compensated by the adaptive neural network. Subsequently, the system stability is analyzed in detail. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the aircraft attitude tracking control system. The nonlinear simulation demonstrates that this method can guarantee the stability and tracking performance in the transient and steady behavior.

  14. Intelligent adaptive nonlinear flight control for a high performance aircraft with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Aydogan; Tasaltin, Ramazan; Becerikli, Yasar

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a neural network (NN) based adaptive flight control system for a high performance aircraft. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed control system is able to compensate the system uncertainties, adapt to the changes in flight conditions, and accommodate the system failures. The underlying study can be considered in two phases. The objective of the first phase is to model the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear F-16 model using NNs. Therefore a NN-based adaptive identification model is developed for three angular rates of the aircraft. An on-line training procedure is developed to adapt the changes in the system dynamics and improve the identification accuracy. In this procedure, a first-in first-out stack is used to store a certain history of the input-output data. The training is performed over the whole data in the stack at every stage. To speed up the convergence rate and enhance the accuracy for achieving the on-line learning, the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method with a trust region approach is adapted to train the NNs. The objective of the second phase is to develop intelligent flight controllers. A NN-based adaptive PID control scheme that is composed of an emulator NN, an estimator NN, and a discrete time PID controller is developed. The emulator NN is used to calculate the system Jacobian required to train the estimator NN. The estimator NN, which is trained on-line by propagating the output error through the emulator, is used to adjust the PID gains. The NN-based adaptive PID control system is applied to control three angular rates of the nonlinear F-16 model. The body-axis pitch, roll, and yaw rates are fed back via the PID controllers to the elevator, aileron, and rudder actuators, respectively. The resulting control system has learning, adaptation, and fault-tolerant abilities. It avoids the storage and interpolation requirements for the too many controller parameters of a typical flight control

  15. An approach to the synthesis of separate surface automatic flight control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Henry, S.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for the analysis of separate surface automatic flight control systems. The feasibility of such systems is demonstrated by the analysis of an example system, a separate surface wing-leveler for a Cessna 172. This example system employs a separate surface aileron with 15% of the basic airplane roll control power. A 90% reduction in bank-angle gust response can be obtained when compared with the basic airplane. The system does not feed back to the pilot's wheel. When failed (even hardover) the pilot retains more than adequate control of the airplane.

  16. Guidance and Control of an Autonomous Soaring Vehicle with Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A guidance and control method was developed to detect and exploit thermals for energy gain. Latency in energy rate estimation degraded performance. The concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology. Many UAVs have similar mission constraints to birds and sailplanes. a) Surveillance; b) Point to point flight with minimal energy; and c) Increased ground speed.

  17. Flight control application of new stability robustness bounds for linear uncertain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedavalli, Rama K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of obtaining bounds on the real parameter perturbations of a linear state-space model for robust stability. Based on Kronecker algebra, new, easily computable sufficient bounds are derived that are much less conservative than the existing bounds since the technique is meant for only real parameter perturbations (in contrast to specializing complex variation case to real parameter case). The proposed theory is illustrated with application to several flight control examples.

  18. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  19. Modeling the Fault Tolerant Capability of a Flight Control System: An Exercise in SCR Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Chris; Cortellessa, Vittorio; DelGobbo, Diego; Mili, Ali; Napolitano, Marcello

    2000-01-01

    In life-critical and mission-critical applications, it is important to make provisions for a wide range of contingencies, by providing means for fault tolerance. In this paper, we discuss the specification of a flight control system that is fault tolerant with respect to sensor faults. Redundancy is provided by analytical relations that hold between sensor readings; depending on the conditions, this redundancy can be used to detect, identify and accommodate sensor faults.

  20. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CROSS-COUPLING PHENOMENA OF MIMO FLIGHT SYSTEM USING FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNA H. SALEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of a simplified dynamic controller with fuzzy logic controllers. The six degree-of-freedom simulation study focuses on the results with and without fuzzy logic controller. One area of interest is the performance of a simulated the cross coupling effect. The controller uses explicit models to produce the desired commands. In this paper the effect of the cross-coupling between channels on the overall performance of the flight system has been considered. Two fuzzy controllers have been added to the system to improve its performance. This paper presents the development and simulation of a modified system is presented using MatLab Simulink. Also it focuses on the use of fuzzy logic controller in model-based control of multiple-input, multiple-output systems. Here, we address the question of how the overall performance of the system is affected when both fuzzy logic controllers are applied at the same time. Simulation and experimental results of a flight system , as an illustrative example, are presented.

  2. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  3. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  4. Task-Based Mirror Therapy Augmenting Motor Recovery in Poststroke Hemiparesis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta; Kumar, Dharmendra; Puri, Vinod

    2015-08-01

    To establish the effect of the task-based mirror therapy (TBMT) on the upper limb recovery in stroke. A pilot, randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded trial was conducted in a rehabilitation institute. A convenience sample of 33 poststroke (mean duration, 12.5 months) hemiparetic subjects was randomized into 2 groups (experimental, 17; control, 16). The subjects were allocated to receive either TBMT or standard motor rehabilitation-40 sessions (5/week) for a period of 8 weeks. The TBMT group received movements using various goal-directed tasks and a mirror box. The movements were performed by the less-affected side superimposed on the affected side. The main outcome measures were Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA)-FMA of upper extremity (FMA-UE), including upper arm (FMA-UA) and wrist-hand (FMA-WH). The TBMT group exhibited highly significant improvement on mean scores of FMA-WH (P < .001) and FMA-UE (P < .001) at postassessment in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there was a 12% increase in the number of subjects at BRS stage 5 (out of synergy movement) in the experimental group as compared to a 0% rise at the same stage in the control group. This pilot trial confirmed the role of TBMT in improving the wrist-hand motor recovery in poststroke hemiparesis. MT using tasks may be used as an adjunct in stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Sense of Touch in Laparoscopy: Using Augmented Haptic Feedback to Improve Grasp Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westebring-van der Putten, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopy is Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) that is conducted in the belly alcove and which enables instruments, which enter the body through small incisions, to manipulate tissue. The possible complications arising during laparoscopic surgery are partly caused by improper grasp control on the p

  6. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    New York, Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1996 17. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ...results of a placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62:860–868 31. Marshall RD, Beebe KL, Oldham M, Zaninelli R: Efficacy and

  7. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arusoaie, Andrei; Cristei, Alexandru Ionuţ; Chircu, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    applications. In the first section the focus is set on the Augmented Reality basic concepts and the necessity of developing such a framework. The prototype that we present in the second part of this paper comes to demonstrate how our framework can be used to achieve our targeted application for Augmented......Virtual Reality is becoming more than a part of our everyday life, helping us to identify quickly the elements of the environment or to better entertain us. The purpose of this paper is to present an application framework that we are developing, in order to help others implement their own...... Reality. It also contains some future works to highlight the capabilities of the AR API. © 2010 IEEE....

  8. Real-Time Reliability Verification for UAV Flight Control System Supporting Airworthiness Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify the real-time reliability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight control system and comply with the airworthiness certification standard, we proposed a model-based integration framework for modeling and verification of time property. Combining with the advantages of MARTE, this framework uses class diagram to create the static model of software system, and utilizes state chart to create the dynamic model. In term of the defined transformation rules, the MARTE model could be transformed to formal integrated model, and the different part of the model could also be verified by using existing formal tools. For the real-time specifications of software system, we also proposed a generating algorithm for temporal logic formula, which could automatically extract real-time property from time-sensitive live sequence chart (TLSC). Finally, we modeled the simplified flight control system of UAV to check its real-time property. The results showed that the framework could be used to create the system model, as well as precisely analyze and verify the real-time reliability of UAV flight control system.

  9. A passion for space adventures of a pioneering female NASA flight controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Marianne J

    2016-01-01

    Marianne J. Dyson recounts for us a time when women were making the first inroads into space flight control, a previously male-dominated profession. The story begins with the inspiration of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon and follows the challenges of pursuing a science career as a woman in the 70s and 80s, when it was far from an easy path.  Dyson relates the first five space shuttle flights from the personal perspective of mission planning and operations in Houston at the Johnson Space Center, based almost exclusively on original sources such as journals and NASA weekly activity reports. The book’s historical details about astronaut and flight controller training exemplify both the humorous and serious aspects of space operations up through the Challenger disaster, including the almost unknown fire in Mission Control during STS-5 that nearly caused an emergency entry of the shuttle.  From an insider with a unique perspective and credentials to match, this a must-read for anyone interested in the worki...

  10. Commonality of flight control systems for support of European telecommunications missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debatin, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the presentation of mission-independent software systems that provide a common software platform to ground data systems for mission operations. The objectives of such common software platforms are to reduce the cost of the development of mission-dedicated software systems and to increase the level of reliability of the ground data systems for mission operations. In accordance with this objective, the Multi-Satellite Support System (MSSS) was developed at the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Between 1975 and 1992, the MSSS provided support to 16 European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among them very demanding science missions such as GEOS, EXOSAT, and Giotto. The successful support of these missions proved the validity of the MSSS concept with its extended mission-independent platform. This paper describes the MSSS concept and focuses on the wide use of MSSS as a flight control system for geosynchronous telecommunications satellites. Reference is made to more than 15 telecommunications missions that are operated from Western Europe using flight control systems with an underlying MSSS concept, demonstrating the benefits of a commonly used software platform. Finally, the paper outlines the design of the new generation of flight control systems, which is being developed at ESOC for this decade, following a period of more than 15 years of MSSS support.

  11. Identification of Fungal Colonies on Ground Control and Flight Veggie Plant Pillows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotten, Jessica E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Spencer, Lashelle E.; Massa, Gioia D.

    2017-01-01

    The Veggie system focuses on growing fresh produce that can be harvested and consumed by astronauts. The microbial colonies in each Veggie experiment are evaluated to determine the safety level of the produce and then differences between flight and ground samples. The identifications of the microbial species can detail risks or benefits to astronaut and plant health. Each Veggie ground or flight experiment includes six plants grown from seeds that are glued into wicks in Teflon pillows filled with clay arcillite and fertilizer. Fungal colonies were isolated from seed wicks, growth media, and lettuce (cv. 'Outredgeous') roots grown in VEG-01B pillows on ISS and in corresponding ground control pillows grown in controlled growth chambers. The colonies were sorted by morphology and identified using MicroSeq(TM) 500 16s rDNA Bacterial Identification System and BIOLOG GEN III MicroPlate(TM). Health risks for each fungal identification were then assessed using literature sources. The goal was to identify all the colonies isolated from flight and ground control VEG-01B plants, roots, and rooting medium and compare the resulting identifications.

  12. Pitch attitude, flight path, and airspeed control during approach and landing of a powered lift STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical investigations and piloted moving base simulator evaluations were conducted for manual control of pitch attitude, flight path, and airspeed for the approach and landing of a powered lift jet STOL aircraft. Flight path and speed response characteristics were described analytically and were evaluated for the simulation experiments which were carried out on a large motion simulator. The response characteristics were selected and evaluated for a specified path and speed control technique. These charcteristics were: (1) the initial pitch response and steady pitch rate sensitivity for control of attitude with a pitch rate command/ attitude hold system, (2) the initial flight path response, flight path overshoot, and flight path-airspeed coupling in response to a change in thrust, and (3) the sensitivity of airspeed to pitch attitude changes. Results are presented in the form of pilot opinion ratings and commentary, substantiated where appropriate by response time histories and aircraft states at the point of touchdown.

  13. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed.

  14. Dynamic planning of navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in an automated flight test control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtsov, D. A.; Karpov, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    This study considers an approach to planning navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in the course of preparing for and carrying out an active flight test in an automated flight test control system. The approach is based on special information and mathematical software. The performance indices of the navigation determination subsystem are studied. Results of simulated modeling are provided.

  15. AirSTAR: A UAV Platform for Flight Dynamics and Control System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Foster, John V.; Bailey, Roger M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program at Langley Research Center, a dynamically scaled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and associated ground based control system are being developed to investigate dynamics modeling and control of large transport vehicles in upset conditions. The UAV is a 5.5% (seven foot wingspan), twin turbine, generic transport aircraft with a sophisticated instrumentation and telemetry package. A ground based, real-time control system is located inside an operations vehicle for the research pilot and associated support personnel. The telemetry system supports over 70 channels of data plus video for the downlink and 30 channels for the control uplink. Data rates are in excess of 200 Hz. Dynamic scaling of the UAV, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuation, and control system scaling, is required so that the sub-scale vehicle will realistically simulate the flight characteristics of the full-scale aircraft. This testbed will be utilized to validate modeling methods, flight dynamics characteristics, and control system designs for large transport aircraft, with the end goal being the development of technologies to reduce the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control.

  16. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  17. Flying Qualities Flight Testing of Digital Flight Control Systems. Flight Test Techniques Series - Volume 21 (les Essais en vol des performances des systemes de ommande de vol numeriques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    et leur sécurité. Note de traduction : l’auteur insiste lourdement dans le 2ème paragraphe sur la préparation des essais et l’analyse des...feedback loop is readily apparent. As an example, a roll-rate feedback to the aileron is a good indication that the roll mode required augmentation. The...impacts of roll-rate feedback to the aileron on this mode are well understood from the classical design theory. Newer or so-called modern design

  18. An Advanced Fly-By-Wire Flight Control System for the RASCAL Research Rotorcraft: Concept to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediess, Nicholas A.; Dones, Fernando; McManus, Bruce L.; Ulmer, Lon; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Design features of a new fly-by-wire flight control system for the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these pro-rams and the design implementation of the research flight control system (RFCS), with emphasis on safety-of-flight, adaptability to multiple requirements and performance considerations.

  19. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  20. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.