WorldWideScience

Sample records for flight altitude conditions

  1. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  2. Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

  3. A Comparitive Analysis of the Influence of Weather on the Flight Altitudes of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; van Loon, Emiel; van Gasteren, Hans; van Belle, Jelmer; Bouten, Willem; Buurma, Luit

    2006-01-01

    Birds pose a serious risk to flight safety worldwide. A Bird Avoidance Model (BAM) is being developed in the Netherlands to reduce the risk of bird aircraft collisions. In order to develop a temporally and spatially dynamic model of bird densities, data are needed on the flight-altitude distribution of birds and how this is influenced by weather. This study focuses on the dynamics of flight altitudes of several species of birds during local flights over land in relation to meteorological conditions.We measured flight altitudes of several species in the southeastern Netherlands using tracking radar during spring and summer 2000. Representatives of different flight strategy groups included four species: a soaring species (buzzard ), an obligatory aerial forager (swift Apus apus), a flapping and gliding species (blackheaded gull Larus ridibundus), and a flapping species (starling Sturnus vulgaris).Maximum flight altitudes varied among species, during the day and among days. Weather significantly influenced the flight altitudes of all species studied. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric instability, cloud cover, and sea level pressure were related to flight altitudes. Different combinations of factors explained 40% 70% of the variance in maximum flight altitudes. Weather affected flight strategy groups differently. Compared to flapping species, buzzards and swifts showed stronger variations in maximum daily altitude and f lew higher under conditions reflecting stronger thermal convection. The dynamic vertical distributions of birds are important for risk assessment and mitigation measures in flight safety as well as wind turbine studies.

  4. Flight altitude of trans-Sahara migrants in autumn: a comparison of radar observations with predictions from meteorological conditions and water and energy balance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Biebach, H.

    2000-01-01

    Radar observations on the altitude of bird migration and altitudinal profiles of meteorological conditions over the Sahara desert are presented for the autumn migratory period. Migratory birds By at an average altitude of 1016 m (a.s.l.) during the day and 571 m during the night. Weather data served

  5. 14 CFR 93.307 - Minimum flight altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight altitudes. 93.307 Section 93...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.307 Minimum flight altitudes. Except in an emergency, or...

  6. Flight Control of the High Altitude Wind Power System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podgaets, A.R.; Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed loop Laddermill flight control problem is considered in this paper. Laddermill is a high altitude kites system for energy production. The kites have been simulated as rigid bodies and the cable as a thin elastic line. Euler angles and cable speed are controls. Flight control is written as a f

  7. Insect Vision: A Few Tricks to Regulate Flight Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Floreano D.; Zufferey J.-C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study sheds new light on the visual cues used by Drosophila to regulate flight altitude. The striking similarity with previously identified steering mechanisms provides a coherent basis for novel models of vision-based flight control in insects and robots.

  8. Insect vision: a few tricks to regulate flight altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Zufferey, Jean-Christophe

    2010-10-12

    A recent study sheds new light on the visual cues used by Drosophila to regulate flight altitude. The striking similarity with previously identified steering mechanisms provides a coherent basis for novel models of vision-based flight control in insects and robots.

  9. The Role of Visual Occlusion in Altitude Maintenance during Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R.; Geri, G. A.; Akhtar, S. C.; Covas, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of visual occlusion as a cue to altitude maintenance in low-altitude flight (LAF) was investigated. The extent to which the ground surface is occluded by 3-D objects varies with altitude and depends on the height, radius, and density of the objects. Participants attempted to maintain a constant altitude during simulated flight over an…

  10. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The first flights of the ER-2 solar cell calibration demonstration were conducted during September-October of 2014. Three flights were performed that not only tested out the equipment and operational procedures, but also demonstrated the capability of this unique facility by conducting the first short-circuit measurements on a variety of test solar cells. Very preliminary results of these first flights were presented at the 2014 Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT) Conference in Cleveland, OH shortly following these first flights. At the 2015 Space Power Workshop, a more detailed description of these first ER-2 flights will be presented, along with the final flight data from some of the test cells that were flown and has now been reduced and corrected for ER-2 atmospheric flight conditions. Plans for ER-2 flights during the summer of 2015 will also be discussed.

  11. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    1990-01-01

    Rotorcraft operating in high-threat environments fly close to the earth's surface to utilize surrounding terrain, vegetation, or manmade objects to minimize the risk of being detected by an enemy. Increasing levels of concealment are achieved by adopting different tactics during low-altitude flight. Rotorcraft employ three tactics during low-altitude flight: low-level, contour, and nap-of-the-earth (NOE). The key feature distinguishing the NOE mode from the other two modes is that the whole rotorcraft, including the main rotor, is below tree-top whenever possible. This leads to the use of lateral maneuvers for avoiding obstacles, which in fact constitutes the means for concealment. The piloting of the rotorcraft is at best a very demanding task and the pilot will need help from onboard automation tools in order to devote more time to mission-related activities. The development of an automation tool which has the potential to detect obstacles in the rotorcraft flight path, warn the crew, and interact with the guidance system to avoid detected obstacles, presents challenging problems. Research is described which applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigtion. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle-detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automatic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. The presentation concludes with some comments on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  12. Drag Coefficients of Low Altitude Stationary Flight Test Airship Estimated from Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Takashi

    Flight tests were carried out to obtain aerodynamic characteristics of the low altitude stationary flight test airship. The deceleration test method was used in a flight experiment to obtain the drag coefficient. Combining with the deceleration test result, the minimum drag coefficient was acquired by equating a thrust force with the corresponding drag force at the steady level flight. As a result, 0.044±0.002 were obtained on the minimum drag coefficient of the airship. Modifications of the deceleration test data analysis are proposed to be applicable to test data obtained under non-zero attack angle etc. in the paper.

  13. Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord

  14. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  15. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Transonic Performance Flight Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Altitude compensating nozzles continue to be of interest for use on future launch vehicle boosters and upper stages because of their higher mission average Isp and...

  16. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Lung; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Teng, Yao-Jen; Hao, Shu-Sheng

    2015-07-13

    The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft's nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft's nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path.

  17. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Lung Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft’s nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft’s nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path.

  18. A comparative analysis of the influence of weather on the flight altitudes of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.; van Gasteren, H.; van Belle, J.; Bouten, W.; Buurma, L.

    2006-01-01

    Birds pose a serious risk to flight safety worldwide. A Bird Avoidance Model (BAM) is being developed in the Netherlands to reduce the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. In order to develop a temporally and spatially dynamic model of bird densities, data are needed on the flight-altitude distribution

  19. Meteorological Support of the Helios World Record High Altitude Flight to 96,863 Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Donohue, Casey J.; Wright, Patrick T.; DelFrate, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In characterizing and understanding atmospheric behavior when conducting high altitude solar powered flight research flight planning engineers and meteorologists are able to maximize the use of available airspace and coordinate aircraft maneuvers with pilots to make the best use of changing sun elevation angles. The result of this cooperative research produced a new world record for absolute altitude of a non-rocket powered aircraft of 96,863 ft (29,531.4 m). The Helios prototype solar powered aircraft, with a wingspan of 247 ft (75.0m), reached this altitude on August 13, 2001, off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. The analyses of the weather characterization, the planning efforts, and the weather-of-the-day summary that led to at record flight are described in this paper.

  20. Measurement of the Space Radiation Dose for the Flight Aircrew at High-Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Park, Inchun; Kim, Junsik; Lee, Jaejin; Hwang, Junga; Kim, Young-chul

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes an experimental approach to evaluate the effective doses of space radiations at high-altitude by combining the measured data from the Liulin-6K spectrometer loaded onto the air-borne RC-800 cockpit and the calculated data from CARI-6M code developed by FAA. In this paper, 15 exposed dose experiments for the flight missions at a highaltitude above 10 km and 3 experiments at a normal altitude below 4 km were executed over the Korean Peninsula in 2012. The results from the high-altitude flight measurements show a dramatic change in the exposed doses as the altitude increases. The effective dose levels (an average of 15.27 mSv) of aircrew at the high-altitude are an order of magnitude larger than those (an average of 0.30 mSv) of the normal altitude flight. The comparison was made between the measure dose levels and the calculated dose levels and those were similar each other. It indicates that the annual dose levels of the aircrew boarding RC- 800 could be above 1 mSv. These results suggest that a proper procedure to manage the exposed dose of aircrew is required for ROK Air Force.

  1. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low-altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of research that applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automataic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data, however, presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. Some comments are made on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  2. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low-altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of research that applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automataic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data, however, presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. Some comments are made on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  3. Discrete Neural Altitude Control for Hypersonic Vehicle Via Flight Path Angle Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixing Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the altitude control is analyzed for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic Hypersonic Flight Vehicle (HFV. By transforming altitude command into the tracking of flight path angle with fast dynamics, the system design is focusing on the control of the attitude subsystem. The virtual control is designed with nominal feedback and Neural Network (NN approximation via back-stepping. Under the proposed controller, the Semiglobal Uniform Ultimate Boundedness (SGUUB stability is guaranteed. The slow dynamics are transformed into the parameter estimation problem and the update law is designed. The simulation is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  4. Characteristics and drivers of high-altitude ladybird flight: insights from vertical-looking entomological radar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Jeffries

    Full Text Available Understanding the characteristics and drivers of dispersal is crucial for predicting population dynamics, particularly in range-shifting species. Studying long-distance dispersal in insects is challenging, but recent advances in entomological radar offer unique insights. We analysed 10 years of radar data collected at Rothamsted Research, U.K., to investigate characteristics (altitude, speed, seasonal and annual trends and drivers (aphid abundance, air temperature, wind speed and rainfall of high-altitude flight of the two most abundant U.K. ladybird species (native Coccinella septempunctata and invasive Harmonia axyridis. These species cannot be distinguished in the radar data since their reflectivity signals overlap, and they were therefore analysed together. However, their signals do not overlap with other, abundant insects so we are confident they constitute the overwhelming majority of the analysed data. The target species were detected up to ∼1100 m above ground level, where displacement speeds of up to ∼60 km/h were recorded, however most ladybirds were found between ∼150 and 500 m, and had a mean displacement of 30 km/h. Average flight time was estimated, using tethered flight experiments, to be 36.5 minutes, but flights of up to two hours were observed. Ladybirds are therefore potentially able to travel 18 km in a "typical" high-altitude flight, but up to 120 km if flying at higher altitudes, indicating a high capacity for long-distance dispersal. There were strong seasonal trends in ladybird abundance, with peaks corresponding to the highest temperatures of mid-summer, and warm air temperature was the key driver of ladybird flight. Climatic warming may therefore increase the potential for long-distance dispersal in these species. Low aphid abundance was a second significant factor, highlighting the important role of aphid population dynamics in ladybird dispersal. This research illustrates the utility of radar for studying high-altitude

  5. Predicting migratory flight altitudes by physiological migration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liechti, F.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Bruderer, B.

    2000-01-01

    Using the altitudinal profiles of wind, temperature, pressure, and humidity in three flight models, we tried to explain the altitudinal distributions of nocturnal migrants recorded by radar above a desert in southern Israel. In the simplest model, only the tailwind component was used as a predictor

  6. Implementation of a Novel Flight Tracking and Recovery Package for High Altitude Ballooning Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Aqsa; Nekkanti, Sanjay; Mohan Suri, Ram; Shankar, Divya; Prasad Nagendra, Narayan

    High altitude ballooning is typically used for scientific missions including stratospheric observations, aerological observations, and near space environment technology demonstration. The usage of stratospheric balloons is a cost effective method to pursue several scientific and technological avenues against using satellites in the void of space. Based on the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) ballooning program for studying Comet ISON using high altitude ballooning, a cost effective flight tracking and recovery package for ballooning missions has been developed using open source hardware. The flight tracking and recovery package is based on using Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) and has a redundant Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) based Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker. The APRS based tracker uses AX.25 protocol for transmission of the GPS coordinates (latitude, longitude, altitude, time) alongside the heading and health parameters of the board (voltage, temperature). APRS uses amateur radio frequencies where data is transmitted in packet messaging format, modulated by radio signals. The receiver uses Very High Frequency (VHF) transceiver to demodulate the APRS signals. The data received will be decoded using MixW (open source software). A bridge will be established between the decoding software and the APRS software. The flight path will be predicted before the launch and the real time position co-ordinates will be used to obtain the real time flight path that will be uploaded online using the bridge connection. We also use open source APRS software to decode and Google Earth to display the real time flight path. Several ballooning campaigns do not employ payload data transmission in real time, which makes the flight tracking and package recovery vital for data collection and recovery of flight instruments. The flight tracking and recovery package implemented in our missions allow independent development of the payload package

  7. Numerical model for computation of effective and ambient dose equivalent at flight altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishev Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model for assessment of the effective dose and ambient dose equivalent produced by secondary cosmic ray particles of galactic and solar origin at commercial aircraft altitudes is presented. The model represents a full chain analysis based on ground-based measurements of cosmic rays, from particle spectral and angular characteristics to dose estimation. The model is based on newly numerically computed yield functions and realistic propagation of cosmic ray in the Earth magnetosphere. The yield functions are computed using a straightforward full Monte Carlo simulation of the atmospheric cascade induced by primary protons and α-particles and subsequent conversion of secondary particle fluence (neutrons, protons, gammas, electrons, positrons, muons and charged pions to effective dose or the ambient dose equivalent. The ambient dose equivalent is compared with reference data at various conditions such as rigidity cut-off and level of solar activity. The method is applied for computation of the effective dose rate at flight altitude during the ground level enhancement of 13 December 2006. The solar proton spectra are derived using neutron monitor data. The computation of the effective dose rate during the event explicitly considers the derived anisotropy i.e. the pitch angle distribution as well as the propagation of the solar protons in the magnetosphere of the Earth.

  8. Altitude Performance of Modified J71 Afterburner with Revised Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useller, James W.; Russey, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in an altitude test chamber at the NACA Lewis laboratory to determine the effect of a revision of the rated engine operating conditions and modifications to the afterburner fue1 system, flameholder, and shell cooling on the augmented performance of the J71-A-2 (x-29) turbo jet engine operating at altitude . The afterburner modifications were made by the manufacturer to improve the endurance at sea-level, high-pressure conditions and to reduce the afterburner shell temperatures. The engine operating conditions of rated rotational speed and turbine-outlet gas temperature were increased. Data were obtained at conditions simulating flight at a Mach number of 0.9 and at altitudes from 40,000 to 60,000 feet. The afterburner modifications caused a reduction in afterburner combustion efficiency. The increase in rated engine speed and turbine-outlet temperature coupled with the afterburner modifications resulted in the over-all thrust of the engine and afterburner being unchanged at a given afterburner equivalence ratio, while the specific fuel consumption was increased slightly. A moderate shift in the range of equivalence ratios over which the afterburner would operate was encountered, but the maximum operable altitude remained unaltered. The afterburner-shell temperatures were also slightly reduced because of the modifications to the afterburner.

  9. Integration of radar altimeter, precision navigation, and digital terrain data for low-altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Avionic systems that depend on digitized terrain elevation data for guidance generation or navigational reference require accurate absolute and relative distance measurements to the terrain, especially as they approach lower altitudes. This is particularly exacting in low-altitude helicopter missions, where aggressive terrain hugging maneuvers create minimal horizontal and vertical clearances and demand precise terrain positioning. Sole reliance on airborne precision navigation and stored terrain elevation data for above-ground-level (AGL) positioning severely limits the operational altitude of such systems. A Kalman filter is presented which blends radar altimeter returns, precision navigation, and stored terrain elevation data for AGL positioning. The filter is evaluated using low-altitude helicopter flight test data acquired over moderately rugged terrain. The proposed Kalman filter is found to remove large disparities in predicted AGL altitude (i.e., from airborne navigation and terrain elevation data) in the presence of measurement anomalies and dropouts. Previous work suggested a minimum clearance altitude of 220 ft AGL for a near-terrain guidance system; integration of a radar altimeter allows for operation of that system below 50 ft, subject to obstacle-avoidance limitations.

  10. Physical condition among middle altitude trekkers in an aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Tobe, Ken; Harada, Naomi; Aso, Chizu; Nishihara, Fumio; Shimada, Hitoshi

    2002-07-01

    The number of alpine accidents has markedly increased among elderly trekkers in an aging society, Japan. We evaluated the physical condition of 176 trekkers by interview and physical examination on a popular middle altitude mountain. Heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured using a portable life monitor. It was revealed that more than 70% of the trekkers were over 50. Seventy-five percent of trekkers over 70 had some pre-existing medical problems. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure before the start of trekking, increased with age. However, such age-dependent differences were not apparent at the summit hut. SpO2 values decreased slightly but significantly with age. In conclusion, many elderly people enjoy nonchallenging middle altitude trekking in an aging society. Alpine accidents caused by health problems tend to arise more frequently in this population. Alpine rescue teams should be well-prepared for the alpine accidents of elderly trekkers.

  11. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Naira N; Bradley, James E; Otter, Ken A

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  12. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N Johnston

    Full Text Available Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011, one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string. Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level. Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  13. The CERN-EU radiation facility for dosimetry at flight altitude and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    A reference facility for the inter-comparison of active and passive detectors in complex high-energy neutron fields is available at CERN since 1993. A positively charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cm in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction traverse a shield made of either 80 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shield, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the concrete shield, the neutron spectrum has a second pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high- energy component of the radiation field at commercial flight altitudes created by cosmic rays. Recent Monte Carlo calculations are presented, performed for different beam conditions and shielding configurations in view of a possible upgrade of the facility for measurements related to the space program. (20 refs).

  14. Flow separation in rocket nozzles under high altitude condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, R.; Génin, C.

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of flow separation in rocket nozzles is crucial for rocket engine design and optimum performance. Typically, flow separation is studied under sea-level conditions. However, this disregards the change of the ambient density during ascent of a launcher. The ambient flow properties are an important factor concerning the design of altitude-adaptive rocket nozzles like the dual bell nozzle. For this reason an experimental study was carried out to study the influence of the ambient density on flow separation within conventional nozzles.

  15. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Status of automatic guidance systems for rotorcraft in low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Cheng, Victor H. L.; Swenson, Harry N.

    1992-01-01

    Rotorcraft operating in high-threat environments fly close to the earth's surface to utilize surrounding terrain, vegetation, or man-made objects to minimize the risk of being detected by an enemy. The piloting of the rotorcraft is at best a very demanding task and the pilots need help from on-board automation tools in order to devote more time to mission-related activities. The Automated Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) Flight Program is a cooperative NASA/Army program aimed at the development of technologies for enhancing piloted low-altitude/NOE flight path management and control through computer and sensor aiding. The long-term objective is to work towards achieving automation for aiding the pilot in NOE flight with a flight demonstration of resulting computer/sensor aiding concepts at an established course. The technology for pilot-centered NOE automation is not currently available. Success in automating NOE functions will depend on major breakthroughs in real-time flight path planning algorithms, effective methods for the pilot to interface to the automatic modes, understanding of visual images, sensor data processing/fusion, and sensor development. Our approach to developing the technologies required to solve this problem consist of the following phases: (1) algorithm development, (2) laboratory evaluation, (3) piloted ground simulation, and (4) evaluation in flight. An overview of the research in this area at NASA Ames Research Center is given.

  17. Optimal flight altitude and flight routes with respect to environmental and economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodorp, D.; Sausen, R.; Land, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    A flight routing method is presented. In addition to conventional minimization of travel time and/or fuel consumption it also takes into account the environmental impact of the aircraft emissions on the climate system. In the process the ECHAM general circulation model is used to trace the pollutants after release, estimate their potential to cause damage and to weight this environmental relative to the economical aspect. Some case studies are presented for an Airbus A340 in the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 6 refs.

  18. Characterization of the Cosmic Radiation Field at Flight Altitudes and Estimation of Aircrew Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Ho

    2004-02-15

    Cosmic radiation field at flight altitudes was simulated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code and the spectra of secondary particles were obtained from the simulation. The obtained particle spectra were converted into effective dose rates by means of appropriate sets of conversion coefficients. The result shows that higher dose rates are observed at the higher altitude than the lower, at the higher latitude than the lower, and at the solar minimum than the maximum. Also it is confirmed that CARI-6 used in the estimation of aircrew exposure along specific flights provides approximately the same doses as the results of FLUKA calculations. Accordingly, the route doses to the personnels on board due to cosmic radiation were calculated for Korean-based commercial international airline routes using CARI-6. Annual individual doses to aircrew and the collective effective dose of passengers were estimated by applying the calculated route doses to the flight schedules of aircrew and the air travel statistics of Korea. The result shows that the annual doses to aircrew exceed the annual dose limit of public and are comparable to those of the group of workers occupationally exposed. Therefore it is necessary to consider the aircrew as the occupational exposure group. Also the annual collective dose to 11 million Korean passengers in 2001 appeared to be 136 man-Sv.

  19. Incidence and possible causes of dental pain during simulated high altitude flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, W

    1993-03-01

    Of 11,617 personnel participating in simulated high altitude flights up to 43,000 feet, only 30 (0.26%) complained of toothache (barodontalgia). The cause of the barodontalgia in 28 episodes of pain in 25 of these subjects was investigated. Chronic pulpitis was suspected as the cause in 22 cases and maxillary sinusitis in 2. No pathosis was detected in the other four. In 10 cases in which the pulpitis was treated by root filling or replacing a deep filling, subsequent exposure to low pressure caused no pain.

  20. Bird migration flight altitudes studied by a network of operational weather radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; Liechti, Felix; Stark, Herbert; Delobbe, Laurent; Tabary, Pierre; Holleman, Iwan

    2011-01-01

    A fully automated method for the detection and quantification of bird migration was developed for operational C-band weather radar, measuring bird density, speed and direction as a function of altitude. These weather radar bird observations have been validated with data from a high-accuracy dedicated bird radar, which was stationed in the measurement volume of weather radar sites in The Netherlands, Belgium and France for a full migration season during autumn 2007 and spring 2008. We show that weather radar can extract near real-time bird density altitude profiles that closely correspond to the density profiles measured by dedicated bird radar. Doppler weather radar can thus be used as a reliable sensor for quantifying bird densities aloft in an operational setting, which—when extended to multiple radars—enables the mapping and continuous monitoring of bird migration flyways. By applying the automated method to a network of weather radars, we observed how mesoscale variability in weather conditions structured the timing and altitude profile of bird migration within single nights. Bird density altitude profiles were observed that consisted of multiple layers, which could be explained from the distinct wind conditions at different take-off sites. Consistently lower bird densities are recorded in The Netherlands compared with sites in France and eastern Belgium, which reveals some of the spatial extent of the dominant Scandinavian flyway over continental Europe. PMID:20519212

  1. Poor weather conditions and flight operations: Implications for air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor weather conditions and flight operations: Implications for air transport hazard ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... fog, dust haze and line squall that affect flight operation such as flight delays, diversion and ...

  2. Navigation Doppler Lidar Sensor for Precision Altitude and Vector Velocity Measurements Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrottet, Diego F.; Lockhard, George; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce; Hines, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    An all fiber Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) system is under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for precision descent and landing applications on planetary bodies. The sensor produces high resolution line of sight range, altitude above ground, ground relative attitude, and high precision velocity vector measurements. Previous helicopter flight test results demonstrated the NDL measurement concepts, including measurement precision, accuracies, and operational range. This paper discusses the results obtained from a recent campaign to test the improved sensor hardware, and various signal processing algorithms applicable to real-time processing. The NDL was mounted in an instrumentation pod aboard an Erickson Air-Crane helicopter and flown over vegetation free terrain. The sensor was one of several sensors tested in this field test by NASA?s Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project.

  3. A strategy for reducing neonatal mortality at high altitude using oxygen conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J B

    2015-11-01

    Neonatal mortality increases with altitude. For example, in Peru the incidence of neonatal mortality in the highlands has been shown to be about double that at lower altitudes. An important factor is the low inspired PO2 of newborn babies. Typically, expectant mothers at high altitude will travel to low altitude to have their babies if possible, but often this is not feasible because of economic factors. The procedure described here raises the oxygen concentration in the air of rooms where neonates are being housed and, in effect, this means that both the mother and baby are at a much lower altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that the oxygen concentration of the air is increased rather than the temperature being reduced. The procedure is now used at high altitude in many hotels, dormitories and telescope facilities, and has been shown to be feasible and effective.

  4. Capillary flow in porous media under highly reduced gravity investigated through high altitude parabolic aircraft flights and NASA space shuttle flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wassmuth, F. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Stasiuk, E.N. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hart, D. [Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering, St. John' s, NF (Canada); Legros, J.C. [Brussels Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Smirnov, N.N. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed to economically recover waterflooded residual oil. The challenge is comparable to understanding the mechanisms involved when liquid contaminants in soil are filtered and mixed with groundwater and then transported by convective flows. Multiphase flow and trapping of fluids in porous media are greatly affected by wettability and capillary forces. However, fluid flow in porous media is also strongly governed by gravity effects. In this study, a series of high altitude aircraft parabolic flights were conducted in which capillary flow experiments were performed in porous media using different fluids. Three capillary flow experiments were conducted on a shuttle flight where gravity was not a factor. This paper presents a newly developed finite-difference numerical model for two-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow in a porous medium confined by a horizontal bottom, two vertical boundaries and a free surface. The model describes movement of fluid flow in response to applied pressure gradients. It also considers capillary flow caused by surface tension. The simulator can be used to predict the effect of changing properties such as gravitational acceleration, permeability, pore radii, surface tension, liquid viscosity and wettability. The study showed that interfacial phenomena in highly reduced gravity conditions can be applied to problems associated with fluid handling in various types of space vehicles. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  5. An Adaptive Dynamic Surface Controller for Ultralow Altitude Airdrop Flight Path Angle with Actuator Input Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-long Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of ultralow altitude airdrop, many factors such as actuator input dead-zone, backlash, uncertain external atmospheric disturbance, and model unknown nonlinearity affect the precision of trajectory tracking. In response, a robust adaptive neural network dynamic surface controller is developed. As a result, the aircraft longitudinal dynamics with actuator input nonlinearity is derived; the unknown nonlinear model functions are approximated by means of the RBF neural network. Also, an adaption strategy is used to achieve robustness against model uncertainties. Finally, it has been proved that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the tracking error converges to a small residual set asymptotically. Simulation results demonstrate the perfect tracking performance and strong robustness of the proposed method, which is not only applicable to the actuator with input dead-zone but also suitable for the backlash nonlinearity. At the same time, it can effectively overcome the effects of dead-zone and the atmospheric disturbance on the system and ensure the fast track of the desired flight path angle instruction, which overthrows the assumption that system functions must be known.

  6. A reference radiation facility for dosimetry at flight altitude and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    A reference facility for the intercomparison of active and passive detectors in high-energy neutron fields is available at CERN since 1993. A positive charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cm in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction are filtered by a shielding of either 80 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shielding, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the concrete shielding, the neutron spectrum has a pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. The facility is used for a variety of investigations with active and passive neutron dosimeters. Its use for measurements related to the space programme is discussed. (21 refs).

  7. Vitality assessment of exposed lichens along different altitudes. Influence of weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno J; Freitas, M C; Wolterbeek, H Th

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of the ambient climatic conditions in lichen vitality along some well oriented transect in different altitudes, lichen transplants of Parmotrema bangii were exposed approximately every 250 m starting from 50 to 1500 m during a 1-year period in 3 transects along Pico mountain at Azores; electric conductivity of leachates, elemental concentrations, and the ambient conditions such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and altitude were the compared parameters. According to the obtained values of electric conductivity, it is credible to consider that vitality was not seriously affected under different altitudes. In accordance with previous studies, electric conductivity values in this study show high negative correlation with precipitation and humidity. The significantly high differences between minimum and maximum electric conductivity values found along the altitude transect makes that, when comparing elemental concentrations in time or spatial series, it is required a comparison with lichen vitality, because the different vitality stages could induce variability in metal uptake.

  8. Noninvasive health condition monitoring device for workers at high altitudes conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Gutierrez, Cristopher; Saavedra, Francisco; Pino, Esteban J

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the design and implementation of a continuous monitoring device to control the health state of workers, for instance miners, at high altitudes. The extreme ambient conditions are harmful for peoples' health; therefore a continuous control of the workers' vital signs is necessary. The developed system includes physiological variables: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiratory activity and body temperature (BT), and ambient variables: ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The noninvasive sensors are incorporated in a t-shirt to deliver a functional device, and maximum comfort to the users. The device is able to continuously calculate heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR), and establish a wireless data transmission to a central monitoring station.

  9. Map images portraying flight paths of low-altitude transects over the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Maps portraying the flight paths for low altitude transects conducted from small aircraft over the National Park Service’s Arctic Network (Bering Land Bridge...

  10. Real-time flight altitude estimation using phase correlation with Gram polynomial decimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Aadil Jaleel; Badshah, Amir; Amin, Saadullah

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents a passive technique for real-time altitude above ground level estimation for aerial vehicles using a monocular camera, a GPS receiver and an inertial measurement unit. The paper discusses a robust method for featureless registration of successive images through phase correlation using Gram polynomial decimation. Altitude is estimated by formulating the shift in pixels between the images in terms of distance travelled, calculated using corresponding GPS latitudes and longitudes. Resultant value is compensated for changes in pitch before being passed through Savitzky-Golay filter. The system can generate results every 300ms on a lowcost commercial digital signal processor with mean error of 2m and standard deviation of 13m. The proposed system is suitable for speeds up to 300m/s and altitudes up to 3000m.

  11. An Alternative Flight Software Trigger Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions Using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Gay, Robert S.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles.

  12. An Alternative Flight Software Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly; Gay, Robert; Stachowiak, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles

  13. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  14. High-Altitude Flight Cooling Investigation of a Radial Air-Cooled Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-08-01

    The charge-air weight flow was measured during flight by venturi meters installed in the two parallel lines between tileintercooler and car?nmetor...pressure was measured by a shrouded total-head tubo installed on a streamline loom on the right wi~ tip. A swiveling static tube, which was calibrated in a

  15. Flight responses by a migratory soaring raptor to changing meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzone, Michael J; Miller, Tricia A; Turk, Philip; Brandes, David; Halverson, Casey; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brooks, Robert P; Katzner, Todd

    2012-10-23

    Soaring birds that undertake long-distance migration should develop strategies to minimize the energetic costs of endurance flight. This is relevant because condition upon completion of migration has direct consequences for fecundity, fitness and thus, demography. Therefore, strong evolutionary pressures are expected for energy minimization tactics linked to weather and topography. Importantly, the minute-by-minute mechanisms birds use to subsidize migration in variable weather are largely unknown, in large part because of the technological limitations in studying detailed long-distance bird flight. Here, we show golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migratory response to changing meteorological conditions as monitored by high-resolution telemetry. In contrast to expectations, responses to meteorological variability were stereotyped across the 10 individuals studied. Eagles reacted to increased wind speed by using more orographic lift and less thermal lift. Concomitantly, as use of thermals decreased, variation in flight speed and altitude also decreased. These results demonstrate how soaring migrant birds can minimize energetic expenditures, they show the context for avian decisions and choices of specific instantaneous flight mechanisms and they have important implications for design of bird-friendly wind energy.

  16. Python Engine Installed in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    An engine mechanic checks instrumentation prior to an investigation of engine operating characteristics and thrust control of a large turboprop engine with counter-rotating propellers under high-altitude flight conditions in the 20-foot-dianieter test section of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  17. Rangeland dynamics in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia: Assessment of rangeland condition in relation to altitude and Grazing types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and

  18. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Optimization technique of the stay of person in the middle-altitude conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisenko O.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective: In order to improve exercise capacity in the middle-altitude conditions a technique of urgent adaptation with use of the compact device has been developed. Material and Methods. The study included two groups of people involved in mountain tourism, on the move and stay in the midlands, which used (experimental group and didn't use (control group the developed technique. Considering the specificity of observations directly on the mountain route, the compact equipment and functional studies (pulse oximetry, spirometry, peak flow, the dynamic measurement of pulse and blood pressure with the calculation of double product index were used to monitor the experiment. Results. During the experiment changes of the data characterizing positive development of the functioning of human cardiore-spiratory system during the physical activities in the conditions of middle mountains were recorded (peak expiratory flow rate (from 512,86 to 592,86 I / min, t = 2,25, or by 115,6% in the experimental group and double product index (from 95,66 to 127,09 units., t = 2,41, or by 132,9% in the experimental group. Conclusion. Thus, the offered device and its technique compose an effective scheme of preliminary preparation of cardiorespiratory system to stay in the middle-altitude condition and can be recommended for use in need short-term adaptation.

  20. The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility for dosimetry at commercial flight altitudes and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Mitaroff, Angela

    2002-01-01

    A reference facility for the calibration and intercomparison of active and passive detectors in broad neutron fields has been available at CERN since 1992. A positively charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cut in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction traverse a shield, at 90 degrees with respect to the direction of the incoming beam, made of either 80 to 160 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shield, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the 80 cm concrete shield, the neutron spectrum has a second pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. This paper describes the facility, reports on the latest neutron spectral measurements, gives an overview of the most important experiments performed by the various collaborat...

  1. The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility for dosimetry at commercial flight altitudes and in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaroff, A; Cern, M Silari

    2002-01-01

    A reference facility for the calibration and intercomparison of active and passive detectors in broad neutron fields has been available at CERN since 1992. A positively charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cm in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction traverse a shield, at 90 degrees with respect to the direction of the incoming beam. made of either 80 to 160 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shield, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the 80 cm concrete shield, the neutron spectrum has a second pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. This paper describes the facility, reports on the latest neutron spectral measurements, gives an overview of the most important experiments performed by the various collaborating institutions over recent years and briefly addresses the possible application of the facility to measurements related to the space programme.

  2. STABILIZED CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR ATTITUDE AND ALTITUDE CONTROLLING OF QUAD-ROTOR UNDER DISTURBANCE AND NOISY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassan Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a control approach to obtain the better stabilization in attitude and altitude of quad-rotor under different disturbance conditions. In the standard Quad-rotor rotor type UAV, controlling of attitude and altitude is one of the most critical tasks and appropriate controller for stabilization of UAV is essential and necessary. These two controls under various conditions of disturbances was a field of research stimulating for the researchers. The controller proposed is contingent on the PID feedback structure with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. From Lyapunov Stability Theorem, it is proved that quad-rotor proposed altitude control system is asymptotic as well exponentially stability. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to filter out the sensors and system noises. Finally, the simulations carried out on MATLAB and the result proved the effectiveness of proposed recommended method for stabilization of attitude and altitude of quad-rotor.

  3. Poynting flux-conserving low-altitude boundary conditions for global magnetospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Brambles, O. J.; Lyon, J. G.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for specifying low-altitude or inner boundary conditions that conserve low-frequency, magnetic field-aligned, electromagnetic energy flux across the boundary in global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is presented. The single-fluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model is used to verify this method, with comparisons between simulations using LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions and the new flux-conserving boundary conditions. Identical idealized upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions and the same constant ionospheric conductance are used in both runs. The results show that, compared to LFM's standard hardwall boundary conditions, the flux-conserving method improves the transparency of the boundary for the flow of low-frequency (essentially DC) electromagnetic energy flux along field lines. As a consequence, the hemispheric integrated field-aligned DC Poynting flux just above the boundary is close to the hemispheric total Joule heating of the ionosphere, as it should be if electromagnetic energy is conserved. The MHD velocity and perpendicular currents are well-behaved near the inner boundary for the flux conserving boundary conditions.

  4. Genetic Differentiation of Pinus koraiensis under Different Altitude Conditions in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGFujuan

    2004-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in different altitudes in Changbai Mountain was analyzed by ISSR technique, and it was found that the level of genetic diversity of Korean pine reduces along with altitude increasing in Changbai Mountain. The variation of Korean pine is mainly from intra-population and there is a positive relativity between genetic distance and vertical geographic distance of Korean pine in different altitudes. The genetic coherence shows that altitude has less insulation to Korean pine. Therefore, it is deduced that the terrain formation of vertical distribution of Korean pine is a result of diffusion from lower altitude to higher altitude in the course of enlarging its adaptability.

  5. Pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance during flight simulation exposed to a 3810-m hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Corey A; Weber, Raymond; Sanders, Gabriel J; Seo, Yongsuk; Kean, David; Pollock, Brandon S; Burns, Keith J; Cain, Mark; LaScola, Phillip; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is a physiological state defined as a reduction in the distribution of oxygen to the tissues of the body. It has been considered a major factor in aviation safety worldwide because of its potential for pilot disorientation. Pilots are able to operate aircrafts up to 3810 m without the use of supplemental oxygen and may exhibit symptoms associated with hypoxia. To determine the effects of 3810 m on physiology, cognition and performance in pilots during a flight simulation. Ten healthy male pilots engaged in a counterbalanced experimental protocol comparing a 0-m normoxic condition (NORM) with a 3810-m hypoxic condition (HYP) on pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) time by condition interaction for physiological and cognitive alterations during HYP. A paired-samples t test demonstrated no differences in pilot performance (p ≥ 0.05) between conditions. Pilots exhibited physiological and cognitive impairments; however, pilot performance was not affected by HYP.

  6. European shags optimize their flight behavior according to wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Yukihisa; Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Aerodynamics results in two characteristic speeds of flying birds: the minimum power speed and the maximum range speed. The minimum power speed requires the lowest rate of energy expenditure per unit time to stay airborne and the maximum range speed maximizes air distance traveled per unit of energy consumed. Therefore, if birds aim to minimize the cost of transport under a range of wind conditions, they are predicted to fly at the maximum range speed. Furthermore, take-off is predicted to be strongly affected by wind speed and direction. To investigate the effect of wind conditions on take-off and cruising flight behavior, we equipped 14 European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis with a back-mounted GPS logger to measure position and hence ground speed, and a neck-mounted accelerometer to record wing beat frequency and strength. Local wind conditions were recorded during the deployment period. Shags always took off into the wind regardless of their intended destination and take-off duration was correlated negatively with wind speed. We combined ground speed and direction during the cruising phase with wind speed and direction to estimate air speed and direction. Whilst ground speed was highly variable, air speed was comparatively stable, although it increased significantly during strong head winds, because of stronger wing beats. The increased air speeds in head winds suggest that birds fly at the maximum range speed, not at the minimum power speed. Our study demonstrates that European shags actively adjust their flight behavior to utilize wind power to minimize the costs of take-off and cruising flight.

  7. Pressure effects on the nose by an in-flight oxygen mask during simulated flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreinemakers, J Rieneke C; Boer, C; van Amerongen, P C G M; Kon, M

    2016-12-01

    Dutch F-16 fighter pilots experience oxygen mask inflicted nasal trauma, including discomfort, pain, skin abrasions, bruises and bone remodelling. Pressure and shear forces on the nose might contribute to causing these adverse effects. In this study, it was evaluated how flight conditions affected the exerted pressure, and whether shear forces were present. The pressure exerted by the oxygen mask was measured in 20 volunteers by placing pressure sensors on the nose and chin underneath the mask. In the human centrifuge, the effects on the exerted pressure during different flight conditions were evaluated (+3Gz, +6Gz, +9Gz, protocolised head movements, mounted visor or night vision goggles, NVG). The runs were recorded to evaluate if the mask's position changed during the run, which would confirm the presence of shear forces. Head movements increased the median pressure on the nose by 50 mm Hg and on the chin by 37 mm Hg. NVG, a visor and accelerative forces also increased the median pressure on the nose. Pressure drops on the nose were also observed, during mounted NVG (-63 mm Hg). The recordings showed the mask slid downwards, especially during the acceleration phase of the centrifuge run, signifying the presence of shear forces. The exerted pressure by the oxygen mask changes during different flight conditions. Exposure to changing pressures and to shear forces probably contributes to mask-inflicted nasal trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Comparison of model predictions for coherence length to in-flight measurements at cruise conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxter, Stefan; Spehr, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we will focus on coherence lengths of pressure fluctuations underneath a turbulent boundary layer on an actual aircraft measured during a flight test. Coherence lengths of pressure fluctuations have already been measured in the past and various models have been set up in order to predict the values. However, most of the underlying data were measured at Mach numbers and pressures different from our region of interest and it is not known if the models are applicable. In some of the investigations also unknown alignment procedures between array and flow were used and it will be shown that this can have a considerable influence on the result. We have performed flight tests at cruising speed and altitude in which we took due account of this alignment by means of an array processing technique which is capable of determining the flow direction for each frequency bin under consideration. In this paper one of the data points will be evaluated and compared to the prediction models. From the differences and subsequently from the adopted run conditions for the measurement of the data of the models, several conclusions are drawn concerning scaling effects and importance of alignment. Also, two of the prediction models are adjusted to our measurements.

  9. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  10. Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from Geostationary and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from geostationary and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  11. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 3B: Descriptions of data sets from low- and medium-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John E. (Editor); Horowitz, Richard (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from low and medium altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  12. Spacecraft “Foton-M” in-flight thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Ivashnyov, O. E.; Nerchenko, V. A.; Kazakova, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of thermal conditions aboard the "Foton-M" spacecraft during its orbital flight is under consideration in this paper. The problem is very acute for performing microgravity experiments onboard of the orbital platform, because on one hand, many experiments need a definite temperature range to be performed, and on the other hand all electrical devices aboard radiate heat. To avoid uncontrolled heating of the environment special heat exchangers are used. To transport heat from different places of the capsule to heat exchanger special fans are installed given definite orientation. All the heat exchange facilities should be designed in advance being adjusted to current capsule loading and heat radiation by equipment. Thus special tools are needed predicting the capsule thermal conditions being function of equipment placement. The present paper introduces a new developed prognostic mathematical model able to forecast temperature distribution inside the capsule with account of fan induced air flows, thermal irradiation by scientific equipment and heat losses due to cooling system.

  13. Altitude headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J Ivan; Holdridge, Ashley; Mendizabal, Jorge E

    2013-12-01

    High altitude headache (HAH) has been defined by the International Headache Society as a headache that appears within 24 hours after ascent to 2,500 m or higher [1••]. The headache can appear in isolation or as part of acute mountain sickness (AMS), which has more dramatic symptoms than the headache alone. If symptoms are ignored, more serious conditions such as high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or even death may ensue. While there is no definitive understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism, it is speculated that HAH occurs from the combination of hypoxemia-induced intracranial vasodilation and subsequent cerebral edema. There are a number of preventive measures that can be adopted prior to ascending, including acclimatization and various medications. A variety of pharmacological interventions are also available to clinicians to treat this extremely widespread condition.

  14. Extensive air shower Monte Carlo modeling at the ground and aircraft flight altitude in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly and comparison with neutron measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazianotto, M. T.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Federico, C. A.; Hubert, G.; Gonçalez, O. L.; Quesada, J. M.; Carlson, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    Modeling cosmic-ray-induced particle fluxes in the atmosphere is very important for developing many applications in aeronautics, space weather and on ground experimental arrangements. There is a lack of measurements and modeling at flight altitude and on ground in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. In this work we have developed an application based on the Geant4 toolkit called gPartAt that is aimed at the analysis of extensive air shower particle spectra. Another application has been developed using the MCNPX code with the same approach in order to evaluate the models and nuclear data libraries used in each application. Moreover, measurements were performed to determine the ambient dose equivalent rate of neutrons at flight altitude in different regions and dates in the Brazilian airspace; these results were also compared with the simulations. The results from simulations of the neutron spectra at ground level were also compared to data from a neutron spectrometer in operation since February 2015 at the Pico dos Dias Observatory in Brazil, at 1864 m above sea level, as part of a collaboration between the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) and the French Aerospace Lab (ONERA). This measuring station is being operated with support from the National Astrophysics Laboratory (LNA). The modeling approaches were also compared to the AtmoRad computational platform, QARM, EXPACS codes and with measurements of the neutron spectrum taken in 2009 at the Pico dos Dias Observatory.

  15. 76 FR 8278 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Flight Vision System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions..., Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Standards Staff, Transport Airplane... Design Features The enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) is a novel or unusual design feature because...

  16. 有限干预下的 UAV 低空突防航迹规划%Human intervention flight path planning for UAV low-altitude penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任鹏; 高晓光

    2014-01-01

    低空突防航迹规划是实现有人机和无人机(unmanned aerial vehicle,UAV)编队协同作战的关键技术,针对目前智能算法在求解低空突防航迹规划问题中存在的不足,充分发挥人脑这个超级智能系统来引导飞行航迹求解过程,将基于角度量编码的小生境伪并行自适应遗传算法(niche adaptive pseudo parallel genetic algo-rithm,NAPPGA)和人有限干预情况下的智能决策结合起来,提出 UAV 低空突防航迹规划技术。通过大量仿真计算,结果表明,应用该技术预规划和重规划的三维航迹能够有效实现威胁回避、地形回避和地形跟随,满足UAV 低空突防要求,具有一定的实用性。%The flight path planning for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)low-altitude penetration is a key technology for achieving manned and unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative combat.The technique of human in-tervention flight path planning for UAV low-altitude penetration against several limitations of the existing intel-ligent algorithms is proposed.It makes full use of the human brain to guide the solution procedures of the flight path planning,combining the niche adaptive pseudo parallel genetic algorithm (NAPPGA)based on angle codes and the intelligent decision with human intervention.A lot of simulation studies show that the solving off-line and on-line three-dimensional flight paths by this technique can meet the requirements for UAV low-altitude penetration to realize efficient implementation of threat avoidance,terrain avoidance and terrain following.This method has a certain practicality.

  17. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.

    2015-09-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  18. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

  19. Performance and Operational Characteristics of a Python Turbine-propeller Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions / Carl L. Meyer and Lavern A. Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carl L; Johnson, Lavern A

    1952-01-01

    The performance and operational characteristics of a Python turbine-propeller engine were investigated at simulated altitude conditions in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. In the performance phase, data were obtained over a range of engine speeds and exhaust nozzle areas at altitudes from 10,000 to 40,000 feet at a single cowl-inlet ram pressure ratio; independent control of engine speed and fuel flow was used to obtain a range of powers at each engine speed. Engine performance data obtained at a given altitude could not be used to predict performance accurately at other altitudes by use of the standard air pressure and temperature generalizing factors. At a given engine speed and turbine-inlet total temperature, a greater portion of the total available energy was converted to propulsive power as the altitude increased.

  20. Flight Characteristics Analysis Based on QAR Data of a Jet Transport During Landing at a High-altitude Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Edward Lan; WU Kaiyuan; YU Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Flight data of a twin-jet transport aircraft in revenue flight are analyzed for potential safety problems.Data from the quick access recorder (QAR) are first filtered through the kinematic compatibility analysis.The filtered data are then organized into longitudinal- and lateral-directional aerodynamic model data with dynamic ground effect.The dynamic ground effect requires the radio height and sink rate in the models.The model data ere then refined into numerical models through a funzzy logic algorithm without data smoothing in advance.These numerical models describe nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamics and are used in nonlinear flight dynamics simulation.For the jet transport under study,it is found that the effect of crosswind is significant enough to excite the Dutch roll motion.Through a linearized analysis in flight dynamics at every instant of time,the Dutch roll motion is found to be in nonlinear oscillation without clear damping of the amplitude.In the analysis,all stability derivatives vary with time and hence are nonlinear functions of state variables.Since the Dutch roll motion is not damped despite the fact that a full-time yaw damper is engaged,it is concluded that the design data for the yaw damper is not sufficiendy realistic and the contribution of time derivative of sideslip angle to damping should be considered.As a result of nonlinear flight simulation,the vertical wind acting on the aircrafl is estimated to be mostly updraft which varies along the flight path before touchdown.Varying updraft appears to make the descent rate more difficult to control to result in a higher g-load at touchdown.

  1. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  2. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Beekman, J.H.; Kontiokorpi, J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Nolet, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewicks swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  3. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M; Beekman, JH; Kontiokorpi, J; Mulder, RJW; Nolet, BA

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  4. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Beekman, J.H.; Kontiokorpi, J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Nolet, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewicks swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern Rus

  5. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M; Beekman, JH; Kontiokorpi, J; Mulder, RJW; Nolet, BA

    2004-01-01

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern Ru

  6. Effects of altitude and beehive bottom board type on wintering losses of honeybee colonies under subtropical climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucak-Koc, A.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of altitude and beehive bottom board types (BBBT) on the wintering performance of honeybee colonies were investigated in the South Aegean Region of Turkey: Experiment I (E-I), with 32 colonies, in 2010-2011, and Experiment II (E-II), with 20 colonies, in 2011-2012. Each lowland (25 m) and highland (797 m) colony was divided randomly into two BBBT subgroups, open screen floor (OSF) and normal bottom floor (NBF), and wintered for about three months. In E-I, the local genotype Aegean ecotype of Anatolian bee (AE) and Italian race (ItR) were used, while in E-II, only the AE genotype was present. In E-I, the effect of wintering altitudes on the number of combs covered with bees (NCCB), and the effects of BBBT on brood area (BA) and the NCCB were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), but the effects of genotype on BA and NCCB were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). In the E-II, the effect of wintering altitude on beehive weight was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), while its effect on the NCCB was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The wintering losses in the highland and lowland groups in E-I were determined to be 25% and 62.5% respectively. In contrast to this result, no loss was observed in E-II for both altitudes. In E-I, the wintering losses for both OSF and NBF groups were the same (43.75%). In conclusion, under subtropical climatic conditions, due to variations from year to year, honeybee colonies can be wintered more successfully in highland areas with OSF bottom board type. (Author)

  7. Base pressure and heat transfer tests of the 0.0225-scale space shuttle plume simulation model (19-OTS) in yawed flight conditions in the NASA-Lewis 10x10-foot supersonic wind tunnel (test IH83)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressures, heat transfer rates, and gas recovery temperatures in the base region of a rocket firing model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle during simulated yawed flight conditions. First and second stage flight of the space shuttle were simulated by firing the main engines in conjunction with the SRB rocket motors or only the SSME's into the continuous tunnel airstream. For the correct rocket plume environment, the simulated altitude pressures were halved to maintain the rocket chamber/altitude pressure ratio. Tunnel freestream Mach numbers from 2.2 to 3.5 were simulated over an altitude range of 60 to 130 thousand feet with varying angle of attack, yaw angle, nozzle gimbal angle and SRB chamber pressure. Gas recovery temperature data derived from nine gas temperature probe runs are presented. The model configuration, instrumentation, test procedures, and data reduction are described.

  8. Normalization of informatisation parameter on airfield light-signal bar at flights in complex meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П.В. Попов

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The technique of maintenance of the set level of flights safetivness is developed by normalization of informatisation parameters functional groups of light-signal lightings at technological stages of interaction of crew of the airplane with the airfield light-signals bar at flights in a complex weathercast conditions.

  9. Markers of physiological stress during exercise under conditions of normoxia, normobaric hypoxia, hypobaric hypoxia, and genuine high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David Richard; O'Hara, John Paul; Boos, Christopher John; Hodkinson, Peter David; Tsakirides, Costas; Hill, Neil Edward; Jose, Darren; Hawkins, Amanda; Phillipson, Kelly; Hazlerigg, Antonia; Arjomandkhah, Nicola; Gallagher, Liam; Holdsworth, David; Cooke, Mark; Green, Nicholas Donald Charles; Mellor, Adrian

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether there is a differential response at rest and following exercise to conditions of genuine high altitude (GHA), normobaric hypoxia (NH), hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and normobaric normoxia (NN). Markers of sympathoadrenal and adrenocortical function [plasma normetanephrine (PNORMET), metanephrine (PMET), cortisol], myocardial injury [highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hscTnT)], and function [N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)] were evaluated at rest and with exercise under NN, at 3375 m in the Alps (GHA) and at equivalent simulated altitude under NH and HH. Participants cycled for 2 h [15-min warm-up, 105 min at 55% Wmax (maximal workload)] with venous blood samples taken prior (T0), immediately following (T120) and 2-h post-exercise (T240). Exercise in the three hypoxic environments produced a similar pattern of response with the only difference between environments being in relation to PNORMET. Exercise in NN only induced a rise in PNORMET and PMET. Biochemical markers that reflect sympathoadrenal, adrenocortical, and myocardial responses to physiological stress demonstrate significant differences in the response to exercise under conditions of normoxia versus hypoxia, while NH and HH appear to induce broadly similar responses to GHA and may, therefore, be reasonable surrogates.

  10. Effect of microbiological fertilizer and soil additive on yield of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moenchunder high altitude conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol and soil additives (zeolite and hydrogel on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench yield was investigated in this paper. Trial was set up in the village of Radijevići, Serbia in agroecological conditions of mountain Zlatar (altitude 1,065 m during a two-year period 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with four replications was set up. In organic cropping system three combinations of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol with zeolite and hydrogel were used prior to sowing. Different combinations of the microbiological fertilizer and the soil additives gave positive results especially in the second year of the trial. The best combination in organic cropping system was Slavol+hydrogel with foliar application of the microbiological fertilizer, which resulted in the greatest yield of buckwheat and this treatment can be recommended to producers. Buckwheat performed very well under limited conditions of acidic soil on high altitude in organic cropping system and it can be recommended as a very suitable crop for organic producers.

  11. Aerodynamic map for soft and hard hypersonic level flight in near space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruifeng Hu; Ziniu Wu; Zhe Wu; Xiaoxin Wang; Zhongwei Tian

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we design a velocity-altitude map for hypersonic level flight in near space of altitude 20-100 km. This map displays aerodynamic-related parameters associated with near space level flight, schematically or quantitatively. Various physical conditions for the near-space level flight are then characterized, including laminar or turbulent flow, rarefaction or continuous flow, aerodynamic heating, as well as conditions for sustaining level flight with and without orbital effect. This map allows one to identify conditions to have soft flight or hard flight, and this identification would be helpful for making correct planning on detailed studies of aerodynamics or making initial design of near space vehicles.

  12. Low-altitude aerial imagery and related field observations associated with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) flights over Coast Guard Beach, Nauset Spit, Nauset Inlet, and Nauset Marsh, Cape Cod National Seashore, Eastham, Massachusetts on 1 March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Low-altitude (approximately 120 meters above ground level) digital images were obtained from cameras mounted in a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flown from the lawn adjacent to the Coast Guard Beach parking lot on 1 March, 2016. The UAV was a Skywalker X8 operated by Raptor Maps, Inc., contractors to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Two consecutive unmanned aerial systems (UAS) missions were flown, each with two cameras, autopilot computer, radios, and a global satellite navigation system as payload. The first flight (f1) was launched at approximately 1112 Eastern Standard Time (EST), and followed north-south flight lines, landing at about 1226 EST. Two Canon Powershot SX280 12-mexapixel digital cameras, designated rgb1 and rgb2, recorded images during this flight. The second flight (f2) was launched at 1320 EST and followed east-west flight lines, landing at 1450 EST. Prior to f2, rgb2 was replaced with a Canon SX280 modified with a Schott BG 3 filter to emphasize light at near-infrared wavelengths, designated nir1. Rgb1 and nir1 made images during this second flight. Thus four series of images were collected, designated f1_rgb1, f1_rgb2, f2_rgb1, and f2_nir1.Low tide on the ocean beaches was forecast for approximately 1130 EST, and estimated low tide on the marsh was at least an hour later. Weather conditions were clear and sunny during the first flight. During the second flight, there were periods with high clouds. Winds (estimated by experienced observers) during the first flight were from the north-northeast at ~15 mph, with gusts to ~20 mph. Winds decreased beginning in early afternoon, and at the end of the second flight, estimated winds were 5 – 10 mph with gusts to 15 mph.USGS field technicians mapped the location of 32 ground control points and 144 independent points along cross-shore transects. These points were measured with a global positioning system (GPS) using real-time differential corrections from a base station set up near the

  13. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vargas-Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200 µg kg−1 was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n=15 or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n=14. 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C. Suckling lambs (n=58 remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1 and 96.9% (T2. Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8% and T2 (96.7% ewes (p<0.05. All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p<0.05. Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea showed time- and treatment-related differences (p<0.05. Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER.

  14. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Duarte, J. J.; Lozano-Márquez, H.; Grajales-Lombana, H. A.; Manrique-Perdomo, C.; Martínez-Bello, D. A.; Saegerman, C.; Raes, M.; Kirschvink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC) and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200 µg kg−1) was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n = 15) or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n = 14). 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C). Suckling lambs (n = 58) remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1) and 96.9% (T2). Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER) was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8%) and T2 (96.7%) ewes (p < 0.05). All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p < 0.05). Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea) showed time- and treatment-related differences (p < 0.05). Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER. PMID:26078913

  15. New method of calculating the power at altitude of aircraft engines equipped with superchargers on the basis of tests made under sea-level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarracino, Marcello

    1941-01-01

    The present article deals with what is considered to be a simpler and more accurate method of determining, from the results of bench tests under approved rating conditions, the power at altitude of a supercharged aircraft engine, without application of correction formulas. The method of calculating the characteristics at altitude, of supercharged engines, based on the consumption of air, is a more satisfactory and accurate procedure, especially at low boost pressures.

  16. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 2A: Descriptions of geostationary and high-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, H. K. (Editor); Littlefield, R. G. (Editor); Schofield, N. J. (Editor); Vetts, J. I. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Data from Earth-orbiting spacecraft at geostationary and higher altitudes was cataloged. Three lunar-orbiting spacecraft and some others whose apogees did not attain the geostationary altitude are included.

  17. A new parameterization of the UV irradiance altitude dependence for clear-sky conditions and its application in the on-line UV tool over Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Zhdanova, Yekaterina; Nezval, Yelena

    2016-09-01

    A new method for calculating the altitude UV dependence is proposed for different types of biologically active UV radiation (erythemally weighted, vitamin-D-weighted and cataract-weighted types). We show that for the specified groups of parameters the altitude UV amplification (AUV) can be presented as a composite of independent contributions of UV amplification from different factors within a wide range of their changes with mean uncertainty of 1 % and standard deviation of 3 % compared with the exact model simulations with the same input parameters. The parameterization takes into account for the altitude dependence of molecular number density, ozone content, aerosol and spatial surface albedo. We also provide generalized altitude dependencies of the parameters for evaluating the AUV. The resulting comparison of the altitude UV effects using the proposed method shows a good agreement with the accurate 8-stream DISORT model simulations with correlation coefficient r > 0.996. A satisfactory agreement was also obtained with the experimental UV data in mountain regions. Using this parameterization we analyzed the role of different geophysical parameters in UV variations with altitude. The decrease in molecular number density, especially at high altitudes, and the increase in surface albedo play the most significant role in the UV growth. Typical aerosol and ozone altitude UV effects do not exceed 10-20 %. Using the proposed parameterization implemented in the on-line UV tool (http://momsu.ru/uv/) for Northern Eurasia over the PEEX domain we analyzed the altitude UV increase and its possible effects on human health considering different skin types and various open body fraction for January and April conditions in the Alpine region.

  18. Imaging Tasks Scheduling for High-Altitude Airship in Emergency Condition Based on Energy-Aware Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhimeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship’s cruising speed based on the distribution of task’s deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible.

  19. Imaging tasks scheduling for high-altitude airship in emergency condition based on energy-aware strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimeng, Li; Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship's cruising speed based on the distribution of task's deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible.

  20. High altitude C4 grasslands in the northern Andes: relicts from glacial conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, A.; Mora, G.; Cleef, A.M.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2001-01-01

    The altitudinal vegetation distribution in the northern Andes during glacial time differed from the present-day conditions as a result of temperature and precipitation change. New evidence indicate that as a response to a reduced atmospheric partial CO2 pressure (pCO2), the competitive balance betwe

  1. Influence of Meteorological Parameters on Electromagnetic Environment of UHVDC Transmission Line Under High Altitude Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; LI Min; LI Ruihai; YU Zhanqing; LIUZhihong; LIU Xiangshi

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the electromagnetic (EM) environment parameters of a transmission line in bad weather conditions (such as rain, wind, etc. ) is difficult for technical staff. In the National Engineering Laboratory for UHV Technology (Kunming), a test line was completed for EM environment tests. An automated EM environment testing system was installed under the line, the rad{o interference (RI), audible noise (AN), resultant electric field strength (E0), and ion current density (Js) at ground level were measured under all weather conditions within a voltage range from ±800 kV to ± 1 000 kV over two years. Based on the measurement results, the influence of meteorological parameters on the EM environment of the transmission line was studied. When the HR increases from 40 % to 80%, the RI, AN, E0, Js would have different degrees of attenuation. The RI on a rainy day is 3 dB lower than that of a sunny day, while the Js gets a sharp increase with the same weather condition change. In addition, AN and E0 are greatly influenced by wind speed: with increasing wind speed, E0 decreases and AN becomes unstable.

  2. Characterization of a Pressure-Fed LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control System Under Simulated Altitude and Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Matthew J.; Melcher, John C.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    A liquid oxygen, liquid methane (LOX/LCH4) reaction control system (RCS) was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under simulated altitude and thermal vacuum conditions. The RCS is a subsystem of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) and was initially developed under Project Morpheus. Composed of two 28 lbf-thrust and two 7 lbf-thrust engines, the RCS is fed in parallel with the ICPTA main engine from four propellant tanks. 40 tests consisting of 1,010 individual thruster pulses were performed across 6 different test days. Major test objectives were focused on system dynamics, and included characterization of fluid transients, manifold priming, manifold thermal conditioning, thermodynamic vent system (TVS) performance, and main engine/RCS interaction. Peak surge pressures from valve opening and closing events were examined. It was determined that these events were impacted significantly by vapor cavity formation and collapse. In most cases the valve opening transient was more severe than the valve closing. Under thermal vacuum conditions it was shown that TVS operation is unnecessary to maintain liquid conditions at the thruster inlets. However, under higher heat leak environments the RCS can still be operated in a self-conditioning mode without overboard TVS venting, contingent upon the engines managing a range of potentially severe thermal transients. Lastly, during testing under cold thermal conditions the engines experienced significant ignition problems. Only after warming the thruster bodies with a gaseous nitrogen purge to an intermediate temperature was successful ignition demonstrated.

  3. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a L02/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  4. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a LO2/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine's augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter.s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  5. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  6. [A portable impedance meter for monitoring liquid compartments of human body under space flight conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nikolaev, D V; Tuĭkin, S A; Kozharinov, V I; Grachev, V A

    2007-01-01

    A portable two-frequency tetrapolar impedance meter was developed to study the state of liquid compartments of human body under zero-gravity conditions. The portable impedance meter makes it possible to monitor the hydration state of human body under conditions of long-term space flight on board international space station.

  7. High altitude C(4) grasslands in the northern Andes: relicts from glacial conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, A; Mora, G; Cleef, A M.; Hooghiemstra, H

    2001-06-01

    The altitudinal vegetation distribution in the northern Andes during glacial time differed from the present-day conditions as a result of temperature and precipitation change. New evidence indicate that as a response to a reduced atmospheric partial CO(2) pressure (pCO(2)), the competitive balance between C(3) and C(4) plants have changed. Effects may have remained virtually undetected in pollen records, but can be observed using a stable carbon isotope analysis. Vegetation dominated by C(4) taxa, belonging to the families Cyperaceae (e.g. Bulbostylis and Cyperus) and Poaceae (e.g. Muhlenbergia, Paspalum and Sporobolus), may have been able to replace for a significant part the modern type C(3) taxa (e.g. species belonging to Carex, Rhynchospora, Aciachne, Agrostis, Calamagrostis, and Chusquea). Impact of reduced glacial atmospheric pCO(2) levels and lower glacial temperatures on the composition and the elevational distribution of the vegetation types is discussed. The present high Andean vegetation communities may differ from the glacial equivalents (non-modern analogue situation). We identified dry Sporobolus lasiophyllus tussock grassland and Arcytophyllum nitidum dwarfshrub paramo as the possible relict communities from glacial time. The effect on previous estimates of paleo-temperatures is estimated to be small.

  8. Dynamic Flight Simulation of aircraft and its comparison to Flight tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays obtaining data for air vehicles researches and analyses is very expensive and risky through the flight tests. Therefore using flight simulation is usually used for the mentioned researches by aerospace science researchers. In this paper, dynamic flight simulation has been performed by airplane nonlinear equations modelling. In these equations, aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives have an important role. Therefore, the stability derivatives for typical aircraft are calculated on various flight conditions by analytical and numerical methods. Flight conditions include of Mach number, altitude, angle of attack, control surfaces and CG position variations. The obtained derivatives are used in the form of look up table for dynamic flight simulation and virtual flight. In order to validate the simulation results, the under investigation maneuvres parameters are recorded during many real flights. The obtained data from flight tests are compared with the outputs of flight simulations. The results indicate that less than 13% differences are found in different parts of the maneuvres.

  9. [EEG-correlates of pilots' functional condition in simulated flight dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiroy, V N; Aslanyan, E V; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M

    2015-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the EEG recorded on two professional pilots in the simulator TU-154 aircraft in flight dynamics, including takeoff, landing and horizontal flight (in particular during difficult conditions) were analyzed. EEG recording was made with frequency band 0.1-70 Hz continuously from 15 electrodes. The EEG recordings were evaluated using analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Statistical significant of the identified differences and the influence of the main factors and their interactions were evaluated using Greenhouse - Gaiser corrections. It was shown that the spectral characteristics of the EEG are highly informative features of the state of the pilots, reflecting the different flight phases. High validity ofthe differences including individual characteristic, indicates their non-random nature and the possibility of constructing a system of pilots' state control during all phases of flight, based on EEG features.

  10. An Effective Theoretical Analysis of Persistent Flight Altitudes of Solar-Powered Airplanes%基于能量平衡的太阳能飞机可持续高度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昌敏; 周洲; 李盈盈

    2012-01-01

    Based on the coupling effects among persistent flight altitudes and conceptual parameters of solar powered airplanes under the constraint of energy balance, we investigated the ways how " efficiency parameters" and "weight parameters" of every component and the flight seasons of design parameters constrain and influence persistent flight altitudes. Sections 1 through 3 explain the theoretical analysis mentioned in the title, which we believe is effective. Sections 1,2 and 3 are entitled respectively: (1) "Persistent Altitudes under constraint of Energy Balance" , (2) "Characteristics of Wing Loading and Various Parameters of Every Component" , (3) "Effect of Each Parameter on Persistent Altitude". For convenience, section 2 is divided into four subsections (2. 1, 2. 2, 2. 3, and2. 4 ) ; Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram showing the relationship between wing loading on the one hand and various parameters of every component on the other. The calculated results, presented in Figs. 2 through 8 , show preliminarily that: (1) it is mainly absorption efficiency and area density of photovoltaic panels, area density of structure and energy density of battery that constrain the upper limits of persistent flight altitudes; (2 ) if a solar powered airplane i6 required to maintain flight for several seasons or several years, different seasons correspond to different upper limits of persistent flight altitudes; ( 3 ) only from the point of view of remaining energy,, which is equal to absorption energy minus consumed energy, the persistent flight altitudes around 10 km enjoy higher advantages. All the research results we believe can guide the effective selection of conceptual parameters to meet design requirements at the phase of conceptual design of solar powered airplanes.%相对于常规动力型式的长航时飞机,尽量提高太阳能飞机的最大持续任务高度,更能体现其在工程应用中的显著优势.基于能量平衡,采用敏度分析的方法,着重分

  11. Experimental Investigation of Pressure-volume-Temperature Mass Gauging Method Under Microgravity Condition by Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mansu; Park, Hana; Yoo, DonGyu; Jung, Youngsuk; Jeong, Sangkwon

    Gauging the volume or mass of liquid propellant of a rocket vehicle in space is an important issue for its economic feasibility and optimized design of loading mass. Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging method is one of the most suitable measuring techniques in space due to its simplicity and reliability. This paper presents unique experimental results and analyses of PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition by parabolic flight. A vacuum-insulated and cylindrical-shaped liquid nitrogen storage tank with 9.2 L volume is manufactured by observing regulation of parabolic flight. PVT gauging experiments are conducted under low liquid fraction condition from 26% to 32%. Pressure, temperature, and the injected helium mass into the storage tank are measured to obtain the ullage volume by gas state equation. Liquid volume is finally derived by the measured ullage volume and the known total tank volume. Two sets of parabolic flights are conducted and each set is composed of approximately 10 parabolic flights. In the first set of flights, the short initial waiting time (3 ∼ 5 seconds) cannot achieve sufficient thermal equilibrium condition at the beginning. It causes inaccurate gauging results due to insufficient information of the initial helium partial pressure in the tank. The helium injection after 12 second waiting time at microgravity condition with high mass flow rate in the second set of flights achieves successful initial thermal equilibrium states and accurate measurement results of initial helium partial pressure. Liquid volume measurement errors in the second set are within 11%.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Augmented Spark Ignition of a LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of nontoxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost-effective mission scenarios. One promising green alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane (LCH4) with liquid oxygen (LO2). A 100 lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development project and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Altitude Combustion Stand in a low pressure environment. High ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination; so this ignition margin test program examined ignition performance versus delivered spark energy. Sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also explored. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks. This suggests that rising pressure and flow rate increase spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to complete each spark. The reduced spark energies of such quenched deliveries resulted in more erratic ignitions, decreasing ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1 to 6 mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55 to 75 mJ were required for reliable ignition. Delayed spark application and reduced spark repetition rate both correlated with late and occasional failed ignitions. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition therefore coincides with propellant introduction to the igniter.

  13. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  14. 航空高度 FPGA 单粒子翻转飞行实验及失效分析%Flight experiments and failure analysis of FPGA for anti-SEU at aviation altitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛茜男; 张道阳; 李颖; 芦浩; 王鹏

    2016-01-01

    随着微电子工艺的发展,小尺寸、高密度及低电压的器件越来越多地应用于航空电子设备。许多科研人员发现高层大气及外太空的带电粒子带来的粒子辐射会对航空电子器件产生严重的影响。基于民用航空局方的要求,鉴于机载设备对单粒子翻转效应的隐患以及航空机载设备国产化的迫切需求,开展 FPGA器件用于机载电子设备可能遭遇的单粒子翻转效应的风险问题研究。分析了主流 FPGA 在航空飞行高度的飞行实验数据,进一步论证其是否满足民用航空的需求。大量数据的分析结果证明,以当下主流 FPGA 芯片的工艺尺寸、工作电压的条件,单粒子翻转效应是一个不容忽视的问题。即便是航空飞行高度甚至是地面高度,FPGA 芯片因单粒子翻转导致失效也是无法满足民用航空设备的安全性要求。%With the development of microelectronics technology,small size,high integration density and low voltage devices are increasingly used in avionics.Many researchers found that the particle radiation caused by the charged particles in upper at-mosphere have a significant impact on avionic devices.In consideration of the potential safety hazard by single event upsets and the urgent demand of airborne equipment localization,this paper reports the research and analysis of the single event upset problems of FPGA devices applied in the airborne electronic equipment.Firstly,the flight experimental data of mainstream FPGAs at the a-viation flight altitudes are analyzed.Then,further demonstration is made about whether these FPGA devices meet the needs of civil aviation.The analysis results show that single event upset is an indispensable problem according to the conditions of main-stream FPGA chip with the small size and working voltage.Even the FPGA devices are working at the air flight altitude or near the ground,the failure caused by single event upset would make them unable to meet

  15. Cushions of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) do not facilitate other plants under extreme altitude and dry conditions in the north-west Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Dvorský, Miroslav; Chlumská, Zuzana; Řeháková, Klára; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-09-01

    Cushion plants are commonly considered as keystone nurse species that ameliorate the harsh conditions they inhabit in alpine ecosystems, thus facilitating other species and increasing alpine plant biodiversity. A literature search resulted in 25 key studies showing overwhelming facilitative effects of different cushion plants and hypothesizing greater facilitation with increased environmental severity (i.e. higher altitude and/or lower rainfall). At the same time, emerging ecological theory alongside the cushion-specific literature suggests that facilitation might not always occur under extreme environmental conditions, and especially under high altitude and dryness. To assess these hypotheses, possible nursing effects of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) were examined at extremely high altitude (5900 m a.s.l.) and in dry conditions (precipitation plants were detected. The number and abundance of species were greater outside cushions than within and on the edge of cushions. None of the 13 species detected was positively associated with cushions, while nine of them were negatively associated. Plant diversity increased with the size of the area sampled outside cushions, but no species-area relationship was found within cushions. The results support the emerging theoretical prediction of restricted facilitative effects under extreme combinations of cold and dryness, integrating these ideas in the context of the ecology of cushion plants. This evidence suggests that cases of missing strong facilitation are likely to be found in other extreme alpine conditions.

  16. The operant and the classical in conditioned orientation of Drosophila melanogaster at the flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, B; Heisenberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Ever since learning and memory have been studied experimentally, the relationship between operant and classical conditioning has been controversial. Operant conditioning is any form of conditioning that essentially depends on the animal's behavior. It relies on operant behavior. A motor output is called operant if it controls a sensory variable. The Drosophila flight simulator, in which the relevant behavior is a single motor variable (yaw torque), fully separates the operant and classical components of a complex conditioning task. In this paradigm a tethered fly learns, operantly or classically, to prefer and avoid certain flight orientations in relation to the surrounding panorama. Yaw torque is recorded and, in the operant mode, controls the panorama. Using a yoked control, we show that classical pattern learning necessitates more extensive training than operant pattern learning. We compare in detail the microstructure of yaw torque after classical and operant training but find no evidence for acquired behavioral traits after operant conditioning that might explain this difference. We therefore conclude that the operant behavior has a facilitating effect on the classical training. In addition, we show that an operantly learned stimulus is successfully transferred from the behavior of the training to a different behavior. This result unequivocally demonstrates that during operant conditioning classical associations can be formed.

  17. The Operant and the Classical in Conditioned Orientation of Drosophila melanogaster at the Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn; Heisenberg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Ever since learning and memory have been studied experimentally, the relationship between operant and classical conditioning has been controversial. Operant conditioning is any form of conditioning that essentially depends on the animal's behavior. It relies on operant behavior. A motor output is called operant if it controls a sensory variable. The Drosophila flight simulator, in which the relevant behavior is a single motor variable (yaw torque), fully separates the operant and classical components of a complex conditioning task. In this paradigm a tethered fly learns, operantly or classically, to prefer and avoid certain flight orientations in relation to the surrounding panorama. Yaw torque is recorded and, in the operant mode, controls the panorama. Using a yoked control, we show that classical pattern learning necessitates more extensive training than operant pattern learning. We compare in detail the microstructure of yaw torque after classical and operant training but find no evidence for acquired behavioral traits after operant conditioning that might explain this difference. We therefore conclude that the operant behavior has a facilitating effect on the classical training. In addition, we show that an operantly learned stimulus is successfully transferred from the behavior of the training to a different behavior. This result unequivocally demonstrates that during operant conditioning classical associations can be formed. PMID:10753977

  18. High Altitude Bird Migration at Temperate Latitudes: A Synoptic Perspective on Wind Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes the synoptic patterns of bird migration are strongly structured by the presence of cyclones and anticyclones, both in the horizontal and altitudinal dimensions. In certain synoptic conditions, birds may efficiently cross regions with opposing surface wind by choosing a higher flight altitude with more favourable wind. We observed migratory passerines at mid-latitudes that selected high altitude wind optima on particular nights, leading to the formation of structured mig...

  19. 战斗机飞行姿态对最低安全救生高度影响的仿真研究%Simulation Study on Influence of Fighter Flight Attitude to the Minimum Safe Lifesaving Altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文明; 王和平

    2011-01-01

    When the fighter is in dilemma,pilot will use rocket ejection seat as main life saving equipment.It always needs minimum safe lifesaving altitude to improve the success fulness of ejection-escaping in the low altitude positions(low altitude and adverse attitude).If the performance of ejection seat is certain,minimum safe lifesaving altitude is determined by flight attitude.With the rocket ejection seat as object,the mathematical models of the ejection seat and occupant system in kinematics is established,which includes every subsystem's mathematical model of escape system.These mathematical models are six degree of freedom equations,they are solved based on the aerodynamic coefficients of ejection seat.The program of trajectory simulation can analyze the influence of fighter flight attitude to minimum safe lifesaving altitude.This may help the fighter pilot seize the right ejection opportunity.%战斗机飞行员在飞机出现危险情况时采用火箭弹射座椅作为救生装备的主要形式,在低空不利姿态下弹射时,往往需要一定的最低安全高度来保证弹射救生的成功率,在座椅性能确定的情况下,最低安全救生高度取决于弹射时飞机的飞行姿态。为此,根据火箭弹射座椅的工作原理,针对弹射过程的不同阶段,建立相应的数学模型,用仿真计算的手段来研究不同飞行姿态对最低安全救生高度的影响,以期为飞行员如何选择正确的弹射时机提供一定的理论支撑。

  20. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Test Summary of the RS-18 Lunar Ascent Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C., IV; Allred, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Tests were conducted with the RS18 rocket engine using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) propellants under simulated altitude conditions at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This project is part of NASA s Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) project. "Green" propellants, such as LO2/LCH4, offer savings in both performance and safety over equivalently sized hypergolic propellant systems in spacecraft applications such as ascent engines or service module engines. Altitude simulation was achieved using the WSTF Large Altitude Simulation System, which provided altitude conditions equivalent up to approx.120,000 ft (approx.37 km). For specific impulse calculations, engine thrust and propellant mass flow rates were measured. Propellant flow rate was measured using a coriolis-style mass-flow meter and compared with a serial turbine-style flow meter. Results showed a significant performance measurement difference during ignition startup. LO2 flow ranged from 5.9-9.5 lbm/sec (2.7-4.3 kg/sec), and LCH4 flow varied from 3.0-4.4 lbm/sec (1.4-2.0 kg/sec) during the RS-18 hot-fire test series. Thrust was measured using three load cells in parallel. Ignition was demonstrated using a gaseous oxygen/methane spark torch igniter. Data was obtained at multiple chamber pressures, and calculations were performed for specific impulse, C* combustion efficiency, and thrust vector alignment. Test objectives for the RS-18 project are 1) conduct a shakedown of the test stand for LO2/methane lunar ascent engines, 2) obtain vacuum ignition data for the torch and pyrotechnic igniters, and 3) obtain nozzle kinetics data to anchor two-dimensional kinetics codes.

  1. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to the...

  2. Starting of rocket engine at conditions of simulated altitude using crude monoethylaniline and other fuels with mixed acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladanyi, Dezso J; Sloop, John L; Humphrey, Jack C; Morrell, Gerald

    1950-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at sea level and pressure altitude of about 55,000 feet at various temperatures to determine starting characteristics of a commercial rocket engine using crude monoethylaniline and other fuels with mixed acid. With crude monoethylaniline, ignition difficulties were encountered at temperatures below about 20 degrees F. With mixed butyl mercaptans, water-white turpentine, and x-pinene, no starting difficulties were experienced at temperatures as low as minus 74 degrees F. Turpentine and x-pinene, however, sometimes left deposits on the injector face. With blends containing furfuryl alcohol and with other blends, difficulties were experienced either from appreciable deposits or from starting.

  3. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22% and male lifespan even by 43%. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities.

  4. Switching Impulse Strength of ±800 kV UHVDC Transmission Line Air Gap Insulation Under High Altitude Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yongli; GAO Chao; LI Ruihai; WANG Guoli; MA Yi

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerning switching impulse air gap insulation characteristics of rod-to-plane and V-string 6-conductor bundle to tower body in ±800 kV transmission lines. The tests were performed in China Southern Power Grid Co. , Ltd. (CSG) Kunming outdoor UHV laboratory at an altitude of 2 100 m. The switching impulse strength performance were obtained at a rod to-plane arrangement and a full-scale model of 6-conductor bundle to tower. The test gap length of the typical rod-to-plane arrangement is 1.5~10 m and 5.3~8.2 m for the conductor-tower model, and the range of test voltage is about 450~3 100 kV. The critical positive switching impulse strength of conductor tower gap is 1 525 kV in the gap length of 6.2 m. Additionally, the influence of the wave front time (100~1 700 gs) on the 50% flashover voltage is discussed. According to the test data, the minimum air gap clearances of the conductor-tower model with V-insulators at the altitude of 2 100 m should be longer than 6.8 m (wave front time 250 μs) and 5. 8 m (wave front time 1 000 μs), respectively. The results are useful to air gap insulation design in UHVDC systems with rated voltage of ±800 kV.

  5. Studies on gene expressions analyses for Arabidopsis thaliana plants stimulated by space flight condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Pan, Yi; Li, Huasheng

    We carried out whole-genome microarray to screen the transcript profile of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after three treatment: space microgravity condition( Seedlings grown in microgravity state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8), 1g centrifugal force in space(Seedlings grown in 1g centrifugal force state of space flight of SIMBOX on Shenzhou-8) and ground control. The result of microarray analysis is as followed: There were 368 genes significantly differentially expressed in space microgravity condition compared with that in 1g centrifuge space condition. Space radiation caused 246 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in 1g centrifuge space condition and ground control. Space conditions (including microgravity and radiation) caused 621 genes significantly differentially expressed between seedlings in space microgravity condition and ground control. Microgravity and radiation as a single factor can cause plant gene expression change, but two factors synergism can produce some new effects on plant gene expression. The function of differential expression genes were analyst by bioinformatics, and we found the expression of genes related with stress were more different, such as the dehydration of protein (dehydrin Xero2) expression is up-regulated 57 times; low-temperature-induced protein expression is up-regulated in 49 times; heat shock protein expression is up-regulated 20 times; transcription factor DREB2A expression increase 25 times; protein phosphatase 2C expression is up-regulated 14 times; transcription factor NAM-like protein expression is up-regulated 13 times; cell wall metabolism related genes (xyloglucan, endo-1, 4-beta-D-glucanase) expression is down-regulated in 15 times. The results provide scientific data for the mechanism of space mutation.

  6. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... system. This system provides an electronic interface between the pilot's flight controls and ] the flight...

  7. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  8. On Global Optimal Sailplane Flight Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, G. J.; Litt, F. X.

    1979-01-01

    The derivation and interpretation of the necessary conditions that a sailplane cross-country flight has to satisfy to achieve the maximum global flight speed is considered. Simple rules are obtained for two specific meteorological models. The first one uses concentrated lifts of various strengths and unequal distance. The second one takes into account finite, nonuniform space amplitudes for the lifts and allows, therefore, for dolphin style flight. In both models, altitude constraints consisting of upper and lower limits are shown to be essential to model realistic problems. Numerical examples illustrate the difference with existing techniques based on local optimality conditions.

  9. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  10. Real-time aircraft structural damage identification with flight condition variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a real-time structural damage identification method for aircraft with flight condition variations. The proposed approach begins by identifying the dynamic models under various test conditions from time-domain input/output data. A singular value decomposition technique is then used to characterize and quantify the parameter uncertainties from the identified models. The uncertainty coordinates, corresponding to the identified principal directions, of the identified models are computed, and the residual errors between the identified uncertainty coordinates and the estimated uncertainty coordinates of the health structure are used to identify damage status. A correlation approach is applied to identify damage type and intensity, based on the difference between the identified parameters and the estimated parameters of the healthy structure. The proposed approach is demonstrated by application to the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind-tunnel model.

  11. Computations of ideal and real gas high altitude plume flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiereisen, William J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1988-01-01

    In the present work, complete flow fields around generic space vehicles in supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes are studied numerically. Numerical simulation is performed with a flux-split, time asymptotic viscous flow solver that incorporates a generalized equilibrium chemistry model. Solutions to generic problems at various altitude and flight conditions show the complexity of the flow, the equilibrium chemical dissociation and its effect on the overall flow field. Viscous ideal gas solutions are compared against equilibrium gas solutions to illustrate the effect of equilibrium chemistry. Improved solution accuracy is achieved through adaptive grid refinement.

  12. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  13. Peculiarities of transformation of adaptation level of the astronaut in conditions of long-lasting flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padashulya, H.; Prisnyakova, L.; Prisnyakov, V.

    Prognostication of the development of adverse factors of psychological processes in the personality of the astronaut who time and again feels transformation of internal structure of his personality is one of cardinal problems of the long-lasting flight Adaptation to changing conditions of long-lasting flight is of particular importance because it has an effect on the efficiency of discharged functions and mutual relations in the team The fact of standard psychological changes emerging in the personality being in the state of structural transformations is the precondition for the possibility of prognostication Age-specific gender and temperamental differences in the personality enable to standardize these changes Examination of the process of transformation of adaptation level of the personality in the varied environment depending on the type of temperament and constituents age and gender is chief object of the report In the report it is shown that in the process of transformation of adaptation parameters - attitude to guillemotleft work guillemotright guillemotleft family guillemotright guillemotleft environment guillemotright and guillemotleft ego guillemotright - the changes can go in two directions - in the direction of increase and decline of indexes The trend of increase enables to accumulate them and form potentiality to reduce or increase the level of personality adaptation There is a hypothesis that the dynamics of the process of transformation of adaptation parameter is shown up in the orientation of increase of

  14. Influence Factors of Audible Noise Caused by Corona Discharge on UHVDC Transmission Lines Under High Altitude Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Feng; YU Zhanqing; ZENG Rong; LIU Lei; LI Min; LI Ruihai

    2012-01-01

    Audible noises (AN) generated by corona discharges on ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC) transmission lines is one of the key issues of UHVDC power projects. Experimental results were obtained synchronously by 10 Briiel & Kjeer outdoor AN instruments under the full-scale test lines in National Laboratory for UHV Technology in Kunming at an altitude of 2 100 m. Long-term statistical measurements of the AN level were performed almost 24 hours a day and 5 ~ 6 days a week in 2 years. Influences of voltage, line configurations, temperature and humidity on the characteristics of AN levels were analysed. The measurement results show that the AN level rises with increasing line voltage, decreasing minimum conductor height and increasing bundle radius. The pole spacing has no significant influence on the peak value of the AN level. The AN level varies about _+ 1 dB in the temperature range of 15~22℃, and no more than ±2 dB within 6.8~24.4 ℃. The results also indicate that in a relative low range of absolute humidity, about 5 ~ 7. 99 g/ma, the AN level fluctuates slightly at different measurement points. However, in a relative high absolute humidity range, about 8 ~ 11. 5 g/ma, the AN level decreases with the increase of absolute humidity.

  15. Flow and structure deformation research of a composite glider in flight conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakunowicz, Jerzy; Boden, Fritz; Groot, Klaus de; Meyer, Jörg Brüne; Meyer, Ralf; Rzucidło, Paweł; Smusz, Robert; Szewczyk, Mariusz; Szumski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The gliders exemplify a rare subject of flight test campaigns other than standard certification trials. Therefore, not many examples of research activities may be found worldwide. Nevertheless, the gliders neither have advanced flight controls, nor cruise hypersonic, flight testing might encounter barriers to break. The paper presents one of international measurement campaigns performed within the AIM² (Advanced In-Flight Measurement Techniques 2), the collaborative project co-funded by the E...

  16. A Study on the Algorithm for Real Time Flight Conflict Detection and Resolution During Low-altitude Rescue%低空救援实时飞行的冲突探测与解脱算法研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 王磊; 王硕; 喻慧

    2016-01-01

    航空器冲突探测和解脱的实时计算对航空救援飞行安全意义重大。基于低空目视飞行规则,构建三维空域网格,采用时间窗理论分析了两航空器同高度飞行的时空冲突判定方法。依据救援目视飞行规则和航空器飞行性能约束,建立航空器 Agent 的可行路径集和基于网格划分的 Airspace模型,并根据航空器 Agent 的救援任务属性确定了优先级判定准则,对各个 Agent 模型在冲突顶点上的优先级进行判定。建立两航空器无冲突最优路径规划方法,计算 Agent 的无冲突路径。通过仿真验证,分析了飞行冲突的时间窗和区域,以及优先级下的无冲突路径,结果表明,本方法相对于非协作的冲突探测和解脱方法可以有效提高解脱效率,节约飞行时间146 s。%Real-time flight conflict detection and resolution algorithm is very important to aviation emergency rescue under the environment of complex low-altitude airspace.Based on low-altitude visual flight rules,this paper constructed a three-dimensional spatial grid,using the time window theory to analyze the temporal and spatial conflict of two flights. Based on visual flight rules during rescue and performance constraints of aircrafts,a feasible path set and Airspace model based on mesh generation for flight Agents are developed.Then priority of each Agent is identified at the conflicting point. Feasible non-conflict paths can be obtained by using the Agent model.Then an optimal path planning method is developed and the paths without any conflicts are created.The results are verified through a simulation,and the time window and the area of flight conflict,and the paths without any conflicts under different priority are analyzed.The results show that this method can provide a higher solution efficiency than non-collaborative methods,which can save a flight time of 146 s.

  17. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system. The... The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to...

  18. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...). Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This...

  19. Conditioning with compound stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster in the flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, B; Heisenberg, M

    2001-08-01

    Short-term memory in Drosophila melanogaster operant visual learning in the flight simulator is explored using patterns and colours as a compound stimulus. Presented together during training, the two stimuli accrue the same associative strength whether or not a prior training phase rendered one of the two stimuli a stronger predictor for the reinforcer than the other (no blocking). This result adds Drosophila to the list of other invertebrates that do not exhibit the robust vertebrate blocking phenomenon. Other forms of higher-order learning, however, were detected: a solid sensory preconditioning and a small second-order conditioning effect imply that associations between the two stimuli can be formed, even if the compound is not reinforced.

  20. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Flight Deck Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Marvin C. (Editor); Scanlon, Charles H. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A Government and Industry workshop on Flight-Deck-Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) was conducted October 29, 1996 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This document contains the slides and records of the proceedings of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose to the National airspace community the status of ongoing NASA R&D to address the closely spaced parallel runway problem in IMC and to seek advice and input on direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. The workshop also included a description of a Paired Approach Concept which is being studied at United Airlines for application at the San Francisco International Airport.

  1. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  2. RaD-X: Complementary measurements of dose rates at aviation altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Forkert, Tomas; Wirtz, Michael; Scheibinger, Markus; Hübel, Robert; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-09-01

    The RaD-X stratospheric balloon flight organized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was launched from Fort Sumner on 25 September 2015 and carried several instruments to measure the radiation field in the upper atmosphere at the average vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV. The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) in cooperation with Lufthansa German Airlines supported this campaign with an independent measuring flight at the altitudes of civil aviation on a round trip from Germany to Japan. The goal was to measure dose rates under similar space weather conditions over an area on the Northern Hemisphere opposite to the RaD-X flight. Dose rates were measured in the target areas, i.e., around vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV, at two flight altitudes for about 1 h at each position with acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the flights shows that measuring data were acquired under stable and moderate space weather conditions with a virtually undisturbed magnetosphere. The measured rates of absorbed dose in silicon and ambient dose equivalent complement the data recorded during the balloon flight. The combined measurements provide a set of experimental data suitable for validating and improving numerical models for the calculation of radiation exposure at aviation altitudes.

  3. Microphysical properties and high ice water content in continental and oceanic Mescoscale Convective Systems and potential implications for commercial aircraft at flight altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, J.-F.; Shcherbakov, V.; Bugliaro, L.; Protat, A.; Delanoë, J.; Pelon, J.; Garnier, A.

    2013-08-01

    Two complementary case studies are conducted to analyse convective system properties in the region where strong cloud-top lidar backscatter anomalies are observed as reported by Platt et al. (2011). These anomalies were reported for the first time using in-situ microphysical measurements in an isolated continental convective cloud over Germany during the CIRCLE2 experiment (Gayet et al., 2012). In this case, quasi collocated in situ observations with CALIPSO, CloudSat and Meteosat-9/SEVIRI observations confirm that regions of backscatter anomalies represent the most active and dense convective cloud parts with likely the strongest core updrafts and unusual high values of the particle concentration, extinction and ice water content (IWC), with the occurrence of small ice crystal sizes. Similar spaceborne observations are then analyzed in a maritime mesoscale cloud system (MCS) on 20 June 2008 located off the Brazil coast between 0° and 3° N latitude. Near cloud-top backscatter anomalies are evidenced in a region which corresponds to the coldest temperatures with maximum cloud top altitudes derived from collocated CALIPSO/IIR and Meteosat-9/SEVIRI infrared brightness temperatures. The interpretation of CALIOP data highlights significant differences of microphysical properties from those observed in the continental isolated convective cloud. Indeed, SEVIRI retrievals in the visible confirm much smaller ice particles near-top of the isolated continental convective cloud, i.e. effective radius (Reff) ~15 μm against 22-27 μm in the whole MCS area. 94 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar observations from CloudSat are then used to describe the properties of the most active cloud regions at and below cloud top. The cloud ice water content and effective radius retrieved with the CloudSat 2B-IWC and DARDAR inversion techniques, show that at usual cruise altitudes of commercial aircraft (FL 350 or ~10 700 m level), high IWC (i.e. up to 2 to 4 g m-3) could be identified according to

  4. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  5. [Embryogenesis of the Japanese quail in hypomagnetic conditions applied to deep space flights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukhanov, K A; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Kruglov, O S; Lebedev, V M; Spasskiĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    During future interplanetary flights and on the lunar base, astronauts and bioregenerative systems on the space ship will occur in an interplanetary magnetic field, which is much lower than the habitual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is known that hypomagnetic conditions have an adverse biological effect on human beings and other living systems. In our research the Japanese quail has been chosen as one of the possible elements of the bioregenerative live support system. The magnetic system--Helmholtz's coils--is used for compensation of GMF. The GMF in the center of Helmholtz's coils was decreased to 80-100 times. The eggs were kept under hypomagnetic conditions for 4 and 10 days in a special nonmagnetic incubator. The experiments have demonstrated a negative influence of hypomagnetic fields on the embryo development of the Japanese quail. One of the possible ways to solve the problem consists in installing special magnetic systems onboard the interplanetary ship and a lunar base. Evidently, it is necessary to create an analogue of GMF for bioregenerative live support systems.

  6. Microphysical properties and high ice water content in continental and oceanic mesoscale convective systems and potential implications for commercial aircraft at flight altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, J.-F.; Shcherbakov, V.; Bugliaro, L.; Protat, A.; Delanoë, J.; Pelon, J.; Garnier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two complementary case studies are conducted to analyse convective system properties in the region where strong cloud-top lidar backscatter anomalies are observed as reported by Platt et al. (2011). These anomalies were reported for the first time using in situ microphysical measurements in an isolated continental convective cloud over Germany during the CIRCLE2 experiment (Gayet et al., 2012). In this case, in situ observations quasi-collocated with CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation), CloudSat and Meteosat-9/SEVIRI observations confirm that regions of backscatter anomalies represent the most active and dense convective cloud parts with likely the strongest core updrafts and unusually high values of the particle concentration, extinction and ice water content (IWC), with the occurrence of small ice crystal sizes. Similar spaceborne observations of a maritime mesoscale cloud system (MCS) located off the Brazilian coast between 0° and 3° N latitude on 20 June 2008 are then analysed. Near cloud-top backscatter anomalies are evidenced in a region which corresponds to the coldest temperatures with maximum cloud top altitudes derived from collocated CALIPSO/IIR and Meteosat-9/SEVIRI infrared brightness temperatures. The interpretation of CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) data highlights significant differences in microphysical properties from those observed in the continental isolated convective cloud. Indeed, SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) retrievals in the visible spectrum confirm much smaller ice particles near the top of the isolated continental convective cloud, i.e. effective radius (Reff) ~ 15 μm as opposed to 22-27 μm in the whole MCS area. Cloud profiling observations at 94 GHz from CloudSat are then used to describe the properties of the most active cloud regions at and below cloud top. The cloud ice-water content and effective radius retrieved with the CloudSat 2B

  7. FLIGHT SAFETY CONTROL OF THE BASIS OF UNCERTAIN RISK EVALUATION WITH NON-ROUTINE FLIGHT CONDITIONS INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods of forecasting the level of aviation safety operation of aircraft systems on the basis of methods of evaluation the risks of negative situations as a consequence of a functional loss of initial properties of the system with critical violations of standard modes of the aircraft. Mathematical Models of Risks as a Danger Measure of Discrete Random Events in Aviation Systems are presented. Technological Schemes and Structure of Risk Control Proce- dures without the Probability are illustrated as Methods of Risk Management System in Civil Aviation. The assessment of the level of safety and quality and management of aircraft, made not only from the standpoint of reliability (quality and consumer properties, but also from the position of ICAO on the basis of a risk-based approach. According to ICAO, the security assessment is performed by comparing the calculated risk with an acceptable level. The approach justifies the use of qualitative evaluation techniques safety in the forms of proactive forecasted and predictive risk management adverse impacts to aviation operations of various kinds, including the space sector and nuclear energy. However, for the events such as accidents and disasters, accidents with the aircraft, fighters in a training flight, during the preparation of the pilots on the training aircraft, etc. there is no required statistics. Density of probability distribution (p. d. f. of these events are only hypothetical, unknown with "hard tails" that completely eliminates the application of methods of confidence intervals in the traditional approaches to the assessment of safety in the form of the probability analysis.

  8. Approximate approach for optimization space flights with a low thrust on the basis of sufficient optimality conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmin, Vadim V.

    2017-01-01

    Flight mechanics with a low-thrust is a new chapter of mechanics of space flight, considered plurality of all problems trajectory optimization and movement control laws and the design parameters of spacecraft. Thus tasks associated with taking into account the additional factors in mathematical models of the motion of spacecraft becomes increasingly important, as well as additional restrictions on the possibilities of the thrust vector control. The complication of the mathematical models of controlled motion leads to difficulties in solving optimization problems. Author proposed methods of finding approximate optimal control and evaluating their optimality based on analytical solutions. These methods are based on the principle of extending the class of admissible states and controls and sufficient conditions for the absolute minimum. Developed procedures of the estimation enabling to determine how close to the optimal founded solution, and indicate ways to improve them. Authors describes procedures of estimate for approximately optimal control laws for space flight mechanics problems, in particular for optimization flight low-thrust between the circular non-coplanar orbits, optimization the control angle and trajectory movement of the spacecraft during interorbital flights, optimization flights with low-thrust between arbitrary elliptical orbits Earth satellites.

  9. Changes in functional activity of bone tissue cells under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Nesterenko, Olga; Kabitskaya, Olga

    The space flight conditions affect considerably the state of bone tissue, leading to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Many aspects of reactions of bone tissue cells still remain unclear until now. With the use of electron microscopy we studied the samples gathered from the femoral bonеs metaphyses of rats flown on board the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) during 2 weeks and samples from tibial bones of mice C57 Black ( Bion М-1). It was established, that under microgravity conditions there occur remodelling processes in a spongy bone related with a deficit of support load. In this work the main attention is focused on studying the ultrastructure of osteogenetic cells and osteoclasts. The degree of differentiation and functional state are evaluated according to the degree of development of organelles for specific biosynthesis: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgy complex (GC), as well as the state of mitochondria and cell nucleus. As compared with a synchronous control, the population of osteogenetic cells from zones of bone reconstruction shows a decrease in the number of functionally active forms. We can judge of this from the reduction of a specific volume of RER, GC, mitochondria in osteoblasts. RER loses architectonics typical for osteoblasts and, as against the control, is represented by short narrow canaliculi distributed throughout the cytoplasm; some canals disintegrate. GC is slightly pronounced, mitochondria become smaller in size and acquire an optically dark matrix. These phenomena are supposed to be associated with the desorganization of microtubules and microfilaments in the cells under microgravity conditions. The population of osteogenetic cells shows a decrease in the number of differentiating osteoblasts and an increase in the number of little-differentiated stromal cells. In the population of osteoblasts, degrading and apoptotic cells are sometimes encountered. Such zones show a numerical increase of monocytic cells and

  10. Influence of low-altitude meteorological conditions on local infrasound propagation investigated by 3-D full-waveform modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keehoon; Rodgers, Arthur

    2017-08-01

    Vertical stratification in the low atmosphere impacts near-ground sound propagation. On clear days, for example, negative gradients of low-atmospheric temperature can lead to upward refraction of acoustic waves and create a zone of silence near the ground, where no acoustic rays can arrive. We investigate impacts of lower tropospheric temperature and wind-velocity gradient on acoustic wave propagation using numerical simulations. Sound refraction in the atmosphere is a frequency-dependent wave phenomenon, and therefore classical ray methods based on infinite-frequency approximation may not be suitable for modeling acoustic wave amplitudes. In this study, a full-waveform acoustic solver was used to predict amplitudes of acoustic waves taking into account meteorological conditions (temperature, pressure and wind). Local radiosonde sounding data were input into acoustic simulations to characterize the background conditions of the local atmosphere. The results of numerical modeling indicate that acoustic overpressure amplitudes were significantly affected by local atmospheric wind speed and direction near the ground. Local wind changes the effective sound speed profile in the atmosphere and influences overpressure amplitude decay governed by upward refraction. We compared 3-D finite-difference modeling results with acoustic overpressure measurements from the Humming Roadrunner explosion experiments conducted in New Mexico in 2012. The modeling results showed good agreement with the observations in peak amplitudes when a background wind was weak and well characterized by local atmospheric data. However, when a strong wind was present at an explosion and its variability was poorly characterized by local radiosonde sounding, the numerical prediction of local acoustic amplitude agreed poorly with the observations. Additional numerical simulations with the inclusion of surface wind data indicate that local acoustic amplitudes could be significantly variable depending on

  11. In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S.J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J.A.; Alley, R.E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Markham, B.L.; Richards, R.C.; Schladow, S.G.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    calibration bias. L5 provides the only long-duration high spatial resolution thermal infrared measurements of the land surface. If these data are to be used effectively in studies designed to monitor change, it is essential to continue to monitor instrument performance in-flight and develop quantitative algorithms for recovering surface temperature.

  12. 77 FR 21861 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 777F; Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ..., anyone can find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the..., and overlay that imagery with alpha-numeric and symbolic flight information. However, the term...

  13. 78 FR 32078 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model G280 Airplane, Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... electronic form of all comments received into any FAA docket, including the name of the individual sending... imagery on the HUD, and which overlay that imagery with alpha-numeric and symbolic flight...

  14. Biological studies of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain LARG-1) cultures grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, V A; Shepelev, E Y; Meleshko, G I; Setlik, I; Kordyum, E L; Sytnik, K M; Mashinsky, A L; Popova, A F; Dubinin, N P; Vaulina, E N; Polivoda, L V

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports data from an electron microscopic analysis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (LARG-1) cultures after five days of growth in the dark on a semiliquid mineral/glucose medium in the IFS-2 device on board the Soyuz 27-Salyut 6-Soyuz 28 orbital research complex (Soviet-Czechoslovak experiment "Chlorella-1"). For space flight of five days duration the ultrastructural cellular organization of the flight and control cultures were similar. This testifies to normal cell function.

  15. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  16. Experimental study of the portable blood purification system for treatment of acute renal failure in dogs under the field condition in a high-altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bin LI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce the model of acute renal failure (ARF in beagles for comprehensively evaluating the safety, stability and validity of the continuous blood purification system under the field condition in a high-altitude environment. Methods Adult beagle ARF model was reproduced by bilateral nephrectomy. All ARF dogs underwent continuous veno-venous hemofiltration with a blood purification machine. Vital signs, renal function, liver function and plasma ion-levels before and after the therapy were analyzed through self-controlled study. Performance of the continuous blood purification machine running in a highaltitude environment was evaluated. Results Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr of six dogs were assayed 24 hours after nephrectomy, the difference showed statistical significance compared with those before the surgery (P<0.05, implying that six ARF models were reproduced successfully. Six dogs experienced continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT with external jugular vein double-lumen tube placement (3 dogs or femoral vein catheter placement (3 dogs. Five dogs successfully finished the whole experiment, and one dog died because of falling off of the dialysis tube and blood loss. The continuous blood purification machine was sensitive with rapid release of warning signals when the condition was abnormal. Compared to that before CRRT, there were no statistically significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure in ARF models 2, 4 hours after CRRT (P>0.05. And there were no statistically significant differences in ALT, AST and T-Bil in ARF models between that before and 2, 4 hours after CRRT (P>0.05. However, 2, 4 hours after CRRT, BUN and Cr levels descended significantly (P<0. 05, so was K+ level (P<0. 05. There were no complications such as hemorrhage or hypotension. There were no statistical differences in volume of replacement fluid or discarded fluid between before and after CRRT

  17. Automated Flight Test and System Identification for Rotary Wing Small Aerial Platform using Frequency Responses Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an autopilot system that can be used to control the small scale rotorcraft during the flight test for linear-frequency-domain system identification. The input frequency swept is generated automatically as part of the autopilot control command. Therefore the bandwidth coverage and consistency of the frequency swept is guaranteed to produce high quality data for system identification. Beside that we can set the safety parameter during the flight test (maximum roll or pitch value, minimum altitude, etc) so the safety of the whole flight test is guaranteed. This autopilot for automated flight test will be tested using hardware in the loop simulator for hover flight condition.

  18. Space Operations Center orbit altitude selection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrikis, J.; Myers, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strategy for the operational altitude selection has to respond to the Space Operation Center's (SOC) maintenance requirements and the logistics demands of the missions to be supported by the SOC. Three orbit strategies are developed: two are constant altitude, and one variable altitude. In order to minimize the effect of atmospheric uncertainty the dynamic altitude method is recommended. In this approach the SOC will operate at the optimum altitude for the prevailing atmospheric conditions and logistics model, provided that mission safety constraints are not violated. Over a typical solar activity cycle this method produces significant savings in the overall logistics cost.

  19. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  20. Influence of the slope altitude-associated microclimate and light conditions on the physiological and biochemical processes in leaves of coastal forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Khromykh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of natural forests conservation is relevant in the Ukrainian steppe zone where the forest ecosystems develop in the unfavorable conditions of geographic mismatch; therefore, they suffer as a result of any environmental changes. The hypothesis of susceptibility of tree leaves’ metabolism even to slight changes of climatic parameters was tested. The study was conducted in more than 75 years-old natural mixed forest located on the right bank of the Samara river. The chlorophyll (Chl content, and catalase (CAT, benzidine-peroxidase (BPOD and guaiacol-peroxidase (GPOD activities in leaves of autochthonous maple species (Acer platanoides L. and adventive acacia species (Robinia pseudoacacia L. were investigated on the lower (52 m above see level, a.s.l., middle (74 m a.s.l. and upper (96 m a.s.l. coastal slope altitude. In maple leaves decreasing chlorophyll amount on the middle and upper plots (8.8% and 19.5% compared with the lower plot together with Chla/Chlb ratio decrease (from 4.7 on the lower to 4.4 on the middle and 4.0 on the upper plots was found. Chlorophyll content in acacia leaves decreased only on the upper plot (by 8.5% compared to the lower one, and Chla/Chlb ratio on the lower and upper plots reached 5.1. In maple leaves the increase in altitude was accompanied by the decrease in BPOD activity (by 26% and 63% on the middle and upper plots, accordingly, and GPOD and CAT (accordingly, by 31% and 37% on the upper plots compared to the lower plots. High correlation coefficients of light, temperature and humidity with activity of CAT (respectively, r = –0.98; r = –0.85; r = 0.83, BPOD (r = –0.96; r = –0.93; r = 0.90 and GPOD (r = –0.98; r = –0.82; r = 0.82 were estimated in A. platanoides leaves. Sharp decline in GPOD activity in R. pseudoacacia leaves was revealed on the upper plot (by 95% compared to the lower one, whereas BPOD activity increased by 47% on the middle plot but decreased by 74% on the upper one

  1. The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

    were likely induced by specific conditions of that flight. All sorts of disturbances we observed in eye development were similar with dom inated types found in birds and mammals on ground and could be induced by factors we intend to discuss in our report.

  2. 78 FR 6195 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... jet airplanes designed for corporate flight, fractional, charter, and private owner operations. The... turbofan engines mounted on aft fuselage pylons. Each engine produces approximately 6,540 pounds of thrust... function into the engine of the Model EMB-550 airplane. It has a full authority digital electronic...

  3. Lessons Learned from Numerical Simulations of the F-16XL Aircraft at Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Arthur; Jirasek, Adam; Lamar, John; Crippa, Simone; Badcock, Kenneth; Boelens, Oklo

    2009-01-01

    Nine groups participating in the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) project have contributed steady and unsteady viscous simulations of a full-scale, semi-span model of the F-16XL aircraft. Three different categories of flight Reynolds/Mach number combinations were computed and compared with flight-test measurements for the purpose of code validation and improved understanding of the flight physics. Steady-state simulations are done with several turbulence models of different complexity with no topology information required and which overcome Boussinesq-assumption problems in vortical flows. Detached-eddy simulation (DES) and its successor delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) have been used to compute the time accurate flow development. Common structured and unstructured grids as well as individually-adapted unstructured grids were used. Although discrepancies are observed in the comparisons, overall reasonable agreement is demonstrated for surface pressure distribution, local skin friction and boundary velocity profiles at subsonic speeds. The physical modeling, steady or unsteady, and the grid resolution both contribute to the discrepancies observed in the comparisons with flight data, but at this time it cannot be determined how much each part contributes to the whole. Overall it can be said that the technology readiness of CFD-simulation technology for the study of vehicle performance has matured since 2001 such that it can be used today with a reasonable level of confidence for complex configurations.

  4. The laryngeal mask airway at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Grant D; Sittig, Steven E; Schears, Gregory J

    2008-02-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is an accepted adjunct for airway management in emergency patients. There are a number of case reports describing its use in transport medicine for infant to adult patients, including during flight. Although studies of the effect altitude has on air-filled tracheal tubes exists, we were unable to find documentation of the effect of altitude on laryngeal mask airways. Our objective was to assess the effect of altitude on the LMA in both fixed wing and rotary wing models. We performed an in vitro study of the effect of altitude on the LMA cuff. Infant and adult airway trainer mannequins with properly sized and inserted LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airways were monitored for cuff pressure changes while flown at altitudes commonly encountered during air medical transport. Both models demonstrated that LMA cuff pressures may exceed manufacturer recommended levels for safe use even at the relatively low altitudes experienced during rotor wing flight. Properly inserted and inflated laryngeal mask airways at ground level may result in overinflated LMA cuffs when flown to altitudes commonly used for rotor and fixed wing medical transport unless monitored and corrected.

  5. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-altitude balloon flights are an inexpensive method used to lift payloads to high altitudes. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations permit payloads...

  6. Enhanced hepatic insulin signaling in the livers of high altitude native rats under basal conditions and in the livers of low altitude native rats under insulin stimulation: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dera, Hussain; Eleawa, Samy M; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H; Mahzari, Moeber M; Hoja, Ibrahim; Al Khateeb, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of the liver in lowering fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) in rats native to high (HA) and low altitude (LA) areas. As compared with LA natives, besides the improved insulin and glucose tolerance, HA native rats had lower FBG, at least mediated by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and activation of glycogen synthesis. An effect that is mediated by the enhancement of hepatic insulin signaling mediated by the decreased phosphorylation of TSC induced inhibition of mTOR function. Such effect was independent of activation of AMPK nor stabilization of HIF1α, but most probably due to oxidative stress induced REDD1 expression. However, under insulin stimulation, and in spite of the less activated mTOR function in HA native rats, LA native rats had higher glycogen content and reduced levels of gluconeogenic enzymes with a more enhanced insulin signaling, mainly due to higher levels of p-IRS1 (tyr612).

  7. Evaluation of Management System Effectiveness in the Preparation of the Aircraft for Flight in Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdane Ruta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flight delays in aviation enterprises are related to air traffic management and technical centers. This can happen for various reasons: untimely removal of defects, lack of spare parts, deficiencies in maintenance scheduling, etc. Another reason may be inefficient management in the system of preparing the aircraft for departure. The article suggests a possible option of such an assessment as well as the results obtained from the use of this methodology applied to a specific airline.

  8. Postflight analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis organisms exposed to space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, R. T.; Simmonds, R. C.; Heimpel, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Cultures of B. thuringiensis returned from space flight appeared to be normal to slightly affected adversely in their ability to produce three toxins that affect insects. In addition, it can be stated that B. thuringiensis spores are very resistant to ultraviolet irradiation at the individual wavelengths and energy levels previously described. Full sunlight, however, does have a detrimental effect on the viability of B. thuringiensis spores.

  9. Prior classical olfactory conditioning improves odour-cued flight orientation of honey bees in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffiol, Antoine; Laloi, David; Pham-Delègue, Minh-Hà

    2005-10-01

    Odours are key cues used by the honey bee in various situations. They play an important role in sexual attraction, social behaviour and location of profitable food sources. Here, we were interested in the role of odours in orientation at short distance, for instance the approach flight to a floral patch or in close proximity to the hive entrance. Using a newly designed wind tunnel, we investigated the orientation behaviour of the bee towards two different odours: a social odour and a floral component, linalool. We then tested the effect of prior olfactory conditioning (conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex) on subsequent flight orientation. We showed that both stimuli induced orientated behaviour (orientated flights, circling around the odour source) in up to 70% of the worker bees, social odour being slightly more attractive than the linalool. We found thereafter that orientation performance towards the floral compound can be significantly enhanced by prior classical olfactory learning. This type of information transfer, from a Pavlovian associative context to an orientation task, might allow future foragers to acquire, within the hive, relevant information about the odours and food they will encounter during their later foraging bouts.

  10. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  11. Paleo-Environmental Conditions Revealed by Fossil and Geochemical Features at Pampa-Lirima, a High-Altitude Geothermal System in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, C.; Blank, J. G.; Clavero, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Sinter deposits that form in up-flow areas of high-temperature geothermal systems provide useful information about local and regional paleo-environmental conditions. We analyzed sinter from the Pampa Lirima geothermal field, a high-altitude (4,000 m) Andean site ~190 km east of Iquique in Northern Chile, 20 km from the Bolivian border. There, siliceous sinter is forming in several active thermal pools distributed in a broad, flat plain of sinter and sand debris. Water temperatures ranged from 38-80°C and pH was near neutral (6.0-7.4), when we sampled in November 2014. We focused on the largest pool, one with an artificial trench extending from its SE corner, through which effluent flowed; this trench cut through 1.25m of sinter horizon, allowing us to sample older sinter material along with deposits actively forming in the pool. We used EMP and SEM data to characterize 16 sinter samples. The sinter deposit is comprised of massive sinter layers interbedded with layers rich in fragmented sinter debris cemented by opal-A. The material is dominantly opal-A with a few percent accessory minerals. Accessory phases consist of sulfates - gypsum, sodium- and sodium-calcium sulfates, in decreasing order of occurrence. Fossil frustules and plant remnants replaced by opal-A spheres are abundant; they are comprised of diatom casts (15-80% of the rock), and 10-300 µm diameter filamentous features. In the trench, the fragmental layers are concentrated at the base of the exposed stratigraphy; these layers also show a higher abundance of sodium-sulfates, whereas the uppermost portion of the column presents calcium-sulfates - gypsum - and a lower frequency of fragmental layers. The mineralogy of the deposit is a record of changes in the geochemistry of the thermal pool and/or local environmental conditions over time, with periods of higher sodium and calcium content or higher evaporation rates. The fragmental nature of some sinter layers and the preserved plant remains suggest that

  12. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  13. Near-space flight of a correlated photon system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhongkan, Tang; Sean, Yau Yong; Cheng, Cliff; Wildfeuer, Christoph; Ling, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful test flight of a device for generating and monitoring correlated photon pairs under near-space conditions up to 35.5km altitude. Data from ground based qualification tests and the high altitude experiment demonstrate that the device continues to operate even under harsh environmental conditions. The design of the rugged, compact and power-efficient photon pair system is presented. This design enables autonomous photon pair systems to be deployed on low-resource platforms such as nanosatellites hosting remote nodes of a quantum key distribution network. These results pave the way for tests of entangled photon technology in low earth orbit.

  14. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  15. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  16. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... installation of an overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not... installing an overhead flight attendant rest (OFAR) compartment creates a smaller compartment volume...

  17. Development of the High Altitude Student Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Besse, S.; Calongne, A.; Dominique, A.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Olano, D.; Smith, D.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.

    2008-11-01

    The High Altitude Student Platform (HASP) was originally conceived to provide student groups with access to the near-space environment for flight durations and experiment capabilities intermediate between what is possible with small sounding balloons and low Earth orbit rocket launches. HASP is designed to carry up to twelve student payloads to an altitude of about 36 km with flight durations of 15 20 h using a small zero-pressure polyethylene film balloon. This provides a flight capability that can be used to flight-test compact satellites, prototypes and other small payloads designed and built by students. HASP includes a standard mechanical, power and communication interface for the student payload to simplify integration and allows the payloads to be fully exercised. Over the last two years a partnership between the NASA Balloon Program Office (BPO), Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF), Louisiana State University (LSU), the Louisiana Board of Regents (BoR), and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSPACE) has led to the development, construction and, finally, the first flight of HASP with a complement of eight student payloads on September 4, 2006. Here we discuss the primary as-built HASP systems and features, the student payload interface, HASP performance during the first flight and plans for continuing HASP flights. The HASP project maintains a website at http://laspace.lsu.edu/hasp/ where flight application, interface documentation and status information can be obtained.

  18. Adaptation to High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  19. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  20. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  1. Development of Aptitude at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alexandra M.; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Botti, Ana Baya; Bucks, Romola; Holloway, John W.; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Webster, Rebecca J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people currently live at altitudes in excess of 2500 metres, where oxygen supply is limited, but very little is known about the development of brain and behavioural function under such hypoxic conditions. We describe the physiological, cognitive and behavioural profile of a large cohort of infants (6-12 months), children (6-10 years)…

  2. 高海拔直流工程主设备状态评估的修正方法%Modification of Condition Assessment for HVDC Equipment Used in High Altitude Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健一; 李金忠; 李军; 吴超; 祝令瑜

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:In order to make a more accurate and effective assessment of the status of the main equipment of the±400kV Qingzang HVDC project, which is the world’s highest altitude transmission project, the impact of high altitude on the operation of HVDC equipment was studied, and the correction model of condition assessment of HVDC equipment was proposed. External insulation strength, heat-sinking capability, ultraviolet radiation, and temperature difference day and night in high altitude area were analyzed theoretically. The state parameters which need to be revised at high altitude were selected based on the correlation analysis. Referring to the Condition Evaluation Guide established by State Grid, the weight of the condition variables related to altitude was revised, and the evaluation method for HVDC equipment in high altitude area was proposed. The remote condition monitoring and operation condition evaluation system for primary equipment of±400kV Qingzang HVDC project was established in the mode of concentrated construction. It is demonstrated that the altitude correction factors can effectively improve the accuracy of condition assessment of HVDC equipment operation in high altitude.%为了对世界上海拔最高的高原输电工程——青藏直流联网工程的主设备状态进行更为准确有效的评估,该文对高海拔环境对高压直流输电主设备运行的影响展开研究,提出高海拔直流输电设备状态评估参数的修正方法。从理论上分析了高海拔下外绝缘强度、散热能力、紫外辐射、昼夜温差等方面对设备的影响,并基于相关性分析筛选出了高海拔下所需要修正的状态量。根据国网的状态评价导则以及低海拔地区的大量运行经验,建立了考虑高海拔条件的主设备运行  状态评价方法,对与海拔相关的状态量及其权系数进行了海拔修正。基于已建立的状态评价方法,建立了±400 kV青藏直流工程

  3. Automated Flight Test and System Identification for Rotary Wing Small Aerial Platform Using Frequency Responses Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Widyawardana Adiprawita; Adang Suwandi Ahmad; Jaka Sembiring

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an autopilot system that can be used to control the small scale rotorcraft during the flight test for linear-frequency-domain system identification. The input frequency-sweep is generated automatically as part of the autopilot control command. Therefore the bandwidth coverage and consistency of the frequency-sweep are guaranteed to produce high quality data for system identification. Beside that, we can set the safety parameters during the flight test (maximum roll/pitch value, minimum altitude, etc.) so the safety of the whole flight test is guaranteed. This autopilot system is validated using hardware in the loop simulator for hover flight condition.

  4. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  5. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  6. Differential gene expression of human chondrocytes cultured under short-term altered gravity conditions during parabolic flight maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehland, Markus; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; Ma, Xiao; Frett, Timo; Warnke, Elisabeth; Riwaldt, Stefan; Pietsch, Jessica; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2015-03-20

    Chondrocytes are the main cellular component of articular cartilage. In healthy tissue, they are embedded in a strong but elastic extracelluar matrix providing resistance against mechanical forces and friction for the joints. Osteoarthritic cartilage, however, disrupted by heavy strain, has only very limited potential to heal. One future possibility to replace damaged cartilage might be the scaffold-free growth of chondrocytes in microgravity to form 3D aggregates. To prepare for this, we have conducted experiments during the 20th DLR parabolic flight campaign, where we fixed the cells after the first (1P) and the 31st parabola (31P). Furthermore, we subjected chondrocytes to isolated vibration and hypergravity conditions. Microarray and quantitative real time PCR analyses revealed that hypergravity regulated genes connected to cartilage integrity (BMP4, MMP3, MMP10, EDN1, WNT5A, BIRC3). Vibration was clearly detrimental to cartilage (upregulated inflammatory IL6 and IL8, downregulated growth factors EGF, VEGF, FGF17). The viability of the cells was not affected by the parabolic flight, but showed a significantly increased expression of anti-apoptotic genes after 31 parabolas. The IL-6 release of chondrocytes cultured under conditions of vibration was not changed, but hypergravity (1.8 g) induced a clear elevation of IL-6 protein in the supernatant compared with corresponding control samples. Taken together, this study provided new insights into the growth behavior of chondrocytes under short-term microgravity.

  7. Influence of the Suspension Modes on Pollution Flashover Performance for ±800 kV Composite Insulators Under High Altitudes Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fuzeng; SONG Lei; LI Ruihai; WANG Guoli; ZENG Xiangjun; LI Hao

    2012-01-01

    To solve the contamination flashover problem for transmission lines in high-altitudes area, an analysis of the {lashover performance of contaminated ± 800 kV ultra high voltage (UHV) DC composite insulators of various suspension modes at a high altitude (2 100 m) is presented. The 50% withstand voltage (U60%) was determined by the up-and-down method. Experimental results show that suspension modes play an important role in the flashover performance since DC arcs detach from the insulator surfaces more easily at high altitudes than at sea level. Flashover voltages of the long string composite insulators gradually decreased with salt deposit density (SDD). The flashover voltage of type II string is by 4.6% lower than that of type I string. For type V string, the ionized air could more easily diffuse away from the insulator surface, while producing a higher utilization ratio of the leakage distance. Therefore the flashover voltage of type V string is by 8.7 %-14.4% higher than that of type I string. Type Y string configuration appears to lead to much lower flashover voltages than type I and V string configurations.

  8. Selected information on flight simulators - main requirements, categories and their development, production and using for flight crew training in the both Slovak Republic and Czech Republic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana KOVÁČOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the selected information concerning the flight simulators. After some information from the general and historical point of views, the authors are focusing on main requirements for the flight simulators and their categorisation from different aspects, including outline of principal international documents published by ICAO, EASA (covering JAR regulation and FAA referring to and/or dealing with the use of Flight Simulators Training Devices (FSTD and technical and operational requirements in this area for aeroplanes. The concluding chapters of the paper introduce appropriate information on the development and manufacturing organizations in the flight simulators area and the using of this equipment in the both Slovak Republic and Czech Republic.

  9. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  10. Spirit 2 vehicle: (A26.780). Post flight report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfant, C. P.

    1992-05-01

    The Spirit 2 Launch Vehicle System was launched successfully from Poker Flat Research Range on 28 Mar. 1992. All flight objectives were achieved, and a peak altitude of 326 km was achieved. The vehicle liftoff weight was 20,092 pounds. The first stage, powered by the Talos motor, boosted the vehicle to an altitude of 6000 feet. The first stage experienced minor wind disturbances. The second stage, an Aries motor (a surplus solid propellant motor from the Minuteman 1 missile), performed as predicted. The inertial guidance system achieved the pre-programmed burnout conditions. The spent second stage impacted 157 km uprange.

  11. Flight Experiments of Physical Vapor Transport of ZnSe: Growth of Crystals in Various Convective Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The flight experiment will conduct crystal growths of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT). The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, especially the effects of different growth orientations related to gravity direction on the grown crystals.

  12. Plant Leaf Imaging using Time of Flight Camera under Sunlight, Shadow and Room Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Foix, Sergi; Alenya, Guillem

    2012-01-01

    in order to optimize the camera calibration. Our analysis is based on several statistical metrics estimated from the ToF data. We explain the estimation of the metrics and propose a method of predicting the deteriorating behavior of the data in each condition using camera flags. Finally, we also propose...

  13. 77 FR 69569 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ...; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and Roll Limiting Functions AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... feature associated with pitch and roll limiting functions, specifically an electronic flight control... takeoff. The primary flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and...

  14. Gravity Disturbances at Altitude and at the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, T.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is committed to redefining the nation's vertical datum by 2022. In support of the new vertical datum, NGS is collecting high-altitude airborne gravity data across the United States through the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project. GRAV-D (as of August 2013) has publicly released full-field gravity products from these high-altitude flights for >15% of the country. The full-field gravity (FFG) at altitude product is versatile because it allows the user to calculate any disturbance or anomaly that is appropriate for their application- based on any datum and height above the datum desired. However, conventional geophysical methods for calculating gravity disturbances assume very low altitudes above the ellipsoid. This presentation addresses the differences between several conventional and non-conventional methods for calculating gravity disturbances, from the perspective of altitudes as high as 40,000 ft. The methods for calculating a disturbance at altitude apply different corrections to the FFG for: 1. Normal gravity at the surface of the ellipsoid and the free-air reduction (1st order, 2nd order, and higher order approximations); 2. Normal gravity at the surface of the ellipsoid, upward continued to flight height; 3. Normal gravity at flight altitude above the ellipsoid from Heiskanen and Moritz (1967)'s closed equations; 4. Normal gravity at flight altitude above the ellipsoid from spherical and ellipsoidal harmonic coefficients of the ellipsoid. Initial results indicate that these methods produce gravity disturbances that are 10s of mGals different at altitude. This presentation will also investigate disturbances calculated at the surface of the ellipsoid, by downward continuing the results of the above methods. Gravity disturbances continued from airborne flight heights down to the surface are desired for comparison to terrestrial and marine gravity data.

  15. Migration path annotation: cross-continental study of migration-flight response to environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, James T; Bohrer, Gil; Winkler, David W; Barber, David R; Houston, C Stuart; Bildstein, Keith L

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the movements of animals is pivotal for understanding their ecology and predicting their survival in the face of rapid global changes to climate, land use, and habitats, thus facilitating more effective habitat management. Migration by flying animals is an extreme form of movement that may be especially influenced by weather. With satellite telemetry studies, and the growing availability of information about the Earth's weather and land surface conditions, many data are collected that can advance our understanding about the mechanisms that shape migrations. We present the track annotation approach for movement data analysis using information about weather from the North American Reanalysis data set, a publicly available, regional, high-resolution model-observation hybrid product, and about topography, from a publicly available high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). As a case study, we present the analysis of the response to environmental conditions in three contrasting populations of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) across North America, tracked with a three-dimensional GPS-based sensor. Two populations in the east and west coasts of the United States responded similarly to weather, indicating use of both slope and thermal soaring. Continental-interior, "Plains populations," exhibited a different migratory pattern primarily indicative of thermal soaring. These differences help us understand the constraints and behaviors of soaring migrants. The track annotation approach allowed large-scale comparative study of movement in an important migratory species, and will enable similar studies at local to global scales.

  16. Crew-MC communication and characteristics of crewmembers' sleep under conditions of simulated prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna; Ehmann, Bea; Balazs, Laszlo; Zavalko, Irina

    Characteristics of crew-MC communication and psychophysiological state of the crewmembers were studied in simulation experiment with 520-day isolation. We used method of computerized quantitative content analysis to investigate psychologically relevant characteristics of the crew’s messages content. Content analysis is a systematic, reproducible method of reducing of a text array to a limited number of categories by means of preset scientifically substantiated rules of coding (Berelson, 1971, Krippendorff, 2004). All statements in the crew’s messages to MC were coded with certain psychologically relevant content analysis categories (e.g. ‘Needs’, ‘Negativism’, ‘Time’). We attributed to the ‘Needs’ category statements (semantic units), containing the words, related to subject’s needs and their satisfaction, e.g. ‘‘necessary, need, wish, want, demand’’. To the ‘Negativism’ category we refer critical statements, containing such words as ‘‘mistakes, faults, deficit, shortage’’. The ‘Time’ category embodies statements related to time perception, e.g. “hour, day, always, never, constantly”. Sleep study was conducted with use of EEG and actigraphy techniques to assess characteristics of the crewmembers’ night sleep, reflecting the crew’s adaptation to the experimental conditions. The overall amount of communication (quantity of messages and their length) positively correlated with sleep effectiveness (time of sleep related to time in bed) and with delta sleep latency. Occurrences of semantic units in categories ‘Time’ and ‘Negativism’ negatively correlated with sleep latency, and positively - with delta sleep latency and sleep effectiveness. Frequency of time-related semantic units’ utilization in the crew’s messages was significantly increasing during or before the key events of the experiment (beginning of high autonomy, planetary landing simulation, etc.). It is known that subjective importance of time

  17. The Additional Error of Inertial Sensors Induced by Hypersonic Flight Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachun, Volodimir; Mel'nick, Viktorij; Korobiichuk, Igor; Nowicki, Michał; Szewczyk, Roman; Kobzar, Svitlana

    2016-02-26

    The emergence of hypersonic technology pose a new challenge for inertial navigation sensors, widely used in aerospace industry. The main problems are: extremely high temperatures, vibration of the fuselage, penetrating acoustic radiation and shock N-waves. The nature of the additional errors of the gyroscopic inertial sensor with hydrostatic suspension components under operating conditions generated by forced precession of the movable part of the suspension due to diffraction phenomena in acoustic fields is explained. The cause of the disturbing moments in the form of the Coriolis inertia forces during the transition of the suspension surface into the category of impedance is revealed. The boundaries of occurrence of the features on the resonance wave match are described. The values of the "false" angular velocity as a result of the elastic-stress state of suspension in the acoustic fields are determined.

  18. Effectiveness of Preacclimatization Strategies for High-Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    hypobaric conditions. IAE 15, 15 d of intermittent altitude exposure; IAE 7, 7 d of intermittent altitude expo- sure; NH (Sleep), Ambient normobaric hypoxia ...than those using norm(!)baric hypoxia (breathing, ង.9% ox-ygen). Key Words: hypobaric hypoxia , normobaric hypoxia , staging, acute mountain sickness...large decrements in endurance exercise performance occur when unacclimatized individuals rapidly ascend to high altitudes. Six altitude and hypoxia

  19. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  20. Tibetans at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Li, Shupin; Ward, Michal P

    2005-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2003, 13 Chinese expeditions successfully reached the summit of Chomolungma (Mt Everest or Sagarmatha). Forty-five of the 80 summiteers were Tibetan highlanders. During these and other high-altitude expeditions in Tibet, a series of medical and physiological investigations were carried out on the Tibetan mountaineers. The results suggest that these individuals are better adapted to high altitude and that, at altitude, they have a greater physical capacity than Han (ethnic Chinese) lowland newcomers. They have higher maximal oxygen uptake, greater ventilation, more brisk hypoxic ventilatory responses, larger lung volumes, greater diffusing capacities, and a better quality of sleep. Tibetans also have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness and less body weight loss. These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes.

  1. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  2. Confronting the winds: orientation and flight behaviour of roosting swifts, Apus apus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, J; Alerstam, T

    2001-05-22

    Swifts, Apus apus, spend the night aloft and this offers an opportunity to test the degree of adaptability of bird orientation and flight to different ecological situations. We predicted the swifts' behaviour by assuming that they are adapted to minimize energy expenditure during the nocturnal flight and during a compensatory homing flight if they become displaced by wind. We tested the predictions by recording the swifts' altitudes, speeds and directions under different wind conditions with tracking radar; we found an agreement between predictions and observations for orientation behaviour, but not for altitude and speed regulation. The swifts orientated consistently into the head wind, with angular concentration increasing with increasing wind speed. However, contrary to our predictions, they did not select altitudes with slow or moderate winds, nor did they increase their airspeed distinctly when flying into strong head winds. A possible explanation is that their head-wind orientation is sufficient to keep nocturnal displacement from their home area within tolerable limits, leaving flight altitude to be determined by other factors (correlated with temperature), and airspeed to show only a marginal increase in strong winds. The swifts were often moving "backwards", heading straight into the wind but being overpowered by wind speeds exceeding their airspeed. The regular occurrence of such flights is probably uniquely associated with the swifts' remarkable habit of roosting on the wing.

  3. Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to In-flight Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen,Erik

    2017-01-01

    The drive to undertake long-duration space exploration missions at greater distances from Earth gives rise to many challenges concerning human performance under extreme conditions. At NASA, the Human Research Program (HRP) has been established to investigate the specific risks to astronaut health and performance presented by space exploration, in addition to developing necessary countermeasures and technology to reduce risk and facilitate safer, more productive missions in space (NASA Human Research Program 2009). The HRP is divided into five subsections, covering behavioral health, space radiation, habitability, and other areas of interest. Within this structure is the ExMC Element, whose research contributes to the overall development of new technologies to overcome the challenges of expanding human exploration and habitation of space. The risk statement provided by the HRP to the ExMC Element states: "Given that medical conditions/events will occur during human spaceflight missions, there is a possibility of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance in mission and for long term health" (NASA Human Research Program 2016). Within this risk context, the Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element is specifically concerned with establishing evidenced-based methods of monitoring and maintaining astronaut health. Essential to completing this task is the advancement in techniques that identify, prevent, and treat any health threats that may occur during space missions. The ultimate goal of the ExMC Element is to develop and demonstrate a pathway for medical system integration into vehicle and mission design to mitigate the risk of medical issues. Integral to this effort is inclusion of an evidence-based medical and data handling system appropriate for long-duration, exploration-class missions. This requires a clear Concept of Operations, quantitative risk metrics or other tools to address changing risk throughout a mission, and system scoping and system

  4. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  5. Experimental investigation on laser-induced plasma ignition of hydrocarbon fuel in scramjet engine at takeover flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xipeng; Liu, Weidong; Pan, Yu; Yang, Leichao; An, Bin

    2017-09-01

    Laser-induced plasma ignition of an ethylene fuelled cavity is successfully conducted in a model scramjet engine combustor with dual cavities. The simulated flight condition corresponds to takeover flight Mach 4, with isolator entrance Mach number of 2.1, the total pressure of 0.65 MPa and stagnation temperature of 947 K. Ethylene is injected 35 mm upstream of cavity flameholder from four orifices with 2-mm-diameter. The 1064 nm laser beam, from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source running at 10 Hz and 940 mJ per pulse, is focused into cavity for ignition. High speed photography is used to capture the transient ignition process. The laser-induced gas breakdown, flame kernel generation and propagation are all recorded and ensuing stable supersonic combustion is established in cavity. The highly ionized plasma zone is almost round at starting, and then the surface of the flame kernel is wrinkled severely in 150 μs after the laser pulse due to the strong turbulence flow in cavity. The flame kernel is found rotating anti-clockwise and gradually moves upstream as the entrainment of circulation flow in cavity. The flame is stabilized at the corner of the cavity for about 200 μs, and then spreads from leading edge to trailing edge via the under part of shear layer to fully fill the entire cavity. The corner recirculation zone of cavity is of great importance for flame spreading. Eventually, a cavity shear-layer stabilized combustion is established in the supersonic flow roughly 2.9 ms after the laser pulse. Both the temporal evolution of normalized chemiluminescence intensity and normalized flame area show that the entire ignition process can be divided into four stages, which are referred as turbulent dissipation stage, combustion enhancement stage, reverting stage and combustion stabilization stage. The results show promising potentials of laser induced plasma for ignition in real scramjets.

  6. Eternal Flight as the Solution for 'X' Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An investigation into a new mission concept approach to achieve unlimited high altitude long endurance flight to achieve geosynchronous atmospheric satellites for...

  7. 高压共轨柴油机高海拔(低气压)燃烧特性%Combustion Characteristics of Common Rail Diesel Engine Under High Altitude (Low Pressure) Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广猛; 刘瑞林; 董素荣; 李骏; 王威; 张众杰; 戈非

    2012-01-01

    利用内燃机高原环境模拟试验台,对经过高海拔标定后的高压共轨柴油机进行了外特性试验,重点研究了高原环境条件(0.5km)对低速和高速燃烧特性的影响.结果表明:该柴油机在低速下平均指示压力、最高燃烧压力、最大压力升高率和放热率峰值均随海拔的增加而减小;海拔每升高1km,上述燃烧参数分别平均降低6.83%、7.03%、4.00%和3.92%.低速下最高燃烧压力点、放热率峰值点和放热率重心随海拔基本保持不变,最大压力升高率点后移.高速下平均指示压力和放热率峰值随海拔的增加而减小,海拔每升高1km,分别降低2.59%和2.00%;最高燃烧压力随海拔基本保持不变,最高燃烧温度随海拔的增加而增高;最高燃烧压力点、最高燃烧温度点和放热率峰值点以及放热率重心前移.在高海拔高速工况下发生了燃烧压力振荡,造成噪声和机械负荷增大.%Full load characteristic of a common rail diesel engine after high altitude calibration was con- ducted via engine plateau environment simulating test bed. Effects of plateau ambient conditions (0-5 km) on low and high speed combustion characteristics were studied. Results show that the mean indicated ef- fective pressure, maximum combustion pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and peak heat release rate decrease with increasing the altitude at low speed, decreasing by 6.83%, 7.03%, 4.00% and 3.92% averagely and respectively for every I km altitude increasing. With increasing the altitude at low speed, the crank angles corresponding to maximum combustion pressure, peak heat release rate and gravity center of heat release keep almost constantly and the crank angle of maximum rate of pressure rise is retarded. Mean in- dicated effective pressure and peak heat release rate decrease with increasing the altitude at high speed, and they decrease by 2.59% and 2

  8. Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

  9. Developmental functional adaptation to high altitude: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, A Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Various approaches have been used to understand the origins of the functional traits that characterize the Andean high-altitude native. Based on the conceptual framework of developmental functional adaptation which postulates that environmental influences during the period of growth and development have long lasting effects that may be expressed during adulthood, we initiated a series of studies addressed at determining the pattern of physical growth and the contribution of growth and development to the attainment of full functional adaptation to high-altitude of low and high altitude natives living under rural and urban conditions. Current research indicate that: (a) the pattern of growth at high altitude due to limited nutritional resources, physical growth in body size is delayed but growth in lung volumes is accelerated because of hypoxic stress); (b) low-altitude male and female urban natives can attain a full functional adaptation to high altitude by exposure to high-altitude hypoxia during the period of growth and development; (c) both experimental studies on animals and comparative human studies indicate that exposure to high altitude during the period of growth and development results in the attainment of a large residual lung volume; (d) this developmentally acquired enlarged residual lung volume and its associated increase in alveolar area when combined with the increased tissue capillarization and moderate increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration contributes to the successful functional adaptation of the Andean high-altitude native to hypoxia; and (e) any specific genetic traits that are related to the successful functional adaptation of Andean high-altitude natives have yet to be identified.

  10. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors campaign in the radiation field at aviation altitudes. This cooperation offered the opportunity to measure under the same space weather conditions and contributed to an independent quality control among the participating groups. The CONCORD flight campaign was performed with the twin-jet research aircraft Dassault Falcon 20E operated by the flight facility Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR. Dose rates were measured at four positions in the atmosphere in European airspace for about one hour at each position in order to obtain acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the measuring flights demonstrates that short-term solar activity did not affect the results which show a very good agreement between the readings of the instruments of the different institutes.

  11. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Trompier, François; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Matthiä, Daniel; Ploc, Ondrej; Santen, Nicole; Wirtz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors) campaign in the radiation field at aviation altitudes. This cooperation offered the opportunity to measure under the same space weather conditions and contributed to an independent quality control among the participating groups. The CONCORD flight campaign was performed with the twin-jet research aircraft Dassault Falcon 20E operated by the flight facility Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR). Dose rates were measured at four positions in the atmosphere in European airspace for about one hour at each position in order to obtain acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the measuring flights demonstrates that short-term solar activity did not affect the results which show a very good agreement between the readings of the instruments of the different institutes.

  12. High Altitude Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lt. Col. G K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc.), cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc.) nail changes (koilonychias), airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma) are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place. PMID:28216727

  13. High altitude dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc., cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc. nail changes (koilonychias, airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place.

  14. 78 FR 14005 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and Roll Limiting Functions AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... with pitch and roll limiting functions, specifically an electronic flight control system which contains... controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and rudder, controlled by the...

  15. 77 FR 57039 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety... electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller to the control surface...

  16. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal... control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety... a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller...

  17. 78 FR 68775 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire/Flammability Resistance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... associated with the in-flight fire and flammability resistance of the composite fuselage. Experience has shown that eliminating fire propagation on the surface of interior and insulating materials enhances...

  18. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  19. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    such enzyme inhibition would favor the creation of a metabolic acidosis to offset the hypoxic respiratory alkalosis of high altitude hyperventilation...that some of their symptoms might be due to the early respiratory alkalosis seen upon arrival at high altitude. Unfortunately 23 out of the 30 subjects...i I Hamilton-16 was negative in all cases and normal respiratory excursions were seen. CSF chemistries and cell counts were normal. Houston and

  20. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-04-01

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  1. 78 FR 31838 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... for normal takeoff. The primary flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators... envelope protection features include limitations on angle-of- attack, normal load factor, bank angle, pitch...

  2. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... for normal takeoff. The primary flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators... envelope protection features include limitations on angle-of- attack, normal load factor, bank angle, pitch...

  3. The Kilimanjaro score for assessing fitness to fly paragliders at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Matt; Simpson, Alistair; Knox, Matt; Summers, Luke

    2013-09-01

    Extreme sports such as paragliding are increasing in popularity, providing continued challenges for the development of safe practice techniques. In January and February 2013, the Wings of Kilimanjaro expedition aimed to launch 95 paragliders from the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro, 5790 m above sea level. A safe launch was paramount but risked being impaired by adverse environmental conditions, in particular the pathophysiological effects of high altitude. There are no existing scores to assess fitness for high-altitude paraglider launches present in the literature. A novel scoring system, the Kilimanjaro Score, was therefore developed to rapidly assess pilots pre-flight. The Kilimanjaro Score aimed to assess cognition, memory, and visual-spatial skill within the context of standard pre-flight checks. Further testing, including the Lake Louise Score, was to be performed if the pilot's Kilimanjaro Score was deemed unsatisfactory. We present the Kilimanjaro Score here for comment and refinement, and we invite other parties to consider its use in the field for high altitude paragliding activities.

  4. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  5. Altitude and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  6. Autonomous homing control of a powered parafoil with insufficient altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin; Sun, Qing-Lin; Tan, Pan-Long; Chen, Zeng-Qiang; He, Ying-Ping

    2016-11-01

    In order to realize safe and accurate homing of a powered parafoil under the condition of insufficient initial altitude, a multiphase homing path is designed according to the flight characteristics of the vehicle. With consideration that the traditional control methods cannot ensure the quality of path following because of the nonlinear, large inertial and longtime delay existed in the system and strong disturbances in a complex environment, a homing controller, composed of the vertical and horizontal trajectory tracking controllers, is designed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). Then autonomous homing simulation experiment of the powered parafoil with insufficient altitude is carried on in a windy environment. The simulation results show that the planned multiphase homing trajectory can fulfill the requirements of fixed-point homing and flare landing; the designed homing controller can overcome the influences of uncertain items of the internal and external disturbances, track the desired homing path more rapidly and steadily, and possesses better control performances than traditional PID controllers.

  7. High altitude syndromes at intermediate altitudes: a pilot study in the Australian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Graham; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2013-10-01

    Our hypothesis is that symptoms of high altitude syndromes are detectable even at intermediate altitudes, as commonly encountered under Australian conditions (flatus expulsion (HAFE). Symptoms of high altitude syndromes are of growing concern because of the global trend toward increasing numbers of tourists and workers exposed to both rapid ascent and sustained physical activity at high altitude. However, in Australia, high altitude medicine has almost no profile because of our relatively low altitudes by international standards. Three factors lead us to believe that altitude sickness in Australia deserves more serious consideration: Australia is subject to rapid growth in alpine recreational industries; altitude sickness is highly variable between individuals, and some people do experience symptoms already at 1500 m; and there is potential for an occupational health and safety issue amongst workers. To test this hypothesis we examined the relationship between any high altitude symptoms and a rapid ascent to an intermediate altitude (1800 m) by undertaking an intervention study in a cohort of eight medical clinic staff, conducted during July of the 2012 (Southern Hemisphere) ski season, using self-reporting questionnaires, at Mansfield (316 m above sea level) and at the Ski Resort of Mt Buller (1800 m), Victoria, Australia. The intervention consisted of ascent by car from Mansfield to Mt Buller (approx. 40 min drive). Participants completed a self-reporting questionnaire including demographic data and information on frequency of normal homeostatic processes (fluid intake and output, food intake and output, symptoms including thirst and headaches, and frequency of passing wind or urine). Data were recorded in hourly periods extending over 18 h before and 18 h after ascent. We found that the frequency of flatus production more than doubled following ascent, with a post-ascent frequency of approximately 14 expulsions per person over the 18 h recording period (Rate

  8. Low altitude remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez Calero, D.; Peyaud, A.; Van der Wal, D.; van 't Hof, J.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Vink, R.; Bovenkamp, E.G.P.; van Antwerpen, G.; Meynart, R.; Neeck, S.P.; Shimoda, H.; Habib, S.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 TNO started to fly some sensors on an unmanned helicopter platform. These sensors included RGB, B/W and thermal infrared cameras. In 2008 a spectrometer was added. The goal for 2010 is to be able to offer a low altitude flying platform including several sensors. Development of these sensors

  9. The interactions of the cells in the development of osteoporotic changes in bones under space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Kabitskaya, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Using the methods of electron microscopy and autoradiography with ³N-glycine and ³N-thymidine on biosatellites "Bion-11" (Macaca mulatta, the duration of the experiments -10 days), "Bion-M1" (mouse C57 Black, duration of the flight - 30 days) in the experiments with modeled hypokinesia (white rats, hind limbs unloading, the duration of the experiments 28 days) new data about the morpho-functional peculiarities of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling zones of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals to microgravity. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and paving endost one as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and perivascular cells. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of perivascular cell-stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, the number of apoptotic osteoblasts increases. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts, bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn't occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in remodeling loci. These cell reactions

  10. Nike Black Brant V high altitude dynamic instability characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, W. H.; Walker, L. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Flight experience on the Nike Black Brant V has demonstrated the existence of plume induced flow separation over the fins and aft body of the Black Brant V motor. Modelling of the forces associated with this phenomenon as well as analysis of the resultant vehicle coning motion and its effect on the velocity vector heading are presented. A summary of Nike Black Brant V flight experience with high altitude dynamic instability is included.

  11. Nike Black Brant V high altitude dynamic instability characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, W. H.; Walker, L. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Flight experience on the Nike Black Brant V has demonstrated the existence of plume induced flow separation over the fins and aft body of the Black Brant V motor. Modelling of the forces associated with this phenomenon as well as analysis of the resultant vehicle coning motion and its effect on the velocity vector heading are presented. A summary of Nike Black Brant V flight experience with high altitude dynamic instability is included.

  12. Global Trends in Glacial Cirque Floor Altitudes and Their Relationships with Climate, Equilibrium Line Altitudes, and Mountain Range Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Humphries, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial erosion at the base of cirque headwalls and the creation of threshold slopes above cirque floors may contribute to the 'glacial buzzsaw' effect in limiting the altitude of some mountain ranges. Since glacial extent and therefore glacial erosion rate depends on the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of a region, the altitude of cirque formation should be a function of the ELA. Several regional studies have shown that cirque floors form at an altitude approximating average Quaternary ELAs in some mountain ranges, but a global correlation has not yet been demonstrated. We examined the correlation between cirque altitudes and global ELA trends by compiling existing and new cirque altitude and morphometry data from > 30 mountain ranges at a wide range of latitudes. Where available, we calculate or present the average cirque altitude, relief, and latitude. We compared these altitudes to both the global East Pacific ELA and local ELAs where available. For the locations analyzed, the majority of average cirque altitudes fall between the Eastern Pacific modern and LGM ELAs, and mountain range height is typically limited to cirque formation is dependent upon the ELA, and that cirques likely form as a result of average, rather than extreme, glacial conditions. Furthermore, the correlation between cirque altitude and ELA, along with the restricted window of relief, implies that cirque formation is a factor in limiting peak altitude in ranges that rise above the ELA.

  13. Radiometer experiment for the aeroassist flight experiment. [Thermal protection data for Orbital Transfer Vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, W. C.; Park, C.; Arnold, J. O.; Balakrishnan, A.

    1985-01-01

    A forthcoming NASA flight experiment is described that provides an opportunity to obtain a large base of radiometric data for high-altitude, high-velocity thermochemically nonequilibrated-flow conditions. As a preliminary to the design of a radiometer for this experiment, an approximate method for predicting both equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiative surface fluxes is described. Spectral results for one trajectory state, a velocity of 10 km/sec at an altitude of 85 km, are presented. These results are then used to develop some of the instrument parameters that will be needed for designing of the three genre of radiometers that are proposed for this experiment.

  14. 77 FR 69573 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... takeoff. The primary flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and...) Longitudinal Static Stability: Static longitudinal stability on airplanes with mechanical links to the pitch... result in significant changes in attitude, airspeed or load factor. A predictable pitch response is...

  15. 78 FR 11560 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and rudder, controlled by...) Longitudinal Static Stability: Static longitudinal stability on airplanes with mechanical links to the pitch... result in significant changes in attitude, airspeed or load factor. A predictable pitch response is...

  16. 78 FR 11562 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 20, 2012 (77 FR...; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... inadvertently or intentionally exceeding a speed approximately equivalent to V FC or attaining V DF ....

  17. 77 FR 69572 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http...; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... inadvertently or intentionally exceeding a speed approximately equivalent to V FC or attaining V DF ....

  18. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the ...

  19. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  20. Measurements of gondola motion on a stratospheric balloon flight

    CERN Document Server

    Safonova, Margarita; Sreejith, A G; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, S; Prakash, Ajin; Mathew, Joice; Murthy, Jayant; Anand, Devarajan; Kapardhi, B V N; Kumar, B Suneel; Kulkarni, P M

    2016-01-01

    Balloon experiments are an economically feasible method of conducting observations in astronomy that are not possible from the ground. The astronomical payload may include a telescope, a detector, and a pointing/stabilization system. Determining the attitude of the payload is of primary importance in such applications, to accurately point the detector/telescope to the desired direction. This is especially important in generally unstable lightweight balloon flights. However, the conditions at float altitudes, which can be reached by zero pressure balloons, could be more stable, enabling accurate pointings. We have used the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), placed on a stratospheric zero pressure balloon, to observe 3-axis motion of a balloon payload over a fight time of 4.5 hours, from launch to the float altitude of 31.2 km. The balloon was launched under nominal atmospheric conditions on May 8th 2016, from a Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Balloon Facility, Hyderabad.

  1. The importance of leading edge vortices under simplified flapping flight conditions at the size scale of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decade, interest in animal flight has grown, in part due to the possible use of flapping propulsion for micro air vehicles. The importance of unsteady lift-enhancing mechanisms in insect flight has been recognized, but unsteady effects were generally thought to be absent for the flapping flight of larger animals. Only recently has the existence of LEVs (leading edge vortices) in small vertebrates such as swifts, small bats and hummingbirds been confirmed. To study the relevance of unsteady effects at the scale of large birds [reduced frequency k between 0.05 and 0.3, k=(pifc)/U(infinity); f is wingbeat frequency, U(infinity) is free-stream velocity, and c is the average wing chord], and the consequences of the lack of kinematic and morphological refinements, we have designed a simplified goose-sized flapping model for wind tunnel testing. The 2-D flow patterns along the wing span were quantitatively visualized using particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a three-component balance was used to measure the forces generated by the wings. The flow visualization on the wing showed the appearance of LEVs, which is typically associated with a delayed stall effect, and the transition into flow separation. Also, the influence of the delayed stall and flow separation was clearly visible in measurements of instantaneous net force over the wingbeat cycle. Here, we show that, even at reduced frequencies as low as those of large bird flight, unsteady effects are present and non-negligible and have to be addressed by kinematic and morphological adaptations.

  2. [The ability for psych self-regulation as a factor in resistance to the stresses in extreme conditions of space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A G; Bystritskaia, A F; Smirnova, T M

    2005-01-01

    Significance of the ability for psych self-regulation in the context of resistance to the stresses of space flight was studied in an experiment with 9 test-subjects simulating such factors of space flights as 8 to 9-day isolation and confinement, some physiological effects of microgravity in a head-down position at -8 degrees for 7 d, artificial climate, and implementation of dock and piloting operations. Stress resistance, self-regulation, mental performance and behavior were assessed with the use of computerized tests "Mirror coordinograph", "Relaxometer", and "SOPR-monitoring". The ability to voluntary control psych was shown to be favorable to stress-resistance and rapid recovery of mental efficiency after the natural decline in consequence of the experimental simulation. The ability for psych self-regulation is one of the major criteria of professional selection for exposure to extreme conditions.

  3. Pre-existing cardiovascular conditions and high altitude travel. Consensus statement of the Medical Commission of the Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA MedCom) Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegani, Enrico; Hillebrandt, David; Windsor, Jeremy; Gieseler, Ulf; Rodway, George; Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The number of persons visiting high altitude regions for various purposes (recreation, business etc.), and the age of people who do so, increases. Therefore there are more and more patients who need specific and individual advice to prevent emergency situations at altitude and to deal with emergencies if the safety strategy should fail. Since literature concerning cardiocirculatory diseases at altitude is scarce and studies with a controlled setting and high evidence level are missing, UIAA MedCom has checked all available literature for specific information to enable physicians who are active in travel or high altitude medicine to advise the patients at the highest possible level of evidence. It must be pointed out that there are several other medical fields where such information is mandatory, e.g. in occupational medicine, when employees depart to high altitude destinations for business purposes. The recommendations are based on a detailed literature research (databases, handbooks and the respective references). For easier use the paper has been structured as follows: general information, cardiocirculatory system and ECG at altitude, several cardiocirculatory diseases and their specific recommendations. The commission concludes, that a general "don't go!" is no state-of-the-art advice for the patients. With the information presented here a safe trip to altitude should be possible for many patients.

  4. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.

  5. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior st

  6. Successful test flight of an airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the Balloon Aircraft Research Center (BARC) of the Academy of Opto-electronics, CAS, succeeded in their first test flight of an aeroboat with a flight altitude up to 1,000 meters and an effective payload of 20 kilograms in Shandong on 25 December, 2007.

  7. Laser Altimeter for Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Height of flight-simulator probe above model of terrain measured by automatic laser triangulation system. Airplane simulated by probe that moves over model of terrain. Altitude of airplane scaled from height of probe above model. Height measured by triangulation of laser beam aimed at intersection of model surface with plumb line of probe.

  8. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-06-18

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  9. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  10. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF AUTOMATIC FLIGHT OF POLIKOPTER UAV NAU PKF "AURORA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of mathematical and experimental models of polikopter UAV NAU PKF "Aurora" of oktakopter scheme for experimental flights in manual, semi-automatic and unmanned mode.                  Methods: 14/03/2016 - 21/03/2016 held a serіe of experiental flights (10 flights of 10 rats on altitude 700 meters on polіkopter (oktakopter NAU PKF "Aurora" in germetic kabіn with the study of his somatic,  nevrologіcal status after the flight. Flights also carried out with experimental animals on board for such a safety assessment. Results: The obtained logs of 'black box' of the autopilot indicate very small (almost invisible fluctuations in pitch, roll and yaw during the flight, minor variations on altitude during almost stationary hovering of polikopter at different altitudes, and fully adequate to movements and maneuvers of aircraft vibrations and parameters of these sensors. Discussion: In the course of these studies demonstrated experimentally the possibility of completely safe flight of the mammals (rats on polikopter vehicle, even in the open cockpit. With appropriate refinement possible in the future to raise the issue of the development and construction of passenger polikopter flyers for totally safe air transportation of people [6,7,8]. In terms of adverse mechanical effects on the human body (acceleration overload fluctuations, vibrations polikopter transport is safer and less harmful to the passengers than road transport, which is particularly important in the delivery of patient of neurosurgical, politravmatological, cardiologycal and critical care profile at critical condition in intensive care units and operating hospitals and medical centers.

  11. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  12. A quantitative analysis of TIMS data obtained on the Learjet 23 at various altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1992-01-01

    A series of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data acquisition flights were conducted on the NASA Learjet 23 at different altitudes over a test site. The objective was to monitor the performance of the TIMS (its estimation of the brightness temperatures of the ground scene) with increasing altitude. The results do not show any significant correlation between the brightness temperatures and the altitude. The analysis indicates that the estimation of the temperatures is a function of the accuracy of the atmospheric correction used for each altitude.

  13. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested. For each pressure altitude test point conducted the ambient static temperature was predicted using a NASA engine icing risk computer model for the given ambient static pressure while maintaining the engine speed.

  14. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  15. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airship. A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-country flight in an airship must receive and... ascending and descending flight and altitude control; (11) Control of the airship solely by reference to...

  16. Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU system on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft are used to estimate acceleration effects on static pressure measurement. Using data collected during periods of accelerated flight, comparison of measured pressure with that derived from GNSS/IMU geometric altitude show that errors exceeding 150 Pa can occur which is significant in airspeed and atmospheric air motion determination. A method is developed to predict static pressure errors from analysis of differential pressure measurements from a Rosemount model 858 differential pressure air velocity probe. The method was evaluated with a carefully designed probe towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft – a "trailing cone" – in steady flight, and shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, compared to the GNSS/IMU data, this algorithm predicts corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are examined.

  17. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    This photo of the X-1A includes graphs of the flight data from Maj. Charles E. Yeager's Mach 2.44 flight on December 12, 1953. (This was only a few days short of the 50th anniversary of the Wright brothers' first powered flight.) After reaching Mach 2.44, then the highest speed ever reached by a piloted aircraft, the X-1A tumbled completely out of control. The motions were so violent that Yeager cracked the plastic canopy with his helmet. He finally recovered from a inverted spin and landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. Among the data shown are Mach number and altitude (the two top graphs). The speed and altitude changes due to the tumble are visible as jagged lines. The third graph from the bottom shows the G-forces on the airplane. During the tumble, these twice reached 8 Gs or 8 times the normal pull of gravity at sea level. (At these G forces, a 200-pound human would, in effect, weigh 1,600 pounds if a scale were placed under him in the direction of the force vector.) Producing these graphs was a slow, difficult process. The raw data from on-board instrumentation recorded on oscillograph film. Human computers then reduced the data and recorded it on data sheets, correcting for such factors as temperature and instrument errors. They used adding machines or slide rules for their calculations, pocket calculators being 20 years in the future. Three second generation Bell Aircraft Corporations X-1s were built, though four were requested. They were the X-1A (48-1384); X-1B (48-1385); X-1C (canceled and never built); X-1D (48-1386). These aircraft were similar to the X-1s, except they were five feet longer, had conventional canopies, and were powered by Reaction Motors, Inc. XLR11-RM-5 rocket engines. The RM-5, like the previous engines, had no throttle and was controlled by igniting one or more of the four thrust chambers at will. The original program outline called for the X-1A and X-1B to be used for dynamic stability and air loads investigations. The X-1D was to be used

  18. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  19. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  20. DC Flashover Performance of Ice-covered Porcelain Insulator Strings Under High Altitude Conditions%直流瓷绝缘子长串高海拔覆冰闪络特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建林; 蒋兴良; 孙才新; 张志劲; 舒立春

    2011-01-01

    为了给超特高压直流输电线路外绝缘选择和运行维护提供基础数据,以典型直流瓷绝缘子XZP-210长串为研究对象,在大型多功能人工气候室试验研究了污秽、覆冰、高海拔综合复杂环境下的直流闪络特性。试验结果表明:XZP-210覆冰绝缘子串直流冰闪50%闪络电压眠慨与串长基本呈线性关系;不同海拔高度下,弘㈣随覆冰厚度和污秽程度增加均呈幂函数规律下降,冰厚影响的特征指数在0.182~0.208之间,污秽程度影响特征指数在0.175~0.191之间;气压对%0%的影响特征指数n在0.404-0.462之间;临界闪络电流I%In order to obtain the basic data for the design and maintenance of insulators used in UHV/EHV transmission lines, the DC flashover performance of typical insulator strings XZP-210 were studied under the combined conditions of surface pollution, icing and high altitude in the multi-function artificial climate chamber. Based on the test results, the relationships between the flashover voltage and the insulator length as well as the environmental factors were obtained. Test results show that the average flashover voltage (U50%) of ice-covered XZP-210 insulator strings is almost in linear relationship with the string length, and decreases with the increase of the ice thickness and pollution severity in power function rule at various altitudes. The characteristic exponent describing the influence degree of ice thickness, and pollution severity is 0.182-0.208 and 0.175-0.191 respectively. The characteristic exponent describing the influence degree of air pressure is from 0.404 to 0.462. The critical flashover current lc increases in power function rule with the increase of pollution severity, and the range of the characteristic exponent is from 0.629 to 0.678. Moreover, Ic decreases with the decrease of air pressure, and it presents the power function rule along with the ratio of air pressure

  1. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of bone-Impact of sample preparation and measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henss, Anja; Hild, Anne; Rohnke, Marcus; Wenisch, Sabine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-06-07

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enables the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ions and fragments with high mass and spatial resolution. Due to recent technical developments, ToF-SIMS has been increasingly applied in the life sciences where sample preparation plays an eminent role for the quality of the analytical results. This paper focusses on sample preparation of bone tissue and its impact on ToF-SIMS analysis. The analysis of bone is important for the understanding of bone diseases and the development of replacement materials and new drugs for the cure of diseased bone. The main purpose of this paper is to find out which preparation process is best suited for ToF-SIMS analysis of bone tissue in order to obtain reliable and reproducible analytical results. The influence of the embedding process on the different components of bone is evaluated using principal component analysis. It is shown that epoxy resin as well as methacrylate based plastics (Epon and Technovit) as embedding materials do not infiltrate the mineralized tissue and that cut sections are better suited for the ToF-SIMS analysis than ground sections. In case of ground samples, a resin layer is smeared over the sample surface due to the polishing step and overlap of peaks is found. Beside some signals of fatty acids in the negative ion mode, the analysis of native, not embedded samples does not provide any advantage. The influence of bismuth bombardment and O2 flooding on the signal intensity of organic and inorganic fragments due to the variation of the ionization probability is additionally discussed. As C60 sputtering has to be applied to remove the smeared resin layer, its effect especially on the organic fragments of the bone is analyzed and described herein.

  2. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  3. 78 FR 63902 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... fly-by-wire elevators, ailerons, and rudders controlled by the pilot or copilot sidestick. The design.../displacement gradients, Smooth transition from pilot elevator control to limit control. The special conditions... turns, and (2) That wings level pitch up is satisfactory. (d) Maximum achievable negative load factor...

  4. 78 FR 19981 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Register on February 19, 2013 (78 FR 11562). The error was an extra number, ``12,'' in the number of..., Special Conditions No. 25-12-482-SC'' was published in the Federal Register on February 19, 2013 (78 FR... [FR Doc. 2013-03676 Filed 2- 15-13; 8:45 am] published on February 19, 2013 (78 FR 11562), make...

  5. 77 FR 75066 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Flight Envelope Protection (Icing and Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... pitching occurs. 5. Handling Characteristics at High Incidence In lieu of both Sec. 25.201 and Sec. 25.203... techniques; (3) Maneuvers with increased deceleration rates; (i) In non icing conditions, the requirements... characteristics shall be as follows: (1) There shall not be any abnormal nose-up pitching. (2) There shall not...

  6. Energy at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N E; Stacey, M J; Woods, D R

    2011-03-01

    For the military doctor, an understanding of the metabolic effects of high altitude (HA) exposure is highly relevant. This review examines the acute metabolic challenge and subsequent changes in nutritional homeostasis that occur when troops deploy rapidly to HA. Key factors that impact on metabolism include the hypoxic-hypobaric environment, physical exercise and diet. Expected metabolic changes include augmentation of basal metabolic rate (BMR), decreased availability of oxygen in peripheral metabolic tissues, reduction in VO2 max, increased glucose dependency and lactate accumulation during exercise. The metabolic demands of exercise at HA are crucial. Equivalent activity requires greater effort and more energy than it does at sea level. Soldiers working at HA show high energy expenditure and this may exceed energy intake significantly. Energy intake at HA is affected adversely by reduced availability, reduced appetite and changes in endocrine parameters. Energy imbalance and loss of body water result in weight loss, which is extremely common at HA. Loss of fat predominates over loss of fat-free mass. This state resembles starvation and the preferential primary fuel source shifts from carbohydrate towards fat, reducing performance efficiency. However, these adverse effects can be mitigated by increasing energy intake in association with a high carbohydrate ration. Commanders must ensure that individuals are motivated, educated, strongly encouraged and empowered to meet their energy needs in order to maximise mission-effectiveness.

  7. 卷烟厂高压风机在高海拔地区运行工况分析%Analysis of Operating Conditions of High - Pressure Centrifugal Fan of Cigarette Making Machine In the Cigarette Factory of High Altitude Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞; 戴石良; 刘源全; 丛明滋; 张谷

    2011-01-01

    The operating conditions of high - pressure centrifugal fan of cigarette making machine are different between the high altitude regions and sea -level areas. For that, it analyzed the feature of the atmospheric pressure, temperature and air density in the high altitude regions. Also it analyzed the characteristic of air volume, pressure, efficiency and power of the fan in high altitude cigarette factory, which is compared to the sea- level areas'. In the end, it is found that the fan efficiency will decrease when it is operated in high altitude regions.%针对卷烟厂卷接机组的高压离心风机在高海拔地区和海平面地区运行工况的不同,详细分析了高海拔地区的大气压力、温度和空气密度的特点以及风机在风量、风压、效率和功率各方面与在海平面地区运行时的不同,最后结合工程实际发现高海拔地区的风机实际运行效率会下降.

  8. Piloted Simulation of Various Synthetic Vision Systems Terrain Portrayal and Guidance Symbology Concepts for Low Altitude En-Route Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takallu, M. A.; Glaab, L. J.; Hughes, M. F.; Wong, D. T.; Bartolone, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems Project, a series of piloted simulations were conducted to explore and quantify the relationship between candidate Terrain Portrayal Concepts and Guidance Symbology Concepts, specific to General Aviation. The experiment scenario was based on a low altitude en route flight in Instrument Metrological Conditions in the central mountains of Alaska. A total of 18 general aviation pilots, with three levels of pilot experience, evaluated a test matrix of four terrain portrayal concepts and six guidance symbology concepts. Quantitative measures included various pilot/aircraft performance data, flight technical errors and flight control inputs. The qualitative measures included pilot comments and pilot responses to the structured questionnaires such as perceived workload, subjective situation awareness, pilot preferences, and the rare event recognition. There were statistically significant effects found from guidance symbology concepts and terrain portrayal concepts but no significant interactions between them. Lower flight technical errors and increased situation awareness were achieved using Synthetic Vision Systems displays, as compared to the baseline Pitch/Roll Flight Director and Blue Sky Brown Ground combination. Overall, those guidance symbology concepts that have both path based guidance cue and tunnel display performed better than the other guidance concepts.

  9. Out of air: Is going to high altitude safe for your patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ann M; Forest, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    As more people travel to high altitudes for recreation or work, more travelers with underlying medical conditions will need advice before traveling or treatment for altitude illness. This article focuses on the two main issues for travelers: whether travel to a high altitude will have a negative effect on their underlying medical condition and whether the medical condition increases the patient's risk of developing altitude illness. Although patients with severe pulmonary or cardiac conditions are most at risk in the hypoxic environment, other conditions such as diabetes and pregnancy warrant attention as well.

  10. Long-term observations of cluster ion concentration, sources and sinks in clear sky conditions at the high-altitude site of the Puy de Dôme, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C.; Boulon, J.; Hervo, M.; Holmgren, H.; Asmi, E.; Ramonet, M.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.

    2013-11-01

    Cluster particles (0.8-1.9 nm) are key entities involved in nucleation and new particle formation processes in the atmosphere. Cluster ions were characterized in clear sky conditions at the Puy de Dôme station (1465 m a.s.l.). The studied data set spread over five years (February 2007-February 2012), which provided a unique chance to observe seasonal variations of cluster ion properties at high altitude. Statistical values of the cluster ion concentrations and diameters are reported for both positive and negative polarities. Cluster ions were found to be ubiquitous at the Puy de Dôme and displayed an annual variation with lower concentrations in spring. Positive cluster ions were less numerous than negative, but were larger in diameter. Negative cluster ion properties were not sensitive to the occurrence of a new particle formation (NPF) event, while positive cluster ions appeared to be significantly more numerous and larger on event days. The parameters of the balance equation for the positive cluster concentration are reported separately for the different seasons and for the NPF event days and non-event days. The steady-state assumption suggests that the ionization rate is balanced with two sinks: the ion recombination and the attachment onto background aerosol particles, referred to as "aerosol ion sink". The aerosol ion sink was predominant compared to the recombination sink. The positive ionization rates derived from the balance equation (Qcalc) were well correlated with the ionization rates obtained from radon measurement (Qmeas). When ignoring the gamma radiation contribution to the ion production, Qcalc is on average higher than Qmeas during the warm season. In contrast, when a seasonal gamma contribution is taken into account, Qmeas always exceeds Qcalc. We found that neither the aerosol ion sink nor the ionization rate (calculated or measured, with or without the gamma contribution) were significantly different on event days compared to non-event days

  11. Flight Performance and Competitive Displacement of Hummingbirds across Elevational Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2006-01-01

    Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variabl...

  12. CdZnTe Background Measurement at Balloon Altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Narita, T; Harrison, F

    1998-01-01

    We report results of an experiment conducted in May 1997 to measure CdZnTe background and background reduction schemes in space flight conditions similar to those of proposed hard X-ray astrophysics missions. A 1 cm^2 CdZnTe detector was placed adjacent to a thick BGO anticoincidence shield and flown piggybacked onto the EXITE2 scientific balloon payload. The planar shield was designed to veto background countsproduced by local gamma-ray production in passive material and neutron interactions in the detector. The CdZnTe and BGO were partially surrounded by a Pb-Sn-Cu shield to approximate the grammage of an X-ray collimator, although the field of view was still ~2 pi sr. At an altitude of 127000 feet we find a reduction in background by a factor of 6 at 100 keV. The non-vetoed background is 9 X 10^{-4} cts /cm^2-sec-keV at 100 keV, about a factor of 2 higher than that of the collimated (4.5 deg FWHM) EXITE2 phoswich detector. We compare our recorded spectrum with that expected from simulations using GEANT and...

  13. A challenge to the highest balloon altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Akita, D.; Fuke, H.; Iijima, I.; Izutsu, N.; Kato, Y.; Kawada, J.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Mizuta, E.; Namiki, M.; Nonaka, N.; Ohta, S.; Sato, T.; Seo, M.; Takada, A.; Tamura, K.; Toriumi, M.; Yamagami, T.; Yamada, K.; Yoshida, T.; Matsushima, K.; Tanaka, S.

    2012-02-01

    Development of a balloon to fly at higher altitudes is one of the most attractive challenges for scientific balloon technologies. After reaching the highest balloon altitude of 53.0 km using the 3.4 μm film in 2002, a thinner balloon film with a thickness of 2.8 μm was developed. A 5000 m3 balloon made with this film was launched successfully in 2004. However, three 60,000 m3 balloons with the same film launched in 2005, 2006, and 2007, failed during ascent. The mechanical properties of the 2.8 μm film were investigated intensively to look for degradation of the ultimate strength and its elongation as compared to the other thicker balloon films. The requirement of the balloon film was also studied using an empirical and a physical model assuming an axis-symmetrical balloon shape and the static pressure. It was found that the film was strong enough. A stress due to the dynamic pressure by the wind shear is considered as the possible reason for the unsuccessful flights. A 80,000 m3 balloon with cap films covering 9 m from the balloon top will be launch in 2011 to test the appropriateness of this reinforcement.

  14. 14 CFR 91.515 - Flight altitude rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane under VFR at less than— (1) One thousand feet above the surface, or 1,000 feet from any mountain..., for night operations. (b) This section does not apply— (1) During takeoff or landing; (2) When...

  15. HAWC - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Andreas; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) is an instrument for the detection of high energy cosmic gamma-rays. Its predecessor Milagro has successfully proven that the water Cherenkov technology for gamma-ray astronomy is a useful technique. HAWC is currently under construction at Sierra Negra in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m and will include several improvements compared to Milagro. Two complementary DAQ systems of the HAWC detector allow for the observation of a large fraction of the sky with a very high duty cycle and independent of environmental conditions. HAWC will observe the gamma-ray sky from about 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. Also the cosmic ray flux anisotropy on different angular length scales is object of HAWC science. Because of HAWC's large effective area and field of view, we describe its prospects to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as an example for transient sources.

  16. Altitude transitions in energy climbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The aircraft energy-climb trajectory for configurations with a sharp transonic drag rise is well known to possess two branches in the altitude/Mach-number plane. Transition in altitude between the two branches occurs instantaneously, a 'corner' in the minimum-time solution obtained with the energy-state model. If the initial and final values of altitude do not lie on the energy-climb trajectory, then additional jumps (crude approximations to dives and zooms) are required at the initial and terminal points. With a singular-perturbation approach, a 'boundary-layer' correction is obtained for each altitude jump, the transonic jump being a so-called 'internal' boundary layer, different in character from the initial and terminal layers. The determination of this internal boundary layer is examined and some computational results for an example presented.

  17. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  18. A3 Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulreix, Lionel J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation shows drawings, diagrams and photographs of the A3 Altitude Test Facility. It includes a review of the A3 Facility requirements, and drawings of the various sections of the facility including Engine Deck and Superstructure, Test Cell and Thrust Takeout, Structure and Altitude Support Systems, Chemical Steam generators, and the subscale diffuser. There are also pictures of the construction site, and the facility under construction. A Diagram of the A3 Steam system schematic is also shown

  19. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, A.

    beneficial points provided by the Iridium platform include pure global accessibility (as well as polar), cost effectiveness because it is available as a COTS (Commercially Off The Shelf) technology, reliability in that the equipment must operate in extreme conditions (near space), integration and development time into current systems must be minimized. As a bonus Motorola and NAL Research Corporation are developing SBD (Short Burst Data) into the Iridium network. This may lead the way to a global IP (Internet Protocol) node based ballooning platform. The Iridium satellite data modems employ the Iridium Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite network. The scope of this paper is to introduce an OTH communications alternative, albeit not necessarily a primary one, to existing ballooning platforms using COTS based emerging technologies. Design aspects, characteristics, actual flight testing statistics, principles of the Iridium modems and communication paths are described including payload and support instrumentation interfacing. Not limited to high altitude ballooning, the Iridium communications platform opens a new era in remote commanding and data retrieval.

  20. Influence of space flight conditions on phenotypes and functionality of nephritic immune cells of fish (Xiphophorus helleri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbreier, K.; Renn, J.; Fischer, R.; Goerlich, R.

    Microgravity is considered to directly perturb a number of immunological and haematological parameters in mammalians, and therefore is of fundamental importance in space biology. The viviparous teleost Xiphophorus helleri (swordtail) was used as a "lower vertebrate model" in the shuttle missions STS-89 (Small Payload) and STS-90 (NEUROLAB). When developing a regenerative aquatic system (like the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System - C.E.B.A.S.) to produce food fish on long-term space missions, we have to make sure that microgravity and other space conditions do not endanger the animals' health. Immunological aspects are very important in this field. The major research targets were immunological research of accessory (monocytes) and immunoreactive cells (lymphocytes) of the kidney from X. helleri, which were exposed to microgravity in comparison to ground control animals. Cell cycle analysis of the main haematopoetic organ (kidney), cell behaviour, cell cytochemistry, phagocytic ability and in vitro stimulation of immunoreactive cells from kidney after return to earth were investigated. The results are also important for basic research in immunotoxicology and developmental biology. As there is an interrelation between immune cells and bone metabolism, the investigations are also interesting for space medicine. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (50 WB 9412, 50 WB 9996) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA 98HEDS-02-418)

  1. The flight test of Pi-SAR(L) for the repeat-pass interferometric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohmi, Hitoshi; Shimada, Masanobu; Miyawaki, Masanori

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the experiment of the repeat pass interferometric SAR using Pi-SAR(L). The air-borne repeat-pass interferometric SAR is expected as an effective method to detect landslide or predict a volcano eruption. To obtain a high-quality interferometric image, it is necessary to make two flights on the same flight pass. In addition, since the antenna of the Pi-SAR(L) is secured to the aircraft, it is necessary to fly at the same drift angle to keep the observation direction same. We built a flight control system using an auto pilot which has been installed in the airplane. This navigation system measures position and altitude precisely with using a differential GPS, and the PC Navigator outputs a difference from the desired course to the auto pilot. Since the air density is thinner and the speed is higher than the landing situation, the gain of the control system is required to be adjusted during the repeat pass flight. The observation direction could be controlled to some extent by adjusting a drift angle with using a flight speed control. The repeat-pass flight was conducted in Japan for three days in late November. The flight was stable and the deviation was within a few meters for both horizontal and vertical direction even in the gusty condition. The SAR data were processed in time domain based on range Doppler algorism to make the complete motion compensation. Thus, the interferometric image processed after precise phase compensation is shown.

  2. Body Function of Rowers before and after Hypoxic Pre-conditioning and Chronic Sub-Altitude Training%低氧预适应结合长时间亚高原训练前后男子赛艇运动员身体机能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 高炳宏; 高欢

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析低氧预适应结合亚高原训练前后男子赛艇运动员身体机能状态的变化.方法:16名优秀男子赛艇运动员为对象,先进行10天HiLo低氧训练,模拟海拔高度为1200~1500 m.再于海拔1500 m进行8周亚高原训练.分别于低氧训练前和亚高原训练前、中、后不同时段测定分析运动员身体机能状态,测试指标包括:氧转运系统指标(Hb、RBC)、内分泌系统指标(T、C、T/C、EPO)、免疫系统指标(WBC、IgA、IgM、IgG)以及CK和BU.结果:与低氧训练前相比,1)EPO在低氧训练后和高原训练第3天出现两个峰值,升高幅度分别为26.27%和26.60%(P<0.01).Hb在低氧后显著下降(P<0.01),高原训练第3天,第1、3、7周,下高原后第2、3周显著升高(P<0.05或P<0.01);2)白细胞在实验期间升高(P<0.01),IgA和IgG无显著变化(P>0.05),IgM在低氧训练后、高原训练第3周、下高原后第2周(P<0.01,P<0.05,P<0.05)显著升高;3)低氧训练后血清睾酮下降(P>0.05),高原训练第3天显著升高(P<0.05),血清皮质醇在高原训练第3周(P<0.01)、第5周(P<0.05)显著下降,T/C在高原训练第3天和第3、5周显著升高(P<0.05).结论:低氧预适应干预加快了运动员高原适应;10天低氧预适应结合8周亚高原训练对运动员机能状态产生良好影响,运动员未出现过度疲劳,血液载氧能力提高,免疫能力未见大幅下降.%Purpose To explore the effect of the hypoxic pre-conditioning before sub-altitude training on the body function of rowers.Methods 16 male rowers were selected to complete 10-day training at simulated altitude of 1200 m to 1500 m,followed by 8-week sub-altitude training at the altitude of 1500 m.The levels of EPO,HB,WBC,IgA,IgG and IgM,and serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were tested before hypoxic pre-conditioning and at the different periods of sub-altitude training.Results As compared with before hypoxia,(1)The peak EPO values appeared

  3. Application of altitude control techniques for low altitude earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, K. G.; Herder, R. W.; Glass, A. B.; Cooley, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The applications sensors of many low altitude earth satellites designed for recording surface or atmospheric data require near zero orbital eccentricities for maximum usefulness. Coverage patterns and altitude profiles require specified values of orbit semimajor axis. Certain initial combinations of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and argument of perigee can produce a so called 'frozen orbit' and minimum altitude variation which enhances sensor coverage. This paper develops information on frozen orbits and minimum altitude variation for all inclinations, generalizing previous results. In the altitude regions where most of these satellites function (between 200 and 1000 kilometers) strong atmospheric drag effects influence the evolution of the initial orbits. Active orbital maneuver control techniques to correct evolution of orbit parameters while minimizing the frequency of maneuvers are presented. The paper presents the application of theoretical techniques for control of near frozen orbits and expands upon the methods useful for simultaneously targeting several inplane orbital parameters. The applications of these techniques are illustrated by performance results from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-3 and -5) missions and in preflight maneuver analysis and plans for the Seasat Oceanographic Satellite.

  4. The physiological basis of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2016-09-26

    Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher. Species like bar-headed geese migrate at high altitudes, where the availability of oxygen is reduced and the energy cost of flapping flight increased compared with those at sea level. Physiological adaptations to these conditions include haemoglobin with a higher affinity for oxygen than that in lowland birds, a greater effective ventilation of the gas-exchange surface of the lungs and a greater capillary-to-muscle fibre ratio. Migrating birds use fatty acids as their source of energy, so they have to be transported at a sufficient rate to meet the high demand. Since fatty acids are insoluble in water, birds maintain high concentrations of fatty acid-binding proteins to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane and within the cytoplasm. The concentrations of these proteins, together with that of a key enzyme in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, increase before migration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  5. D-558-2 launch and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    (Bureau No. 37975 -- NACA 145). Skyrocket 143 flew all but one of its missions as part of the Douglas Aircraft Company contractor program to test the airplane's performance. NACA aircraft 143 was initially powered by a Westinghouse J34-40 turbojet engine configured only for ground takeoffs, but in 1954-55 the contractor modified it to an all-rocket air-launch capability featuring an LR8-RM-6, 4-chamber Reaction Motors engine rated at 6,000 pounds of thrust at sea level (the Navy designation for the Air Force LR-11 used in the X-1). In this configuration, NACA research pilot John McKay flew the airplane only once for familiarization on September 17, 1956. The 123 flights of NACA 143 served to validate wind-tunnel predictions of Skyrocket performance, except for the fact that the airplane experienced less drag above Mach 0.85 than the wind tunnels had indicated. NACA 144 also began its flight program with a turbojet powerplant. NACA pilots Robert A. Champine and John H. Griffith flew 21 times in this configuration to test airspeed calibrations and to research longitudinal and lateral stability and control. In the process, during August of 1949 they encountered pitchup problems, which NACA engineers recognized as serious because pitchups could produce a limiting and dangerous restriction on flight performance. Hence, they determined to make a complete investigation of the problem. In 1950 Douglas Aircraft Company replaced the turbojet with an LR-8 rocket engine, and its pilot, William B. Bridgeman, flew the aircraft seven times -- up to a speed of Mach 1.88 (1.88 times the speed of sound) and an altitude of 79,494 feet (the latter an unofficial world altitude record at the time, achieved on August 15, 1951). In the rocket configuration, a Navy P2B (Navy version of the B-29) launched the airplane at an altitude of approximately 30,000 feet after taking off from the ground with the Skyrocket attached beneath its bomb bay. During Bridgeman's supersonic flights, he encountered a

  6. Hypoxic hypoxia at moderate altitudes: review of the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrassi, Frank A; Hodkinson, Peter D; Walters, P Lynne; Gaydos, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Unpressurized aircraft routinely operate at altitudes where hypoxia may be of concern. A systematic literature review was conducted regarding hypoxic impairment, including mental functions, sensory deficits, and other pertinent research findings that may affect aviation-related duties at moderate altitude (8000 to 15,000 ft/2438 to 4572 m). The results of this review suggest that cognitive and psychomotor deficits may include learning, reaction time, decision-making, and certain types of memory. However, results are difficult to quantify and reliably reproduce. Inconsistency of results may be related to the subtlety of deficits compared to high altitude, differences among individual compensatory mechanisms, variation in methodology or sensitivity of metrics, presence or absence of exercise, heterogeneous neuronal central nervous system (CNS) response, and interindividual variation. Literature regarding hypoxic visual decrements is more consistent. Rod photoreceptors are more susceptible to hypoxia; visual degradation has been demonstrated at 4000 to 5000 ft (1219 to 1524 m) under scotopic and 10,000 ft (3048 m) under photopic conditions. Augmented night vision goggle resolution demonstrates more resilience to mild hypoxic effects than the unaided eye under starlight conditions. Hypocapnia enhances visual sensitivity and contrast discrimination. Hyperventilation with resulting respiratory alkalosis and cerebral vasoconstriction may confound both cognitive/ psychomotor and visual experimental results. Future research should include augmentation of validated neuropsychological metrics (surrogate investigational end points) with actual flight metrics, investigation of mixed gas formulations, contribution of hypocapnic vasoconstrictive effects on hypoxic performance, and further investigation into cellular- and systems-level approaches for heterogeneous CNS response. Research is also required into the contribution of mild-moderate hypoxia in human factors- and spatial

  7. Analysis of Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption from 3-13 km Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Weaver, Clark J.; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    through thin clouds. The Oklahoma and east coast flights were coordinated with a LaRC/ITT CO2 lidar on the LaRC UC-12 aircraft, and in-situ measurements were made using its CO2 sensor and radiosondes. We have conducted an analysis of the ranging and IPDA lidar measurements from these four flights. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We used a cross-correlation approach to process the laser echo records. This was used to estimate the range to the scattering surface, to define the edges of the laser pulses and to determine echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We used a minimum mean square approach to fit an instrument response function and to solve for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape. We then calculated the differential optical depth (DOD) of the fitted CO2 line. We computed its statistics at the various altitude steps, and compare them to the DODs calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column conditions calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The results show the lidar and in-situ measurements have very similar DOD change with altitude and greater than 10 segments per flight where the scatter in the lidar measurements are less than or equal to 1ppm. We also present the results from subsequent CO2 column absorption measurements, which were made with stronger detected signals during three flights on the NASA DC-8 over the southwestern US in during July 2010.

  8. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  9. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  10. Added costs of insect-scale flapping flight in unsteady airflows

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Takabayashi, Taku; Ikeda, Teruaki; Ueyama, Kohei; Engels, Thomas; Fisher, Alex; Tanaka, Hiroto; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Jörn; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The aerial environment in the operating domain of small-scale natural and artificial flapping wing fliers is highly complex, unsteady and generally turbulent. Considering flapping flight in an unsteady wind environment with a periodically varying lateral velocity component, we show that body rotations experienced by flapping wing fliers result in the reorientation of the aerodynamic force vector that can render a substantial cumulative deficit in the vertical force. We derive quantitative estimates of the body roll amplitude and the related energetic requirements to maintain the weight support in free flight under such conditions. We conduct force measurements of a miniature hummingbird-inspired robotic flapper and numerical simulations of a bumblebee. In both cases, we demonstrate the loss of weight support due to body roll rotations. Using semi-restrained flight measurements, we demonstrate the increased power requirements to maintain altitude in unsteady winds, achieved by increasing the flapping frequency...

  11. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  12. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  13. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    Small NEO asteroids (<Ø140m) may not be a threat on a national or global level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured, mostly due to broken glass. The ground damage from a small asteroid depends strongly on the altitude at which they "burst" where most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management.Strong asteroids, such as a monolithic boulder, fail and create peak energy deposition close to the altitude at which ram dynamic pressure exceeds the material cohesive strength. Weaker asteroids, such as a rubble pile, structurally fail at higher altitude, but it requires the increased aerodynamic pressure at lower altitude to disrupt and disperse the rubble. Consequently the resulting airbursts have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.In this study hydrocode simulations of the entry and break-up of small asteroids were performed to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. This presentation will show movies of the simulations, the results of peak burst height, and the comparison to semi-analytical models.

  14. DAST Being Calibrated for Flight in Hangar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    DAST-2, a modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone, undergoes calibration in a hangar at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. After the crash of the first DAST vehicle, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II (serial # 72-1558) with the rebuilt ARW-1 (ARW-1R) wing. The DAST-2 made a captive flight aboard the B-52 on October 29, 1982, followed by a free flight on November 3, 1982. During January and February of 1983, three launch attempts from the B-52 had to be aborted due to various problems. Following this, the project changed the launch aircraft to a DC-130A. Two captive flights occurred in May 1983. The first launch attempt from the DC-130 took place on June 1, 1983. The mothership released the DAST-2, but the recovery system immediately fired without being commanded. The parachute then disconnected from the vehicle, and the DAST-2 crashed into a farm field near Harper Dry Lake. Wags called this the 'Alfalfa Field Impact Test.' These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and

  15. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than

  16. 78 FR 75284 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... airplanes will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: An electronic flight control...-1A11 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with an electronic flight control system that contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections,...

  17. Tropical deep convective life cycle: Cb-anvil cloud microphysics from high altitude aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The case study presented here focusses on the life cycle of clouds in a tropical deep convective system. During the SCOUT-O3 campaign from Darwin, Northern Australia, the Hector storm system has been probed by the Geophysica high altitude aircraft. Clouds were observed by in situ particle probes, a backscatter sonde, and a miniature lidar. Additionally, aerosol number concentrations have been measured. On 30 November 2005 a double flight took place and Hector was probed throughout its life cycle in its developing, mature, and dissipating stage. The two flights were four hours apart and focussed on the anvil region of Hector in altitudes between 10.5 km and 18.8 km (i.e. above 350 K potential temperature. Trajectory calculations and ozone measurements have been used to identify that the same cloud air masses have been probed in both flights. The size distributions derived from the measurements not only show a change with increasing altitude but also with the evolution of Hector. Clearly different aerosol to cloud particle ratios as well as varying ice crystal morphology have been found for the different development stages of Hector, indicating a change in freezing mechanisms. The development phase exhibits the smallest ice particles (up to 300 μm with a rather uniform morphology. This is indicative for rapid glaciation during Hector's development. Sizes of ice crystals are largest in the mature stage (larger 1.6 mm and even exceed those of some continental tropical deep convective clouds, also in their number concentrations. The backscatter properties and particle images show a change from frozen droplets in the developing phase to rimed and aggregated particles. The clouds in the dissipating stage have a large vertical extend (roughly 6 km though optically thin and persist for at least 6 h. This poses a high potential for affecting the tropical tropopause layer background conditions regarding humidity, e.g. through facilitating subvisible

  18. Tropical deep convective life cycle: Cb-anvil cloud microphysics from high altitude aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W.; Borrmann, S.; Fierli, F.; Weigel, R.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R.; Ravegnani, F.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Cairo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The case study presented here focusses on the life cycle of clouds in a tropical deep convective system. During the SCOUT-O3 campaign from Darwin, Northern Australia, the Hector storm system has been probed by the Geophysica high altitude aircraft. Clouds were observed by in situ particle probes, a backscatter sonde, and a miniature lidar. Additionally, aerosol number concentrations have been measured. On 30 November 2005 a double flight took place and Hector was probed throughout its life cycle in its developing, mature, and dissipating stage. The two flights were four hours apart and focussed on the anvil region of Hector in altitudes between 10.5 km and 18.8 km (i.e. above 350 K potential temperature). Trajectory calculations and ozone measurements have been used to identify that the same cloud air masses have been probed in both flights. The size distributions derived from the measurements not only show a change with increasing altitude but also with the evolution of Hector. Clearly different aerosol to cloud particle ratios as well as varying ice crystal morphology have been found for the different development stages of Hector, indicating a change in freezing mechanisms. The development phase exhibits the smallest ice particles (up to 300 μm) with a rather uniform morphology. This is indicative for rapid glaciation during Hector's development. Sizes of ice crystals are largest in the mature stage (larger 1.6 mm) and even exceed those of some continental tropical deep convective clouds, also in their number concentrations. The backscatter properties and particle images show a change from frozen droplets in the developing phase to rimed and aggregated particles. The clouds in the dissipating stage have a large vertical extend (roughly 6 km) though optically thin and persist for at least 6 h. This poses a high potential for affecting the tropical tropopause layer background conditions regarding humidity, e.g. through facilitating subvisible cirrus formation, and

  19. Tropical deep convective life cycle: Cb-anvil cloud microphysics from high-altitude aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W.; Borrmann, S.; Fierli, F.; Weigel, R.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R.; Ravegnani, F.; Sitnikov, N. M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Cairo, F.

    2014-12-01

    The case study presented here focuses on the life cycle of clouds in the anvil region of a tropical deep convective system. During the SCOUT-O3 campaign from Darwin, Northern Australia, the Hector storm system has been probed by the Geophysica high-altitude aircraft. Clouds were observed by in situ particle probes, a backscatter sonde, and a miniature lidar. Additionally, aerosol number concentrations have been measured. On 30 November 2005 a double flight took place and Hector was probed throughout its life cycle in its developing, mature, and dissipating stage. The two flights were four hours apart and focused on the anvil region of Hector in altitudes between 10.5 and 18.8 km (i.e. above 350 K potential temperature). Trajectory calculations, satellite imagery, and ozone measurements have been used to ensure that the same cloud air masses have been probed in both flights. The size distributions derived from the measurements show a change not only with increasing altitude but also with the evolution of Hector. Clearly different cloud to aerosol particle ratios as well as varying ice crystal morphology have been found for the different development stages of Hector, indicating different freezing mechanisms. The development phase exhibits the smallest ice particles (up to 300 μm) with a rather uniform morphology. This is indicative for rapid glaciation during Hector's development. Sizes of ice crystals are largest in the mature stage (larger than 1.6 mm) and even exceed those of some continental tropical deep convective clouds, also in their number concentrations. The backscatter properties and particle images show a change in ice crystal shape from the developing phase to rimed and aggregated particles in the mature and dissipating stages; the specific shape of particles in the developing phase cannot be distinguished from the measurements. Although optically thin, the clouds in the dissipating stage have a large vertical extent (roughly 6 km) and persist for at

  20. Altitude Stress During Participation of Medical Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sang Jun; Cho, Su Hee; Suh, Dae Chul

    2016-01-01

    Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced...

  1. An Adaptive Altitude Information Fusion Method for Autonomous Landing Processes of Small Unmanned Aerial Rotorcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xusheng Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive information fusion method to improve the accuracy and reliability of the altitude measurement information for small unmanned aerial rotorcraft during the landing process. Focusing on the low measurement performance of sensors mounted on small unmanned aerial rotorcraft, a wavelet filter is applied as a pre-filter to attenuate the high frequency noises in the sensor output. Furthermore, to improve altitude information, an adaptive extended Kalman filter based on a maximum a posteriori criterion is proposed to estimate measurement noise covariance matrix in real time. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is proved by static tests, hovering flight and autonomous landing flight tests.

  2. Flight in Adverse Environmental Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    to 0) exposed. llaysia A)OO. During MS approach in poor visibilityt thundeatorms and heavy rain Aircraft undershot And came to rest 1000 water * before...It calcul des avions I Is rafalt, tiles oot slot-s ith utillis Pour trotrwer dts vs~turs d"Intensiti do ratsle I PoatUt des bn. Devuls Son appart -ion...mean wind Is rather difficult. Using earth fixed sensors, a temporal *vraging Is performed for each measuring point. Out the question for the right

  3. Assessment of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction conditions for gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification of organic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, M; Rodríguez, I; Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Cela, R; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2014-11-14

    The suitability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for gas chromatography (GC) characterization of minor organic compounds in honey samples is evaluated. Under optimized conditions, samples were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by DLLME using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.075 mL) as extractant. The yielded settled phase was analyzed by GC using high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The whole sample preparation process is completed in approximately 10 min, with a total consumption of organic solvents below 4 mL, relative standard deviations lower than 12% and with more than 70 organic compounds, displaying linear retention index in the range from 990 to 2900, identified in the obtained extracts. In comparison with HS SPME extraction, higher peak intensities were attained for most volatile and semi-volatile compounds amenable to both extraction techniques. Furthermore, other species such as highly polar and water soluble benzene acids, long chain fatty acids, esters and flavonoids, which are difficult to concentrate by HS SPME, could be identified in DLLME extracts. Some of the compounds identified in DLLME extracts have been proposed as useful for samples classification and/or they are recognized as markers of honeys from certain geographic areas.

  4. Experimental and Computational Study of the Flow past a Simplified Geometry of an Engine/Pylon/Wing Installation at low velocity/moderate incidence flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Yannick; Lucas, Matthieu; Bonnaud, Cyril; Joly, Laurent; ISAE Team; Airbus Team

    2014-11-01

    We study numerically and experimentally the vortices that develop past a model geometry of a wing equipped with pylon-mounted engine at low speed/moderate incidence flight conditions. For such configuration, the presence of the powerplant installation under the wing initiates a complex, unsteady vortical flow field at the nacelle/pylon/wing junctions. Its interaction with the upper wing boundary layer causes a drop of aircraft performances. In order to decipher the underlying physics, this study is initially conducted on a simplified geometry at a Reynolds number of 200000, based on the chord wing and on the freestream velocity. Two configurations of angle of attack and side-slip angle are investigated. This work relies on unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes computations, oil flow visualizations and stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The vortex dynamics thus produced is described in terms of vortex core position, intensity, size and turbulent intensity thanks to a vortex tracking approach. In addition, the analysis of the velocity flow fields obtained from PIV highlights the influence of the longitudinal vortex initiated at the pylon/wing junction on the separation process of the boundary layer near the upper wing leading-edge.

  5. Investigations of the lysophospholipid composition of human neutrophils under different stimulation conditions by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURGEN ARNHOLD

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption / ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS is usually used for the analyses of proteins, carbohydrates and oligonucleotides. In spite of the number of advantages that MALDI-TOF MS exhibits for lipid analysis, this method has not often been applied in this field. In this paper we have extended our previous studies on the suitability of MALDI-TOF MS for the investigation of changes in the content of lipid-derived second messengers in organic extracts of human neutrophils. Qualitative differences in the lysophospholipid composition in organic extracts of the human neutrophils under different stimulation conditions could be easily observed by MALDI-TOF MS. Although there are still some methodological problems to be solved before this method can be routinely applied for the quantification of different lipid classes in complex biological mixtures (such as organic extracts of human neutrophils it is shown here that MALDI-TOF MS possesses the capability to be used as a simple screening method for the investigation of the content of lipid-derived second messengers and of signalling pathways in cells.

  6. Hypoxia and flight performance of military instructor pilots in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Leonard A; Still, David L; Acromite, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Military aircrew and other operational personnel frequently perform their duties at altitudes posing a significant hypoxia risk, often with limited access to supplemental oxygen. Despite the significant risk hypoxia poses, there are few studies relating it to primary flight performance, which is the purpose of the present study. Objective, quantitative measures of aircraft control were collected from 14 experienced, active duty instructor pilot volunteers as they breathed an air/nitrogen mix that provided an oxygen partial pressure equivalent to the atmosphere at 18,000 ft (5486.4 m) above mean sea level. The flight task required holding a constant airspeed, altitude, and heading at an airspeed significantly slower than the aircraft's minimum drag speed. The simulated aircraft's inherent instability at the target speed challenged the pilot to maintain constant control of the aircraft in order to minimize deviations from the assigned flight parameters. Each pilot's flight performance was evaluated by measuring all deviations from assigned target values. Hypoxia degraded the pilot's precision of altitude and airspeed control by 53%, a statistically significant decrease in flight performance. The effect on heading control effects was not statistically significant. There was no evidence of performance differences when breathing room air pre- and post-hypoxia. Moderate levels of hypoxia degraded the ability of military instructor pilots to perform a precision slow flight task. This is one of a small number of studies to quantify an effect of hypoxia on primary flight performance.

  7. A Proposed Ascent Abort Flight Test for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Starr, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center initiated the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Project to investigate alternate crew escape system concepts that eliminate the conventional launch escape tower by integrating the escape system into an aerodynamic fairing that fully encapsulates the crew capsule and smoothly integrates with the launch vehicle. This paper proposes an ascent abort flight test for an all-propulsive towerless escape system concept that is actively controlled and sized to accommodate the Orion Crew Module. The goal of the flight test is to demonstrate a high dynamic pressure escape and to characterize jet interaction effects during operation of the attitude control thrusters at transonic and supersonic conditions. The flight-test vehicle is delivered to the required test conditions by a booster configuration selected to meet cost, manufacturability, and operability objectives. Data return is augmented through judicious design of the boost trajectory, which is optimized to obtain data at a range of relevant points, rather than just a single flight condition. Secondary flight objectives are included after the escape to obtain aerodynamic damping data for the crew module and to perform a high-altitude contingency deployment of the drogue parachutes. Both 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation results are presented that establish concept feasibility, and a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment is performed to provide confidence that test objectives can be met.

  8. Metals and altitude drive genetic diversity of chironomids in Andean streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loayza-Muro, R.A.; de Baat, M.; Palomino, E.J.; Kuperus, P.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; Breeuwer, H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Andean streams cover steep altitude gradients and locally leach metal-rich bedrock, creating highly selective habitat conditions. Chironomids are among the few dominant insect taxa present under the harshest conditions in Andean high altitude streams, but it remains unclear whether their dominanc

  9. Thermal performance evaluation of the Northrop model NSC-01-0732 concentrating solar collector array at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar house test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The thermal efficiency of the concentrating, tracking solar collector was tested after ten months of operation at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar house. The test procedures and results are presented.

  10. Feasibility of Laser Power Transmission to a High-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    possible to imagine the laser beam arriving at the UAV from above, perhaps bounced down from a satel- lite or airship , but this seems like an excessive...thus lending themselves to applica- tion on the aerodynamic surfaces of a UAV. InGaAs cells can also be used to convert laser light at longer wavelengths...Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low- Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.: NASA Dryden Flight

  11. Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony; Dolce, James (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A high altitude solar powered airship provides the ability to carry large payloads to high altitudes and remain on station for extended periods of time. This study examines the feasibility of this concept. Factors such as time of year, latitude, wind speeds and payload are considered in establishing the capabilities of a given size airship. East and West coast operation were evaluated. The key aspect to success of this type of airship is the design and operation of the propulsion and power system. A preliminary propulsion/power system design was produced based on a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system and solar photovoltaic array for energy production. A modular system design was chosen with four independent power/propulsion units utilized by the airship. Results on payload capacity and flight envelope (latitude and time of year) were produced for a range of airship sizes.

  12. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  13. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  14. Simulation development of a forward sensor-enhanced low-altitude guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Richard E.; Swenson, Harry N.; Dearing, Munro G.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1993-01-01

    The requirement to operate aircraft at low-altitude near the terrain is common in the military community and essential for helicopters. The risk and crew workload in this flight regime is severe, with navigation, guidance, and obstacle avoidance demanding high attention. A guidance system relying on digitized terrain elevation maps has been developed that employs airborne navigation, mission requirements, aircraft performance limits, and radar altimeter returns to generate a valley-seeking, low-altitude trajectory between waypoints for display to the pilot. This system has been flight demonstrated to 150 ft above ground level altitude, and is primarily limited by the ability of the pilot to perform obstacle detection and avoidance. In this study, a wide field of view forward sensor has been modeled and incorporated in the guidance system for the purpose of relieving the pilot of the obstacle avoidance duty. The results of a piloted, motion-based simulation of this enhanced low-altitude guidance system is presented. Simulated flights to 50 ft altitude in the presence of obstacles were demonstrated while maintaining situational awareness and close tracking of the guidance trajectory.

  15. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  16. Study of high-altitude radar altimeter model accuracy and SITAN performance using HAAFT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieves, T.C.; Callahan, M.W.

    1979-07-01

    Radar altimetry data, inertial navigation data, and scoring data were collected under the HAAFT program by Martin Marietta Corporation for the United States Air Force over several areas in the western United States at altitudes ranging from 3 to 20 km. The study reported here uses the HAAFT data in conjunction with Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) topographic data to evaluate the accuracy of a high-altitude pulsed-radar altimeter model and the resulting performance of the terrain-aided guidance concept SITAN. Previous SITAN flight tests at low altitudes (less than 1500 m AGL) have demonstrated 6-20 m CEP. The high-altitude flight test data analyzed herein show a SITAN CEP of 120 m. The radar altimeter model was required to achieve this performance includes the effects of the internal track loop, AGC loop, antenna beamwidth, and the terrain radar cross section and provided a factor of 6 improvement over simple nadir ground clearance for rough terrain. It is postulated that high-altitude CEP could be reduced to 50 m or less if an altimeter were designed specifically for high-altitude terrain sensing.

  17. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her future. Donate Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A ... “To improve access to health care by providing financial assistance to low income children for commercial air ...

  18. Design factors and considerations for a time-based flight management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, D. D.; Williams, D. H.; Sorensen, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Recent NASA Langley Research Center research to develop a technology data base from which an advanced Flight Management System (FMS) design might evolve is reviewed. In particular, the generation of fixed range cruise/descent reference trajectories which meet predefined end conditions of altitude, speed, and time is addressed. Results on the design and theoretical basis of the trajectory generation algorithm are presented, followed by a brief discussion of a series of studies that are being conducted to determine the accuracy requirements of the aircraft and weather models resident in the trajectory generation algorithm. Finally, studies to investigate the interface requirements between the pilot and an advanced FMS are considered.

  19. A new method for laminar boundary layer transition visualization in flight: Color changes in liquid crystal coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B. J.; Gall, P. D.; Croom, C. C.; Manuel, G. S.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    The visualization of laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition plays an important role in flight and wind-tunnel aerodynamic testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. Visualization can help provide a more complete understanding of both transition location as well as transition modes; without visualization, the transition process can be very difficult to understand. In the past, the most valuable transition visualization methods for flight applications included sublimating chemicals and oil flows. Each method has advantages and limitations. In particular, sublimating chemicals are impractical to use in subsonic applications much above 20,000 feet because of the greatly reduced rates of sublimation at lower temperatures (less than -4 degrees Farenheit). Both oil flow and sublimating chemicals have the disadvantage of providing only one good data point per flight. Thus, for many important flight conditions, transition visualization has not been readily available. This paper discusses a new method for visualizing transition in flight by the use of liquid crystals. The new method overcomes the limitations of past techniques, and provides transition visualization capability throughout almost the entire altitude and speed ranges of virtually all subsonic aircraft flight envelopes. The method also has wide applicability for supersonic transition visualization in flight and for general use in wind tunnel research over wide subsonic and supersonic speed ranges.

  20. Garmin GPS waypoints delineating low-altitude transects over the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GPS waypoints delineating the flight paths for low altitude transects from a Garmin GPS unit. Transects were conducted from small aircraft over the National Park...

  1. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  2. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  3. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  4. Computational mission analysis and conceptual system design for super low altitude satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xu; Jinlong Wang; Nan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with system engineering and design methodology for super low altitude satel ites in the view of the com-putational mission analysis. Due to the slight advance of imaging instruments, such as the focus of camera and the image element of charge coupled device (CCD), it is an innovative and economical way to improve the camera’s resolution to enforce the satel ite to fly on the lower altitude orbit. DFH-3, the mature satel ite bus de-veloped by Chinese Academy of Space Technology, is employed to define the mass and power budgets for the computational mis-sion analysis and the detailed engineering design for super low altitude satel ites. An effective iterative algorithm is proposed to solve the ergodic representation of feasible mass and power bud-gets at the flight altitude under constraints. Besides, boundaries of mass or power exist for every altitude, where the upper boundary is derived from the maximum power, while the minimum thrust force holds the lower boundary before the power reaching the initial value. What’s more, an analytical algorithm is employed to numerical y investigate the coverage percentage over the altitude, so that the nominal altitude could be selected from al the feasi-ble altitudes based on both the mass and power budgets and the repetitive ground traces. The local time at the descending node is chosen for the nominal sun-synchronous orbit based on the average evaluation function. After determining the key orbital ele-ments based on the computational mission analysis, the detailed engineering design on the configuration and other subsystems, like power, telemetry telecontrol and communication (TT&C), and attitude determination and control system (ADCS), is performed based on the benchmark bus, besides, some improvements to the bus are also implemented to accommodate the flight at a super low altitude. Two operation strategies, drag-free closed-loop mode and on/off open-loop mode, are presented to maintain the satel

  5. Pathfinder - flight preparation on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    AeroVironment, Inc., crew members prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for its first flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after its configuration was shanged from 8 electric motors to 6. Bob Curtin of AeroVironment is in the foreground of the photo. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  6. New Heights with High-Altitude Balloon Launches for Effective Student Learning and Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Dailey, J. F.; Takehara, D.; Krueger, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Over a seven-year period Taylor University, an undergraduate liberal art school, has successfully launched and recovered over 200 sophisticated student payloads to altitudes between 20-33 km (100% success with rapid recovery) with flight times between 2 to 6 hrs. All of the payloads included two GPS tracking systems, cameras and monitors, a 110 kbit down link, an uplink command capability for educational experiments (K-12 and undergrad). Launches were conducted during the day and night, with multiple balloons, with up to 10 payloads for experiments, and under varying weather and upper atmospheric conditions. The many launches in a short period of time allowed the payload bus design to evolve toward increased performance, reliability, standardization, simplicity, and modularity for low-cost launch services. Through NSF and NASA grants, the program has expanded leading to over 50 universities trained at workshops to implement high altitude balloon launches in the classroom. A spin-off company (StraoStar Systems LLC) now sells the high-altitude balloon system and facilitates networking between schools. This high-altitude balloon program helps to advance knowledge and understanding across disciplines by giving students and faculty rapid and low-cost access to earth/ecology remote sensing from high altitude, insitu and limb atmospheric measurements, near-space stratosphere measurements, and IR/UV/cosmic ray access to the heavens. This new capability is possible by exposing students to recent advances in MEMS technology, nanotechnology, wireless telecommunication systems, GPS, DSPs and other microchip miniaturizations to build < 4 kg payloads. The high-altitude balloon program provides an engaging laboratory, gives challenging field experiences, reaches students from diverse backgrounds, encourages collaboration among science faculty, and provides quantitative assessment of the learning outcomes. Furthermore this program has generated many front page news reports along

  7. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  8. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  9. PHYSICAL ADAPTATION OF CHILDREN TO LIFE AT HIGH-ALTITUDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEER, K; HEYMANS, HSA; ZIJLSTRA, WG

    1995-01-01

    Children permanently exposed to hypoxia at altitudes of > 3000 m above sea level show a phenotypical form of adaptation. Under these environmental conditions, oxygen uptake in the lungs is enhanced by increases in ventilation, lung compliance, and pulmonary diffusion. Lung and thorax volumes in chil

  10. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...

  11. Gas exchange and hatchability of chicken eggs incubated at simulated high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, A H

    1985-02-01

    Chicken eggs laid at sea level were incubated at sea level (control conditions), at a simulated altitude of 5.5 km without any further measures (natural conditions), and at a simulated altitude of 5.7 km at optimal incubator gas composition (optimal conditions). Under optimal conditions the incubator relative humidity was 70% throughout incubation, the gas mixture supplied to the incubator contained 45% O2-55% N2, and the ventilation rate was reduced to 6% of control in order to maintain the normal air-space gas tensions and to compensate for the increased eggshell conductance at altitude. The embryos that developed under control conditions showed a normal CO2 production with 94% hatchability of fertile eggs. Under natural conditions at altitude all embryos died within a few days. Optimal conditions resulted in an almost normal gas exchange and in an improvement of hatchability from 0 to 81% of fertile eggs.

  12. Joseph Barcroft's studies of high-altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2013-10-15

    Joseph Barcroft (1872-1947) was an eminent British physiologist who made contributions to many areas. Some of his studies at high altitude and related topics are reviewed here. In a remarkable experiment he spent 6 days in a small sealed room while the oxygen concentration of the air gradually fell, simulating an ascent to an altitude of nearly 5,500 m. The study was prompted by earlier reports by J. S. Haldane that the lung secreted oxygen at high altitude. Barcroft tested this by having blood removed from an exposed radial artery during both rest and exercise. No evidence for oxygen secretion was found, and the combination of 6 days incarceration and the loss of an artery was heroic. To obtain more data, Barcroft organized an expedition to Cerro de Pasco, Peru, altitude 4,300 m, that included investigators from both Cambridge, UK and Harvard. Again oxygen secretion was ruled out. The protocol included neuropsychometric measurements, and Barcroft famously concluded that all dwellers at high altitude are persons of impaired physical and mental powers, an assertion that has been hotly debated. Another colorful experiment in a low-pressure chamber involved reducing the pressure below that at the summit of Mt. Everest but giving the subjects 100% oxygen to breathe while exercising as a climber would on Everest. The conclusion was that it would be possible to reach the summit while breathing 100% oxygen. Barcroft was exceptional for his self-experimentation under hazardous conditions.

  13. Full Flight Envelope Direct Thrust Measurement on a Supersonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Timothy R.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Direct thrust measurement using strain gages offers advantages over analytically-based thrust calculation methods. For flight test applications, the direct measurement method typically uses a simpler sensor arrangement and minimal data processing compared to analytical techniques, which normally require costly engine modeling and multisensor arrangements throughout the engine. Conversely, direct thrust measurement has historically produced less than desirable accuracy because of difficulty in mounting and calibrating the strain gages and the inability to account for secondary forces that influence the thrust reading at the engine mounts. Consequently, the strain-gage technique has normally been used for simple engine arrangements and primarily in the subsonic speed range. This paper presents the results of a strain gage-based direct thrust-measurement technique developed by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and successfully applied to the full flight envelope of an F-15 aircraft powered by two F100-PW-229 turbofan engines. Measurements have been obtained at quasi-steady-state operating conditions at maximum non-augmented and maximum augmented power throughout the altitude range of the vehicle and to a maximum speed of Mach 2.0 and are compared against results from two analytically-based thrust calculation methods. The strain-gage installation and calibration processes are also described.

  14. Hybrid Computational Model for High-Altitude Aeroassist Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort addresses a need for accurate computational models to support aeroassist and entry vehicle system design over a broad range of flight conditions...

  15. GPS-aided gravimetry at 30 km altitude from a balloon-borne platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarewicz, Andrew R.; Evans, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment, flown at 30 km altitude over New Mexico, was used to test dynamic differential Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking in support of gravimetry at high-altitudes. The experiment package contained a gravimeter (Vibrating String Accelerometer), a full complement of inertial instruments, a TI-4100 GPS receiver and a radar transponder. The flight was supported by two GPS receivers on the ground near the flight path. From the 8 hour flight, about a forty minute period was selected for analysis. Differential GPS phase measurements were used to estimate changes in position over the sample time interval, or average velocity. In addition to average velocity, differential positions and numerical averages of acceleration were obtained in three components. Gravitational acceleration was estimated by correcting for accelerations due to translational motion, ignoring all rotational effects.

  16. Natural Laminar Flow Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A supercritical airfoil section was designed with favorable pressure gradients on both the upper and lower surfaces. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The outer wing panels of the F-111 TACT airplane were modified to incorporate partial span test gloves having the natural laminar, flow profile. Instrumentation was installed to provide surface pressure data as well as to determine transition location and boundary layer characteristics. The flight experiment encompassed 19 flights conducted with and without transition fixed at several locations for wing leading edge sweep angles which varied from 10 to 26 at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85 and altitudes of 7620 meters and 9144 meters. Preliminary results indicate that a large portion of the test chord experienced laminar flow.

  17. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  18. Altitude Stress During Participation of Medical Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sang Jun; Cho, Su Hee; Suh, Dae Chul

    2016-09-01

    Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced in airplane. AMS and drunken state share many common features in symptoms, neurologic manifestations and even show multiple microbleeds in corpus callosum and white matter on MRI. Children are more susceptible to altitude stress than adults. Gradual ascent is the best method for the prevention of altitude stress. Adequate nutrition (mainly carbohydrates) and hydration are recommended. Consumption of alcohol can exacerbate the altitude-induced impairments in judgment and the visual senses and promote psychomotor dysfunction. For prevention or treatment of altitude stress, acetazolamide, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, dexamethasone and erythropoietin are helpful. Altitude stress can be experienced relatively often during participation of medical congress. It is necessary to remind the harmful effect of AMS because it can cause serious permanent organ damage even though the symptoms are negligible in most cases.

  19. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bishop, C M; Spivey, R J; Hawkes, L A; Batbayar, N; Chua, B; Frappell, P B; Milsom, W K; Natsagdorj, T; Newman, S H; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Wikelski, M; Butler, P J

    2015-01-01

    .... Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift...

  20. Composite materials with uncured epoxy matrix exposed in stratosphere during NASA stratospheric balloon flight

    CERN Document Server

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Bilek, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over 3 days. Temperature variations of -76...+32.50C and pressure up to 2.1 Torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polycondensation reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed, that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composite in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  1. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  2. Solar Cell Short Circuit Current Errors and Uncertainties During High Altitude Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David D.

    2012-01-01

    High altitude balloon based facilities can make solar cell calibration measurements above 99.5% of the atmosphere to use for adjusting laboratory solar simulators. While close to on-orbit illumination, the small attenuation to the spectra may result in under measurements of solar cell parameters. Variations of stratospheric weather, may produce flight-to-flight measurement variations. To support the NSCAP effort, this work quantifies some of the effects on solar cell short circuit current (Isc) measurements on triple junction sub-cells. This work looks at several types of high altitude methods, direct high altitude meas urements near 120 kft, and lower stratospheric Langley plots from aircraft. It also looks at Langley extrapolation from altitudes above most of the ozone, for potential small balloon payloads. A convolution of the sub-cell spectral response with the standard solar spectrum modified by several absorption processes is used to determine the relative change from AMO, lscllsc(AMO). Rayleigh scattering, molecular scatterin g from uniformly mixed gases, Ozone, and water vapor, are included in this analysis. A range of atmosph eric pressures are examined, from 0. 05 to 0.25 Atm to cover the range of atmospheric altitudes where solar cell calibrations a reperformed. Generally these errors and uncertainties are less than 0.2%

  3. HYFLEX (Hypersonic Flight Experiment). Results of flight testing (Navigation, guidance and control of HYFLEX vehicle and actual reentry flight trajectory); Gokuchoonsoku hiko jikken (HYFLEX) ni tsuite. Hiko kekka wo chushin ni (koho yudo seigyo to jitsuhiko keiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Takizawa, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Ishimoto, S.; Morito, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsujioka, M.; Shimura, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-05

    The HYFLEX vehicle is the first reentry testing vehicle with an airframe generating lift in Japan. Establishment of guidance and control technology is one of the purposes. For the design of flight trajectory, in order to satisfy the constraint of J-1 rocket during launching and the heat resistance performance of HYFLEX, the altitude 110 km and ground speed 3.9 km/s were determined as an apogee condition of the reentry trajectory. For the trajectory design on the ground surface, were considered the insurance of radar tracking and telemetry transfer from the Ogasawara Tracking Station and the load reduction for development cost and attitude control system. The navigation, guidance and control system is composed of an inertia sensor unit, an on-board computer, and an on-board software (OBS). The attitude is controlled by the elevon at the rear end of airframe and the gas jet. The design requirements include an accuracy of flight trajectory and a stable flight by attitude control. In response to these requirements, OBS was divided into function units, i.e., navigation, guidance, and control, which were individually designed. The flight experiments were conducted as scheduled. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah NM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neeraj M Shah,1 Sidra Hussain,2 Mark Cooke,3 John P O’Hara,3 Adrian Mellor3,4 1Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King’s College London, UK; 2School of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK; 4Academic Department of Military Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Travel to high altitude is increasingly popular. With this comes an increased incidence of high-altitude illness and therefore an increased need to improve our strategies to prevent and accurately diagnose these. In this review, we provide a summary of recent advances of relevance to practitioners who may be advising travelers to altitude. Although the Lake Louise Score is now widely used as a diagnostic tool for acute mountain sickness (AMS, increasing evidence questions the validity of doing so, and of considering AMS as a single condition. Biomarkers, such as brain natriuretic peptide, are likely correlating with pulmonary artery systolic pressure, thus potential markers of the development of altitude illness. Established drug treatments include acetazolamide, nifedipine, and dexamethasone. Drugs with a potential to reduce the risk of developing AMS include nitrate supplements, propagators of nitric oxide, and supplemental iron. The role of exercise in the development of altitude illness remains hotly debated, and it appears that the intensity of exercise is more important than the exercise itself. Finally, despite copious studies demonstrating the value of preacclimatization in reducing the risk of altitude illness and improving performance, an optimal protocol to preacclimatize an individual remains elusive. Keywords: hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, acclimatization, biomarkers, preacclimatization

  5. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jaby, Samy; Richardson, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposures from ionizing radiation are currently regulated for airline travel (Earth orbit (∼300-400 km). Aircrew typically receive between 1 and 6 mSv of occupational dose annually, while aboard the International Space Station, the area radiation dose equivalent measured over just 168 days was 106 mSv at solar minimum conditions. It is anticipated that space tourism vehicles will reach suborbital altitudes of approximately 100 km and, therefore, the annual occupational dose to flight crew during repeated transits is expected to fall somewhere between those observed for aircrew and astronauts. Unfortunately, measurements of the radiation environment at the high altitudes reached by suborbital vehicles are sparse, and modelling efforts have been similarly limited. In this paper, preliminary MCNPX radiation transport code simulations are developed of the secondary neutron flux profile in air from surface altitudes up to low Earth orbit at solar minimum conditions and excluding the effects of spacecraft shielding. These secondary neutrons are produced by galactic cosmic radiation interacting with Earth's atmosphere and are among the sources of radiation that can pose a health risk. Associated estimates of the operational neutron ambient dose equivalent, used for radiation protection purposes, and the neutron effective dose equivalent that is typically used for estimates of stochastic health risks, are provided in air. Simulations show that the neutron radiation dose rates received at suborbital altitudes are comparable to those experienced by aircrew flying at 7 to 14 km. We also show that the total neutron dose rate tails off beyond the Pfotzer maximum on ascension from surface up to low Earth orbit.

  7. Flight patterns of birds in an offshore wind farm in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krijgsveld, Karen; Fijn, Ruben; Heunks, Camiel; Dirksen, Sjoerd

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Flight patterns of birds were studied in the framework of a three-year effect-study in the Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, following a two-year baseline study. Both visual and continuous radar observations were carried out between 2007 and 2010, to assess fluxes, flight altitudes and deflection of flight paths. Visual observations provided information at species level. A horizontal and a vertical radar that were equipped with Merlin (DeTect Inc.) for automated data recording and processing, provided continuous data on flight paths, including data during night time and adverse weather. We show results on flight paths, fluxes and flight altitudes that were recorded using radar. Flight paths, being flight directions and routes through the wind farm area, were studied to assess the occurrence of deflection. Fluxes and flight altitudes were studied to quantify the number of birds at risk from collision with the turbines. Flight paths of many different species were registered visually. Interspecific variation in reactions was considerable, while intraspecific variation was low. Reactions of the birds to the wind farm could be separated in four categories. Local birds either did avoid the wind farm (e.g. gannets) or did not (e.g. cormorants attracted to the wind farm from the main land). Similarly, migrant birds either did (e.g. geese) or did not avoid the wind farm (e.g. terns, nocturnal thrushes). Seasonal and diurnal variations in bird activity were recorded in both flux and flight altitudes from sea level up to 1.5 km. High altitude passages were mainly nocturnal migratory birds including waders and thrushes. Movements during the day at lower altitudes primarily included gulls, cormorants and alcids. This study was commissioned by 'Noordzeewind' (a joint venture of Nuon and Shell Wind Energy). (Author)

  8. Economy of Adaptation to High Altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Paul Richalet

    2004-01-01

    @@ The international meeting that will be held in Xining and Lhasa in August 2004 will be a wonderful occasion to share facts and concepts dealing with adaptation to high altitude. Life at high altitude is a challenge for thousands of animal species and millions of humans residing or visiting high altitude regions of the world. To try to understand the physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptation processes to high altitude hypoxia, it is convenient to start by defining what is "extreme" from a biological point of view.

  9. Emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine at simulated high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao; Ding, Yan

    2011-08-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of altitude on the pollutant emissions of a diesel engine, an experimental research was carried out using an engine test bench with an altitude simulation system. The emissions of HC, CO, NOx, smoke, and particle number of a heavy-duty diesel engine were measured under steady state operating conditions at sea level and simulated altitudes of 1000 and 2000 m. The experimental results indicate that the high altitude increases the emissions of HC, CO and smoke of the diesel engine, the average increasing rates of which are 30%, 35% and 34% with addition of altitude of 1000 m, respectively. The effect of high altitudes on the NOx emission varies with the engine types and working conditions. At 1000 m the particles number emissions are 1.6 to 4.2 times the levels at the low altitude. The pattern of the particle size distributions at 1000 m is similar with that at sea-level, which is the mono-modal lognormal distribution with geometric mean diameter around 0.1 μm. However, the peak number concentrations of particles are bigger and the exhausted particles are smaller at the high altitude.

  10. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    inputs with the outputs provided to instrumentation only. The IFCS was not used to control the airplane. In another stage of the flight test, the Phase I pre-trained neural network was integrated into a Phase III version of the flight control system. The Phase I pretrained neural network provided realtime stability and control derivatives to a Phase III controller that was based on a stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique (SOFFT). This combined Phase I/III system was operated together with the research flight-control system (RFCS) of the F-15 ACTIVE during the flight test. The RFCS enables the pilot to switch quickly from the experimental- research flight mode back to the safe conventional mode. These initial IFCS ACP flight tests were completed in April 1999. The Phase I/III flight test milestone was to demonstrate, across a range of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions, that the pre-trained neural network could be used to supply real-time aerodynamic stability and control derivatives to the closed-loop optimal SOFFT flight controller. Additional objectives attained in the flight test included (1) flight qualification of a neural-network-based control system; (2) the use of a combined neural-network/closed-loop optimal flight-control system to obtain level-one handling qualities; and (3) demonstration, through variation of control gains, that different handling qualities can be achieved by setting new target parameters. In addition, data for the Phase-II (on-line-learning) neural network were collected, during the use of stacked-frequency- sweep excitation, for post-flight analysis. Initial analysis of these data showed the potential for future flight tests that will incorporate the real-time identification and on-line learning aspects of the IFCS.

  11. A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

  12. FLIGHT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on singaporeair.com. This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  13. The relationship of body weight to altitude in preschool children of Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Elhabeeb M Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion : The findings of this study indicate that thinness is a major nutritional problem among lowland preschool children. This may be attributed to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions on the health of children at low altitude.

  14. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  15. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C.M.; Spivey, R.J.; Hawkes, L. A.; Batbayar, N.; Chua, B.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Natsagdorj, T.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, Martin; Butler, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas.

  16. The roller coaster flight strategy of bar-headed geese conserves energy during Himalayan migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C M; Spivey, R J; Hawkes, L A; Batbayar, N; Chua, B; Frappell, P B; Milsom, W K; Natsagdorj, T; Newman, S H; Scott, G R; Takekawa, J Y; Wikelski, M; Butler, P J

    2015-01-16

    The physiological and biomechanical requirements of flight at high altitude have been the subject of much interest. Here, we uncover a steep relation between heart rate and wingbeat frequency (raised to the exponent 3.5) and estimated metabolic power and wingbeat frequency (exponent 7) of migratory bar-headed geese. Flight costs increase more rapidly than anticipated as air density declines, which overturns prevailing expectations that this species should maintain high-altitude flight when traversing the Himalayas. Instead, a "roller coaster" strategy, of tracking the underlying terrain and discarding large altitude gains only to recoup them later in the flight with occasional benefits from orographic lift, is shown to be energetically advantageous for flights over the Himalayas.

  17. Flight Investigation of a Normal-Acceleration Automatic Longitudinal Control System in a Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, S. A.; Russell, Walter R.; Alford, William L.

    1958-01-01

    A flight investigation was made to obtain experimental information on the handling qualities of a normal-acceleration type of automatic longitudinal control system. The control system was installed in a subsonic fighter-type airplane. In hands-off (stick-free) flight the normal-acceleration control system attempted to regulate the normal acceleration to a constant value which is dependent on the automatic-control-system trim setting. In maneuvering flight a given pilot's stick deflection produced a proportional change in normal acceleration, the change in acceleration being independent of flight condition. A small side-located controller stick was used by the pilot to introduce signals into the automatic control system. In the flight program emphasis was placed on the acceleration-limiting capabilities of the control system. The handling qualities were investigated in maneuvers such as slow and rapid pull-ups and turns and also in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking. Good acceleration limiting was obtained with the normal-acceleration control system by limiting the magnitude of the input signal that the pilot could introduce into the control system. The same values of control-system gain settings could be used from an acceleration-limiting stand-point at both 10,000 and 30,000 feet for the complete speed range of the airplane. The response characteristics of the airplane-control system combination were also satisfactory at both high and low altitude with these same values of control-system gain setting. In the pilot's opinion, the normal-acceleration control system provided good stability and control characteristics in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking.

  18. DAST in Flight just after Structural Failure of Right Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. This photo, taken 12 June 1980, shows the DAST-1 (Serial #72-1557) immediately after it lost its right wing after suffering severe wing flutter. The vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. The Firebee II was selected for the DAST program because its standard wing could be removed and replaced by a supercritical wing. The project's digital flutter suppression system was intended to allow lighter wing structures, which would translate into better fuel economy for airliners. Because the DAST vehicles were flown intentionally at speeds and altitudes that would cause flutter, the program anticipated that crashes might occur. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for

  19. Comparison of Different Methods of Grading a Level Turn Task on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Bruce E.; Crier, tomyka

    2003-01-01

    With the advancements in the computing power of personal computers, pc-based flight simulators and trainers have opened new avenues in the training of airplane pilots. It may be desirable to have the flight simulator make a quantitative evaluation of the progress of a pilot's training thereby reducing the physical requirement of the flight instructor who must, in turn, watch every flight. In an experiment, University students conducted six different flights, each consisting of two level turns. The flights were three minutes in duration. By evaluating videotapes, two certified flight instructors provided separate letter grades for each turn. These level turns were also evaluated using two other computer based grading methods. One method determined automated grades based on prescribed tolerances in bank angle, airspeed and altitude. The other method used was deviations in altitude and bank angle for performance index and performance grades.

  20. The genetic architecture of adaptations to high altitude in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Beall, Cynthia M; Witonsky, David B; Gebremedhin, Amha; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Although hypoxia is a major stress on physiological processes, several human populations have survived for millennia at high altitudes, suggesting that they have adapted to hypoxic conditions. This hypothesis was recently corroborated by studies of Tibetan highlanders, which showed that polymorphisms in candidate genes show signatures of natural selection as well as well-replicated association signals for variation in hemoglobin levels. We extended genomic analysis to two Ethiopian ethnic groups: Amhara and Oromo. For each ethnic group, we sampled low and high altitude residents, thus allowing genetic and phenotypic comparisons across altitudes and across ethnic groups. Genome-wide SNP genotype data were collected in these samples by using Illumina arrays. We find that variants associated with hemoglobin variation among Tibetans or other variants at the same loci do not influence the trait in Ethiopians. However, in the Amhara, SNP rs10803083 is associated with hemoglobin levels at genome-wide levels of significance. No significant genotype association was observed for oxygen saturation levels in either ethnic group. Approaches based on allele frequency divergence did not detect outliers in candidate hypoxia genes, but the most differentiated variants between high- and lowlanders have a clear role in pathogen defense. Interestingly, a significant excess of allele frequency divergence was consistently detected for genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA damage and repair, thus pointing to new pathways for high altitude adaptations. Finally, a comparison of CpG methylation levels between high- and lowlanders found several significant signals at individual genes in the Oromo.

  1. the APL Balloonborne High Altitude Research Platform (HARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D.; Arnold, S.; Bernasconi, P.

    2015-09-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed and demonstrated a multi-purpose stratospheric balloonborne gondola known as the High Altitude Research Platform (HARP). HARP provides the power, mechanical supports, thermal control, and data transmission for multiple forms of high-altitude scientific research equipment. The platform has been used for astronomy, cosmology and heliophysics experiments but can also be applied to atmospheric studies, space weather and other forms of high altitude research. HARP has executed five missions. The first was Flare Genesis from Antarctica in 1993 and the most recent was the Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) from New Mexico in 2014. HARP will next be used to perform again the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory mission, a mission that it first performed in 2009. The structure, composed of an aluminum framework is designed for easy transport and field assembly while providing ready access to the payload and supporting avionics. A light-weighted structure, capable of supporting Ultra-Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights that can last more than 100 days is available. Scientific research payloads as heavy as 600 kg (1322 pounds) and requiring up to 800 Watts electrical power can be supported. The platform comprises all subsystems required to support and operate the science payload, including both line-of-sight (LOS) and over-the-horizon (0TH) telecommunications, the latter provided by Iridium Pilot. Electrical power is produced by solar panels for multi-day missions and batteries for single-day missions. The avionics design is primarily single-string; however, use of ruggedized industrial components provides high reliability. The avionics features a Command and Control (C&C) computer and a Pointing Control System (PCS) computer housed within a common unpressurized unit. The avionics operates from ground pressure to 2 Torr and over a temperature range from —30 C to +85 C

  2. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    limitations to operate at the angle of attack the vehicle was programmed to fly for the speed and altitude of the flight. Detailed analysis conducted by the...that could possibly support the hypersonic and space transit flight test TM requirements are InmarSat [34], Iridium [35], Orbcomm [36], ViaSat [37...global-xpress-us-government/ [35] Iridium Satellite network - https://gigaom.com/2012/08/27/how- iridium -took-a- chance-on-spacex-and-won/ [36

  3. The flight data monitoring method for the flight simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.П. Сердюк

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  Submitted the monitoring of the flight data method  for a flight simulator, which is based on the analysis of probability density of distribution characteristics of the transport plane crew activity in tasks of the Capitan minimum  confirming at meteominimum that corresponding to 1-st and to 2-nd  ICAO  categories on a flight simulator in conditions of small volume of the experimental data. Complexitie degree of an density function estimation, i.e. number of the decompose members, depending on volume of sample and select with the help of a risk structural minimization method. 

  4. Sleep at high altitude: guesses and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Konrad E; Buenzli, Jana C; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-12-15

    Lowlanders commonly report a poor sleep quality during the first few nights after arriving at high altitude. Polysomnographic studies reveal that reductions in slow wave sleep are the most consistent altitude-induced changes in sleep structure identified by visual scoring. Quantitative spectral analyses of the sleep electroencephalogram have confirmed an altitude-related reduction in the low-frequency power (0.8-4.6 Hz). Although some studies suggest an increase in arousals from sleep at high altitude, this is not a consistent finding. Whether sleep instability at high altitude is triggered by periodic breathing or vice versa is still uncertain. Overnight changes in slow wave-derived encephalographic measures of neuronal synchronization in healthy subjects were less pronounced at moderately high (2,590 m) compared with low altitude (490 m), and this was associated with a decline in sleep-related memory consolidation. Correspondingly, exacerbation of breathing and sleep disturbances experienced by lowlanders with obstructive sleep apnea during a stay at 2,590 m was associated with poor performance in driving simulator tests. These findings suggest that altitude-related alterations in sleep may adversely affect daytime performance. Despite recent advances in our understanding of sleep at altitude, further research is required to better establish the role of gender and age in alterations of sleep at different altitudes, to determine the influence of acclimatization and of altitude-related illness, and to uncover the characteristics of sleep in highlanders that may serve as a study paradigm of sleep in patients exposed to chronic hypoxia due to cardiorespiratory disease.

  5. Diving at altitude: from definition to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, S Murat; Pieri, Massimo; Marroni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Diving above sea level has different motivations for recreational, military, commercial and scientific activities. Despite the apparently wide practice of inland diving, there are three major discrepancies about diving at altitude: threshold elevation that requires changes in sea level procedures; upper altitude limit of the applicability of these modifications; and independent validation of altitude adaptation methods of decompression algorithms. The first problem is solved by converting the normal fluctuation in barometric pressure to an altitude equivalent. Based on the barometric variations recorded from a meteorological center, it is possible to suggest 600 meters as a threshold for classifying a dive as an "altitude" dive. The second problem is solved by proposing the threshold altitude of aviation (2,400 meters) to classify "high" altitude dives. The DAN (Divers Alert Network) Europe diving database (DB) is analyzed to solve the third problem. The database consists of 65,050 dives collected from different dive computers. A total of 1,467 dives were found to be classified as altitude dives. However, by checking the elevation according to the logged geographical coordinates, 1,284 dives were disqualified because the altitude setting had been used as a conservative setting by the dive computer despite the fact that the dive was made at sea level. Furthermore, according to the description put forward in this manuscript, 72 dives were disqualified because the surface level elevation is lower than 600 meters. The number of field data (111 dives) is still very low to use for the validation of any particular method of altitude adaptation concerning decompression algorithms.

  6. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet.Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies.Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion.Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:499–504.

  7. SR-71 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The movie clip shown here runs about 13 seconds and shows an air-to-air shot of the front of the SR-71 aircraft and a head-on view of it coming in for a landing. Two SR-71A aircraft on loan from the U.S. Air Force have been used for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1991. One of them was later returned to the Air Force. A third SR-71 on loan from the Air Force is an SR-71B used for training but not for flight research. Developed for the U.S. Air Force as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71 aircraft are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. These aircraft can fly more than 2200 miles per hour (Mach 3+ or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas--aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic-boom characterization. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program may be used to aid designers of future supersonic or hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a possible high-speed civil transport. The SR-71 program at Dryden has been part of the NASA overall high-speed aeronautical research program, and projects have involved other NASA research centers, other government agencies, universities, and commercial firms. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air-data collection system. This system used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data such as angle of attack and angle of sideslip. These data are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the air stream, or from tubes with flush openings on the aircraft outer skin. The flights provided information on the presence of

  8. Hypoxic Hypoxia at Moderate Altitudes: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    indicating more O2 unloading, leading to more rapid desaturation of hemoglobin. 6 Conditions such as anemia or high altitude, cause an increase of 2,3...yielded 32 articles, 5 technical reports, 1 master’s thesis , 2 abstracts, and 2 manuals. Excluded from the Dialog search were 17 articles, 2...technical reports, and 2 manuals. Additionally, 52 articles, 1 master’s thesis , and 16 abstracts were obtained for review from references of original

  9. RESEARCH ON THE KEY TECHNOLOGY OF LARGE SCALE MAPPING FROM LOW ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bo-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theoretic analysis of the accuracy in large scale photogrammetric mapping, some defects in traditional procedure were discussed. A set of key technologies dedicate to accuracy improvement in low altitude photogrammetry were analyzed in detail, namely the utilization of wide angle camera and low altitude flight, enhancement in image matching, predesigned layout of Ground Control Points (GCPs in field survey, optimization of adjustment model and improvement in map processing. Besides, a low altitude aerial unmanned airship system was established. Finally, successful implementation in 1:500 topographic mapping project in built-up areas of 30 counties in Shanxi Province proves the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  10. The high altitude student platform (HASP) for student-built payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. Gregory; Wefel, John P.

    An outstanding issue with aerospace workforce development is what should be done at the university level to attract and prepare undergraduates for an aerospace career. One approach adopted by many institutions is to lead students through the design and development of small payloads (less than about 500 grams) that can be carried up to high altitude (around 30 km) by a latex sounding balloon. This approach has been very successful in helping students to integrate their content knowledge with practical skills and to understand the end-to-end process of aerospace project development. Sounding balloons, however, are usually constrained in flight duration (˜30 min above 24 km) and payload weight, limiting the kinds investigations that are possible. Student built picosatellites, such as CubeSats, can be placed in low Earth orbit removing the flight duration constraint, but the delays between satellite development and launch can be years. Here, we present the inexpensive high altitude student platform (HASP) that is designed to carry at least eight student payloads at a time to an altitude of about 36 km with flight durations of 15 20 h using a small zero-pressure polyethylene film balloon. This platform provides a flight capability greater than sounding balloons and can be used to flight-test compact satellites, prototypes and other small payloads designed and built by students. The HASP includes a standard mechanical, power and communication interface for the student payload to simplify integration and allows the payloads to be fully exercised. HASP is lightweight, has simple mission requirements providing flexibility in the launch schedule, will provide a flight test opportunity at the end of each academic year.

  11. An empirical approach to the measurement of the cosmic radiation field at jet aircraft altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, A R; Lewis, B J; Kitching, F; McCall, M J; Desormeaux, M; Butler, A A

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the Royal Military College of Canada have accumulated extensive dose measurements performed at jet altitudes on over 160 flights and with a wide variety of detectors including a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), a smart wide energy neutron detection instrument (SWENDI), bubble detectors, thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and an ion chamber. The summation of the individual low and high LET results from the latter equipment compared successfully to those from the TEPC on each flight. The data from these numerous worldwide flights have been encapsulated into a program that calculates the radiation dose for any flight in the world at any period in the solar cycle. This experimentally based program, Predictive Code for AIRcrew Exposure (PCAIRE) has been designed to be used by the airline industry to meet national dosimetry requirements. In Canada, for example, such a code can be used, supported by periodic measurements. With this latter requirement in mind and a desire to decrease equip...

  12. Bumblebee flight in heavy turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, T; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F -O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  13. Worldwide assessments of laser radar tactical scenario performance variability for diverse low altitude atmospheric conditions at 1.0642 μm and 1.557 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Bartell, Richard J.; Krizo, Matthew J.; Fedyk, Daniel J.; Moore, Kenneth P.; Harris, Thomas R.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Richmond, Richard; Gebhardt, Matthew J.

    2009-03-01

    Spatial, spectral and temporal variations in operating conditions are major contributors to the expected variability/uncertainty in system performance. The ratio of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on climatological data to a standard atmosphere is the primary performance metric used, with results presented in the form of histograms and maps of worldwide LADAR performance variation. This metric is assessed at 2 wavelengths, 1.0642 μm and 1.557 μm, for a number of widely dispersed land and maritime locations worldwide over oblique and vertical air to surface paths in which anticipated clear air aerosols and location specific heavy rain and 150 m thick fog occur. Seasonal, boundary layer, and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentiles are also considered. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol extinction, air-to-ground cloud free line of sight (CFLOS) probabilities as a function of location for this geometry are computed. Observations from the current study strongly indicate that use of the standard atmosphere to predict performance will produce overly optimistic, in many cases extremely so, estimates of expected performance. Locally heavy rain, when present, severely limits LADAR system performance at these wavelengths. Some operational capability exists for vertical looks through fog.

  14. In-flight lift and drag measurements on a first generation jet transport equipped with winglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    A KC-135A aircraft equipped with wing tip winglets was flight tested to demonstrate and validate the potential performance gain of the winglet concept as predicted from analytical and wind tunnel data. Flight data were obtained at cruise conditions for Mach numbers of 0.70, 0.75, and 0.80 at a nominal altitude of 36,000 ft. and winglet configurations of 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence, 0 deg cant/-4 deg incidence, and baseline. For the Mach numbers tested the data show that the addition of winglets did not affect the lifting characteristics of the wing. However, both winglet configurations showed a drag reduction over the baseline configuration, with the best winglet configuration being the 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence configuration. This drag reduction due to winglets also increased with increasing lift coefficient. It was also shown that a small difference exists between the 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence flight and wind tunnel predicted data. This difference was attributed to the pillowing of the winglet skins in flight which would decrease the winglet performance.

  15. Iron Supplementation and Altitude: Decision Making Using a Regression Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Andrew D. Govus, Peter Peeling, Chris R. Abbiss, Christopher J. Gore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altitude exposure increases the body’s need for iron (Gassmann and Muckenthaler, 2015, primarily to support accelerated erythropoiesis, yet clear supplementation guidelines do not exist. Athletes are typically recommended to ingest a daily oral iron supplement to facilitate altitude adaptations, and to help maintain iron balance. However, there is some debate as to whether athletes with otherwise healthy iron stores should be supplemented, due in part to concerns of iron overload. Excess iron in vital organs is associated with an increased risk of a number of conditions including cancer, liver disease and heart failure. Therefore clear guidelines are warranted and athletes should be discouraged from ‘self-prescribing” supplementation without medical advice. In the absence of prospective-controlled studies, decision tree analysis can be used to describe a data set, with the resultant regression tree serving as guide for clinical decision making. Here, we present a regression tree in the context of iron supplementation during altitude exposure, to examine the association between pre-altitude ferritin (Ferritin-Pre and the haemoglobin mass (Hbmass response, based on daily iron supplement dose. De-identified ferritin and Hbmass data from 178 athletes engaged in altitude training were extracted from the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS database. Altitude exposure was predominantly achieved via normobaric Live high: Train low (n = 147 at a simulated altitude of 3000 m for 2 to 4 weeks. The remaining athletes engaged in natural altitude training at venues ranging from 1350 to 2800 m for 3-4 weeks. Thus, the “hypoxic dose” ranged from ~890 km.h to ~1400 km.h. Ethical approval was granted by the AIS Human Ethics Committee, and athletes provided written informed consent. An in depth description and traditional analysis of the complete data set is presented elsewhere (Govus et al., 2015. Iron supplementation was prescribed by a sports physician

  16. Effect of altitude on some blood factors and its stability after leaving the altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematy, Yones; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Razavi, Akram; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    The underlying mechanisms of altitude training are still a matter of controversial discussion. The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and volume between normal and high altitude situations and their persistence after returning back from higher altitudes. The study population included male students of Ardal Branch, Islamic Azad University. Twelve apparently healthy individual with high level of physical activity, mean age of 22.6 ± 1.50 years were selected through purposive and available sampling method. In this study, blood samples were collected at different time and altitudes in order to compare the changes of Red Blood Cell (RBC), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Mean Cell Volume (MCV). The first blood sampling was conducted at the altitude of 1830 m. The subsequent blood samplings were conducted 48 and 72 h after reaching the altitude of 4000 m and 24, 48 and 72 h after returning back to the altitude of 1830 m. The statistical method used in this study was repeated measurement ANOVA. Red Blood Cell (RBC) changes between onset of climbing to 1830 m and 24, 48 and 2 h after sojourn at 1830 m height (after returning from 4000 m altitude) was significant. Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) showed no significant change in any of the altitudes. MCHC changes between onset of moving toward altitude 1830 meters and 24, 48 and 72 h after sojourn at 1830 m height (after returning from 4000 m altitude) was also significant in addition, MCHC showed a significant difference between 24 h staying at 1830 m altitude with 48 and 72 h staying at 4000 m altitude. Mean Cell Volume (MCV) showed no significant difference between 48 and 72 h staying at 4000 m altitude and also between 24, 48 and 72 h staying at 1830 m altitude; however, there was a significant difference between onset of moving toward 1830 m altitude with 24, 48 and 72 h staying at 1830 m altitude and also 48 and 72 h staying at

  17. 用李雅普诺夫直接法建立弹箭飞行动稳定条件%Derivation of Dynamical Stability Conditions of Projectiles in Flight by Liapunov's Direct Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明友

    2001-01-01

    Based on the common disturbed motion equation of projectiles,Liapunov function V(X)=X*HeX in plural number mode is constituted with the help of Hermite matrix He and Liapunov's direct method. From the positive definiteness conditions of the matrix He, it has derived dynamical stability conditions of projectiles in flight. This also provides a new way to study flight stability.%以弹箭扰动运动的通用方程为基础,运用李雅普诺夫直接法,采用厄米特矩阵He,构造一种复数形式的李雅普诺夫函数V(X)=X*HeX。由矩阵He的正定条件得出弹箭飞行的动稳定条件,从而为飞行稳定性研究提供一条新的途径。

  18. In situ emission measurements in the wake of subsonic jet airliners at cruise altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, P.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Baughcum, St. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    In the course of the POLINAT campaigns of 1994 and 1995 several flights were carried out to measure NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} in the young exhaust plumes of commercial wide-bodied jet airlines at altitude. From these measurements in flight NO{sub x} emission indices were derived which were used to test current NO{sub x} emission index prediction methods. Taking into account the error of the measurements and uncertainties in the input parameters for the predictions, the results of the two fuel flow base prediction methods agreed well with the measured values. (author) 13 refs.

  19. In-flight radiation exposure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barish, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    During high-altitude flight, the cosmic radiation dose rate in an airliner is greater than it is at ground level. For a casual traveler, the impact on pregnancy from cosmic radiation exposure during flight is trivial. Pregnant frequent flyers, pilots, and flight attendants can, however, receive exposures that exceed current recommended values if they do not appropriately modify their work schedules. In addition to the galactic cosmic-ray background that is the source of this radiation, severe disturbances on the sun may cause eruptions that significantly raise radiation levels at airliner altitudes for brief periods, possibly having an impact even on casual travelers. This article will help obstetrician-gynecologists provide advice to their pregnant patients about in-flight radiation risks. That advice should be influenced by an understanding of recommended radiation exposure limits and a perspective on how those limits relate to the potential for real harm. Resources provided by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and others to help pregnant women and their physicians make informed decisions about the acceptability of this type of exposure are described.

  20. Altitude effects on growth of indigenous children in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M; Pena Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Bali Chavez, Guillermo

    2013-09-01

    The effect of altitude of residence on the growth status of 11,454 indigenous school children 6-14 years of age in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was examined. Indicators of living conditions (human development index [HDI], index of community nutritional risk [INR], index of marginalization [IM], index of relative isolation [II]) were regressed on z-scores for height, weight and BMI, and the residuals were regressed on altitude of residence (km). Independent of other environmental conditions, altitude negatively affected height by approximately -0.07 z-scores per kilometer altitude above sea level. The estimated average decrease in stature was 0.92 cm per kilometer elevation. BMI was significantly increased, 1.2 units per kilometer elevation, consistent with earlier studies of growth status and altitude. In contrast, weight was not affected by altitude of residence. Approximately 36% of the reduction in height and 54% of the increase in BMI were due to altitude effects; the remaining changes in height and BMI were associated with environmental factors reflected in the indices of community well-being considered.

  1. Pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Schultheiss

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODS: Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m and high altitude (4559 m over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. RESULTS: During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05. In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05 on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS.

  2. Pupillary Light Reaction during High Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Andreas; Wilhelm, Barbara; Peters, Tobias; Fischer, M. Dominik; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian; Willmann, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP) and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methods Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity) were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m) and high altitude (4559 m) over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline) and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. Results During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05). In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05) on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. Conclusions Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS. PMID:24503770

  3. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Meier Matthias M.; Trompier François; Ambrozova Iva; Kubancak Jan; Matthiä Daniel; Ploc Ondrej; Santen Nicole; Wirtz Michael

    2016-01-01

    Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors) campaign ...

  4. DYNAMICAL VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL OF A HELICOPTER IN VERTICAL FLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt; Zribi, Mohamed; Ahmad, Shaheen

    1991-01-01

    In this article, a dynamical multivariable discontinuous feedback control strategy of the sliding nlode type is proposed for the altitude stabilization of a nonlinear helicopter model in vertical flight. Vlrhile retaining the basic robustness features associated to sliding mode control policies, the proposed approach also results in smoothed out (i.e., non-chattering) input trajectories and controlled state variable responses.

  5. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  6. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  7. Cooling Enhancement by Drop Impact and Pool Boiling on Nano-textured Surfaces Under Normal Gravity Conditions and at Zero and Increased Gravity in Parabolic Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarin, Alexander; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Jun, Seongchul

    2014-03-01

    The earth experiments with drop impact onto metal-plated electrospun nanofiber mats encompass a single drop, or drop trains or jets impacts. The results on drop cooling and pool boiling on nano-textured surface were obtained during the parabolic flights supported by NASA and ESA. Pool boiling on nano-textured surfaces was studied for ethanol and water as working fluids. The nano-textured surfaces were copper platelets covered with copper-plated electrospun nanofibers. The results revealed that the heat flux in boiling on the nano-textured surfaces was about 3-8 times higher than that on the bare copper. This stems from the fact that nano-textured surfaces promote bubble growth by increasing the average temperature of fluid surrounding growing bubbles. Nano-textured surfaces facilitated bubble growth rate and increase bubble detachment frequency. On the other hand, the critical heat flux (CHF) on the nano-textured surfaces was found to be very close to its counterpart on the bare copper surfaces. However, the heat flux on the nano-textured surfaces in transition boiling was significantly higher than on the bare copper ones, since the presence of nanofibers prevented bubble merging and delayed formation of vapor film.

  8. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  9. Culture conditions and sample preparation methods affect spectrum quality and reproducibility during profiling of Staphylococcus aureus with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J E; Zhang, L; Borror, C M; Rago, J V; Sandrin, T R

    2013-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a promising tool to rapidly characterize Staphylococcus aureus. Different protocols have been employed, but effects of experimental factors, such as culture condition and sample preparation, on spectrum quality and reproducibility have not been rigorously examined. We applied MALDI-TOF MS to characterize a model system consisting of five methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and five methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (MRSA) under two culture conditions (agar and broth) and using two sample preparation methods [intact cell method and protein extraction method (PEM)]. The effects of these treatments on spectrum quality and reproducibility were quantified. PEM facilitated increases in the number of peaks and mass range width. Broth cultures further improved spectrum quality in terms of increasing the number of peaks. In addition, PEM increased reproducibility in samples prepared using identical culture conditions. MALDI imaging data suggested that the improvement in reproducibility may result from a more homogeneous distribution of sample associated with the broth/PEM treatment. Broth/PEM treatment also yielded the highest rate (96%) of correct classification for MRSA. Taken together, these results suggest that broth/PEM maximizes the performance of MALDI-TOF MS to characterize S. aureus. Two culture conditions (agar or broth) and two sample preparation methods (intact cell or protein extraction) were evaluated for their effects on profiling of Staphylococcus aureus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results indicated that MALDI-enabled profiling of S. aureus is most effective when cultures are grown in broth and processed using a protein extraction-based approach. These findings should enhance future efforts to maximize the performance of this approach to characterize strains of S. aureus. © 2013

  10. Aircraft Low Altitude Wind Shear Detection and Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence to substantiate the causal relationship between low altitude wind shear (LAWS) and the recent increase in low-altitude aircraft accidents. The National Research Council has found that for the period 1964 to 1982, LAWS was involved in nearly all the weather-related air carrier fatalities. However, at present, there is no acceptable method, technique, or hardware system that provides the necessary safety margins, for spatial and timely detection of LAWS from an aircraft during the critical phases of landing and takeoff. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has addressed this matter and supports the development of an airborne system for detecting hazardous LAWS with at least a one minute warning of the potential hazard to the pilot. One of the purposes of this paper is to show from some of our preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts [microbursts/macrobursts (MB)] and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the LAWS events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial-air speed systems that require the actual penetration of the MB before a pilot warning can be initiated. Our preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of MB threat, location, movement, and predicted MB hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft.In a proof-of-concept experiment, we have flight tested a prototype FLIR system (nonscanning, fixed range) near and within Colorado MBs with excellent detectability. The results show that a minimum warning time of one-four minutes (5×10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to a MB encounter. Analysis of the flight data with respect to a modified `hazard index' indicates the severe hazard

  11. HSP70 expression in the copper butterfly Lycaena tityrus across altitudes and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karl, I.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    The ability to express heat-shock proteins (HSP) under thermal stress is an essential mechanism for ectotherms to cope with unfavourable conditions. In this study, we investigate if Copper butterflies originating from different altitudes and/or being exposed to different rearing and induction...... temperatures show differences in HSP70 expression. HSP70 expression increased substantially at the higher rearing temperature in low-altitude butterflies, which might represent an adaptation to occasionally occurring heat spells. On the other hand, high-altitude butterflies showed much less plasticity...

  12. Immune function during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  13. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Low Altitude Operation on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a Stirling engine powered airship for the near surface exploration of Venus was evaluated. The heat source for the Stirling engine was limited to 10 general purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. The baseline airship utilized hydrogen as the lifting gas and the electronics and payload were enclosed in a cooled insulated pressure vessel to maintain the internal temperature at 320 K and 1 Bar pressure. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the Venus surface based on the available thermal power. The atmospheric conditions on Venus were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Venus surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the internal temperature of the payload chamber and the flight altitude. In addition other lifting methods were evaluated such as an evacuated chamber, heated atmospheric gas and augmented heated lifting gas. However none of these methods proved viable.

  14. Precursor gases of aerosols in the Mount St. Helens eruption plumes at stratospheric altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Condon, E. P.; Ohara, D.

    1982-01-01

    Nineteen stratospheric samples from the eruption plumes of Mount St. Helens were collected in five flight experiments. The plume samples were collected at various altitudes from 13.1 to 20.7 km by using the Ames cryogenic sampling system on board the NASA U-2 aircraft. The enriched, cryogenically collected samples were analyzed by chromatography. The concentrations of aerosols precursor gases (OCS, SO2, and CS2), CH3Cl, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 were measured by gas chromatography. Large enhancement of the mixing ratio of SO2 and moderate enhancement of CS2 and OCS were found in the plume samples compared with similar measurement under pre-volcanic conditions. A fast decay rate of the SO2 mixing ratio in the plume was observed. Measurement of Cl(-), SO2(2-), and NO3(-) by ion chromatography was also carried out on water solutions prepared from the plume samples. The results obtained with this technique imply large mixing ratios of HCl, (NO + NO2 + HNO3), and SO2, in which these constituents are the respective sources of the anions. Measurement of the Rn222 concentration in the plume was made. Other stratospheric constituents in the plume samples, such as H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO, were also observed.

  15. ARMAS and NAIRAS Comparisons of Radiation at Aviation Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Space Environment Technologies and the Space Weather Center (SWC) at Utah State University are deploying and obtaining effective dose rate radiation data from dosimeters flown on research aircraft. This project is called Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS). Through several dozen flights since 2013 the ARMAS project has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro-dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar energetic particles (SEP's). Space weather effects upon the near Earth environment are to dynamic changes in the energy transfer process from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. The coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect human tissue and the aircrafts technology as a result of radiation exposure. We describe and compare the types of radiation we have been measuring with the NAIRAS global climatological model as it relates to human tissue susceptibility and as a source at different altitude regions.

  16. Solar electric energy supply at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W.; Mundschau, E. [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies regarding electrical performance was quantified at some examples for the aspect of spectral distribution with the help of the introduced spectral height factor. The main attention during analysis of the whole solar-hydrogen energy system was directed to characteristics of current or near term available technology. Specific power weight of photovoltaic system, electrolyzer, fuel cell and gas tanks and their dependence on operation mode and power range were assessed. A pre-design of a solar-hydrogen energy system was carried out for an airship (volume 580,000 m3) withstanding continuous wind speeds up to {approx} 130 km/h. The calculated coverage ratio of photovoltaic and load share of energy system mark the frame of usability. Depending on the airship size, shape and other external boundary conditions the total electrical energy demand could be covered by a solar-hydrogen energy system of current or near term technology for full year operation. However further investigations are necessary regarding e.g. further mass reductions. (author)

  17. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center Solar test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation of a single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions for a total of approximately ten months. The solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, and 3.8 inches in depth.

  18. Comparison of theory with atomic oxygen 130.4 nm radiation data from the Bow Shock ultraviolet 2 rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Deborah A.; Candler, Graham V.; Collins, Robert J.; Howlett, Carl L.; Espy, Patrick; Whiting, Ellis; Park, Chul

    1993-01-01

    Comparison is made between the results obtained from a state-of-the-art flow and radiative model and bow shock vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) data obtained the recent Bow Shock 2 Flight Experiment. An extensive data set was obtained from onboard rocket measurements at a reentry speed of 5 km/sec between the altitudes of approximately 65-85 km. A description of the NO photoionization cell used, the data, and the interpretation of the data will be presented. The primary purpose of the analyses is to assess the utility of the data and to propose a radiation model appropriate to the flight conditions of Bow Shock 2. Theoretical predictions based on flow modeling discussed in earlier work and a new radiation model are compared with data.

  19. Altitude Correction for Breakdown Voltages of Long Air-Gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuan; Li Yunge; Cao Xiaolong; Su Zhiyi; Liu Ying

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown voltage of long air-gaps in high-voltage transmission systems depends on not only the waveform of the applied voltage, but also the atmospheric conditions. Based on the results of the research project on the minimum air clearance for 800-Kv HVDC substations at high altitudes, and also on the monthly and yearly statistics of the atmospheric data of last ten years and the altitude correction of the atmospheric data of last ten years, the altitude correction of the air-gaps for the 800-Kv DC system under plan, 500-Kv AC system to be built, and 1000-Kv AC system under plan in the Inner Mongolia Plateau and the Yungui Plateau in China were studied with parameter G method. Correction factors for switching and lightning impulses were calculated and then compared with those achieved according to IEC 71. It is shown that IEC 71 is appropriate for damp regions, and correction factors differ between plateau regions in China because of different atmospheric conditions.

  20. Comparison of the space radiation environment at Foton M3 satellite altitudes and on aircraft altitudes for minimum of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Dachev, Tsvetan; Spurny, Frantisek; Tomov, Borislav; Dimitrov, Plamen; Matviichuk, Yury; Bankov, Nikolay

    The space radiation environments at Foton M3 and aircraft altitudes were measured by using of practically equal silicon detector based on a deposited energy spectrometers in the fall of 2007. The aircraft measurements were performed on commercial flights of CSA airlines, while the Foton M3 measurements were inside of the ESA Biopan 6 experiment. Foton M3 orbit was close to circular between 260 and 289 km altitude and about 63° inclination. The relatively high inclination and small shielding of the detector (0.81 g/cm2 ) allow us to observe doses by electrons in the outer radiation belt as high as 2.3 mGy/hour. The comparison of the total GCR deposited doses for the Foton M3 time interval, which coincides with the absolute cycle 23 minimum of the solar activity is about 15% higher than the measured during the Foton M2 satellite doses in 2005. Comparisons of the latitudinal profiles for ISS in 2001, Foton 2 and 3 satellites and aircrafts show that the ratio of doses is as 1:2:3. Aircraft measurements are characterised through average values of exposure during frequent, statistically well based measurements on the routes Prague - New York. Dose absorbed in Si-detector per flight on these routes was about 8% higher in 2007 than in 2005. Different comparisons with the existing models for the radiation environment on aircraft and spacecraft altitudes are presented in the paper also and discussed.

  1. Reducing The Climate Change Impact of Aviation By Restricting Cruise Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, V.; Noland, R. B.; Toumi, R.

    Aviation has the potential to influence the global climate. The total annual fuel burned by aircraft contributes a small but significant proportion of global anthropogenic car- bon dioxide emissions, with this proportion set to increase with the projected rise in demand for air travel. Additionally, the emission of nitrogen oxides at altitude can have a much greater impact on ozone, and in turn on the atmospheric radiation bud- get, than emission at the surface. A third mechanism for the influence of aviation on climate is through the production of contrails. Contrails cover 0.1 Cruise altitude restrictions could severely constrain air space capacity, especially in parts of Europe. In addition, carbon emissions may increase due to less efficient air- craft operation at lower cruise altitudes, which would offset some of the benefits of eliminating contrail formation. An analysis of these trade-offs is presented, using the RAMS air space simulation model as applied to European airspace. This model sim- ulates the flight paths and altitudes of each aircraft and is here used to calculate emis- sions of carbon dioxide and changes in the journey time. Our analysis demonstrates that altitude restrictions on commercial aircraft could be an effective means of re- ducing climate change impacts, though it will be necessary to mitigate the increased controller workload conflicts that this will generate.

  2. X-1 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    -moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system of increased capacity, and a thinner high-speed wing. The X-1E was used to obtain in-flight data at twice the speed of sound, with particular emphasis placed on investigating the improvements achieved with the high-speed wing. These wings, made by Stanley Aircraft, were only 3 3/8-inches thick at the root and had 343 gauges installed in them to measure structural loads and aerodynamic heating. The X-1E used its rocket engine to power it up to a speed of 1,471 miles per hour (Mach 2.24) and to an altitude of 73,000 feet. Like the X-1 it was air-launched. The X-1 aircraft were almost 31 feet long and had a wingspan of 28 feet. The X-1 was built of conventional aluminum stressed-skin construction to extremely high structural standards. The X-1E was also 31 feet long but had a wingspan of only 22 feet, 10 inches. It was powered by a Reaction Motors, Inc., XLR-8-RM-5, four-chamber rocket engine. As did all X-1 rocket engines, the LR-8-RM-5 engine did not have throttle capability, but instead, depended on ignition of any one chamber or group of chambers to vary speed. There were also X-1A, X-1B, and and a short-lived X-1D models of the X-1.

  3. High-Altitude Balloon Launches and Hands-On Sensors for Effective Student Learning in Astronomy and STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Dailey, J.; Snyder, S. J.

    2011-09-01

    Students creating and flying experiments into near-space using a low-cost balloon High-Altitude Research Platform (HARP) greatly advance understanding in introductory astronomy and advanced classes across several disciplines. Remote sensing above 98% of the atmosphere using cameras, image intensifiers, IR, and UV sensors provides access to the heavens and large regions of the earth below. In situ and limb atmospheric gas measurements, near-space stratosphere measurements, and cosmic rays engage students in areas from planetary atmospheres to supernova acceleration. This new capability is possible by exposing students to recent advances in MEMS technology, nanotechnology, wireless telecommunication systems, GPS, DSPs and other microchip miniaturizations to build less than 4 kg payloads. The HARP program provides an engaging laboratory, gives challenging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field experiences, reaches students from diverse backgrounds, encourages collaboration among science faculty, and provides quantitative assessment of the learning outcomes. Over a seven-year period, Taylor University, an undergraduate liberal arts school, has successfully launched over 230 HARP systems to altitudes over 30 km (100% retrieval success with rapid recovery) with flight times between two and six hours. The HARP payloads included two GPS tracking systems, cameras and monitors, a 110 kbit down link, an uplink command capability for educational experiments (K-12 and undergraduate). Launches were conducted during the day and night, with multiple balloons, with up to 10 payloads for experiments, and under varying weather and upper atmospheric conditions. The many launches in a short period of time allowed the payload bus design to evolve toward increased performance, reliability, standardization, simplicity, and modularity for low-cost launch services. Through NSF and NASA grants, the program has expanded, leading to representatives from more than 52

  4. Low-altitude photographic transects of the Arctic Network of National Park Units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    During July 16–18, 2013, low-level photography flights were conducted (with a Cessna 185 with floats and a Cessna 206 with tundra tires) over the five administrative units of the National Park Service Arctic Network (Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Kobuk Valley National Park, and Noatak National Preserve) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Selawik National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Alaska, to provide images of current conditions and prevalence of land-cover types as a baseline for measuring future change, and to complement the existing grid-based sample photography of the region. Total flight time was 17 hours, 46 minutes, and total flight distance was 2,590 kilometers, at a mean altitude of about 300 meters above ground level. A total of 19,167 photographs were taken from five digital camera systems: 1. A Drift® HD-170 (focal length 5.00 mm);

  5. Early history of high-altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-02-01

    High-altitude physiology can be said to have begun in 1644 when Torricelli described the first mercury barometer and wrote the immortal words "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air." Interestingly, the notion of atmospheric pressure had eluded his teacher, the great Galileo. Blaise Pascal was responsible for describing the fall in pressure with increasing altitude, and Otto von Guericke gave a dramatic demonstration of the enormous force that could be developed by atmospheric pressure. Robert Boyle learned of Guericke's experiment and, with Robert Hooke, constructed the first air pump that allowed small animals to be exposed to a low pressure. Hooke also constructed a small low-pressure chamber and exposed himself to a simulated altitude of about 2400 meters. With the advent of ballooning, humans were rapidly exposed to very low pressures, sometimes with tragic results. For example, the French balloon, Zénith, rose to over 8000 m, and two of the three aeronauts succumbed to the hypoxia. Paul Bert was the first person to clearly state that the deleterious effects of high altitude were caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and later research was accelerated by high-altitude stations and expeditions to high altitude.

  6. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  7. A Cockpit Display Designed to Enable Limited Flight Deck Separation Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, Vernol; Bochow, Sheila Holland

    2003-01-01

    Cockpit displays need to be substantially improved to serve the goals of situational awareness, conflict detection, and path replanning, in Free Flight. This paper describes the design of such an advanced cockpit display, along with an initial simulation based usability evaluation. Flight crews were particularly enthusiastic about color coding for relative altitude, dynamically pulsing predictors, and the use of 3-D flight plans for alerting and situational awareness.

  8. Sensitization pattern of inhalant allergens in children with asthma who are living different altitudes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Emin; Sogut, Ayhan; Küçükkoç, Mehmet; Eres, Mustafa; Acemoglu, Hamit; Yuksel, Hasan; Murat, Naci

    2015-11-01

    Variability in children's allergic sensitization has been detected not only among different countries but also among cities within the same nation but yet different climatic areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization pattern of asthmatic children who lived in different altitude areas: the two largest Turkish cities, Istanbul (sea level) and Erzurum (high altitude). Five hundred and twelve asthmatic children (6-15 years old) from Istanbul (western Turkey, at sea level) and 609 from Erzurum (eastern Turkey, at an altitude of 1800 m) were included in the study. All participants underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, spirometry, total IgE level, and clinical examination. The positive sensitization ratio to aeroallergens in children with asthma living at sea level was statistically higher than that in children living in the high altitude group [ p = 0.001, OR (odds ratio) 4.9 (confidence interval (CI) 3.67-6.459)]. However, pollen sensitization in asthmatic children living in high altitudes was significantly higher than that in children living at sea level [ p = 0.00, OR 2.6 (CI 1.79-3.87)]. Children with asthma who live at high altitudes are characterized by higher pollen but lower mite sensitization rates than those living at sea level in Turkey. Different climatic conditions and altitudes may affect aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma.

  9. Sensitization pattern of inhalant allergens in children with asthma who are living different altitudes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Emin; Sogut, Ayhan; Küçükkoç, Mehmet; Eres, Mustafa; Acemoglu, Hamit; Yuksel, Hasan; Murat, Naci

    2015-11-01

    Variability in children's allergic sensitization has been detected not only among different countries but also among cities within the same nation but yet different climatic areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization pattern of asthmatic children who lived in different altitude areas: the two largest Turkish cities, Istanbul (sea level) and Erzurum (high altitude). Five hundred and twelve asthmatic children (6-15 years old) from Istanbul (western Turkey, at sea level) and 609 from Erzurum (eastern Turkey, at an altitude of 1800 m) were included in the study. All participants underwent skin testing with common inhalant allergens, spirometry, total IgE level, and clinical examination. The positive sensitization ratio to aeroallergens in children with asthma living at sea level was statistically higher than that in children living in the high altitude group [p = 0.001, OR (odds ratio) 4.9 (confidence interval (CI) 3.67-6.459)]. However, pollen sensitization in asthmatic children living in high altitudes was significantly higher than that in children living at sea level [p = 0.00, OR 2.6 (CI 1.79-3.87)]. Children with asthma who live at high altitudes are characterized by higher pollen but lower mite sensitization rates than those living at sea level in Turkey. Different climatic conditions and altitudes may affect aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma.

  10. 78 FR 75285 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... control systems (mechanical linkages) are limited in the pitch axis only by the elevator surface area and deflection limit. The elevator control power is normally derived for adequate controllability and... gradients, Smooth transition from pilot elevator control to limit control. These special conditions will...

  11. The Study of the Application to the Low-Altitude Remote Sensing System Based on Light Helicopter for the Flight Platform%基于轻型直升机为飞行平台的低空遥感系统应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翔

    2012-01-01

    利用轻型直升机为飞行平台,搭载以全姿态纠正云台为核心的低空航摄设备进行试验研究,研发制造了相应的减震设备,有效地消除了直升机旋翼振动的影响.通过试验证明了该系统能够满足大比例尺成图的精度要求.在我国山区具有很好的推广价值.%Using light helicopter as flying platform, equipped with low - altitude aerial photograph equipment centered on all - attitude correction tripod head for the purpose of pilot study, this paper develops the respective vibration damping device, effectively eliminate the impact of helicopter rotor vibration. It is proved by experiment that the system can meet the accuracy requirements of large - scale mapping, which is valuable if applied in mountainous regions.

  12. Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rodi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is described that estimates the error in the static pressure measurement on an aircraft from differential pressure measurements on the hemispherical surface of a Rosemount model 858AJ air velocity probe mounted on a boom ahead of the aircraft. The theoretical predictions for how the pressure should vary over the surface of the hemisphere, involving an unknown sensitivity parameter, leads to a set of equations that can be solved for the unknowns – angle of attack, angle of sideslip, dynamic pressure and the error in static pressure – if the sensitivity factor can be determined. The sensitivity factor was determined on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft by comparisons with the error measured with a carefully designed sonde towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft – a trailing cone – and the result was shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions, including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU system are used to estimate acceleration effects on the error, and the algorithm is shown to predict corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa under those conditions. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are discussed.

  13. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  14. An automatic parachute release for high altitude scientific balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Chris

    NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility launches high altitude scientific research balloons at many locations around the world. Locations like Antarctica are flat for hundreds of miles and have nothing to snag a parachute consequently causing it to be more important to separate the parachute from the payload than in an area with vegetation and fences. Scientists are now building one of a kind payloads costing millions of dollars, taking five years or more to build, and are requesting multiple flights. In addition to that, the data gathering rate of many science payloads far exceeds the data downlink rate on over-the-horizon flights therefore making a recovery of at least the data hard drives a "minimum success requirement". The older mentality in ballooning; separating the parachute and payload from the balloon and getting it on the ground is more important than separating the parachute after the payload is on the ground has changed. It is now equally as important to separate the parachute from the gondola to prevent damage from dragging. Until now, commands had to be sent to separate the parachute from the gondola at approximately 60K ft, 30K ft, and 10K ft to use the Semi Automatic Parachute Release (SAPR), which is after the sometimes violent parachute opening shock. By using the Gondola controlled Automatic Parachute Release (GAPR) all commanding is done prior to termination, making the parachute release fully autonomous.

  15. Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Cynthia M; Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2012-04-01

    This review summarizes published information on the levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid-phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500 m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24-48 h with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma, and/or red blood cells fell within 2h, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 h and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than those of their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma, and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell-associated nitrogen oxides were more than 200 times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree shown by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction, although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors' and the Tibetans' high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions, and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic

  16. Balloon flight test of a Compton telescope based on scintillators with silicon photomultiplier readouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloser, P.F., E-mail: Peter.Bloser@unh.edu; Legere, J.S.; Bancroft, C.M.; Ryan, J.M.; McConnell, M.L.

    2016-03-11

    We present the results of the first high-altitude balloon flight test of a concept for an advanced Compton telescope making use of modern scintillator materials with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readouts. There is a need in the fields of high-energy astronomy and solar physics for new medium-energy gamma-ray (~0.4–10 MeV) detectors capable of making sensitive observations of both line and continuum sources over a wide dynamic range. A fast scintillator-based Compton telescope with SiPM readouts is a promising solution to this instrumentation challenge, since the fast response of the scintillators permits both the rejection of background via time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination and the ability to operate at high count rates. The Solar Compton Telescope (SolCompT) prototype presented here was designed to demonstrate stable performance of this technology under balloon-flight conditions. The SolCompT instrument was a simple two-element Compton telescope, consisting of an approximately one-inch cylindrical stilbene crystal for a scattering detector and a one-inch cubic LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal for a calorimeter detector. Both scintillator detectors were read out by 2×2 arrays of Hamamatsu S11828-3344 MPPC devices. Custom front-end electronics provided optimum signal rise time and linearity, and custom power supplies automatically adjusted the SiPM bias voltage to compensate for temperature-induced gain variations. A tagged calibration source, consisting of ~240 nCi of {sup 60}Co embedded in plastic scintillator, was placed in the field of view and provided a known source of gamma rays to measure in flight. The SolCompT balloon payload was launched on 24 August 2014 from Fort Sumner, NM, and spent ~3.75 h at a float altitude of ~123,000 ft. The instrument performed well throughout the flight. After correcting for small (~10%) residual gain variations, we measured an in-flight ToF resolution of ~760 ps (FWHM). Advanced scintillators with SiPM readouts continue to show

  17. Collision risks at sea: species composition and altitude distributions of birds in Danish offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blew, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Nehls, G. [BioConsult SH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This study investigates the collision risks of birds in operating offshore wind farms, focussing on all bird species present in the direct vicinity of the wind farms, their altitude distribution and reactions. The project was conducted jointly by BioConsult SH and the University of Hamburg in the two Danish offshore wind farms Horns Rev (North Sea) and Nysted (Baltic Sea) in the framework of a Danish-German cooperation and financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2006, using a ship anchored at the edge of the offshore wind farms. In this way, bird species of all sizes could be considered. Daytime observations yielded data on species composition, flight routes and potential reactions of the birds. Radar observations provided altitude distributions inside and outside the wind farm area and also reactions. The results shall help to further describe and assess the collision risk of different species groups. Since data analysis is still running, exemplary results will be presented here. 114 species have been recorded in Nysted and 99 in Horns Rev, approximately 65% of which have been observed inside the wind farm areas. Migrating birds seem to avoid flying into the wind farms, whereas individuals present in the areas for extended time periods utilize areas within the wind farms. While a barrier effect exists for species on migration, resident species probably have a higher collision risk. Raptors migrating during daylight frequently enter the wind farm area on their flight routes, correcting their flight paths in order to avoid collisions. Radar results show that during times of intensive migration, the proportion of birds flying at high altitudes and thus above windmill height is higher than in times of low migration intensity. Consequently, there is a lower proportion of migrating birds flying within the risk area. Data will be further analysed to

  18. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  19. The genetic architecture of adaptations to high altitude in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu

    Full Text Available Although hypoxia is a major stress on physiological processes, several human populations have survived for millennia at high altitudes, suggesting that they have adapted to hypoxic conditions. This hypothesis was recently corroborated by studies of Tibetan highlanders, which showed that polymorphisms in candidate genes show signatures of natural selection as well as well-replicated association signals for variation in hemoglobin levels. We extended genomic analysis to two Ethiopian ethnic groups: Amhara and Oromo. For each ethnic group, we sampled low and high altitude residents, thus allowing genetic and phenotypic comparisons across altitudes and across ethnic groups. Genome-wide SNP genotype data were collected in these samples by using Illumina arrays. We find that variants associated with hemoglobin variation among Tibetans or other variants at the same loci do not influence the trait in Ethiopians. However, in the Amhara, SNP rs10803083 is associated with hemoglobin levels at genome-wide levels of significance. No significant genotype association was observed for oxygen saturation levels in either ethnic group. Approaches based on allele frequency divergence did not detect outliers in candidate hypoxia genes, but the most differentiated variants between high- and lowlanders have a clear role in pathogen defense. Interestingly, a significant excess of allele frequency divergence was consistently detected for genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA damage and repair, thus pointing to new pathways for high altitude adaptations. Finally, a comparison of CpG methylation levels between high- and lowlanders found several significant signals at individual genes in the Oromo.

  20. Development and quality of pineapple guava fruit in two locations with different altitudes in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit growth is stimulated by different weather conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of weather conditions on the physicochemical properties of pineapple guava fruit growth. Twenty trees were marked in two production areas located at different altitudes (1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., and measurements were performed every 7 days from 99 and 141 days post-anthesis to harvest at altitudes of 1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., respectively. The results indicate that altitude and weather conditions greatly influence the growth and development of pineapple guava fruit, and these effects are primarily manifested in the physical characteristics of the fruit. The weight and size of the fruit at harvest are directly related to the altitude of the production area. The weather condition that has the greatest impact on total titratable acidity at harvest is cumulative radiation during fruit growth; the highest value of total soluble solids at harvest corresponds to the location with the higher altitude, lower rainfall and relative humidity and higher cumulative radiation during the fruit growth period. The hue angle and pulp firmness at harvest are not influenced by the location or weather conditions at any location and do not determine the fruit quality at harvest time.

  1. Scientific Approach for Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Michael; Vogy, Joachim; Nolle-Gösser, Tanja

    2008-09-01

    The ESO coordinated study “Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories” is based on a psychological approach using a questionnaire for data collection and assessment of high-altitude effects. During 2007 and 2008, data from 28 staff and visitors involved in APEX and ALMA were collected and analysed and the first results of the study are summarised. While there is a lot of information about biomedical changes at high altitude, relatively few studies have focussed on psychological changes, for example with respect to performance of mental tasks, safety consciousness and emotions. Both, biomedical and psychological changes are relevant factors in occupational safety and health. The results of the questionnaire on safety, health and performance issues demonstrate that the working conditions at high altitude are less detrimental than expected.

  2. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  3. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Aquino Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2 induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

  4. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  5. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rodrigues, Bruno; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain. PMID:23690660

  6. Oxygen ion energization observed at high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Waara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of significant heating (up to 8 keV perpendicular to the geomagnetic field of outflowing oxygen ions at high altitude (12 RE above the polar cap. The shape of the distribution functions indicates that most of the heating occurs locally (within 0.2–0.4 RE in altitude. This is a clear example of local ion energization at much higher altitude than usually reported. In contrast to many events at lower altitudes, it is not likely that the locally observed wave fields can cause the observed ion energization. Also, it is not likely that the ions have drifted from some nearby energization region to the point of observation. This suggests that additional fundamentally different ion energization mechanisms are present at high altitudes. One possibility is that the magnetic moment of the ions is not conserved, resulting in slower outflow velocities and longer time for ion energization.

  7. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  8. Pathfinder - flight preparation on lakebed at sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Crew members prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for its first flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after its configuration was changed from 8 motors to 6. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  9. Pathfinder on lakebed preparing for test flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Support crew prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for a research flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  10. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  11. Edema pulmonar de gran altura HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE UNDURRAGA M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades de altura son de causa cerebral y pulmonar. Las primeras se refieren fundamentalmente al mal agudo de montaña y al edema cerebral de altura y las segundas al edema pulmonar agudo de montaña. Actuales evidencias señalan que el edema cerebral sería un fenómeno universal de los que ascienden a altura y que tres de cada cuatro individuos sanos que se expongan a altura desarrollarán un edema pulmonar agudo de montaña subclínico. La hipoxia de altura es la responsable de estos cuadros y los sujetos susceptibles serían aquellos que genéticamente tienen una respuesta ventilatoria reducida a la hipoxia y una exagerada respuesta vasopresora pulmonar al ejercicio.Se presenta un caso de edema pulmonar agudo de montaña en un deportista previamente sano que participó en una expedición al cerro El Plomo (5.280 msnm en la Cordillera de los Andes central. Posteriormente, se comenta la fisiopatología y tratamiento de esta condiciónHigh altitude diseases are originated from brain and lung. The first are Acute Mountain Sickness and Brain edema and the second is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE. Current evidence shows that brain edema is an universal event of the people who are exposed to high altitude. By other hand 3 out of 4 healthy subjects exposed to high altitude will present a subclinical HAPE. Hypoxia of altitude is the responsable for this condition. The susceptible subjects would be those who genetically have a low ventilatory response to hypoxia and an exaggerated increase of vascular pulmonary pressure during exercise. A clinical case of acute pulmonary edema in a young sportman who participated in an expedition to Cerro El Plomo (5.280 m in Chilean Central Andes Mountains is presented. Pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions are discussed

  12. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prativa; Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly

    2016-12-01

    Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353-358, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk.

  13. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  14. Unexplored biophysical problem of manned flight to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakyan, Sergey; Voronin, Nikolai; Kovalenok, Vladimir; Trchounian, Armen

    The presentation discusses so far unexplored biophysical problem of manned flight to the Mars, scheduled for the next decade. In long-term manned space flights on the orbital stations "Salyut-6" Soviet cosmonaut crews under the command of one of the co-authors (cosmonaut V.V. Kovalenok) had repeatedly observed the effect of certain geophysical conditions on the psychological state of each crew. These effects were coinciding with the increased intensity of global illumination in the upper ionosphere space on flight altitudes (300-360 km). It is important that, during all these periods, the geomagnetic pulsation's were completely absent. Previously a new but very important for long interplanetary expeditions problem of psychophysical state of the crew in the absence of alternating electromagnetic fields and radiation, including the ionosphere one, was first raised for evolutionarily adapted humanity. However, up to date, this subject, particularly during the long simulation experiments such as "Mars 500", which eliminates much of their value and contribution to the Mars mission, has almost no attention. Indeed, the obtained results have clearly shown that the cosmonaut crews in orbital flight, even deep one within geomagnetic sphere, might experience severe psychological discomfort, the nature of which is fully defined. This is the appearance of such rather unusual geophysical periods of different durations (from minutes to days) those are in the form of an almost complete lack of geomagnetic pulsations on the Earth. The aim is to confirm the need of considering possible pathological effects of the complete lack of rhythm forming, inherent for terrestrial environment geomagnetic pulsation's on psychological and physical state of the cosmonaut crew. This is important for the preparation and conducting the manned flights beyond the Earth's magnetosphere, particularly to the Mars. The influence of the presence of different types of geomagnetic pulsation's recorded by

  15. Does high altitude increase risks of the elderly patients with coronary artery disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Yi Wu; Zhong-Yan Zhan; Qin-Li Wu; Suo-Lung Baomu; Yu-Ling Jie; Min Sun

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of altitude hypoxia on the elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Three subject groups were surveyed during their train trip on the highest railroad--the Qinghai-Tibet Railway: 22 elderly individuals with documented CAD, 20 healthy elderly controls, and 20 healthy young controls, all of whom from Beijing near the sea level (76 m). Survey questions addressed clinical features of their healthy conditions and aspects of their coronary disease. The baseline study was performed at Xining at an altitude of 2261 m, and then during acute exposure to altitudes of 2808 m, 4768m, 5072 m and 4257 m by train for 24 hours. Resting pulse rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiograph (ECG), and cardiac work estimated by the heart rate-blood pressure double product were obtained five times in each subject at different altitudes. Results On arrival to altitudes between 4768 m and 5072 m, the older passengers, especially those with preexisting coronary disease, had higher HR, higher BP, and lower SaO2, as well as more frequent abnormalities on ECG, as compared to the younger healthy subjects. As compared with the healthy elderly controls, incomplete right bundle branch block, left ventricular hypertrophy, and ST segment depression were more frequently seen in the elderly coronary patients (P<0.01). Cardiac work in group 1 was increased by 13% 12 hours after arrival to altitudes between 2808 m and 5072 m. Oxygen saturation decreased significantly with the altitude increasing by train ascent but improved after inhalation of oxygen. Most of the older subjects tolerated their sojourn at high altitude well except one who developed angina repeatedly with a significant ST segment depression. Conclusions Coronary events and ECG signs of myocardial ischemia are rare in elderly individuals with CAD who travel from sea level to moderate altitudes of 1500m to 2800 m. Patients with CAD who are well compensated at sea level

  16. Sleep of Andean high altitude natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, J H; Stone, B M; Tsang, G

    1992-01-01

    The structure of sleep in lowland visitors to altitudes greater than 4000 m is grossly disturbed. There are no data on sleep in long-term residents of high altitudes. This paper describes an electroencephalographic study of sleep in high altitude dwellers who were born in and are permanent residents of Cerro de Pasco in the Peruvian Andes, situated at 4330 m. Eight healthy male volunteers aged between 18 and 69 years were studied. Sleep was measured on three consecutive nights for each subject. Electroencephalographs, submental electromyographs and electro-oculograms were recorded. Only data from the third night were used in the analysis. The sleep patterns of these subjects resembled the normal sleep patterns described by others in lowlanders at sea level. There were significant amounts of slow wave sleep in the younger subjects and rapid eye movement sleep seemed unimpaired.

  17. MEMS-Based Low-Cost Flight Control System for Small UAVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xu; ZHOU Zhaoying; XIONG Wei; GUO Qi

    2008-01-01

    Small unmanned air vehicles(UAVs)can be used for vanous kinds of surveillance and data collection missions.The UAV flight control system is the key to a successful mission.This paper describes a low-cost micro-electro mechanical system-based flight control system for small UAVs.The integrated hardware flight control system weighs only 24 g.The system includes a highly-integrated wireless transmission link,which is lighter than traditional links.The flight control provides altitude hold control and global positioning system navigation based on gain scheduling proportional-integral-derivative control.Flight tests to survey the grass quality of a large lawn show that the small UAV can fly autonomously according to a series of pre-arranged waypoints with a controlled altitude while the wireless video system transmits images of the surveillance target to a ground control station.

  18. Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST): In-flight Sterilization with UVC Leds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gregory Michael; Smith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The stratosphere (10 km to 50 km above sea level) is a unique place on Earth for astrobiological studies of microbes in extreme environments due to the combination of harsh conditions (high ultraviolet radiation, low pressure, desiccation, and low temperatures). Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST) will attempt to characterize the diversity of microbes at these altitudes using a balloon collection device on a meteorological weather balloon. A major challenge of such an aerobiology study is the potential for ground contamination that makes it difficult to distinguish between collected microbes and contaminants. One solution is to use germicidal ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) to sterilize the collection strip. To use this solution, an optimal spatial arrangement of the lights had to be determined to ensure the greatest chance of complete sterilization within the 30 to 60 minute time of balloon ascent. A novel, 3D-printed test stand was developed to experimentally determine viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spore reduction after exposure to ultraviolet radiation at various times, angles, and distances. Taken together, the experimental simulations suggested that the UV LEDs on the MIST flight hardware should be active for at least 15 minutes and mounted within 4 cm of the illuminated surface at any angle to achieve optimal sterilization. These findings will aid in the production of the balloon collection device to ensure pristine stratospheric microbial samples are collected. Flight hardware capable of in-flight self-sterilization will enable future life detection missions to minimize both forward contamination and false positives.

  19. Balloon Flight Test of a Compton Telescope Based on Scintillators with Silicon Photomultiplier Readouts

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Bancroft, C M; Ryan, J M; McConnell, M L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first high-altitude balloon flight test of a concept for an advanced Compton telescope making use of modern scintillator materials with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readouts. There is a need in the fields of high-energy astronomy and solar physics for new medium-energy gamma-ray (~0.4 - 10 MeV) detectors capable of making sensitive observations. A fast scintillator- based Compton telescope with SiPM readouts is a promising solution to this instrumentation challenge, since the fast response of the scintillators permits the rejection of background via time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination. The Solar Compton Telescope (SolCompT) prototype was designed to demonstrate stable performance of this technology under balloon-flight conditions. The SolCompT instrument was a simple two-element Compton telescope, consisting of an approximately one-inch cylindrical stilbene crystal for a scattering detector and a one-inch cubic LaBr3:Ce crystal for a calorimeter detector. Both scintillator dete...

  20. Numerical simulation of base flow of a long range flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Rathod, S.; Chandra Murty, M. S. R.; Sinha, P. K.; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2012-05-01

    Numerical exploration of base flow of a long range flight vehicle is presented for different flight conditions. Three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with k-ɛ turbulence model using commercial CFD software. Simulation captured all essential flow features including flow separation at base shoulder, shear layer formation at the jet boundary, recirculation at the base region etc. With the increase in altitude, the plume of the rocket exhaust is seen to bulge more and more and caused more intense free stream and rocket plume interaction leading to higher gas temperature in the base cavity. The flow field in the base cavity is investigated in more detail, which is found to be fairly uniform at different instant of time. Presence of the heat shield is seen to reduce the hot gas entry to the cavity region due to different recirculation pattern in the base region. Computed temperature history obtained from conjugate heat transfer analysis is found to compare very well with flight measured data.

  1. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  2. Propfan Test Assessment (PTA): Flight test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.

  3. The 4-D descent trajectory generation techniques under realistic operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley has been conducting and sponsoring research in airborne energy management for a number of years. During the course of this research, two fundamental techniques for the generation of 4D (fixed time) descent trajectories have emerged as viable candidates for advanced flight management systems. The first technique utilizes speed schedules of constant Mach number transitioning to constant calibrated airspeed chosen empirically to produce minimum fuel usage. The second technique computes cost optimized speed schedules of variable airspeed developed through application of optimal control theory. Both techniques have been found to produce reasonable and flyable descent trajectories. The formulation of the algorithms for each technique is evaluated and their suitability for operations in realistic conditions is discussed. Operational factors considered include: airplace speed, thrust, and altitude rate constaints; wind, temperature, and pressure variations; Air Traffic Control altitude, speed, and time constaints; and pilot interface and guidance considerations. Time flexibility, fuel usage, and airborne computational requirements were the primary performance measures.

  4. Cosmic radiation dose measurements from the RaD-X flight campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Hayes, Bryan M.; Lusby, Terry C.; Straume, Tore; Tobiska, W. Kent; Hands, Alex; Ryden, Keith; Benton, Eric; Wiley, Scott; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Xu, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission obtained measurements for improving the understanding of cosmic radiation transport in the atmosphere and human exposure to this ionizing radiation field in the aircraft environment. The value of dosimetric measurements from the balloon platform is that they can be used to characterize cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. The RaD-X balloon was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5°N, 104.2°W) on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of flight data were obtained from each of the four different science instruments at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X balloon flight was supplemented by contemporaneous aircraft measurements. Flight-averaged dosimetric quantities are reported at seven altitudes to provide benchmark measurements for improving aviation radiation models. The altitude range of the flight data extends from commercial aircraft altitudes to above the Pfotzer maximum where the dosimetric quantities are influenced by cosmic ray primaries. The RaD-X balloon flight observed an absence of the Pfotzer maximum in the measurements of dose equivalent rate.

  5. Variability in low altitude astronomical refraction as a function of altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Russell D; Lozowski, Edward P; Fathi-Nejad, Arsha

    2008-12-01

    Low altitude astronomical refraction (LAAR) of the setting Sun was measured over a sea horizon from a coastal location in Barbados, West Indies. The altitude of the upper limb of the Sun and the apparent horizon were determined using a digital video camera (Canon XL2) and a digital SLR camera (Canon EOS 5D). A total of 14 sunsets were measured between 2005 and 2007. From these measurements LAAR variability was estimated at 14 standard altitudes of the refracted Sun between 0 degrees .01 and 4 degrees .5. The relative variability decreases with increasing altitude from +/- 0.0195 of mean refraction at an altitude of 0 degrees .01 to +/- 0.0142 at 4 degrees .5. If extrapolated to an altitude of 15 degrees , a linear fit to the data produces a relative variability of +/- 0.0038 and an absolute variability of +/- 0(").45. Statistical analysis of the relative variability in LAAR appears to support the decreasing trend. However, error propagation analysis further suggests that the observed values of refraction may exceed the accuracy of the measurement system at altitudes higher than 2 degrees .

  6. Development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based high altitude balloon (HAB) platform for active aerosol sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateran, S.; Sedan, M. F.; Harithuddin, A. S. M.; Azrad, S.

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge on the abundance and diversity of the minute particles or aerosols in the earth's stratosphere is still in its infancy as aerosol sampling at high-altitude still possess a lot of challenges. Thus far, high-altitude aerosol sampling has been conducted mostly using manned flights, which requires enormous financial and logistical resources. There had been researches for the utilisation of high altitude balloon (HAB) for active and passive aerosol samplings within the stratosphere. However, the gathered samples in the payload were either brought down by controlling the balloon air pressure or were just dropped with a parachute to slow the descend speed in order to reduce the impact upon landing. In most cases, the drop location of the sample are unfavorable such as in the middle of the sea, dense foliage, etc. Hence a system that can actively sample aerosols at high-altitude and improve the delivery method in terms of quality and reliability using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is designed and tested in this study.

  7. A space weather index for the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Matthias M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The additional dose contribution to the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes during Solar Particle Events (SPEs has been a matter of concern for many years. After the Halloween storms in 2003 several airlines began to implement mitigation measures such as rerouting and lowering flight altitudes in response to alerts on the NOAA S-scale regarding solar radiation storms. These alerts are based on the integral proton flux above 10 MeV measured aboard the corresponding GOES-satellite which is operated outside the Earth’s atmosphere in a geosynchronous orbit. This integral proton flux has, however, been proved to be an insufficient parameter to apply to the radiation field at aviation altitudes without an accompanying analysis of the shape of the energy spectrum. Consequently, false alarms and corresponding disproportionate reactions ensued. Since mitigating measures can be quite cost-intensive, there has been a demand for appropriate space weather information among responsible airline managers for about a decade. Against this background, we propose the introduction of a new Space Weather index D, based on dose rates at aviation altitudes produced by solar protons during solar radiation storms, as the relevant parameter for the assessment of corresponding radiation exposure. The Space Weather index D is a natural number given by a graduated table of ranges of dose rates in ascending order which is derived by an equation depending on the dose rate of solar protons.

  8. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    inputs of vehicle characteristics (e.g., thrust and aerodynamic data), nor does it require reams of turn data after the traditional fashion of the Air Force ranges. The program requires a nominal trajectory table (time, altitude, range, velocity, and flight elevation) and makes heavy use of it to initialize and model a failure turn.

  9. Improvement in 100-m Sprint Performance at an Altitude of 2250 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A fair system of recognizing records in athletics should consider the influence of environmental conditions on performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an altitude of 2250 m on the time for a 100-m sprint. Competition results from the 13 Olympic Games between 1964 and 2012 were corrected for the effects of wind and de-trended for the historical improvement in performance. The time advantage due to competing at an altitude of 2250 m was calculated from the difference between the mean race time at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City and the mean race times at the low-altitude competition venues. The observed time advantage of Mexico City was 0.19 (±0.02 s for men and 0.21 (±0.05 s for women (±90% confidence interval. These results indicate that 100-m sprinters derive a substantial performance advantage when competing at a high-altitude venue and that an altitude of 1000 m provides an advantage equivalent to a 2 m/s assisting wind (0.10 s. Therefore, the altitude of the competition venue as well as the wind speed during the race should be considered when recognizing record performances.

  10. Effect of altitude relocations upon AaDo2 at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J C; Hartley, L H; Vogel, J A

    1975-09-01

    The supine pulmonary venous admixture (shunt) has been measured at Cerro de Pasco, 4,350 m altitude in eight subjects native to high altitude (HAN) under resting condition. Alveolar-arterial O2 tension difference (AaDO2) was also determined at rest and during exercise. The same subjects were studied again after 10 days' sojourn at sea level in Lima at 150 m altitude. They were compared with four subjects from sea level (SLN) who were studied first at Lima and after 2 and 10 days at Cerro de Pasco. At altitude, AaDO2 was smaller in HAN than SLN both at rest and during exercise. Shunt was the same in both groups. It is concluded that HAN show more even ventilation/perfusion relationship (VA/Q) at altitude, probably due to their high pulmonary artery pressure. On the contrary, SLN show less even VA/Q on altitude exposure, since their shunt decreased 37%. At sea level, HAN increased their AaDO2 due partially to an increase of 110% in their shunt, and in part due to less even VA/Q as shown by augmented VD/VT ratios. Each group tended to have a more effective gas exchange in its own environment.

  11. A GIS-aided response model of high-altitude permafrost to global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 程国栋

    1999-01-01

    Two models are used to simulate the high-altitude permafrost distribution on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The two models are the "altitude model", a Gaussian distribution function used to describe the latitudinal zonation of permafrost based on the three-dimensional rules of high-altitude permafrost, and the "frost number model", a dimensionless ratio defined by manipulation of freezing and thawing degree-day sums. The results show that the "altitude model" can simulate the high-altitude permafrost distribution under present climate conditions accurately. Given the essential hypotheses and using the GCM scenarios from HADCM2, the "altitude model" is used for predicting the permafrost distribution change on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The results show that the permafrost on the plateau will not change significantly during 20—50 a, the percentage of the total disappeared area will not be over 19%. However, by the year 2099, if the air temperature increases by an average of 2.91℃ on the plateau, the decre

  12. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  13. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  14. ROBUST STABILIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM WITH STATE FEEDBACK AND FUZZY LOGICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Komnatska

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  This paper deals with combination of two powerful and modern control tools as linear matrix inequality that is used for synthesis a ‘crisp’ controller and a fuzzy control approach for designing a soft controller. The control design consists of two stages. The first stage investigates the problem of a robust an controller design with parameters uncertainties of the handled plant in the presence of external disturbances. Stability conditions are obtained via a quadratic Lyapunov function and represented in the form of linear matrix inequalities. The second stage consists of the outer loop controller construction based on fuzzy inference system that utilizes for altitude hold mode. The parameters of the fuzzy controller are adjusted with a gradient descent method in order to improve the performance of the overall system. The case study illustrates the efficiency of the proposed approach to the flight control of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

  15. A Safe Supervisory Flight Control Scheme in the Presence of Constraints and Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzè Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the hybrid supervisory control architecture developed by Famularo et al. (2011 for constrained control systems is adopted with the aim to improve safety in aircraft operations when critical events like command saturations or unpredicted anomalies occur. The capabilities of a low-computational demanding predictive scheme for the supervision of non-linear dynamical systems subject to sudden switchings amongst operating conditions and time-varying constraints are exploited in the flight control systems framework. The strategy is based on command governor ideas and is tailored to jointly take into account time-varying set-points/constraints. Unpredictable anomalies in the nominal plant behaviour, whose models fall in the category of time-varying constraints, can also be tolerated by the control scheme. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, simulations both on a high altitude performance demonstrator unmanned aircraft with redundant control surfaces and the P92 general aviation aircraft are discussed.

  16. Cloud Microphysics in Hurricane Outflows: Observations in 'Bonnie' (1998) at 12 km Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Hallett, J.; Strawa, A. W.; Ferry, G. V.; Bui, T. P.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The water balance of a hurricane is controlled by boundary layer inflow, near vertical motion in the eyewall causing coalescence precipitation at above and residual ice precipitation at below freezing temperatures, and cirrus outflow at below -40 C aloft. In this paper we address the question of efficiency of water removal by this cirrus outflow which is important for the release of latent heat at high altitudes and its role in the dynamic flow at that level. During NASA's 1998 Convection and Moisture Experiment campaign we acquired microphysical outflow data in order to (1) determine the release and redistribution of latent heat near the top of hurricanes, (2) aid in TRMM algorithm development for remote sensing of precipitation, and (3) determine the optical/radiative characteristics of hurricane outflow. The data were acquired with Particle Measuring Systems two dimensional imaging spectrometers. On 23 August and again during the hurricane's landfall on 26 August, 1998, the NASA DC-8 aircraft penetrated hurricane 'Bonnie' four times each near 200 hPa pressure altitude. The eye crossing times were determined by (1) zero counts of cloud particles, (2) approximately 5 C increases in static and potential temperatures, and (3) minima in speeds and changes of direction of horizontal winds. The vertical winds showed shear between -6 m per second and +4 m per second and tangential winds approached 30 m per second in the eyewall. The particle volumes in the eyewall (determined by the pixels the particles shadowed in the direction of flight [x-direction] and normally to it by the number of diodes that they shadowed [y-direction]) ranged between 0.5 and 5.0 cubic centimeters per cubic meter. With a particle density near 0.2 g per cubic centimeter (determined from in situ melting and evaporation on a surface collector), the 1.0 g per meter corresponding mass of cloud ice ranged between 0.27 and 2.7 g per kilograms yielding horizontal fluxes between 8.1 and 81 g per square

  17. Altitude Preexposure Recommendations for Inducing Acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    acetazolamide ( Kronenberg and Cain, 1968). Acute exposure to high altitude increases heart rate and cardiac output to maintain systemic oxygen delivery...emphasizing the regulation of breathing. Physiologist. 11:37–57. Kronenberg R.S., and Cain S.M. (1968). Hastening respiratory acclimatization to

  18. High-altitude physiology: lessons from Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter D.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Wei, Guan; Wagner, Harrieth; Wuren, Tanna; Yan, Ma; Qin, Ga; Ge, Rili

    2013-05-01

    Polycythemia is a universal lowlander response to altitude; healthy Andean high-altitude natives also have elevated [Hb]. While this may enhance O2 transport to tissues, studies have shown that acute isovolumic changes in [Hb] do not affect exercise capacity. Many high-altitude Tibetans have evolved sea-level values of [Hb], providing a natural opportunity to study this issue. In 21 young healthy male Tibetans with [Hb] between 15 and 23 g/dl, we measured VO2MAX and O2 transport capacity at 4200m. VO2MAX was higher when [Hb] was lower (Pcardiac output and muscle O2 diffusional conductance, but neither ventilation nor the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (AaPO2) varied with [Hb]. In contrast, Andean high altitude natives remain polycythemic with larger lungs and higher lung diffusing capacity, a smaller exercising AaPO2, and lower ventilation. The challenges now are (1) to understand the different adaptive pathways used by Andeans and Tibetans, and (2) to determine in Tibetans whether, during evolution, reduced [Hb] appeared first, causing compensatory cardiac and muscle adaptations, or if enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport capacity appeared first, permitting secondary reduction in [Hb]. For (2), further research is necessary to determine the basis of enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport, and identify molecular targets of evolution in heart and muscle. Putative mutations can then be timed and compared to appearance of those affecting [Hb].

  19. Measurement of Aircraft Speed and Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Albert W. Hall, Thomas M. Moul, Virgil S. Ritchie, and Robert T. Taylor who, as members of a technical review covinittee, made many valuable...Terry J.; and Webb, Lainie D.: Calibrations and Comparisons of Pressuie-Type Airspeed-Altitude Systems of the X-15 Airplane From Subsonic to High

  20. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  1. Breathing and sleep at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R

    2013-09-15

    We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology.

  2. Altitude mountain sickness among tourist populations: a review and pathophysiology supporting management with hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Gleen J; Al-Waili, N; Passano, D V; Ramos, J; Chavarri, J; Beale, J; Allen, M W; Lee, B Y; Urteaga, G; Salom, K

    2011-01-01

    In the mountain climbing community, conventional prevention of altitude mountain sickness (AMS) relies primarily on a formal acclimatization period. AMS symptoms during mountaineering climbs are managed with medication, oxygen and minor recompression (1524-2438 m altitude) using a portable chamber, such as the Gamow Bag. This is not always an acceptable therapy alternative in a predominantly elderly tourist population. The primary problem with reduced pressure at high altitude is hypoxaemia, which causes increased sympathetic activity, induces pulmonary venous constriction, while increasing pulmonary blood flow and regional perfusion. Rapid assents to altitude contribute to an increased incidence of decompression sickness (DCS). The treatment of choice for DCS is hyperbaric oxygenation, thus, treatment of high-altitude induced hypoxaemia using hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO(2)) is logical. Life Support Technologies group and the Center for Investigation of Altitude Medicine (CIMA, in Cusco, Peru) propose a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to AMS management. This approach encompasses traditional and advanced medical interventions including the use of a clinical HBO(2) chamber capable of recompression to three times greater than sea level pressure (3 atmosphere absolute (ATA)). The system uses a series of AMS hyperbaric treatment profiles that LST has previously developed to the US military and NASA, and that take greater advantage of vasoconstrictive effects of oxygen under true hyperbaric conditions of 1.25 ATA. These profiles virtually eliminate AMS rebound after the initial treatment often seen in conventional AMS treatment, where the patient is either treated at altitude, or does not recompress back to sea level or greater pressure (1.25 ATA), but returns directly to the same altitude where AMS symptoms first manifested.

  3. 模拟高原缺氧环境对家兔慢性牙周炎龈下菌群种类分布的影响%Distribution of subgingival microbial category in periodontitis rabbits under simulated high altitude hypoxia condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽; 张纲; 祝金香; 谭颖徽; 高钰琪

    2012-01-01

    目的 模拟高原缺氧环境,构建兔牙周炎动物模型,研究其龈下菌斑中的主要牙周致病菌与平原组的差异.方法 选取清洁级家兔40只完全随机设计分成4组:平原实验组、平原对照组、高原实验组、高原对照组各10只,实验组采用正畸结扎丝结扎双下颌前牙,并给予高糖饮食;高原组置模拟海拔5000m的低压氧舱,每天缺氧23 h,持续饲养8周.8周后提取龈下菌斑基因组DNA,用PCR扩增细菌16S rDNA片段方法检测标本中6种牙周炎致病菌包括牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Dorhyromonas gingivalis,Pg)、福赛斯坦纳菌(Bacterides forsythus,Bf)、伴放线放线杆菌(Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Aa)、中间普氏菌(Prevotella intermedia,Pi)、具核梭杆菌(Fusobacterium nucleatum,Fn)和齿垢密螺旋体(Trepone ma denticola,Td)的检出率.结果 与平原实验组相比,高原实验组的牙龈出血指数、菌斑指数和牙周袋深度均有统计学差异(P<0.05).牙周可疑致病菌Pg、Bf Aa、Pi、Fn和Td在高原实验组和平原实验组都可检出,其中高原实验组Fn的检出率80%高于平原实验组20%(P<0.05);平原实验组Pi的检出率70%高于高原实验组15% (P <0.05).结论 高原低氧环境是牙周炎加重的主要原因,Fn与高原牙周炎病变程度加重有一定关系.%Objective To investigate the difference of main pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque of periodontitis rabbits under normal oxygen and simulated high altitude hypoxia conditions. Methods A total of 40 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups including a normal oxygen periodontitis group, a normal control group, a hypoxia periodontitis group and a hypoxia control group (n = 10). Rabbits of the periodontitis groups were given ligation of anterior teeth by steel wire and high-carbohydrate diet, while rabbits of the hypoxia groups were raised in a low pressure oxygen cabin simulating high altitude hypoxia condition (5 000 m) , 23 h

  4. Post-Flight Analysis of GPSR Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John

    2016-01-01

    On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.

  5. Is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Relevant to Hawai‘i?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    High altitude clinical syndromes have been described in the medical literature but may be under recognized in the state of Hawai‘i. As tourism increases, high altitude injuries may follow given the easy access to high altitude attractions. Visitors and clinicians should be aware of the dangers associated with the rapid ascent to high altitudes in the perceived comfort of a vehicle. This paper will review the basic pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of the most serious of the high altitude clinical syndromes, high altitude pulmonary edema. PMID:25478294

  6. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  7. Can aneroid sphygmomanometers be used at altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kametas, N A; McAuliffe, F; Krampl, E; Nicolaides, K H; Shennan, A H

    2006-07-01

    Mercury-independent devices are increasingly being used in clinical practice as mercury will soon be removed from clinical use as a result of environmental, health and safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a portable aneroid device in an adult population at high altitude by following the part of the protocol of the British Hypertension Society regarding comparison between device and observer. We examined 10 subjects in Cerro de Pasco, Peru, which is situated 4370 m above sea level. The aneroid device was initially calibrated at both high altitude and at sea level to ensure optimal function. Validation of the device was undertaken at high altitude by connecting it in parallel to two mercury sphygmomanometers. Eleven sequential same-arm measurements were taken from each subject by two trained observers, alternating between mercury sphygmomanometry and the aneroid device. Simultaneous mercury readings were also recorded for additional analysis. During calibration, all 60 comparisons between the aneroid and mercury sphygmomanometers were within 3 mm Hg both at sea level and at high altitude. At validation, the device achieved an A grade for both systolic and diastolic pressures and also fulfilled the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. The mean and standard deviation for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively, were -1.32 (4.3) mm Hg and 3.7 (4.7) mm Hg in sequential analysis and -0.7 (2.6) mm Hg and -3.3 (2.7) mm Hg in simultaneous analysis. We conclude that the Riester-Exacta portable aneroid device can be recommended for use in an adult population at high altitude.

  8. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  9. Flight Investigation of the Performance of a Two-stage Solid-propellant Nike-deacon (DAN) Meteorological Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkotter, Robert H

    1956-01-01

    A flight investigation of two Nike-Deacon (DAN) two-stage solid-propellant rocket vehicles indicated satisfactory performance may be expected from the DAN meteorological sounding rocket. Peak altitudes of 356,000 and 350,000 feet, respectively, were recorded for the two flight tests when both vehicles were launched from sea level at an elevation angle of 75 degrees. Performance calculations based on flight-test results show that altitudes between 358,000 feet and 487,000 feet may be attained with payloads varying between 60 pounds and 10 pounds.

  10. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  11. High-Altitude Aircraft-Based Electric-Field Measurements Above Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. G.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Stewart, M. F.; Blair, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new set of eight electric field mills that were flown on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. During the Third Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX-3; Fall, 1998), measurements of electric field, storm dynamics, and ice microphysics were made over several hurricanes. Concurrently, the TExas-FLorida UNderflights (TEFLUN) program was being conducted to make the same measurements over Gulf Coast thunderstorms. Sample measurements are shown: typical flight altitude is 20km. Our new mills have an internal 16-bit A/D, with a resolution of 0.25V/m per bit at high gain, with a noise level less than the least significant bit. A second, lower gain channel gives us the ability to measure fields as high as 150 kV/m.

  12. Low altitude high speed cargo parachute system development: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, W.D.; Alsbrooks, T.H.; Ronquillo, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sadeck, J.E.; Lee, C.K. (Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, MA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    A Low Altitude High Speed Cargo (LAHSC) parachute is being developed for deployment at velocities up to 250 knots at 300 ft altitude. The LAHSC parachute will decelerate and turnover a load to a 40 to 60 ft/sec vertical velocity at first vertical at approximately 30 ft AGL. The acceleration limit is 5 g's. Main chute cargo extraction will be necessary. A single parachute will be utilized for a 7500 lb load, and clusters will be used for larger loads. The 64-gore, 70-ft-dia parachute has a ring-slot/solid construction with a flare at the skirt to aid the inflation. This paper describes the parachute, the design process and testing to date. Model parachutes have been tested in wind tunnels and in free flight. A single full-scale parachute has been tested at low speeds with conventional load extraction, and with a vertical trajectory at deployment. 5 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Reaching High Altitudes on Mars with an Inflatable Hypersonic Drag Balloon (Ballute)

    CERN Document Server

    Griebel, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    The concept of probing the atmosphere of planet Mars by means of a hypersonic drag balloon, a device known as a “ballute”, is a novel approach to planetary science. In this concept, the probe deploys an inflatable drag body out in space and may then enter the atmosphere either once or several times until it slowly descends towards the ground, taking continuous atmospheric and other readings across a large altitude and ground range. Hannes Griebel discusses the theory behind such a mission along with experience gained during its practical implementation, such as mission design, manufacturing, packing and deployment techniques as well as ground and flight tests. The author also studies other ballute applications, specifically emergency low Earth orbit recovery and delivering payloads to high altitude landing sites on Mars.

  14. Development of the NASA High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerald; Carswell, James; Schaubert, Dan; McLinden, Matthew; Vega, Manuel; Perrine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the development and recent field deployments of the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), which was funded under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) [1]. HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ka- and Ku-band), dual-beam (300 and 400 incidence angles), conical scanning, Doppler radar system designed for operation on the NASA high-altitude (65,000 ft) Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). It utilizes solid state transmitters along with a novel pulse compression scheme that results in a system with compact size, light weight, less power consumption, and low cost compared to radars currently in use for precipitation and Doppler wind measurements. By combining measurements at Ku- and Ka-band, HIWRAP is able to image winds through measuring volume backscattering from clouds and precipitation. In addition, HIWRAP is also capable of measuring surface winds in an approach similar to SeaWinds on QuikScat. To this end, HIWRAP hardware and software development has been completed. It was installed on the NASA WB57 for instrument test flights in March, 2010 and then deployed on the NASA Global Hawk for supporting the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign in August-September, 2010. This paper describes the scientific motivations of the development of HIWRAP as well as system hardware, aircraft integration and flight missions. Preliminary data from GRIP science flights is also presented.

  15. Soldier at High Altitude: Problem & Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S Purkayastha

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to military and j trategic reasons, a large body of troops is being regularly dcployed in the snowbound areas through ut the Himalayan regions to guard Ihe Ironliers. Thc mountain environment at high 'allitude (HA consisls of several faclors alien lo plain dwellers, which evoke a series of physiological responses in human system. Some of the sea' level residents on induction to HA suffer from several unloward symploms of HA" ailmenls varying from mild-lo-severe degrees. Suddenexposure to HA is detrimental to physical and mental  performance of the low landers and  certain cases, may even lead to dreaded condition like high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO. These may make a man Jisturbed physically and mentally. So, there is a need lo prevent such hazards v(hich ispossible if the individual is aware of the problems and prevenlive measures ofHA ailments in advance, before going to HA for a safe and happy living there. Hence, a noble effort has been made to provide guidelines to create awareness about physical and physiological problems of life at HA and themethods of protection against its ill-effects for the soldiers, mountaineers and sojourners conducting scientific trials it HA. In th.:s revieJ, an attempt has been made to describe vital aspects of HA in a popular way, st~ing with its concept and various environmental factors which exert considerableettects on human body functions, heallh and performance on exposure to such environment, on the b¥is of a series of studies coitlucted at Ithe Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Delhi, oVer the years. The most important featurelof HA (3,000 m and above is hypoxia or deficiency ofoxygej1 in the body. Olher cnvironmental tactors are: scverc cold, high velocity wind, low rclalivc humidily, high solar radiatior, increased ultraviolet radialion and difficult terrain. These faclors are responsible for various HA cWtdc old syndromes, viz., acute mountain sickness, HAPO, dehydration,4

  16. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  17. Experimental study of flight noise on AS350B2 helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huaming; ZHANG Qiang; HU Zhangwei; BAO Jinsong

    2005-01-01

    A joint flight experiment is conducted by China Aviation Establishment and German Aerospace Center on an Aerospatiale AS350B2 helicopter to investigate rotorcraft flight acoustics at Pingfang airport, Harbing City, China. This paper briefly introduces the methodologies and facilities used in the flight tests. The flight exposure noise levels for ten test flight conditions are showed in the paper and harmonic spectrum and wavelet analysis methods are used for the noise test data processing, which are measured in the flight test in taking off, climbing, forward and descent flight conditions. Results show that the flight noise levels are relatively higher in the climbing and descending flight conditions. The flight noise comes mainly from the tail rotor for the climbing and from the main rotor due to the blade vortex interaction (BVI) for the descending flight conditions. The highest noise level occurs in the forward rotating blade side when the helicopter flys at moderate speed with about 6° descending slide angle.

  18. Role of the altitude level on cerebral autoregulation in residents at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gerard F A; Krins, Anne; Basnyat, Buddha; Odoom, Joseph A; Ince, Can

    2007-08-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is impaired in Himalayan high-altitude residents who live above 4,200 m. This study was undertaken to determine the altitude at which this impairment of autoregulation occurs. A second aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that administration of oxygen can reverse this impairment in autoregulation at high altitudes. In four groups of 10 Himalayan high-altitude dwellers residing at 1,330, 2,650, 3,440, and 4,243 m, arterial oxygen saturation (Sa(O(2))), blood pressure, and middle cerebral artery blood velocity were monitored during infusion of phenylephrine to determine static cerebral autoregulation. On the basis of these measurements, the cerebral autoregulation index (AI) was calculated. Normally, AI is between zero and 1. AI of 0 implies absent autoregulation, and AI of 1 implies intact autoregulation. At 1,330 m (Sa(O(2)) = 97%), 2,650 m (Sa(O(2)) = 96%), and 3,440 m (Sa(O(2)) = 93%), AI values (mean +/- SD) were, respectively, 0.63 +/- 0.27, 0.57 +/- 0.22, and 0.57 +/- 0.15. At 4,243 m (Sa(O(2)) = 88%), AI was 0.22 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.0005, compared with AI at the lower altitudes) and increased to 0.49 +/- 0.23 (P = 0.008, paired t-test) when oxygen was administered (Sa(O(2)) = 98%). In conclusion, high-altitude residents living at 4,243 m have almost total loss of cerebral autoregulation, which improved during oxygen administration. Those people living at 3,440 m and lower have still functioning cerebral autoregulation. This study showed that the altitude region between 3,440 and 4,243 m, marked by Sa(O(2)) in the high-altitude dwellers of 93% and 88%, is a transitional zone, above which cerebral autoregulation becomes critically impaired.

  19. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  20. A gloss of Chronic Hypoxia in normal and diseased individuals at high altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zubieta-Castillo,G.; Zubieta-Calleja,G.R.; Zubieta-Calleja L.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Millenary populations that live at high altitude in different continents like Asia (1) and South America (8), have endured biological adaptation in very adverse environmental conditions, of which to our understanding, paradoxically, chronic hypoxia is the most tolerable. Patients with pulmonary diseases at high altitude tolerate tissue hypoxia with an arterial tension (PaO2) even as low as 30 mmHg. Current scientific knowledge has made progress in many areas, clarifying many doubts, however due to preconception and lack of broad social studies chronic hypoxia is still not fully understood. Beings that inhabit different areas of the planet earth have lived under a variety of different hostile conditions: intense cold in the polar regions,intense heat in Africa and in the Middle East desserts,great pressure in the depth of the oceans, intense darkness of the caves and naturally the hypoxia of extreme altitudes.

  1. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  2. A Simple Flight Mill for the Study of Tethered Flight in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attisano, Alfredo; Murphy, James T; Vickers, Andrew; Moore, Patricia J

    2015-12-10

    Flight in insects can be long-range migratory flights, intermediate-range dispersal flights, or short-range host-seeking flights. Previous studies have shown that flight mills are valuable tools for the experimental study of insect flight behavior, allowing researchers to examine how factors such as age, host plants, or population source can influence an insects' propensity to disperse. Flight mills allow researchers to measure components of flight such as speed and distance flown. Lack of detailed information about how to build such a device can make their construction appear to be prohibitively complex. We present a simple and relatively inexpensive flight mill for the study of tethered flight in insects. Experimental insects can be tethered with non-toxic adhesives and revolve around an axis by means of a very low friction magnetic bearing. The mill is designed for the study of flight in controlled conditions as it can be used inside an incubator or environmental chamber. The strongest points are the very simple electronic circuitry, the design that allows sixteen insects to fly simultaneously allowing the collection and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time and the potential to use the device in a very limited workspace. This design is extremely flexible, and we have adjusted the mill to accommodate different species of insects of various sizes.

  3. Basic flight mechanics a simple approach without equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tewari, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    This book presents flight mechanics of aircraft, spacecraft, and rockets to technical and non-technical readers in simple terms and based purely on physical principles. Adapting an accessible and lucid writing style, the book retains the scientific authority and conceptual substance of an engineering textbook without requiring a background in physics or engineering mathematics. Professor Tewari explains relevant physical principles of flight by straightforward examples and meticulous diagrams and figures. Important aspects of both atmospheric and space flight mechanics are covered, including performance, stability and control, aeroelasticity, orbital mechanics, and altitude control. The book describes airplanes, gliders, rotary wing and flapping wing flight vehicles, rockets, and spacecraft and visualizes the essential principles using detailed illustration. It is an ideal resource for managers and technicians in the aerospace industry without engineering degrees, pilots, and anyone interested in the mechanic...

  4. Pilot control through the TAFCOS automatic flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The set of flight control logic used in a recently completed flight test program to evaluate the total automatic flight control system (TAFCOS) with the controller operating in a fully automatic mode, was used to perform an unmanned simulation on an IBM 360 computer in which the TAFCOS concept was extended to provide a multilevel pilot interface. A pilot TAFCOS interface for direct pilot control by use of a velocity-control-wheel-steering mode was defined as well as a means for calling up conventional autopilot modes. It is concluded that the TAFCOS structure is easily adaptable to the addition of a pilot control through a stick-wheel-throttle control similar to conventional airplane controls. Conventional autopilot modes, such as airspeed-hold, altitude-hold, heading-hold, and flight path angle-hold, can also be included.

  5. Development of SCR Aircraft takeoff and landing procedures for community noise abatement and their impact on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted simulator studies to determine takeoff and landing procedures for a supersonic cruise transport concept that result in predicted community noise levels which meet current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards are discussed. The results indicate that with the use of advanced procedures, the subject simulated aircraft meets the FAA traded noise levels during takeoff and landing utilizing average flight crew skills. The advanced takeoff procedures developed involved violating three of the current Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) noise test conditions. These were: (1) thrust cutbacks at altitudes below 214 meters (700 ft); (2) thrust cutback level below those presently allowed; and (3) configuration change, other than raising the landing gear. It was not necessary to violate any FAR noise test conditions during landing approach. It was determined that the advanced procedures developed do not compromise flight safety. Automation of some of the aircraft functions reduced pilot workload, and the development of a simple head-up display to assist in the takeoff flight mode proved to be adequate.

  6. Automated verification of flight software. User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saib, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    (Automated Verification of Flight Software), a collection of tools for analyzing source programs written in FORTRAN and AED is documented. The quality and the reliability of flight software are improved by: (1) indented listings of source programs, (2) static analysis to detect inconsistencies in the use of variables and parameters, (3) automated documentation, (4) instrumentation of source code, (5) retesting guidance, (6) analysis of assertions, (7) symbolic execution, (8) generation of verification conditions, and (9) simplification of verification conditions. Use of AVFS in the verification of flight software is described.

  7. High Altitude Infrasound Measurements using Balloon-Borne Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Gupta, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Lees, J. M.; Drob, D. P.; Phillips, D.

    2015-12-01

    For the last fifty years, almost all infrasound sensors have been located on the Earth's surface. A few experiments consisting of microphones on poles and tethered aerostats comprise the remainder. Such surface and near-surface arrays likely do not capture the full diversity of acoustic signals in the atmosphere. Here, we describe results from a balloon mounted infrasound array that reached altitudes of up to 38 km (the middle stratosphere). The balloon drifted at the ambient wind speed, resulting in a near total reduction in wind noise. Signals consistent with tropospheric turbulence were detected. A spectral peak in the ocean microbarom range (0.12 - 0.35 Hz) was present on balloon-mounted sensors but not on static infrasound stations near the flight path. A strong 18 Hz signal, possibly related to building ventilation systems, was observed in the stratosphere. A wide variety of other narrow band acoustic signals of uncertain provenance were present throughout the flight, but were absent in simultaneous recordings from nearby ground stations. Similar phenomena were present in spectrograms from the last balloon infrasound campaign in the 1960s. Our results suggest that the infrasonic wave field in the stratosphere is very different from that which is readily detectable on surface stations. This has implications for modeling acoustic energy transfer between the lower and upper atmosphere as well as the detection of novel acoustic signals that never reach the ground. Our work provides valuable constraints on a proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using balloon-borne infrasound sensors.

  8. Stability of simulated flight path control at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiera, Simon; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2010-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that naïve subjects and experienced jet pilots produce exaggerated manual forces when exposed to increased acceleration (+Gz). This study was designed to evaluate whether this exaggeration affects the stability of simulated flight path control. We evaluated naïve subjects' performance in a flight simulator which either remained stationary (+1 Gz), or rotated to induce an acceleration in accordance to the simulated flight path with a mean acceleration of about +3 Gz. In either case, subjects were requested to produce a series of altitude changes in pursuit of a visual target airplane. Resulting flight paths were analyzed to determine the largest oscillation after an altitude change (Oscillation) and the mean deviation between subject and target flight path (Tracking Error). Flight stability after an altitude change was degraded in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz, as evidenced by larger Oscillations (+11%) and increased Tracking Errors (+80%). These deficits correlated significantly with subjects' +3 Gz deficits in a manual-force production task. We conclude that force exaggeration in +3 Gz may impair flight stability during simulated jet maneuvers in naïve subjects, most likely as a consequence of vestibular stimulation.

  9. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  10. Measurement of new particle formation at several altitudes on a 300 m meteorological observation tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M.; Yum, S. S.; Kim, N.

    2014-12-01

    Since new particle formation (NPF) affects aerosol number size distribution and subsequently the newly formed particles can grow enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei, understanding NPF mechanism is crucially important as a step towards a better understanding of aerosol life cycle and its effects on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. However, not clearly understood are at what altitudes NPF actually occurs, what the spatial scale of NPF is, and what are the good meteorological conditions that lead to NPF. In this study, we analyze the data that will be obtained from a 300 m meteorological observation tower to have a better understanding of where NPF occurs and the meteorological conditions that lead to NPF. The tower is installed at the National Center for Intensive Observation of severe weather (NCIO) at a southern coastal rural town of Boseong, Korea (34.76N, 127.16E) and is equipped with measurement platforms at 11 altitudes. Aerosol number concentration and size distribution will be measured at 300 m and 10 m altitudes. A complementary aerosol number concentration measurement will also be made at an intermediate altitude. The basic meteorological variables (e.g., air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed) measured at each of the 11 measurement platform altitudes of the tower will be jointly collected. Comprehensive analysis of these continuous and vertically aligned measurement data will give us an opportunity to look at the details of NPF mechanism.

  11. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  12. White flight or flight from poverty?

    CERN Document Server

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  13. Measuring the seeds of ion outflow: Auroral sounding rocket observations of low-altitude ion heating and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M.; Hampton, D. L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Cohen, I. J.; Conde, M.; Fisher, L. E.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M. R.; Miceli, R. J.; Michell, R. G.; Moen, J.; Powell, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of in situ measurements from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) nightside auroral sounding rocket with comparisons to a multifluid ionospheric model. MICA made observations at altitudes below 325 km of the thermal ion kinetic particle distributions that are the origins of ion outflow. Late flight, in the vicinity of an auroral arc, we observe frictional processes controlling the ion temperature. Upflow of these cold ions is attributed to either the ambipolar field resulting from the heated electrons or possibly to ion-neutral collisions. We measure E→×B→ convection away from the arc (poleward) and downflows of hundreds of m s-1 poleward of this arc, indicating small-scale low-altitude plasma circulation. In the early flight we observe DC electromagnetic Poynting flux and associated ELF wave activity influencing the thermal ion temperature in regions of Alfvénic aurora. We observe enhanced, anisotropic ion temperatures which we conjecture are caused by transverse heating by wave-particle interactions (WPI) even at these low altitudes. Throughout this region we observe several hundred m s-1 upflow of the bulk thermal ions colocated with WPI; however, the mirror force is negligible at these low energies; thus, the upflow is attributed to ambipolar fields (or possibly neutral upwelling drivers). The low-altitude MICA observations serve to inform future ionospheric modeling and simulations of (a) the need to consider the effects of heating by WPI at altitudes lower than previously considered viable and (b) the occurrence of structured and localized upflows/downflows below where higher-altitude heating rocesses are expected.

  14. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF DATA OF natural experiment FOR DETERMINING THE tragectory CHARACTERISTICS OF A ROUND PARACHUTE AT HIGH ALTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zhurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the trajectory parameters obtained during the flight experiment at the start of meteo-rocket MMP-06, to determine major parameters of motion of a round parachute at subsonic speeds in the range of altitudes from 0 to 60 km. The Reynolds number is changed in the range from 104 to1,5·106.The main parameters of the trajectory were obtained according to the experimental data. Only laboratory research on a model parachute systems in such a wide range of Reynolds numbers are found in the literature on parachute subjects. This article obtained results of flight experiment.

  15. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  16. Genomic divergence during speciation driven by adaptation to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A; Hiscock, Simon J; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2013-12-01

    Even though Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" implied selection being the main driver of species formation, the role of natural selection in speciation remains poorly understood. In particular, it remains unclear how selection at a few genes can lead to genomewide divergence and the formation of distinct species. We used a particularly attractive clear-cut case of recent plant ecological speciation to investigate the demography and genomic bases of species formation driven by adaptation to contrasting conditions. High-altitude Senecio aethnensis and low-altitude S. chrysanthemifolius live at the extremes of a mountain slope on Mt. Etna, Sicily, and form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes but remain morphologically distinct. Genetic differentiation of these species was analyzed at the DNA polymorphism and gene expression levels by high-throughput sequencing of transcriptomes from multiple individuals. Out of ≈ 18,000 genes analyzed, only a small number (90) displayed differential expression between the two species. These genes showed significantly elevated species differentiation (FST and Dxy), consistent with diversifying selection acting on these genes. Genomewide genetic differentiation of the species is surprisingly low (FST = 0.19), while ≈ 200 genes showed significantly higher (false discovery rate 0.6) interspecific differentiation and evidence for local adaptation. Diversifying selection at only a handful of loci may be enough for the formation and maintenance of taxonomically well-defined species, despite ongoing gene flow. This provides an explanation of why many closely related species (in plants, in particular) remain phenotypically and ecologically distinct despite ongoing hybridization, a question that has long puzzled naturalists and geneticists alike.

  17. Ergogenic properties of metformin in simulated high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Rebecca L; Paris, Hunter L; Binns, Scott E; Davis, Janelle L; Beals, Joseph W; Melby, Christopher L; Luckasen, Gary J; Hickey, Matthew S; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Bell, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Metformin augments glucose/glycogen regulation and may acutely promote fatigue resistance during high-intensity exercise. In hypobaric environments, such as high altitude, the important contribution of carbohydrates to physiological function is accentuated as glucose/glycogen dependence is increased. Because hypoxia/hypobaria decreases insulin sensitivity, replenishing skeletal muscle glycogen in high altitude becomes challenging and subsequent physical performance may be compromised. We hypothesized that in conditions where glycogen repletion was critical to physical outcomes, metformin would attenuate hypoxia-mediated decrements in exercise performance. On three separate randomly ordered occasions, 13 healthy men performed glycogen-depleting exercise and ingested a low-carbohydrate dinner (1200 kcals, metformin (500 mg BID) was consumed 3 days prior to each hypoxia visit. Subjects completed a 12.5 km cycle ergometer time trial 3.5 hours following breakfast. Hypoxia decreased resting and exercise oxyhemoglobin saturation (Pmetformin affected the glucose response to breakfast (P=.977), however, compared with placebo, metformin lowered insulin concentration in hypoxia 45 minutes after breakfast (64.1±6.6 μU/mL vs 48.5±7.8 μU/mL; mean±SE; Pmetformin (+81%; P=.006), but not in hypoxia with placebo (+27%; P=.167). Hypoxia decreased time trial performance compared with normoxia (Pmetformin (+1.6±0.3 minutes). These results indicate that metformin promotes glycogen synthesis but not endurance exercise performance in healthy men exposed to simulated high altitude. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Valentina; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  19. EUSO-Balloon: The first flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Valentina, E-mail: scottiv@na.infn.it; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for JEM-EUSO, the near-UV telescope proposed to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of this pathfinder mission is to perform a full scale end-to-end test of all the key technologies of JEM-EUSO detectors and to measure the UV background. The JEM-EUSO instrument consists of UV telescope designed to focus the signal of the UV tracks generated by Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays propagating in Earth's atmosphere, onto a finely pixelized UV camera. The EUSO-Balloon instrument, smaller than the one designed for the ISS, was launched on August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada). The flight lasted about five hours and the instrument reached a float altitude of about 40 km. From this altitude the telescope registered, at a rate of 400 000 frames/s, the nightglow background on forests, lakes and clouds, as well as city lights and artificial air showers tracks generated by means of a laser installed on an helicopter flying inside its field of view. In this contribution we will describe the instrument and its performance during the first flight.

  20. Flight physiology training experiences and perspectives: survey of 117 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Luís; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Ribeiro, João

    2013-06-01

    Human factors and awareness of flight physiology play a crucial role in flight safety. Even so, international legislation is vague relative to training requirements in hypoxia and altitude physiology. Based on a previously developed survey, an adapted questionnaire was formulated and released online for Portuguese pilots. Specific questions regarding the need for pilot attention monitoring systems were added to the original survey. There were 117 pilots, 2 of whom were women, who completed the survey. Most of the pilots had a light aviation license and flew in unpressurized cabins at a maximum ceiling of 10,000 ft (3048 m). The majority of the respondents never experienced hypoxic symptoms. In general, most of the individuals agreed with the importance of an introductory hypoxia course without altitude chamber training (ACT) for all pilot populations, and with a pilot monitoring system in order to increase flight safety. Generally, most of the pilots felt that hypoxia education and training for unpressurized aircraft is not extensive enough. However, almost all the respondents were willing to use a flight physiology monitoring system in order to improve flight safety.