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Sample records for flies ii parameterization

  1. Multisite Evaluation of APEX for Water Quality: II. Regional Parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nathan O; Baffaut, Claire; Lory, John A; Anomaa Senaviratne, G M M M; Bhandari, Ammar B; Udawatta, Ranjith P; Sweeney, Daniel W; Helmers, Matt J; Van Liew, Mike W; Mallarino, Antonio P; Wortmann, Charles S

    2017-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) Index assessment requires independent estimates of long-term average annual P loss from fields, representing multiple climatic scenarios, management practices, and landscape positions. Because currently available measured data are insufficient to evaluate P Index performance, calibrated and validated process-based models have been proposed as tools to generate the required data. The objectives of this research were to develop a regional parameterization for the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model to estimate edge-of-field runoff, sediment, and P losses in restricted-layer soils of Missouri and Kansas and to assess the performance of this parameterization using monitoring data from multiple sites in this region. Five site-specific calibrated models (SSCM) from within the region were used to develop a regionally calibrated model (RCM), which was further calibrated and validated with measured data. Performance of the RCM was similar to that of the SSCMs for runoff simulation and had Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) > 0.72 and absolute percent bias (|PBIAS|) 90%) and was particularly ineffective at simulating sediment loss from locations with small sediment loads. The RCM had acceptable performance for simulation of total P loss (NSE > 0.74, |PBIAS| < 30%) but underperformed the SSCMs. Total P-loss estimates should be used with caution due to poor simulation of sediment loss. Although we did not attain our goal of a robust regional parameterization of APEX for estimating sediment and total P losses, runoff estimates with the RCM were acceptable for P Index evaluation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Comparative study of adsorption properties of Turkish fly ashes II. The case of chromium (VI) and cadmium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Belgin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to compare the removal of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from an aqueous solution using two different Turkish fly ashes; Afsin-Elbistan and Seyitomer as adsorbents. The influence of four parameters (contact time, solution pH, initial metal concentration in solution and ash quality) on the removal at 20±2 deg. C was studied. Fly ashes were found to have a higher adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Cd(II) as compared to Cr(VI) and both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) required an equilibrium time of 2 h. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was higher at pH 4.0 for Afsin-Elbistan fly ash (25.46%) and pH 3.0 for Seyitomer fly ash (30.91%) while Cd(II) was adsorbed to a greater extent (98.43% for Afsin-Elbistan fly ash and 65.24% for Seyitomer fly ash) at pH 7.0. The adsorption of Cd(II) increased with an increase in the concentrations of these metals in solution while Cr(VI) adsorption decreased by both fly ashes. The lime (crystalline CaO) content in fly ash seemed to be a significant factor in influencing Cr(VI) and Cd(II) ions removal. The linear forms of the Langmuir and Freundlich equations were utilised for experiments with metal concentrations of 55±2 mg/l for Cr(VI) and 6±0.2 mg/l for Cd(II) as functions of solution pH (3.0-8.0). The adsorption of Cr(VI) on both fly ashes was not described by both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms while Cd(II) adsorption on both fly ashes satisfied only the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption capacities of both fly ashes were nearly three times less than that of activated carbon for the removal of Cr(VI) while Afsin-Elbistan fly ash with high-calcium content was as effective as activated carbon for the removal of Cd(II). Therefore, there are possibilities for use the adsorption of Cd(II) ions onto fly ash with high-calcium content in practical applications in Turkey

  3. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  4. Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.

    Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.

  5. Stochastic parameterizing manifolds and non-Markovian reduced equations stochastic manifolds for nonlinear SPDEs II

    CERN Document Server

    Chekroun, Mickaël D; Wang, Shouhong

    2015-01-01

    In this second volume, a general approach is developed to provide approximate parameterizations of the "small" scales by the "large" ones for a broad class of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). This is accomplished via the concept of parameterizing manifolds (PMs), which are stochastic manifolds that improve, for a given realization of the noise, in mean square error the partial knowledge of the full SPDE solution when compared to its projection onto some resolved modes. Backward-forward systems are designed to give access to such PMs in practice. The key idea consists of representing the modes with high wave numbers as a pullback limit depending on the time-history of the modes with low wave numbers. Non-Markovian stochastic reduced systems are then derived based on such a PM approach. The reduced systems take the form of stochastic differential equations involving random coefficients that convey memory effects. The theory is illustrated on a stochastic Burgers-type equation.

  6. Comparison of adsorption of Cd(II and Pb(II ions on pure and chemically modified fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sočo Eleonora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates chemical modifications of coal fly ash (FA treated with HCl or NH4HCO3 or NaOH or Na2edta, based on the research conducted to examine the behaviour of Cd(II and Pb(II ions adsorbed from water solution on treated fly ash. In laboratory tests, the equilibrium and kinetics were examined applying various temperatures (293 - 333 K and pH (2 - 11 values. The maximum Cd(II and Pb(II ions adsorption capacity obtained at 293 K, pH 9 and mixing time 2 h from the Langmuir model can be grouped in the following order: FA-NaOH > FA-NH4HCO3 > FA > FA-Na2edta > FA-HCl. The morphology of fly ash grains was examined via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and images of scanning electron microscope (SEM. The adsorption kinetics data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order rate model but showed a very poor fit for the pseudofirst order model. The intra-particle model also revealed that there are two separate stages in the sorption process, i.e. the external diffusion and the inter-particle diffusion. Thermodynamics parameters such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy were also determined. A laboratory test demonstrated that the modified coal fly ash worked well for the Cd(II and Pb(II ion uptake from polluted waters.

  7. Free-Flying Unmanned Robotic Spacecraft for Asteroid Resource Prospecting and Characterization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 2 we will develop a fully integrated, autonomous free-flying robotic system based on a commercial SkyJib quadcopter, and demonstrate flying straight and...

  8. Removal of Copper (II Ions in Aqueous Solutions by Sorption onto Alkali Activated Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayanti Lita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a particulate material produced from coal combustion power plants with major components are silica, alumina, iron oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and carbon which are ideal for metal adsorbents. The potential use of fly ash in the wastewater treatment process is obvious because it can be obtained cheaply in large quatities and it can be used as an adsorbent. However, fly ash still shows lower adsorption capacity unless it is activated. In this study, fly ash activated by NaOH 14 M and KOH 14 M solutions. The batch experiments were carried out to study the sorption of copper ions from aqueous on alkali activated fly ash. The influence of initial concentration and contact time were examined at constant pH and dose of adsorbent. The sorption capacity of copper ions increased with the initial concentration and contact time. The sorption capacities followed the order Na1>Ka1>FA. The adsorption isotherm model exhibited that the Langmuir model is very suitable with copper ions adsorption onto fly ash and alkali activated fly ash. Kinetic study shows that adsorption of copper ions onto FA, Na1, and Ka1 follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  9. Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and control...

  10. Column dynamic studies and breakthrough curve analysis for Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions adsorption onto palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Shukor Abdul; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Man, Hasfalina Che; Kumar, Nadavala Siva

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA) derived from an agricultural waste material in removing Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution via column studies. The performance of the study is described through the breakthrough curves concept under relevant operating conditions such as column bed depths (1, 1.5, and 2 cm) and influent metal concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L). The Cd(II) and Cu(II) uptake mechanism is particularly bed depth- and concentration-dependant, favoring higher bed depth and lower influent metal concentration. The highest bed capacity of 34.91 mg Cd(II)/g and 21.93 mg Cu(II)/g of POFA was achieved at 20 mg/L of influent metal concentrations, column bed depth of 2 cm, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The whole breakthrough curve simulation for both metal ions were best described using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models, but it is apparent that the initial region of the breakthrough for Cd(II) was better described using the BDST model. The results illustrate that POFA could be utilized effectively for the removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column system.

  11. Evaluation of fly ash concrete durability containing class II durability aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Fly ash was used in this evaluation study to replace 15% of the cement in : Class C-3 concrete paving mixes. One Class "c" ash from Iowa approved : sources was examined in each mix. Substitution rate was based on 1 to 1 : basis, for each pound of cem...

  12. The multifacet graphically contracted function method. II. A general procedure for the parameterization of orthogonal matrices and its application to arc factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Ron; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Brozell, Scott R.

    2014-08-01

    Practical algorithms are presented for the parameterization of orthogonal matrices Q ∈ {R} m×n in terms of the minimal number of essential parameters {φ}. Both square n = m and rectangular n applications such as the representation of the arc factors in the multifacet graphically contracted function method and the representation of orbital coefficients in SCF and DFT methods. The parameterizations are represented formally using products of elementary Householder reflector matrices. Standard mathematical libraries, such as LAPACK, may be used to perform the basic low-level factorization, reduction, and other algebraic operations. Some care must be taken with the choice of phase factors in order to ensure stability and continuity. The transformation of gradient arrays between the Q and {φ} parameterizations is also considered. Operation counts for all factorizations and transformations are determined. Numerical results are presented which demonstrate the robustness, stability, and accuracy of these algorithms.

  13. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  14. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N.; Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de; Pinto, A.C. de Q.; Cortelazzo, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  15. Formation flying for electric sails in displaced orbits. Part II: Distributed coordinated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    We analyze a cooperative control framework for electric sail formation flying around a heliocentric displaced orbit, aiming at observing the polar region of a celestial body. The chief spacecraft is assumed to move along an elliptic displaced orbit, while each deputy spacecraft adjusts its thrust vector (that is, both its sail attitude and characteristic acceleration) in order to track a prescribed relative trajectory. The relative motion of the electric sail formation system is formulated in the chief rotating frame, where the control inputs of each deputy are the relative sail attitude angles and the relative lightness number with respect to those of the chief. The information exchange among the spacecraft, characterized by the communication topology, is represented by a weighted graph. Two typical cases, according to whether the communication graph is directed or undirected, are discussed. For each case, a distributed coordinated control law is designed in such a way that each deputy not only tracks the chief state, but also makes full use of information from its neighbors, thus increasing the redundancy and robustness of the formation system in case of failure among the communication links. Illustrative examples show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilov, Yu.B.

    1986-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously

  17. Inheritance versus parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This position paper argues that inheritance and parameterization differ in their fundamental structure, even though they may emulate each other in many ways. Based on this, we claim that certain mechanisms, e.g., final classes, are in conflict with the nature of inheritance, and hence causes...

  18. Removal of Pb(II) from wastewater using Al2O3-NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes synthesized from solid waste coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Ji, Jiayou; Wang, Shulin; Xu, Chenxi; Yang, Kun; Xu, Man

    2018-09-01

    Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were successfully fabricated via hydrothermal synthesis by using industrial solid waste coal fly ash and porous Al 2 O 3 hollow fiber supports. The as-synthesized Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hollow fiber membranes were used to remove lead ions (Pb(II), 50 mg L -1 ) from synthetic wastewater with a removal efficiency of 99.9% at 0.1 MPa after 12 h of filtration. This study showed that the Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes (the pore size of the membrane was about 0.41 nm in diameter) synthesized from coal fly ash could be efficiently used for treating low concentration Pb(II) wastewater. It recycled solid waste coal fly ash not only to solve its environment problems, but also can produce high-value Al 2 O 3 -NaA zeolite composite hollow fiber membranes for separation application in treating wastewater containing Pb(II). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topology Control Algorithms for Spacecraft Formation Flying Networks Under Connectivity and Time-Delay Constraints, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI is proposing to develop, test and deliver a set of topology control algorithms and software for a formation flying spacecraft that can be used to design and...

  20. Parameterized examination in econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Anna; Kyurkchiev, Vesselin; Spasov, Georgi

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a parameterization of basic types of exam questions in Econometrics. This algorithm is used to automate and facilitate the process of examination, assessment and self-preparation of a large number of students. The proposed parameterization of testing questions reduces the time required to author tests and course assignments. It enables tutors to generate a large number of different but equivalent dynamic questions (with dynamic answers) on a certain topic, which are automatically assessed. The presented methods are implemented in DisPeL (Distributed Platform for e-Learning) and provide questions in the areas of filtering and smoothing of time-series data, forecasting, building and analysis of single-equation econometric models. Questions also cover elasticity, average and marginal characteristics, product and cost functions, measurement of monopoly power, supply, demand and equilibrium price, consumer and product surplus, etc. Several approaches are used to enable the required numerical computations in DisPeL - integration of third-party mathematical libraries, developing our own procedures from scratch, and wrapping our legacy math codes in order to modernize and reuse them.

  1. Ecological studies of Eastern Australian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in their endemic habitat : II. The spatial pattern of abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalucki, M P; Drew, R A I; Hooper, G H S

    1984-10-01

    11 fruit fly species captured at 47 sites in a natural forest area at Cooloola (south-east Queensland) revealed specific patterns of spatial abundance. Although all species were collected throughout the study area, D. bryoniae, D. mayi, D. neohumeralis and D. tryoni were more prevalent (average number caught per trap) in the open Eucalypt forest than the rainforest, whereas C. aequalis, D. absonifacies and D. endiandrae were more prevalent in the rainforest. D. cacuminatus, D. choristus, D. quadratus and D. signatifrons were equally prevalent throughout both forest types. Fly numbers were not distributed randomly throughout the trap sites. The clumped dispersion patterns seemed to be species specific as assessed and summarised by Taylor's Power Law. The exponent (b) relating mean spatial abundance to its variance ranged from 1.6-5.11 for the 11 species captured. Changing patterns of trap catches from one sampling period to another were analysed using correlograms for the 6 most abundant species (D. tryoni, D. neohumeralis, D. endiandrae, C. aequalis, D. cacuminatus and D. mayi). These revealed changing patterns of relative spatial abundance which can be related, in part, to changing population abundance levels. The various spatial patterns recognised are related to each species movement, breeding and feeding behaviour. It is proposed that flies migrate into the rainforest area from distant locations and that the rainforest habitat is an important adult feeding site.

  2. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Adriana; Gamero, Procoro; Almanza, Jose Manuel; Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascencion; Vargas, Gregorio; Izquierdo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 o C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O originally containing 740 ppb.

  3. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Adriana [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Gamero, Procoro, E-mail: pgamerom@hotmail.com [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Almanza, Jose Manuel [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascencion [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, G.A. Madero, C.P. 07730, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Vargas, Gregorio [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Izquierdo, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, C/Luis Sole Sabaris, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 {sup o}C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O originally containing 740 ppb.

  4. Structural and parameteric uncertainty quantification in cloud microphysics parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier-Walqui, M.; Morrison, H.; Kumjian, M. R.; Prat, O. P.; Martinkus, C.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric model parameterization schemes employ approximations to represent the effects of unresolved processes. These approximations are a source of error in forecasts, caused in part by considerable uncertainty about the optimal value of parameters within each scheme -- parameteric uncertainty. Furthermore, there is uncertainty regarding the best choice of the overarching structure of the parameterization scheme -- structrual uncertainty. Parameter estimation can constrain the first, but may struggle with the second because structural choices are typically discrete. We address this problem in the context of cloud microphysics parameterization schemes by creating a flexible framework wherein structural and parametric uncertainties can be simultaneously constrained. Our scheme makes no assuptions about drop size distribution shape or the functional form of parametrized process rate terms. Instead, these uncertainties are constrained by observations using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler within a Bayesian inference framework. Our scheme, the Bayesian Observationally-constrained Statistical-physical Scheme (BOSS), has flexibility to predict various sets of prognostic drop size distribution moments as well as varying complexity of process rate formulations. We compare idealized probabilistic forecasts from versions of BOSS with varying levels of structural complexity. This work has applications in ensemble forecasts with model physics uncertainty, data assimilation, and cloud microphysics process studies.

  5. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  6. Application of the dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Different applications of the parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterization, are considered in this paper. It will be shown how the parameterization can be applied in connection with controller design, adaptive controllers, model validation...

  7. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghai, Viraj A A; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC). (paper)

  8. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC).

  9. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  11. On the Dependence of Cloud Feedbacks on Physical Parameterizations in WRF Aquaplanet Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, Grégory; Suselj, Kay; Brient, Florent

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the effects of physical parameterizations on cloud feedback uncertainty in response to climate change. For this purpose, we construct an ensemble of eight aquaplanet simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each WRF-derived simulation, we replace only one parameterization at a time while all other parameters remain identical. By doing so, we aim to (i) reproduce cloud feedback uncertainty from state-of-the-art climate models and (ii) understand how parametrizations impact cloud feedbacks. Our results demonstrate that this ensemble of WRF simulations, which differ only in physical parameterizations, replicates the range of cloud feedback uncertainty found in state-of-the-art climate models. We show that microphysics and convective parameterizations govern the magnitude and sign of cloud feedbacks, mostly due to tropical low-level clouds in subsidence regimes. Finally, this study highlights the advantages of using WRF to analyze cloud feedback mechanisms owing to its plug-and-play parameterization capability.

  12. Sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes of two commonly found blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Hwa; Aris, Edah Mohd; Surin, Johari; Omar, Baharudin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2009-08-01

    The mitochondiral DNA region encompassing the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) genes of two Malaysian blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were studied. This region, which spans 2303bp and includes the COI, tRNA leucine and partial COII was sequenced from adult fly and larval specimens, and compared. Intraspecific variations were observed at 0.26% for Ch. megacephala and 0.17% for Ch. rufifacies, while sequence divergence between the two species was recorded at a minimum of 141 out of 2303 sites (6.12%). Results obtained in this study are comparable to published data, and thus support the use of DNA sequence to facilitate and complement morphology-based species identification.

  13. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  14. Infrared radiation parameterizations in numerical climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Kratz, David P.; Ridgway, William

    1991-01-01

    This study presents various approaches to parameterizing the broadband transmission functions for utilization in numerical climate models. One-parameter scaling is applied to approximate a nonhomogeneous path with an equivalent homogeneous path, and the diffuse transmittances are either interpolated from precomputed tables or fit by analytical functions. Two-parameter scaling is applied to parameterizing the carbon dioxide and ozone transmission functions in both the lower and middle atmosphere. Parameterizations are given for the nitrous oxide and methane diffuse transmission functions.

  15. Parameterization Of Solar Radiation Using Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Alfa, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network technique for parameterization of global solar radiation. The available data from twenty-one stations is used for training the neural network and the data from other ten stations is used to validate the neural model. The neural network utilizes latitude, longitude, altitude, sunshine duration and period number to parameterize solar radiation values. The testing data was not used in the training to demonstrate the performance of the neural network in unknown stations to parameterize solar radiation. The results indicate a good agreement between the parameterized solar radiation values and actual measured values

  16. Tuning controllers using the dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers and the dual Youla parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller in connection with tuning of controllers. In the uncertain case, it is shown that the use of the Youla parameteriza......This paper describes the application of the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers and the dual Youla parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller in connection with tuning of controllers. In the uncertain case, it is shown that the use of the Youla...

  17. Parameterization of solar flare dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.H.; Poston, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    A critical aspect of missions to the moon or Mars will be the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very dangerous if astronauts are not adequately shielded because flares can deliver a very high dose in a short period of time. The goal of this research was to parameterize solar flare dose as a function of time to see if it was possible to predict solar flare occurrence, thus providing a warning time. This would allow astronauts to take corrective action and avoid receiving a dose greater than the recommended limit set by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)

  18. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  19. Parameterization and measurements of helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Okamura, M.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic fields with helical symmetry can be parameterized using multipole coefficients (a n , b n ). We present a parameterization that gives the familiar multipole coefficients (a n , b n ) for straight magnets when the helical wavelength tends to infinity. To measure helical fields all methods used for straight magnets can be employed. We show how to convert the results of those measurements to obtain the desired helical multipole coefficients (a n , b n )

  20. Menangkal Serangan SQL Injection Dengan Parameterized Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianingsih Yulianingsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Semakin meningkat pertumbuhan layanan informasi maka semakin tinggi pula tingkat kerentanan keamanan dari suatu sumber informasi. Melalui tulisan ini disajikan penelitian yang dilakukan secara eksperimen yang membahas tentang kejahatan penyerangan database secara SQL Injection. Penyerangan dilakukan melalui halaman autentikasi dikarenakan halaman ini merupakan pintu pertama akses yang seharusnya memiliki pertahanan yang cukup. Kemudian dilakukan eksperimen terhadap metode Parameterized Query untuk mendapatkan solusi terhadap permasalahan tersebut.   Kata kunci— Layanan Informasi, Serangan, eksperimen, SQL Injection, Parameterized Query.

  1. Normalization of the parameterized Courant-Snyder matrix for symplectic factorization of a parameterized Taylor map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transverse motion of charged particles in a circular accelerator can be well represented by a one-turn high-order Taylor map. For particles without energy deviation, the one-turn Taylor map is a 4-dimensional polynomials of four variables. The four variables are the transverse canonical coordinates and their conjugate momenta. To include the energy deviation (off-momentum) effects, the map has to be parameterized with a smallness factor representing the off-momentum and so the Taylor map becomes a 4-dimensional polynomials of five variables. It is for this type of parameterized Taylor map that a mehtod is presented for converting it into a parameterized Dragt-Finn factorization map. Parameterized nonlinear normal form and parameterized kick factorization can thus be obtained with suitable modification of the existing technique

  2. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  3. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....

  4. Active Subspaces of Airfoil Shape Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Zachary J.; Constantine, Paul G.

    2018-05-01

    Design and optimization benefit from understanding the dependence of a quantity of interest (e.g., a design objective or constraint function) on the design variables. A low-dimensional active subspace, when present, identifies important directions in the space of design variables; perturbing a design along the active subspace associated with a particular quantity of interest changes that quantity more, on average, than perturbing the design orthogonally to the active subspace. This low-dimensional structure provides insights that characterize the dependence of quantities of interest on design variables. Airfoil design in a transonic flow field with a parameterized geometry is a popular test problem for design methodologies. We examine two particular airfoil shape parameterizations, PARSEC and CST, and study the active subspaces present in two common design quantities of interest, transonic lift and drag coefficients, under each shape parameterization. We mathematically relate the two parameterizations with a common polynomial series. The active subspaces enable low-dimensional approximations of lift and drag that relate to physical airfoil properties. In particular, we obtain and interpret a two-dimensional approximation of both transonic lift and drag, and we show how these approximation inform a multi-objective design problem.

  5. Parameterization analysis and inversion for orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2018-05-01

    Accounting for azimuthal anisotropy is necessary for the processing and inversion of wide-azimuth and wide-aperture seismic data because wave speeds naturally depend on the wave propagation direction. Orthorhombic anisotropy is considered the most effective anisotropic model that approximates the azimuthal anisotropy we observe in seismic data. In the framework of full wave form inversion (FWI), the large number of parameters describing orthorhombic media exerts a considerable trade-off and increases the non-linearity of the inversion problem. Choosing a suitable parameterization for the model, and identifying which parameters in that parameterization could be well resolved, are essential to a successful inversion. In this thesis, I derive the radiation patterns for different acoustic orthorhombic parameterization. Analyzing the angular dependence of the scattering of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the conventionally used notation, I assess the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. In order to build practical inversion strategies, I suggest new parameters (called deviation parameters) for a new parameterization style in orthorhombic media. The novel parameters denoted ∈d, ƞd and δd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. The main feature of the deviation parameters consists of keeping the scattering of the vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters stationary with azimuth. Using these scattering features, we can condition FWI to invert for the parameters which the data are sensitive to, at different stages, scales, and locations in the model. With this parameterization, the data are mainly sensitive to the scattering of 3 parameters (out of six that describe an acoustic orthorhombic medium): the horizontal velocity in the x1 direction, ∈1 which provides scattering mainly near

  6. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology. The work...

  7. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  8. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  9. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  10. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  11. Invariant box-parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Thomas J.; Wagner, DJ

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing-matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements

  12. Parameterized Concurrent Multi-Party Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Charalambides

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Session types have been proposed as a means of statically verifying implementations of communication protocols. Although prior work has been successful in verifying some classes of protocols, it does not cope well with parameterized, multi-actor scenarios with inherent asynchrony. For example, the sliding window protocol is inexpressible in previously proposed session type systems. This paper describes System-A, a new typing language which overcomes many of the expressiveness limitations of prior work. System-A explicitly supports asynchrony and parallelism, as well as multiple forms of parameterization. We define System-A and show how it can be used for the static verification of a large class of asynchronous communication protocols.

  13. Automatic Parameterization Strategy for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Caroline Mendonca; Hoetzl, Elena; Rocha, Bernardo Martins; Prassl, Anton J; Plank, Gernot

    2013-10-01

    Driven by recent advances in medical imaging, image segmentation and numerical techniques, computer models of ventricular electrophysiology account for increasingly finer levels of anatomical and biophysical detail. However, considering the large number of model parameters involved parameterization poses a major challenge. A minimum requirement in combined experimental and modeling studies is to achieve good agreement in activation and repolarization sequences between model and experiment or patient data. In this study, we propose basic techniques which aid in determining bidomain parameters to match activation sequences. An iterative parameterization algorithm is implemented which determines appropriate bulk conductivities which yield prescribed velocities. In addition, a method is proposed for splitting the computed bulk conductivities into individual bidomain conductivities by prescribing anisotropy ratios.

  14. Invariant box parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.J.; Wagner, D.

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Automatic Parameterization Strategy for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Caroline Mendonca; Hoetzl, Elena; Rocha, Bernardo Martins; Prassl, Anton J; Plank, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Driven by recent advances in medical imaging, image segmentation and numerical techniques, computer models of ventricular electrophysiology account for increasingly finer levels of anatomical and biophysical detail. However, considering the large number of model parameters involved parameterization poses a major challenge. A minimum requirement in combined experimental and modeling studies is to achieve good agreement in activation and repolarization sequences between model and experiment or ...

  16. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosjes, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  17. Parameterized and resolved Southern Ocean eddy compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Mads B.; Jochum, Markus; Nuterman, Roman

    2018-04-01

    The ability to parameterize Southern Ocean eddy effects in a forced coarse resolution ocean general circulation model is assessed. The transient model response to a suite of different Southern Ocean wind stress forcing perturbations is presented and compared to identical experiments performed with the same model in 0.1° eddy-resolving resolution. With forcing of present-day wind stress magnitude and a thickness diffusivity formulated in terms of the local stratification, it is shown that the Southern Ocean residual meridional overturning circulation in the two models is different in structure and magnitude. It is found that the difference in the upper overturning cell is primarily explained by an overly strong subsurface flow in the parameterized eddy-induced circulation while the difference in the lower cell is mainly ascribed to the mean-flow overturning. With a zonally constant decrease of the zonal wind stress by 50% we show that the absolute decrease in the overturning circulation is insensitive to model resolution, and that the meridional isopycnal slope is relaxed in both models. The agreement between the models is not reproduced by a 50% wind stress increase, where the high resolution overturning decreases by 20%, but increases by 100% in the coarse resolution model. It is demonstrated that this difference is explained by changes in surface buoyancy forcing due to a reduced Antarctic sea ice cover, which strongly modulate the overturning response and ocean stratification. We conclude that the parameterized eddies are able to mimic the transient response to altered wind stress in the high resolution model, but partly misrepresent the unperturbed Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation and associated heat transports.

  18. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  19. Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Briegleb, Bruce P.

    2010-11-01

    A new overflow parameterization (OFP) of density-driven flows through ocean ridges via narrow, unresolved channels has been developed and implemented in the ocean component of the Community Climate System Model version 4. It represents exchanges from the Nordic Seas and the Antarctic shelves, associated entrainment, and subsequent injection of overflow product waters into the abyssal basins. We investigate the effects of the parameterized Denmark Strait (DS) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) overflows on the ocean circulation, showing their impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the North Atlantic climate. The OFP is based on the Marginal Sea Boundary Condition scheme of Price and Yang (1998), but there are significant differences that are described in detail. Two uncoupled (ocean-only) and two fully coupled simulations are analyzed. Each pair consists of one case with the OFP and a control case without this parameterization. In both uncoupled and coupled experiments, the parameterized DS and FBC source volume transports are within the range of observed estimates. The entrainment volume transports remain lower than observational estimates, leading to lower than observed product volume transports. Due to low entrainment, the product and source water properties are too similar. The DS and FBC overflow temperature and salinity properties are in better agreement with observations in the uncoupled case than in the coupled simulation, likely reflecting surface flux differences. The most significant impact of the OFP is the improved North Atlantic Deep Water penetration depth, leading to a much better comparison with the observational data and significantly reducing the chronic, shallow penetration depth bias in level coordinate models. This improvement is due to the deeper penetration of the southward flowing Deep Western Boundary Current. In comparison with control experiments without the OFP, the abyssal ventilation rates increase in the North

  20. A parameterization of cloud droplet nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Chuang, C.; Penner, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Droplet nucleation is a fundamental cloud process. The number of aerosols activated to form cloud droplets influences not only the number of aerosols scavenged by clouds but also the size of the cloud droplets. Cloud droplet size influences the cloud albedo and the conversion of cloud water to precipitation. Global aerosol models are presently being developed with the intention of coupling with global atmospheric circulation models to evaluate the influence of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions on climate. If these and other coupled models are to address issues of aerosol-cloud interactions, the droplet nucleation process must be adequately represented. Here we introduce a droplet nucleation parametrization that offers certain advantages over the popular Twomey (1959) parameterization

  1. Cumulus parameterizations in chemical transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Natalie M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1995-12-01

    Global three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs) are valuable tools for studying processes controlling the distribution of trace constituents in the atmosphere. A major uncertainty in these models is the subgrid-scale parametrization of transport by cumulus convection. This study seeks to define the range of behavior of moist convective schemes and point toward more reliable formulations for inclusion in chemical transport models. The emphasis is on deriving convective transport from meteorological data sets (such as those from the forecast centers) which do not routinely include convective mass fluxes. Seven moist convective parameterizations are compared in a column model to examine the sensitivity of the vertical profile of trace gases to the parameterization used in a global chemical transport model. The moist convective schemes examined are the Emanuel scheme [Emanuel, 1991], the Feichter-Crutzen scheme [Feichter and Crutzen, 1990], the inverse thermodynamic scheme (described in this paper), two versions of a scheme suggested by Hack [Hack, 1994], and two versions of a scheme suggested by Tiedtke (one following the formulation used in the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting) and ECHAM3 (European Centre and Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut) models [Tiedtke, 1989], and one formulated as in the TM2 (Transport Model-2) model (M. Heimann, personal communication, 1992). These convective schemes vary in the closure used to derive the mass fluxes, as well as the cloud model formulation, giving a broad range of results. In addition, two boundary layer schemes are compared: a state-of-the-art nonlocal boundary layer scheme [Holtslag and Boville, 1993] and a simple adiabatic mixing scheme described in this paper. Three tests are used to compare the moist convective schemes against observations. Although the tests conducted here cannot conclusively show that one parameterization is better than the others, the tests are a good measure of the

  2. Parameterization of MARVELS Spectra Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilda, Sankalp; Ge, Jian; MARVELS

    2018-01-01

    Like many large-scale surveys, the Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) was designed to operate at a moderate spectral resolution ($\\sim$12,000) for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar parameterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Two extant solutions to deal with this issue are to utilize spectral synthesis, and to utilize spectral indices [Ghezzi et al. 2014]. While the former is a powerful and tested technique, it can often yield strongly coupled atmospheric parameters, and often requires high spectral resolution (Valenti & Piskunov 1996). The latter, though a promising technique utilizing measurements of equivalent widths of spectral indices, has only been employed with respect to FKG dwarfs and sub-giants and not red-giant branch stars, which constitute ~30% of MARVELS targets. In this work, we tackle this problem using a convolution neural network (CNN). In particular, we train a one-dimensional CNN on appropriately processed PHOENIX synthetic spectra using supervised training to automatically distinguish the features relevant for the determination of each of the three atmospheric parameters – T_eff, log(g), [Fe/H] – and use the knowledge thus gained by the network to parameterize 849 MARVELS giants. When tested on the synthetic spectra themselves, our estimates of the parameters were consistent to within 11 K, .02 dex, and .02 dex (in terms of mean absolute errors), respectively. For MARVELS dwarfs, the accuracies are 80K, .16 dex and .10 dex, respectively.

  3. Estudo da energética modal para episódios de ZCAS. Parte II: impacto da resolução do modelo e da parametrização de convecção Study of the modal energetics for SACZ episodes. Part II: Impact of the model resolution and the convection parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Weissmann Borges Mendonça

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho do Modelo Global do Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC em simular a energética modal para um composto de sete episódios de Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS é avaliado, enfatizando-se a influência da resolução espacial do modelo e de três diferentes parametrizações de convecção profunda: Kuo, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS e Grell na partição vertical de energia entre os modos externos e internos, e as trocas de energia entre os modos horizontais de oscilação Rossby, Kelvin, Misto Rossby-Gravidade, Gravidade Oeste e Leste. Os resultados mostraram que as previsões utilizando os esquemas de convecção profunda Kuo, RAS e Grell foram semelhantes entre si e apresentaram uma boa concordância em relação aos padrões obtidos na parte observacional (Parte I deste artigo. O emprego de diferentes esquemas de convecção profunda não apresentou impactos significativos na partição e interação de energia entre os modos verticais e horizontais. Um impacto maior foi obtido com o aumento da resolução vertical das análises e do modelo, de 28 para 42 níveis, em que um maior número de modos internos apresenta um papel relevante nas trocas horizontais e verticais de energia.The performance of the CPTEC Global Model in simulating the modal energetics for a composite of seven South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ episodes was evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the model resolution and the three different deep convection parameterizations: Kuo, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS and Grell on the vertical energy partition between external and internal modes and on the energy interactions within and between various horizontal oscillation modes: Rossby, Kelvin, Mixed Rossby-Gravity and West and East Gravity. The results showed that the model predictions using the Kuo, RAS and Grell deep convection schemes were similar with each other, and had a good agreement with the patterns obtained in the

  4. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    World War II, women in the United States turned manpower into woman power as housewives across the nation took manufacturing jobs building bombers...delineates responsibilities for the entire volunteer organization. Safety -first Flying Culture CHP CHP’s first- class safety program uses the most...civilian pilots to augment law enforcement based aviation operations. This thesis uses recommendations of the Public Safety Aviation Accreditation

  5. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice

  6. Flies without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Renata; Lau, Joyce; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Gardiol, Alejandra; Woods, C Geoffrey; Khodjakov, Alexey; Raff, Jordan W

    2006-06-30

    Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.

  7. A parameterization study for elastic VTI Full Waveform Inversion of hydrophone components: synthetic and North Sea field data examples

    KAUST Repository

    Guitton, Antoine

    2017-08-15

    Choosing the right parameterization to describe a transversely isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) allows us to match the scattering potential of these parameters to the available data in a way that avoids potential tradeoff and focus on the parameters to which the data are sensitive. For 2-D elastic full waveform inversion in VTI media of pressure components and for data with a reasonable range of offsets (as with those found in conventional streamer data acquisition systems), assuming that we have a kinematically accurate NMO velocity (vnmo) and anellipticity parameter η (or horizontal velocity, vh) obtained from tomographic methods, a parameterization in terms of horizontal velocity vh, η and ε is preferred to the more conventional parameterization in terms of vh, δ and ε. In the vh, η, ε parameterization and for reasonable scattering angles (<60o), ε acts as a “garbage collector” and absorbs most of the amplitude discrepancies; between modeled and observed data, more so when density ρ and shear-wave velocity vs are not inverted for (a standard practice with streamer data). On the contrary, in the vv, δ, ε parameterization, ε is mostly sensitive to large scattering angles, leaving vv exposed to strong leakages from ρ mainly. There assertions will be demonstrated on the synthetic Marmousi II as well as a North Sea OBC dataset, where inverting for the horizontal velocity rather than the vertical velocity yields more accurate models and migrated images.

  8. A parameterization study for elastic VTI Full Waveform Inversion of hydrophone components: synthetic and North Sea field data examples

    KAUST Repository

    Guitton, Antoine; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Choosing the right parameterization to describe a transversely isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) allows us to match the scattering potential of these parameters to the available data in a way that avoids potential tradeoff and focus on the parameters to which the data are sensitive. For 2-D elastic full waveform inversion in VTI media of pressure components and for data with a reasonable range of offsets (as with those found in conventional streamer data acquisition systems), assuming that we have a kinematically accurate NMO velocity (vnmo) and anellipticity parameter η (or horizontal velocity, vh) obtained from tomographic methods, a parameterization in terms of horizontal velocity vh, η and ε is preferred to the more conventional parameterization in terms of vh, δ and ε. In the vh, η, ε parameterization and for reasonable scattering angles (<60o), ε acts as a “garbage collector” and absorbs most of the amplitude discrepancies; between modeled and observed data, more so when density ρ and shear-wave velocity vs are not inverted for (a standard practice with streamer data). On the contrary, in the vv, δ, ε parameterization, ε is mostly sensitive to large scattering angles, leaving vv exposed to strong leakages from ρ mainly. There assertions will be demonstrated on the synthetic Marmousi II as well as a North Sea OBC dataset, where inverting for the horizontal velocity rather than the vertical velocity yields more accurate models and migrated images.

  9. Parameterized combinatorial geometry modeling in Moritz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riper, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the use of named variables as surface and solid body coefficients in the Moritz geometry editing program. Variables can also be used as material numbers, cell densities, and transformation values. A variable is defined as a constant or an arithmetic combination of constants and other variables. A variable reference, such as in a surface coefficient, can be a single variable or an expression containing variables and constants. Moritz can read and write geometry models in MCNP and ITS ACCEPT format; support for other codes will be added. The geometry can be saved with either the variables in place, for modifying the models in Moritz, or with the variables evaluated for use in the transport codes. A program window shows a list of variables and provides fields for editing them. Surface coefficients and other values that use a variable reference are shown in a distinctive style on object property dialogs; associated buttons show fields for editing the reference. We discuss our use of variables in defining geometry models for shielding studies in PET clinics. When a model is parameterized through the use of variables, changes such as room dimensions, shielding layer widths, and cell compositions can be quickly achieved by changing a few numbers without requiring knowledge of the input syntax for the transport code or the tedious and error prone work of recalculating many surface or solid body coefficients. (author)

  10. Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-I. Yano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives. The physical variables that may contribute in defining the convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by performing a linear stability analysis of tropical convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses. Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various different perspectives. The review also emphasizes that the dominant physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas. Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we emphasize the importance of the interplays between these observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is universally applicable. An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.

  11. Stellar Atmospheric Parameterization Based on Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-yang; Li, Xiang-ru

    2017-07-01

    Deep learning is a typical learning method widely studied in the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. This work investigates the problem of stellar atmospheric parameterization by constructing a deep neural network with five layers, and the node number in each layer of the network is respectively 3821-500-100-50-1. The proposed scheme is verified on both the real spectra measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the theoretic spectra computed with the Kurucz's New Opacity Distribution Function (NEWODF) model, to make an automatic estimation for three physical parameters: the effective temperature (Teff), surface gravitational acceleration (lg g), and metallic abundance (Fe/H). The results show that the stacked autoencoder deep neural network has a better accuracy for the estimation. On the SDSS spectra, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) are 79.95 for Teff/K, 0.0058 for (lg Teff/K), 0.1706 for lg (g/(cm·s-2)), and 0.1294 dex for the [Fe/H], respectively; On the theoretic spectra, the MAEs are 15.34 for Teff/K, 0.0011 for lg (Teff/K), 0.0214 for lg(g/(cm · s-2)), and 0.0121 dex for [Fe/H], respectively.

  12. Carbody structural lightweighting based on implicit parameterized model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Ma, Fangwu; Wang, Dengfeng; Xie, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Most of recent research on carbody lightweighting has focused on substitute material and new processing technologies rather than structures. However, new materials and processing techniques inevitably lead to higher costs. Also, material substitution and processing lightweighting have to be realized through body structural profiles and locations. In the huge conventional workload of lightweight optimization, model modifications involve heavy manual work, and it always leads to a large number of iteration calculations. As a new technique in carbody lightweighting, the implicit parameterization is used to optimize the carbody structure to improve the materials utilization rate in this paper. The implicit parameterized structural modeling enables the use of automatic modification and rapid multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) in carbody structure, which is impossible in the traditional structure finite element method (FEM) without parameterization. The structural SFE parameterized model is built in accordance with the car structural FE model in concept development stage, and it is validated by some structural performance data. The validated SFE structural parameterized model can be used to generate rapidly and automatically FE model and evaluate different design variables group in the integrated MDO loop. The lightweighting result of body-in-white (BIW) after the optimization rounds reveals that the implicit parameterized model makes automatic MDO feasible and can significantly improve the computational efficiency of carbody structural lightweighting. This paper proposes the integrated method of implicit parameterized model and MDO, which has the obvious practical advantage and industrial significance in the carbody structural lightweighting design.

  13. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  14. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An energetically consistent vertical mixing parameterization in CCSM4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Borg; Jochum, Markus; Eden, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    An energetically consistent stratification-dependent vertical mixing parameterization is implemented in the Community Climate System Model 4 and forced with energy conversion from the barotropic tides to internal waves. The structures of the resulting dissipation and diffusivity fields are compared......, however, depends greatly on the details of the vertical mixing parameterizations, where the new energetically consistent parameterization results in low thermocline diffusivities and a sharper and shallower thermocline. It is also investigated if the ocean state is more sensitive to a change in forcing...

  16. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  17. Automatic Generation of Symbolic Model for Parameterized Synchronous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wen Xu

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of making the verification of parameterized system more general and easier, in this paper, a new and intuitive language PSL (Parameterized-system Specification Language) is proposed to specify a class of parameterized synchronous systems. From a PSL script, an automatic method is proposed to generate a constraint-based symbolic model. The model can concisely symbolically represent the collections of global states by counting the number of processes in a given state. Moreover, a theorem has been proved that there is a simulation relation between the original system and its symbolic model. Since the abstract and symbolic techniques are exploited in the symbolic model, state-explosion problem in traditional verification methods is efficiently avoided. Based on the proposed symbolic model, a reachability analysis procedure is implemented using ANSI C++ on UNIX platform. Thus, a complete tool for verifying the parameterized synchronous systems is obtained and tested for some cases. The experimental results show that the method is satisfactory.

  18. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth's surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry

  20. Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2016-09-15

    The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth\\'s surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry

  1. Spectral cumulus parameterization based on cloud-resolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuya

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a spectral cumulus parameterization using a cloud-resolving model. This includes a new parameterization of the entrainment rate which was derived from analysis of the cloud properties obtained from the cloud-resolving model simulation and was valid for both shallow and deep convection. The new scheme was examined in a single-column model experiment and compared with the existing parameterization of Gregory (2001, Q J R Meteorol Soc 127:53-72) (GR scheme). The results showed that the GR scheme simulated more shallow and diluted convection than the new scheme. To further validate the physical performance of the parameterizations, Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) experiments were performed, and the results were compared with reanalysis data. The new scheme performed better than the GR scheme in terms of mean state and variability of atmospheric circulation, i.e., the new scheme improved positive bias of precipitation in western Pacific region, and improved positive bias of outgoing shortwave radiation over the ocean. The new scheme also simulated better features of convectively coupled equatorial waves and Madden-Julian oscillation. These improvements were found to be derived from the modification of parameterization for the entrainment rate, i.e., the proposed parameterization suppressed excessive increase of entrainment, thus suppressing excessive increase of low-level clouds.

  2. A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ray

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2 emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a~parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an idealized inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP, is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i the spatial variability of fossil-fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil-fuel emissions at regional scales if fossil-fuel-only CO2 observations are available.

  3. The package PAKPDF 1.1 of parameterizations of parton distribution functions in the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charchula, K.

    1992-01-01

    A FORTRAN package containing parameterizations of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the proton is described, allows an easy access to PDFs provided by several recent parameterizations and to some parameters characterizing particular parameterization. Some comments about the use of various parameterizations are also included. (orig.)

  4. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  5. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  6. The applicability of the viscous α-parameterization of gravitational instability in circumstellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, E. I.

    2010-01-01

    We study numerically the applicability of the effective-viscosity approach for simulating the effect of gravitational instability (GI) in disks of young stellar objects with different disk-to-star mass ratios ξ . We adopt two α-parameterizations for the effective viscosity based on Lin and Pringle [Lin, D.N.C., Pringle, J.E., 1990. ApJ 358, 515] and Kratter et al. [Kratter, K.M., Matzner, Ch.D., Krumholz, M.R., 2008. ApJ 681, 375] and compare the resultant disk structure, disk and stellar masses, and mass accretion rates with those obtained directly from numerical simulations of self-gravitating disks around low-mass (M∗ ∼ 1.0M⊙) protostars. We find that the effective viscosity can, in principle, simulate the effect of GI in stellar systems with ξ≲ 0.2- 0.3 , thus corroborating a similar conclusion by Lodato and Rice [Lodato, G., Rice, W.K.M., 2004. MNRAS 351, 630] that was based on a different α-parameterization. In particular, the Kratter et al.'s α-parameterization has proven superior to that of Lin and Pringle's, because the success of the latter depends crucially on the proper choice of the α-parameter. However, the α-parameterization generally fails in stellar systems with ξ≳ 0.3 , particularly in the Classes 0 and I phases of stellar evolution, yielding too small stellar masses and too large disk-to-star mass ratios. In addition, the time-averaged mass accretion rates onto the star are underestimated in the early disk evolution and greatly overestimated in the late evolution. The failure of the α-parameterization in the case of large ξ is caused by a growing strength of low-order spiral modes in massive disks. Only in the late Class II phase, when the magnitude of spiral modes diminishes and the mode-to-mode interaction ensues, may the effective viscosity be used to simulate the effect of GI in stellar systems with ξ≳ 0.3 . A simple modification of the effective viscosity that takes into account disk fragmentation can somewhat improve

  7. Impact of Physics Parameterization Ordering in a Global Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Aaron S.; Caldwell, Peter M.

    2018-02-01

    Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of subgrid-scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is noncommutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the intermodel spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of k-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro/microphysics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.

  8. Parameterization of mixing by secondary circulation in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Huguenard, K. D.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Li, M.; Chant, R. J.

    2017-07-01

    Eddy viscosity parameterizations that depend on a gradient Richardson number Ri have been most pertinent to the open ocean. Parameterizations applicable to stratified coastal regions typically require implementation of a numerical model. Two novel parameterizations of the vertical eddy viscosity, based on Ri, are proposed here for coastal waters. One turbulence closure considers temporal changes in stratification and bottom stress and is coined the "regular fit." The alternative approach, named the "lateral fit," incorporates variability of lateral flows that are prevalent in estuaries. The two turbulence parameterization schemes are tested using data from a Self-Contained Autonomous Microstructure Profiler (SCAMP) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) collected in the James River Estuary. The "regular fit" compares favorably to SCAMP-derived vertical eddy viscosity values but only at relatively small values of gradient Ri. On the other hand, the "lateral fit" succeeds at describing the lateral variability of eddy viscosity over a wide range of Ri. The modifications proposed to Ri-dependent eddy viscosity parameterizations allow applicability to stratified coastal regions, particularly in wide estuaries, without requiring implementation of a numerical model.

  9. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  10. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  11. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  12. Norm in coal, fly ash and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S.B.; Sharma, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is technologically important materials being used for power generation and its cinder (fly ash) is used in manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters are the most important radioactive and potentially hazardous elements, which are released in the environment from the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in coal, fly ash and cement. Thus it is very important to carry out radioactivity measurements in coal, fly ash and cement from the health and hygiene point of view. Samples of coal and fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and various fly ash using establishments and commercially available cement samples (O.P.C. and P.P.C.) were collected and analyzed for radon concentration and exhalation rates. For the measurements, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. The radon concentration varied from 147 Bq/m 3 to 443 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.5 to 4.5 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 11.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 35.7 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 104.5 mBq.m -2 .h -1 to 314.8 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in coal samples. The radon concentration varied from 214 Bq/m 3 to 590 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.0 to 2.7 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 7.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 21.6 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 138 mBq m -2 h -1 to 380.6 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in fly ash samples. The radon concentration varied from 157.62 Bq/m 3 to 1810.48 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 0.76 Bq/kg to 8.73 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 6.07 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 to 69.81 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 107.10 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 to 1230.21 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 for surface exhalation rate in different cement samples. The values were found higher in P.P.C. samples than in O.P.C. samples. (authors)

  13. Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, Joao Claudio B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)

  14. Development of a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) including diabatic heating, moisture and momentum transports, cloud formation, and precipitation. The approach is to: Perform explicit cloud-resolving simulation of MCSs; Perform statistical analyses of simulated MCSs to assist in fabricating a parameterization, calibrating coefficients, etc.; Test the parameterization scheme against independent field data measurements and in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models emulating general circulation model (GCM) grid resolution. Thus far we have formulated, calibrated, implemented and tested a deep convective engine against explicit Florida sea breeze convection and in coarse-grid regional simulations of mid-latitude and tropical MCSs. Several explicit simulations of MCSs have been completed, and several other are in progress. Analysis code is being written and run on the explicitly simulated data

  15. Parameterized Analysis of Paging and List Update Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorrigiv, Reza; Ehmsen, Martin R.; López-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    that a larger cache leads to a better performance. We also apply the parameterized analysis framework to list update and show that certain randomized algorithms which are superior to MTF in the classical model are not so in the parameterized case, which matches experimental results....... set model and express the performance of well known algorithms in terms of this parameter. This explicitly introduces parameterized-style analysis to online algorithms. The idea is that rather than normalizing the performance of an online algorithm by an (optimal) offline algorithm, we explicitly...... express the behavior of the algorithm in terms of two more natural parameters: the size of the cache and Denning’s working set measure. This technique creates a performance hierarchy of paging algorithms which better reflects their experimentally observed relative strengths. It also reflects the intuition...

  16. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  17. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  18. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  19. Droplet Nucleation: Physically-Based Parameterizations and Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Ghan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in simulations of climate and climate change is the influence of aerosols on the optical properties of clouds. The root of this influence is the droplet nucleation process, which involves the spontaneous growth of aerosol into cloud droplets at cloud edges, during the early stages of cloud formation, and in some cases within the interior of mature clouds. Numerical models of droplet nucleation represent much of the complexity of the process, but at a computational cost that limits their application to simulations of hours or days. Physically-based parameterizations of droplet nucleation are designed to quickly estimate the number nucleated as a function of the primary controlling parameters: the aerosol number size distribution, hygroscopicity and cooling rate. Here we compare and contrast the key assumptions used in developing each of the most popular parameterizations and compare their performances under a variety of conditions. We find that the more complex parameterizations perform well under a wider variety of nucleation conditions, but all parameterizations perform well under the most common conditions. We then discuss the various applications of the parameterizations to cloud-resolving, regional and global models to study aerosol effects on clouds at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. We compare estimates of anthropogenic aerosol indirect effects using two different parameterizations applied to the same global climate model, and find that the estimates of indirect effects differ by only 10%. We conclude with a summary of the outstanding challenges remaining for further development and application.

  20. A new parameterization for waveform inversion in acoustic orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2016-05-26

    Orthorhombic anisotropic model inversion is extra challenging because of the multiple parameter nature of the inversion problem. The high number of parameters required to describe the medium exerts considerable trade-off and additional nonlinearity to a full-waveform inversion (FWI) application. Choosing a suitable set of parameters to describe the model and designing an effective inversion strategy can help in mitigating this problem. Using the Born approximation, which is the central ingredient of the FWI update process, we have derived radiation patterns for the different acoustic orthorhombic parameterizations. Analyzing the angular dependence of scattering (radiation patterns) of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the often used Thomsen-Tsvankin parameterization, we have assessed the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. The analysis led us to introduce new parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd, which have azimuthally dependent radiation patterns, but keep the scattering potential of the transversely isotropic parameters stationary with azimuth (azimuth independent). The novel parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, these deviation parameters offer a new parameterization style for an acoustic orthorhombic medium described by six parameters: three vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters, two deviation parameters, and one parameter describing the anisotropy in the horizontal symmetry plane. The main feature of any parameterization based on the deviation parameters, is the azimuthal independency of the modeled data with respect to the VTI parameters, which allowed us to propose practical inversion strategies based on our experience with the VTI parameters. This feature of the new parameterization style holds for even the long-wavelength components of

  1. Parameterization of radiocaesium soil-plant transfer using soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Drissner, J.; Klemt, E.; Konopleva, I. V.; Zibold, G.

    1996-01-01

    A model of radionuclide soil-plant transfer is proposed to parameterize the transfer factor by soil and soil solution characteristics. The model is tested with experimental data on the aggregated transfer factor T ag and soil parameters for 8 forest sites in Baden-Wuerttemberg. It is shown that the integral soil-plant transfer factor can be parameterized through radiocaesium exchangeability, capacity of selective sorption sites and ion composition of the soil solution or the water extract. A modified technique of (FES) measurement for soils with interlayer collapse is proposed. (author)

  2. Influence of Cements Containing Calcareous Fly Ash as a Main Component Properties of Fresh Cement Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaszewski, Jacek; Kostrzanowska-Siedlarz, Aleksandra; Ponikiewski, Tomasz; Miera, Patrycja

    2017-10-01

    The main goal of presented research was to examine usability of cements containing calcareous fly ash (W) from technological point of view. In the paper the results of tests concerning the influence of CEM II and CEM IV cements containing fly ash (W) on rheological properties, air content, setting times and plastic shrinkage of mortars are presented and discussed. Moreover, compatibility of plasticizers with cements containing fly ash (W) was also studied. Additionally, setting time and hydration heat of cements containing calcareous fly ash (W) were determined. In a broader aspect, the research contributes to promulgation of the possibility of using calcareous fly ash (W) in cement and concrete technology, what greatly benefits the environment protection (utilization of waste fly ash). Calcareous fly ash can be used successfully as the main component of cement. Cements produced by blending with processed fly ash or cements produced by interginding are characterized by acceptable technological properties. In respect to CEM I cements, cements containing calcareous fly ash worsen workability, decrease air content, delay setting time of mixtures. Cements with calcareous fly ash show good compatibility with plasticizers.

  3. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  4. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  5. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  6. Impact of cloud microphysics and cumulus parameterization on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-10-09

    Oct 9, 2007 ... Bangladesh. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF–ARW version) modelling system with six dif- .... tem intensified rapidly into a land depression over southern part of ... Impact of cloud microphysics and cumulus parameterization on heavy rainfall. 261 .... tent and temperature and is represented as a sum.

  7. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  8. Parameterization of planetary wave breaking in the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando R.

    1991-01-01

    A parameterization of planetary wave breaking in the middle atmosphere has been developed and tested in a numerical model which includes governing equations for a single wave and the zonal-mean state. The parameterization is based on the assumption that wave breaking represents a steady-state equilibrium between the flux of wave activity and its dissipation by nonlinear processes, and that the latter can be represented as linear damping of the primary wave. With this and the additional assumption that the effect of breaking is to prevent further amplitude growth, the required dissipation rate is readily obtained from the steady-state equation for wave activity; diffusivity coefficients then follow from the dissipation rate. The assumptions made in the derivation are equivalent to those commonly used in parameterizations for gravity wave breaking, but the formulation in terms of wave activity helps highlight the central role of the wave group velocity in determining the dissipation rate. Comparison of model results with nonlinear calculations of wave breaking and with diagnostic determinations of stratospheric diffusion coefficients reveals remarkably good agreement, and suggests that the parameterization could be useful for simulating inexpensively, but realistically, the effects of planetary wave transport.

  9. CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU, Y.; DAUM, P.H.; CHAI, S.K.; LIU, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments

  10. Stable Kernel Representations and the Youla Parameterization for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paice, A.D.B.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a general approach is taken to yield a characterization of the class of stable plant controller pairs, which is a generalization of the Youla parameterization for linear systems. This is based on the idea of representing the input-output pairs of the plant and controller as elements of

  11. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  12. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  13. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  14. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  15. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    definition of ageing?), and that the word ageing (or senescence) has a fairly precise .... Populations that evolved increased longevity and egg production late in life, as a .... life-span exceeding 120 days whereas flies from control populations ...

  16. Parameterizing Coefficients of a POD-Based Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    A method of parameterizing the coefficients of a dynamical system based of a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) representing the flow dynamics of a viscous fluid has been introduced. (A brief description of POD is presented in the immediately preceding article.) The present parameterization method is intended to enable construction of the dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers. The need for this or a similar method arises as follows: A procedure that includes direct numerical simulation followed by POD, followed by Galerkin projection to a dynamical system has been proven to enable representation of flow dynamics by a low-dimensional model at the Reynolds number of the simulation. However, a more difficult task is to obtain models that are valid over a range of Reynolds numbers. Extrapolation of low-dimensional models by use of straightforward Reynolds-number-based parameter continuation has proven to be inadequate for successful prediction of flows. A key part of the problem of constructing a dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers is the problem of understanding and providing for the variation of the coefficients of the dynamical system with the Reynolds number. Prior methods do not enable capture of temporal dynamics over ranges of Reynolds numbers in low-dimensional models, and are not even satisfactory when large numbers of modes are used. The basic idea of the present method is to solve the problem through a suitable parameterization of the coefficients of the dynamical system. The parameterization computations involve utilization of the transfer of kinetic energy between modes as a function of Reynolds number. The thus-parameterized dynamical system accurately predicts the flow dynamics and is applicable to a range of flow problems in the dynamical regime around the Hopf bifurcation. Parameter

  17. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  18. Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memom, A.R.; Ansari, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

  19. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. II. Assessment of the optimal temperature and the substrate for male-only production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maman, E.; Caceres, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to assess the effect and interaction of various storage substrates and conditions on eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Tests were carried out with the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 8/D53, a strain that carries a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that allows the selective killing of female zygotes. This study identifies strategies to enhance the storage and transport conditions through assessment of effect on egg, pupal and adult survival in order to facilitate the establishment of satellite mass rearing facilities for the production of male medflies. Eggs were immersed in two different substrates and stored at different temperatures and for different time periods. Findings from this study suggest that egg storage periods, and to some extent, the storage substrates have significant effects on pupal and adult survival. For 72-h storage periods, the eggs preserved in agar solution at 10 deg. C produced the most pupae. There was an inverse relationship between the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the substrate during storage and the quality and survival of the stored/transported eggs. Apparently low levels of dissolved oxygen reduce metabolic rates, allowing the storage period to be prolonged. (author) [es

  20. submitter Data-driven RBE parameterization for helium ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mairani, A; Dokic, I; Valle, S M; Tessonnier, T; Galm, R; Ciocca, M; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Jäkel, O; Haberer, T; Pedroni, P; Böhlen, T T

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion beams are expected to be available again in the near future for clinical use. A suitable formalism to obtain relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for treatment planning (TP) studies is needed. In this work we developed a data-driven RBE parameterization based on published in vitro experimental values. The RBE parameterization has been developed within the framework of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model as a function of the helium linear energy transfer (LET), dose and the tissue specific parameter ${{(\\alpha /\\beta )}_{\\text{ph}}}$ of the LQ model for the reference radiation. Analytic expressions are provided, derived from the collected database, describing the $\\text{RB}{{\\text{E}}_{\\alpha}}={{\\alpha}_{\\text{He}}}/{{\\alpha}_{\\text{ph}}}$ and ${{\\text{R}}_{\\beta}}={{\\beta}_{\\text{He}}}/{{\\beta}_{\\text{ph}}}$ ratios as a function of LET. Calculated RBE values at 2 Gy photon dose and at 10% survival ($\\text{RB}{{\\text{E}}_{10}}$ ) are compared with the experimental ones. Pearson's correlati...

  1. Parameterized neural networks for high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Pierre; Sadowski, Peter [University of California, Department of Computer Science, Irvine, CA (United States); Cranmer, Kyle [NYU, Department of Physics, New York, NY (United States); Faucett, Taylor; Whiteson, Daniel [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate a new structure for machine learning classifiers built with neural networks and applied to problems in high-energy physics by expanding the inputs to include not only measured features but also physics parameters. The physics parameters represent a smoothly varying learning task, and the resulting parameterized classifier can smoothly interpolate between them and replace sets of classifiers trained at individual values. This simplifies the training process and gives improved performance at intermediate values, even for complex problems requiring deep learning. Applications include tools parameterized in terms of theoretical model parameters, such as the mass of a particle, which allow for a single network to provide improved discrimination across a range of masses. This concept is simple to implement and allows for optimized interpolatable results. (orig.)

  2. Reliable control using the primary and dual Youla parameterizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of modeling faults in dynamic systems are considered in connection with reliable control (RC). The fault models include models with additive faults, multiplicative faults and structural changes in the models due to faults in the systems. These descriptions are considered...... in connection with reliable control and feedback control with fault rejection. The main emphasis is on fault modeling. A number of fault diagnosis problems, reliable control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, again, mainly from a fault modeling point of view....... Reliability is introduced by means of the (primary) Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers, where an additional loop is closed around a diagnostic signal. In order to quantify the level of reliability, the dual Youla parameterization is introduced which can be used to analyze how large faults...

  3. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-01-01

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics

  4. Firefly Algorithm for Polynomial Bézier Surface Parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Gálvez

    2013-01-01

    reality, medical imaging, computer graphics, computer animation, and many others. Very often, the preferred approximating surface is polynomial, usually described in parametric form. This leads to the problem of determining suitable parametric values for the data points, the so-called surface parameterization. In real-world settings, data points are generally irregularly sampled and subjected to measurement noise, leading to a very difficult nonlinear continuous optimization problem, unsolvable with standard optimization techniques. This paper solves the parameterization problem for polynomial Bézier surfaces by applying the firefly algorithm, a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm introduced recently to address difficult optimization problems. The method has been successfully applied to some illustrative examples of open and closed surfaces, including shapes with singularities. Our results show that the method performs very well, being able to yield the best approximating surface with a high degree of accuracy.

  5. Parameterized neural networks for high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Pierre; Sadowski, Peter; Cranmer, Kyle; Faucett, Taylor; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a new structure for machine learning classifiers built with neural networks and applied to problems in high-energy physics by expanding the inputs to include not only measured features but also physics parameters. The physics parameters represent a smoothly varying learning task, and the resulting parameterized classifier can smoothly interpolate between them and replace sets of classifiers trained at individual values. This simplifies the training process and gives improved performance at intermediate values, even for complex problems requiring deep learning. Applications include tools parameterized in terms of theoretical model parameters, such as the mass of a particle, which allow for a single network to provide improved discrimination across a range of masses. This concept is simple to implement and allows for optimized interpolatable results. (orig.)

  6. Elastic FWI for VTI media: A synthetic parameterization study

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant

    2016-09-06

    A major challenge for multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is the inherent trade-offs (or cross-talk) between model parameters. Here, we perform FWI of multicomponent data generated for a synthetic VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) model based on a geologic section of the Valhall field. A horizontal displacement source, which excites intensive shear waves in the conventional offset range, helps provide more accurate updates to the SV-wave vertical velocity. We test three model parameterizations, which exhibit different radiation patterns and, therefore, create different parameter trade-offs. The results show that the choice of parameterization for FWI depends on the availability of long-offset data, the quality of the initial model for the anisotropy coefficients, and the parameter that needs to be resolved with the highest accuracy.

  7. Parameterization of phase change of water in a mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Eppel, D; Grassl, H

    1987-01-01

    A parameterization scheme of phase change of water is suggested to be used in the 3-D numerical nonhydrostatic model GESIMA. The microphysical formulation follows the so-called bulk technique. With this procedure the net production rates in the balance equations for water and potential temperature are given both for liquid and ice-phase. Convectively stable as well as convectively unstable mesoscale systems are considered. With 2 figs..

  8. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  9. Understanding and Improving Ocean Mixing Parameterizations for modeling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Clarke, J.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is vital. Earth is only habitable due to the atmosphere&oceans' distribution of energy. Our Greenhouse Gas emissions shift overall the balance between absorbed and emitted radiation causing Global Warming. How much of these emissions are stored in the ocean vs. entering the atmosphere to cause warming and how the extra heat is distributed depends on atmosphere&ocean dynamics, which we must understand to know risks of both progressive Climate Change and Climate Variability which affect us all in many ways including extreme weather, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption. Citizens must be informed to make decisions such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to avert catastrophe. Simulations of Climate Change provide needed knowledge but in turn need reliable parameterizations of key physical processes, including ocean mixing, which greatly impacts transport&storage of heat and dissolved CO2. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS seeks to use physical theory to improve parameterizations of ocean mixing, including smallscale convective, shear driven, double diffusive, internal wave and tidal driven vertical mixing, as well as mixing by submesoscale eddies, and lateral mixing along isopycnals by mesoscale eddies. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. We write our own programs in MATLAB and FORTRAN to visualize and process output of ocean simulations including producing statistics to help judge impacts of different parameterizations on fidelity in reproducing realistic temperatures&salinities, diffusivities and turbulent power. The results can help upgrade the parameterizations. Students are introduced to complex system modeling and gain deeper appreciation of climate science and programming skills, while furthering climate science. We are incorporating climate projects into the Medgar Evers college curriculum. The PI is both a member of the turbulence group at

  10. Parameterized Shower Simulation in Lelaps: a Comparison with Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langeveld, Willy G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The detector simulation toolkit Lelaps[1] simulates electromagnetic and hadronic showers in calorimetric detector elements of high-energy particle detectors using a parameterization based on the algorithms originally developed by Grindhammer and Peters[2] and Bock et al.[3]. The primary motivations of the present paper are to verify the implementation of the parameterization, to explore regions of energy where the parameterization is valid and to serve as a basis for further improvement of the algorithm. To this end, we compared the Lelaps simulation to a detailed simulation provided by Geant4[4]. A number of different calorimeters, both electromagnetic and hadronic, were implemented in both programs. Longitudinal and radial shower profiles and their fluctuations were obtained from Geant4 over a wide energy range and compared with those obtained from Lelaps. Generally the longitudinal shower profiles are found to be in good agreement in a large part of the energy range, with poorer results at energies below about 300 MeV. Radial profiles agree well in homogeneous detectors, but are somewhat deficient in segmented ones. These deficiencies are discussed

  11. Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model From Breakthrough Curve Data Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Thomas; Fakhari, Abbas; Miller, Savannah; Singha, Kamini; Bolster, Diogo

    2017-12-01

    The spatial Markov model (SMM) is an upscaled Lagrangian model that effectively captures anomalous transport across a diverse range of hydrologic systems. The distinct feature of the SMM relative to other random walk models is that successive steps are correlated. To date, with some notable exceptions, the model has primarily been applied to data from high-resolution numerical simulations and correlation effects have been measured from simulated particle trajectories. In real systems such knowledge is practically unattainable and the best one might hope for is breakthrough curves (BTCs) at successive downstream locations. We introduce a novel methodology to quantify velocity correlation from BTC data alone. By discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and developing an inverse model, we estimate velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where detailed Lagrangian velocity statistics are unavailable. The proposed methodology is applied to two synthetic numerical problems, where we measure all details and thus test the veracity of the approach by comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Our results suggest that our estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and using the SMM with this estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Our methodology naturally allows for estimates of uncertainty by calculating lower and upper bounds of velocity correlation, enabling prediction of a range of BTCs. The measured BTCs fall within the range of predicted BTCs. This novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone is quite parsimonious, thereby widening the SMM's practical applicability.

  12. Air quality modeling: evaluation of chemical and meteorological parameterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngseob

    2011-01-01

    The influence of chemical mechanisms and meteorological parameterizations on pollutant concentrations calculated with an air quality model is studied. The influence of the differences between two gas-phase chemical mechanisms on the formation of ozone and aerosols in Europe is low on average. For ozone, the large local differences are mainly due to the uncertainty associated with the kinetics of nitrogen monoxide (NO) oxidation reactions on the one hand and the representation of different pathways for the oxidation of aromatic compounds on the other hand. The aerosol concentrations are mainly influenced by the selection of all major precursors of secondary aerosols and the explicit treatment of chemical regimes corresponding to the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) levels. The influence of the meteorological parameterizations on the concentrations of aerosols and their vertical distribution is evaluated over the Paris region in France by comparison to lidar data. The influence of the parameterization of the dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer is important; however, it is the use of an urban canopy model that improves significantly the modeling of the pollutant vertical distribution (author) [fr

  13. Statistical dynamical subgrid-scale parameterizations for geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, T J; Frederiksen, J S

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of both atmospheric and oceanic circulations at given finite resolutions are strongly dependent on the form and strengths of the dynamical subgrid-scale parameterizations (SSPs) and in particular are sensitive to subgrid-scale transient eddies interacting with the retained scale topography and the mean flow. In this paper, we present numerical results for SSPs of the eddy-topographic force, stochastic backscatter, eddy viscosity and eddy-mean field interaction using an inhomogeneous statistical turbulence model based on a quasi-diagonal direct interaction approximation (QDIA). Although the theoretical description on which our model is based is for general barotropic flows, we specifically focus on global atmospheric flows where large-scale Rossby waves are present. We compare and contrast the closure-based results with an important earlier heuristic SSP of the eddy-topographic force, based on maximum entropy or statistical canonical equilibrium arguments, developed specifically for general ocean circulation models (Holloway 1992 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22 1033-46). Our results demonstrate that where strong zonal flows and Rossby waves are present, such as in the atmosphere, maximum entropy arguments are insufficient to accurately parameterize the subgrid contributions due to eddy-eddy, eddy-topographic and eddy-mean field interactions. We contrast our atmospheric results with findings for the oceans. Our study identifies subgrid-scale interactions that are currently not parameterized in numerical atmospheric climate models, which may lead to systematic defects in the simulated circulations.

  14. Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model from Breakthrough Curve Data Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, T.; Bolster, D.; Fakhari, A.; Miller, S.; Singha, K.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial Markov model (SMM) uses a correlated random walk and has been shown to effectively capture anomalous transport in porous media systems; in the SMM, particles' future trajectories are correlated to their current velocity. It is common practice to use a priori Lagrangian velocity statistics obtained from high resolution simulations to determine a distribution of transition probabilities (correlation) between velocity classes that govern predicted transport behavior; however, this approach is computationally cumbersome. Here, we introduce a methodology to quantify velocity correlation from Breakthrough (BTC) curve data alone; discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and reverse engineering the rules of the SMM allows for prediction of velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where Lagrangian velocity statistics are not available. The introduced methodology is applied to estimate velocity correlation from BTCs measured in high resolution simulations, thus allowing for a comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Results show 1) estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and 2) using the SMM with estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Additionally, we include uncertainty measurements by calculating lower and upper estimates of velocity correlation, which allow for prediction of a range of BTCs. The simulated BTCs fall in the range of predicted BTCs. This research proposes a novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone, thereby reducing the SMM's computational costs and widening its applicability.

  15. A Thermal Infrared Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Yan, Michael M.-H.; Cote, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the longwave radiation parameterization developed at the Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for a wide variety of weather and climate applications. Based on the 1996-version of the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory HITRAN data, the parameterization includes the absorption due to major gaseous absorption (water vapor, CO2, O3) and most of the minor trace gases (N2O, CH4, CFCs), as well as clouds and aerosols. The thermal infrared spectrum is divided into nine bands. To achieve a high degree of accuracy and speed, various approaches of computing the transmission function are applied to different spectral bands and gases. The gaseous transmission function is computed either using the k-distribution method or the table look-up method. To include the effect of scattering due to clouds and aerosols, the optical thickness is scaled by the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. The parameterization can accurately compute fluxes to within 1% of the high spectral-resolution line-by-line calculations. The cooling rate can be accurately computed in the region extending from the surface to the 0.01-hPa level.

  16. A parameterization method and application in breast tomosynthesis dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob [Division of Diagnostic Imaging Physics and Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To present a parameterization method based on singular value decomposition (SVD), and to provide analytical parameterization of the mean glandular dose (MGD) conversion factors from eight references for evaluating breast tomosynthesis dose in the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) protocol and in the UK, European, and IAEA dosimetry protocols.Methods: MGD conversion factor is usually listed in lookup tables for the factors such as beam quality, breast thickness, breast glandularity, and projection angle. The authors analyzed multiple sets of MGD conversion factors from the Hologic Selenia Dimensions quality control manual and seven previous papers. Each data set was parameterized using a one- to three-dimensional polynomial function of 2–16 terms. Variable substitution was used to improve accuracy. A least-squares fit was conducted using the SVD.Results: The differences between the originally tabulated MGD conversion factors and the results computed using the parameterization algorithms were (a) 0.08%–0.18% on average and 1.31% maximum for the Selenia Dimensions quality control manual, (b) 0.09%–0.66% on average and 2.97% maximum for the published data by Dance et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1211–1219 (1990); ibid. 45, 3225–3240 (2000); ibid. 54, 4361–4372 (2009); ibid. 56, 453–471 (2011)], (c) 0.74%–0.99% on average and 3.94% maximum for the published data by Sechopoulos et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 221–232 (2007); J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 9, 161–171 (2008)], and (d) 0.66%–1.33% on average and 2.72% maximum for the published data by Feng and Sechopoulos [Radiology 263, 35–42 (2012)], excluding one sample in (d) that does not follow the trends in the published data table.Conclusions: A flexible parameterization method is presented in this paper, and was applied to breast tomosynthesis dosimetry. The resultant data offer easy and accurate computations of MGD conversion factors for evaluating mean glandular breast dose in the MQSA

  17. A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in

  18. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  19. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  20. Model parameterization as method for data analysis in dendroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychkov, Ivan; Shishov, Vladimir; Popkova, Margarita

    2017-04-01

    There is no argue in usefulness of process-based models in ecological studies. Only limitations is how developed algorithm of model and how it will be applied for research. Simulation of tree-ring growth based on climate provides valuable information of tree-ring growth response on different environmental conditions, but also shares light on species-specifics of tree-ring growth process. Visual parameterization of the Vaganov-Shashkin model, allows to estimate non-linear response of tree-ring growth based on daily climate data: daily temperature, estimated day light and soil moisture. Previous using of the VS-Oscilloscope (a software tool of the visual parameterization) shows a good ability to recreate unique patterns of tree-ring growth for coniferous species in Siberian Russia, USA, China, Mediterranean Spain and Tunisia. But using of the models mostly is one-sided to better understand different tree growth processes, opposite to statistical methods of analysis (e.g. Generalized Linear Models, Mixed Models, Structural Equations.) which can be used for reconstruction and forecast. Usually the models are used either for checking of new hypothesis or quantitative assessment of physiological tree growth data to reveal a growth process mechanisms, while statistical methods used for data mining assessment and as a study tool itself. The high sensitivity of the model's VS-parameters reflects the ability of the model to simulate tree-ring growth and evaluates value of limiting growth climate factors. Precise parameterization of VS-Oscilloscope provides valuable information about growth processes of trees and under what conditions these processes occur (e.g. day of growth season onset, length of season, value of minimal/maximum temperature for tree-ring growth, formation of wide or narrow rings etc.). The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219)

  1. Systematic Parameterization of Lignin for the CHARMM Force Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaas, Joshua; Petridis, Loukas; Beckham, Gregg; Crowley, Michael

    2017-07-06

    Plant cell walls have three primary components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, the latter of which is a recalcitrant, aromatic heteropolymer that provides structure to plants, water and nutrient transport through plant tissues, and a highly effective defense against pathogens. Overcoming the recalcitrance of lignin is key to effective biomass deconstruction, which would in turn enable the use of biomass as a feedstock for industrial processes. Our understanding of lignin structure in the plant cell wall is hampered by the limitations of the available lignin forcefields, which currently only account for a single linkage between lignins and lack explicit parameterization for emerging lignin structures both from natural variants and engineered lignin structures. Since polymerization of lignin occurs via radical intermediates, multiple C-O and C-C linkages have been isolated , and the current force field only represents a small subset of lignin the diverse lignin structures found in plants. In order to take into account the wide range of lignin polymerization chemistries, monomers and dimer combinations of C-, H-, G-, and S-lignins as well as with hydroxycinnamic acid linkages were subjected to extensive quantum mechanical calculations to establish target data from which to build a complete molecular mechanics force field tuned specifically for diverse lignins. This was carried out in a GPU-accelerated global optimization process, whereby all molecules were parameterized simultaneously using the same internal parameter set. By parameterizing lignin specifically, we are able to more accurately represent the interactions and conformations of lignin monomers and dimers relative to a general force field. This new force field will enables computational researchers to study the effects of different linkages on the structure of lignin, as well as construct more accurate plant cell wall models based on observed statistical distributions of lignin that differ between

  2. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Samy A.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined

  3. Non-perturbative Aspects of QCD and Parameterized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ding-An; ZHOU Li-Juan; ZENG Ya-Guang; GU Yun-Ting; CAO Hui; MA Wei-Xing; MENG Cheng-Ju; PAN Ji-Huan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Global Color Symmetry Model, the non-perturbative QCD vacuum is investigated in theparameterized fully dressed quark propagator. Our theoretical predictions for various quantities characterized the QCD vacuum are in agreement with those predicted by many other phenomenological QCD inspired models. The successful predictions clearly indicate the extensive validity of our parameterized quark propagator used here. A detailed discussion on the arbitrariness in determining the integration cut-off parameter of# in calculating QCD vacuum condensates and a good method, which avoided the dependence of calculating results on the cut-off parameter is also strongly recommended to readers.

  4. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Samy A. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Solar and Space Department, Marsed Street, Helwan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined. (author)

  5. Parameterization of the dielectric function of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, P., E-mail: petrik@mfa.kfki.hu

    2014-11-15

    Optical methods like spectroscopic ellipsometry are sensitive to the structural properties of semiconductor films such as crystallinity or grain size. The imaginary part of the dielectric function is proportional to the joint density of electronic states. Consequently, the analysis of the dielectric function around the critical point energies provides useful information about the electron band structure and all related parameters like the grain structure, band gap, temperature, composition, phase structure, and carrier mobility. In this work an attempt is made to present a selection of the approaches to parameterize and analyze the dielectric function of semiconductors, as well as some applications.

  6. IR Optics Measurement with Linear Coupling's Action-Angle Parameterization

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Satogata, Todd; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The interaction region (IP) optics are measured with the two DX/BPMs close to the IPs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beta functions at IP are measured with the two eigenmodes' phase advances between the two BPMs. And the beta waists are also determined through the beta functions at the two BPMs. The coupling parameters at the IPs are also given through the linear coupling's action-angle parameterization. All the experimental data are taken during the driving oscillations with the AC dipole. The methods to do these measurements are discussed. And the measurement results during the beta*

  7. Parameterization of interatomic potential by genetic algorithms: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Partha S., E-mail: psghosh@barc.gov.in; Arya, A.; Dey, G. K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Ranawat, Y. S. [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A framework for Genetic Algorithm based methodology is developed to systematically obtain and optimize parameters for interatomic force field functions for MD simulations by fitting to a reference data base. This methodology is applied to the fitting of ThO{sub 2} (CaF{sub 2} prototype) – a representative of ceramic based potential fuel for nuclear applications. The resulting GA optimized parameterization of ThO{sub 2} is able to capture basic structural, mechanical, thermo-physical properties and also describes defect structures within the permissible range.

  8. The causal structure of spacetime is a parameterized Randers geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skakala, Jozef; Visser, Matt, E-mail: jozef.skakala@msor.vuw.ac.nz, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2011-03-21

    There is a well-established isomorphism between stationary four-dimensional spacetimes and three-dimensional purely spatial Randers geometries-these Randers geometries being a particular case of the more general class of three-dimensional Finsler geometries. We point out that in stably causal spacetimes, by using the (time-dependent) ADM decomposition, this result can be extended to general non-stationary spacetimes-the causal structure (conformal structure) of the full spacetime is completely encoded in a parameterized (t-dependent) class of Randers spaces, which can then be used to define a Fermat principle, and also to reconstruct the null cones and causal structure.

  9. The causal structure of spacetime is a parameterized Randers geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakala, Jozef; Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established isomorphism between stationary four-dimensional spacetimes and three-dimensional purely spatial Randers geometries-these Randers geometries being a particular case of the more general class of three-dimensional Finsler geometries. We point out that in stably causal spacetimes, by using the (time-dependent) ADM decomposition, this result can be extended to general non-stationary spacetimes-the causal structure (conformal structure) of the full spacetime is completely encoded in a parameterized (t-dependent) class of Randers spaces, which can then be used to define a Fermat principle, and also to reconstruct the null cones and causal structure.

  10. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  11. Effects of microphysics parameterization on simulations of summer heavy precipitation in the Yangtze-Huaihe Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yu; Chen, Bo; Shen, Tao; Liu, Chaoshun; Qiao, Fengxue

    2017-09-01

    It has been a longstanding problem for current weather/climate models to accurately predict summer heavy precipitation over the Yangtze-Huaihe Region (YHR) which is the key flood-prone area in China with intensive population and developed economy. Large uncertainty has been identified with model deficiencies in representing precipitation processes such as microphysics and cumulus parameterizations. This study focuses on examining the effects of microphysics parameterization on the simulation of different type of heavy precipitation over the YHR taking into account two different cumulus schemes. All regional persistent heavy precipitation events over the YHR during 2008-2012 are classified into three types according to their weather patterns: the type I associated with stationary front, the type II directly associated with typhoon or with its spiral rain band, and the type III associated with strong convection along the edge of the Subtropical High. Sixteen groups of experiments are conducted for three selected cases with different types and a local short-time rainstorm in Shanghai, using the WRF model with eight microphysics and two cumulus schemes. Results show that microphysics parameterization has large but different impacts on the location and intensity of regional heavy precipitation centers. The Ferrier (microphysics) -BMJ (cumulus) scheme and Thompson (microphysics) - KF (cumulus) scheme most realistically simulates the rain-bands with the center location and intensity for type I and II respectively. For type III, the Lin microphysics scheme shows advantages in regional persistent cases over YHR, while the WSM5 microphysics scheme is better in local short-term case, both with the BMJ cumulus scheme.

  12. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  13. Removal of heavy metals from fly ash leachate using combined bioelectrochemical systems and electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Hu-Chun; Lei, Tao; Shi, Gang; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Wei, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metals removal from MSWI fly ash with BES and electrolysis was confirmed. • 98.5% of Cu(II), 95.4% of Zn(II) and 98.1% of Pb(II) removal were achieved in reactors. • BESs can remove some heavy metals in fly ash with energy saving. -- Abstract: Based on environmental and energetic analysis, a novel combined approach using bioelectrochemical systems (BES) followed by electrolysis reactors (ER) was tested for heavy metals removal from fly ash leachate, which contained high detectable levels of Zn, Pb and Cu according to X-ray diffraction analysis. Acetic acid was used as the fly ash leaching agent and tested under various leaching conditions. A favorable condition for the leaching process was identified to be liquid/solid ratio of 14:1 (w/w) and leaching duration 10 h at initial pH 1.0. It was confirmed that the removal of heavy metals from fly ash leachate with the combination of BESs and ER is feasible. The metal removal efficiency was achieved at 98.5%, 95.4% and 98.1% for Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicated that Cu(II) was reduced and recovered mainly as metal Cu on cathodes related to power production, while Zn(II) and Pb(II) were not spontaneously reduced in BESs without applied voltage and basically electrolyzed in the electrolysis reactors

  14. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  15. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  16. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  17. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  18. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  19. A Solar Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies. Volume 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The solar radiation parameterization (CLIRAD-SW) developed at the Goddard Climate and Radiation Branch for application to atmospheric models are described. It includes the absorption by water vapor, O3, O2, CO2, clouds, and aerosols and the scattering by clouds, aerosols, and gases. Depending upon the nature of absorption, different approaches are applied to different absorbers. In the ultraviolet and visible regions, the spectrum is divided into 8 bands, and single O3 absorption coefficient and Rayleigh scattering coefficient are used for each band. In the infrared, the spectrum is divided into 3 bands, and the k-distribution method is applied for water vapor absorption. The flux reduction due to O2 is derived from a simple function, while the flux reduction due to CO2 is derived from precomputed tables. Cloud single-scattering properties are parameterized, separately for liquid drops and ice, as functions of water amount and effective particle size. A maximum-random approximation is adopted for the overlapping of clouds at different heights. Fluxes are computed using the Delta-Eddington approximation.

  20. The parameterization of microchannel-plate-based detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Gliese, Ulrik; Dorelli, John C.; Avanov, Levon A.; Barrie, Alexander C.; Chornay, Dennis J.; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Matthew P.; Giles, Barbara L.; Pollock, Craig J.

    2016-10-01

    The most common instrument for low-energy plasmas consists of a top-hat electrostatic analyzer (ESA) geometry coupled with a microchannel-plate-based (MCP-based) detection system. While the electrostatic optics for such sensors are readily simulated and parameterized during the laboratory calibration process, the detection system is often less well characterized. Here we develop a comprehensive mathematical description of particle detection systems. As a function of instrument azimuthal angle, we parameterize (1) particle scattering within the ESA and at the surface of the MCP, (2) the probability distribution of MCP gain for an incident particle, (3) electron charge cloud spreading between the MCP and anode board, and (4) capacitive coupling between adjacent discrete anodes. Using the Dual Electron Spectrometers on the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission as an example, we demonstrate a method for extracting these fundamental detection system parameters from laboratory calibration. We further show that parameters that will evolve in flight, namely, MCP gain, can be determined through application of this model to specifically tailored in-flight calibration activities. This methodology provides a robust characterization of sensor suite performance throughout mission lifetime. The model developed in this work is not only applicable to existing sensors but also can be used as an analytical design tool for future particle instrumentation.

  1. Further study on parameterization of reactor NAA: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Zhang Shuxin

    1989-01-01

    In the last paper, Ik 0 method was proposed for fission interference corrections. Another important kind of interferences in reator NAA is due to threshold reaction induced by reactor fast neutrons. In view of the increasing importance of this kind of interferences, and difficulties encountered in using the relative comparison method, a parameterized method has been introduced. Typical channels in heavy water reflector and No.2 horizontal channel of Heavy Water Research Reactor in the Insitute of Atomic Energy have been shown to have fast neutron energy distributions (E>4 MeV) close to primary fission neutron spectrum, by using multi-threshold detectors. On this basis, Ti foil is used as an 'instant fast neutron flux monitor' in parameterized corrections for threshold reaction interferences in the long irradiations. Constant values of φ f /φ s = 0.70 ± 0.02% have been obtained for No.2 rabbit channel. This value can be directly used for threshold reaction inference correction in the short irradiations

  2. Improving microphysics in a convective parameterization: possibilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbouz, Laurent; Heikenfeld, Max; Stier, Philip; Morrison, Hugh; Milbrandt, Jason; Protat, Alain; Kipling, Zak

    2017-04-01

    The convective cloud field model (CCFM) is a convective parameterization implemented in the climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2. It represents a population of clouds within each ECHAM-HAM model column, simulating up to 10 different convective cloud types with individual radius, vertical velocities and microphysical properties. Comparisons between CCFM and radar data at Darwin, Australia, show that in order to reproduce both the convective cloud top height distribution and the vertical velocity profile, the effect of aerodynamic drag on the rising parcel has to be considered, along with a reduced entrainment parameter. A new double-moment microphysics (the Predicted Particle Properties scheme, P3) has been implemented in the latest version of CCFM and is compared to the standard single-moment microphysics and the radar retrievals at Darwin. The microphysical process rates (autoconversion, accretion, deposition, freezing, …) and their response to changes in CDNC are investigated and compared to high resolution CRM WRF simulations over the Amazon region. The results shed light on the possibilities and limitations of microphysics improvements in the framework of CCFM and in convective parameterizations in general.

  3. Parameterization of ionization rate by auroral electron precipitation in Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hiraki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulate auroral electron precipitation into the Jovian atmosphere in which electron multi-directional scattering and energy degradation processes are treated exactly with a Monte Carlo technique. We make a parameterization of the calculated ionization rate of the neutral gas by electron impact in a similar way as used for the Earth's aurora. Our method allows the altitude distribution of the ionization rate to be obtained as a function of an arbitrary initial energy spectrum in the range of 1–200 keV. It also includes incident angle dependence and an arbitrary density distribution of molecular hydrogen. We show that there is little dependence of the estimated ionospheric conductance on atomic species such as H and He. We compare our results with those of recent studies with different electron transport schemes by adapting our parameterization to their atmospheric conditions. We discuss the intrinsic problem of their simplified assumption. The ionospheric conductance, which is important for Jupiter's magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system, is estimated to vary by a factor depending on the electron energy spectrum based on recent observation and modeling. We discuss this difference through the relation with field-aligned current and electron spectrum.

  4. Parameterization of ionization rate by auroral electron precipitation in Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hiraki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulate auroral electron precipitation into the Jovian atmosphere in which electron multi-directional scattering and energy degradation processes are treated exactly with a Monte Carlo technique. We make a parameterization of the calculated ionization rate of the neutral gas by electron impact in a similar way as used for the Earth's aurora. Our method allows the altitude distribution of the ionization rate to be obtained as a function of an arbitrary initial energy spectrum in the range of 1–200 keV. It also includes incident angle dependence and an arbitrary density distribution of molecular hydrogen. We show that there is little dependence of the estimated ionospheric conductance on atomic species such as H and He. We compare our results with those of recent studies with different electron transport schemes by adapting our parameterization to their atmospheric conditions. We discuss the intrinsic problem of their simplified assumption. The ionospheric conductance, which is important for Jupiter's magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system, is estimated to vary by a factor depending on the electron energy spectrum based on recent observation and modeling. We discuss this difference through the relation with field-aligned current and electron spectrum.

  5. Rapid parameterization of small molecules using the Force Field Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Christopher G; Saam, Jan; Schulten, Klaus; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Gumbart, James C

    2013-12-15

    The inability to rapidly generate accurate and robust parameters for novel chemical matter continues to severely limit the application of molecular dynamics simulations to many biological systems of interest, especially in fields such as drug discovery. Although the release of generalized versions of common classical force fields, for example, General Amber Force Field and CHARMM General Force Field, have posited guidelines for parameterization of small molecules, many technical challenges remain that have hampered their wide-scale extension. The Force Field Toolkit (ffTK), described herein, minimizes common barriers to ligand parameterization through algorithm and method development, automation of tedious and error-prone tasks, and graphical user interface design. Distributed as a VMD plugin, ffTK facilitates the traversal of a clear and organized workflow resulting in a complete set of CHARMM-compatible parameters. A variety of tools are provided to generate quantum mechanical target data, setup multidimensional optimization routines, and analyze parameter performance. Parameters developed for a small test set of molecules using ffTK were comparable to existing CGenFF parameters in their ability to reproduce experimentally measured values for pure-solvent properties (<15% error from experiment) and free energy of solvation (±0.5 kcal/mol from experiment). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  7. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  8. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  9. Capturing the Interplay of Dynamics and Networks through Parameterizations of Laplacian Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    we describe an umbrella framework that unifies some of the well known measures, connecting the ideas of centrality , communities and dynamical processes...change of basis. Parameterized centrality also leads to the definition of parameterized volume for subsets of vertices. Parameterized conductance...behind this definition is to establish a direct connection between centrality and community measures, as we will later demonstrate with the notion of

  10. A Coordinated Effort to Improve Parameterization of High-Latitude Cloud and Radiation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. O. Pinto; A.H. Lynch

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development and evaluation of improved parameterization of arctic cloud and radiation processes and implementation of the parameterizations into a climate model. Our research focuses specifically on the following issues: (1) continued development and evaluation of cloud microphysical parameterizations, focusing on issues of particular relevance for mixed phase clouds; and (2) evaluation of the mesoscale simulation of arctic cloud system life cycles

  11. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  12. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  13. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERIZATION VALUE REDUCTION OF SOFT SETS AND ITS ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Adam Taheir Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the parameterization value reduction of soft sets and its algorithm in decision making are studied and described. It is based on parameterization reduction of soft sets. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inherited disadvantages of parameterization reduction of soft sets and its algorithm. The algorithms presented in this study attempt to reduce the value of least parameters from soft set. Through the analysis, two techniques have been described. Through this study, it is found that parameterization reduction of soft sets and its algorithm has yielded a different and inconsistency in suboptimal result.

  14. Study of radon exhalation and emanation rates from fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Jain, Ravinder; Kant, Krishan; Gupta, Nitin; Garg, Maneesha; Yadav, Mani Kant

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash, a by-product of burnt coal is technologically important material being used for manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. The increased interest in measuring radon exhalation and emanation rates in fly ash samples is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution and the same have been measured to assess the radiological impact of radon emanated from fly ash disposal sites. Samples of fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) were collected and analysed for the measurements. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Gamma spectrometry and can technique was used for the measurements. The experimental data show that fly ash samples emanate radon in significant amount and this consequently, may result in increased radon levels in dwellings built by using fly ash bricks and excessive radiation exposure to workers residing in the surroundings of fly ash dumping sites. (author)

  15. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  16. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  17. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-15

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for 〈u v w〉 axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at (http://www.sandia.gov/pcnsc/departments/iba/ibatable.html).

  18. A simple parameterization of aerosol emissions in RAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    Throughout the past decade, a high degree of attention has been focused on determining the microphysical impact of anthropogenically enhanced concentrations of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) on orographic snowfall in the mountains of the western United States. This area has garnered a lot of attention due to the implications this effect may have on local water resource distribution within the Region. Recent advances in computing power and the development of highly advanced microphysical schemes within numerical models have provided an estimation of the sensitivity that orographic snowfall has to changes in atmospheric CCN concentrations. However, what is still lacking is a coupling between these advanced microphysical schemes and a real-world representation of CCN sources. Previously, an attempt to representation the heterogeneous evolution of aerosol was made by coupling three-dimensional aerosol output from the WRF Chemistry model to the Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) (Ward et al. 2011). The biggest problem associated with this scheme was the computational expense. In fact, the computational expense associated with this scheme was so high, that it was prohibitive for simulations with fine enough resolution to accurately represent microphysical processes. To improve upon this method, a new parameterization for aerosol emission was developed in such a way that it was fully contained within RAMS. Several assumptions went into generating a computationally efficient aerosol emissions parameterization in RAMS. The most notable assumption was the decision to neglect the chemical processes in formed in the formation of Secondary Aerosol (SA), and instead treat SA as primary aerosol via short-term WRF-CHEM simulations. While, SA makes up a substantial portion of the total aerosol burden (much of which is made up of organic material), the representation of this process is highly complex and highly expensive within a numerical

  19. A stratiform cloud parameterization for General Circulation Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.

    1994-01-01

    The crude treatment of clouds in General Circulation Models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in the application of these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop a paxameterization for stratiform clouds in GCMs that expresses stratiform clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. In this parameterization, precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species

  20. A stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.

    1994-01-01

    The crude treatment of clouds in general circulation models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in applying these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop in GCMs a stratiform cloud parameterization that expresses clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. Various clouds variables and their interactions are summarized. Precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species

  1. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone simulations to microphysics parameterizations in WRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshmi Mohan, P.; Srinivas, C.V.; Bhaskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Yesubabu, V.

    2018-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC) cause storm surge along coastal areas where these storms cross the coast. As major nuclear facilities are usually installed in coastal region, the surge predictions are highly important for DAE. The critical TC parameters needed in estimating storm surge are intensity (winds, central pressure and radius of maximum winds) and storm tracks. The predictions with numerical models are generally made by representing the clouds and precipitation processes using convective and microphysics parameterization. At high spatial resolutions (1-3Km) microphysics can act as cloud resolving NWP model to explicitly resolve the convective precipitation without using convection schemes. Recent simulation studies using WRF on severe weather phenomena such as thunderstorms and hurricanes indicated large sensitivity of predicted rainfall and hurricane tracks to microphysics due to variation in temperature and pressure gradients which generate winds that determine the storm track. In the present study the sensitivity of tropical cyclone tracks and intensity to different microphysics schemes has been conducted

  2. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CIIANAIT DUMINIIG MA𔃼I1 FXCURSIOH /~o --- ~A 0- /10 CMFIGURE 4 AL-PHA-JETr ELEVATOR CONTROL CINEMATIC ; LP HEINi" KINEMATIC HORIZONTAL STABILIZER...ih-flight simulation is the ultimale assessment techntque providing high realism , flexibility, and credibility. rhe utilization (,f an in-fli:,ht si...1london, UK ()PERATIONAL H-ELICOPTER IIN - FLIGHT SIMULATOR (HIGH REALISM ) I(HIGH FLEAiBILITY Fligt t A tehrtqueTechnology implementation Flight t

  3. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    al estudio de los Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psichodidae). Phlebotomus del grupo anthophorus en Guatemala. Rev. Colegio Mdd. Guatemala 22:187-193...studied in detail. A review of the North American Phiebotominae is in progress. Unclassie SECRIT CLASSFICTIO O TH PGE~ en om nteed 4[ AD_____ STUDIES OF...Diptera, Psychodidae) in Belize, Central America. Bull . Ent. Res. 65:595-599. Young, D.G. 1979. A review of the bloodsucking psychodid flies of Colombia

  4. Examining Chaotic Convection with Super-Parameterization Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd R.

    This study investigates a variety of features present in a new configuration of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) variant, SP-CAM 2.0. The new configuration (multiple-parameterization-CAM, MP-CAM) changes the manner in which the super-parameterization (SP) concept represents physical tendency feedbacks to the large-scale by using the mean of 10 independent two-dimensional cloud-permitting model (CPM) curtains in each global model column instead of the conventional single CPM curtain. The climates of the SP and MP configurations are examined to investigate any significant differences caused by the application of convective physical tendencies that are more deterministic in nature, paying particular attention to extreme precipitation events and large-scale weather systems, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A number of small but significant changes in the mean state climate are uncovered, and it is found that the new formulation degrades MJO performance. Despite these deficiencies, the ensemble of possible realizations of convective states in the MP configuration allows for analysis of uncertainty in the small-scale solution, lending to examination of those weather regimes and physical mechanisms associated with strong, chaotic convection. Methods of quantifying precipitation predictability are explored, and use of the most reliable of these leads to the conclusion that poor precipitation predictability is most directly related to the proximity of the global climate model column state to atmospheric critical points. Secondarily, the predictability is tied to the availability of potential convective energy, the presence of mesoscale convective organization on the CPM grid, and the directive power of the large-scale.

  5. Systematic Parameterization, Storage, and Representation of Volumetric DICOM Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Felix; Selver, M Alper; Gezer, Sinem; Dicle, Oğuz; Hillen, Walter

    Tomographic medical imaging systems produce hundreds to thousands of slices, enabling three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Radiologists process these images through various tools and techniques in order to generate 3D renderings for various applications, such as surgical planning, medical education, and volumetric measurements. To save and store these visualizations, current systems use snapshots or video exporting, which prevents further optimizations and requires the storage of significant additional data. The Grayscale Softcopy Presentation State extension of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard resolves this issue for two-dimensional (2D) data by introducing an extensive set of parameters, namely 2D Presentation States (2DPR), that describe how an image should be displayed. 2DPR allows storing these parameters instead of storing parameter applied images, which cause unnecessary duplication of the image data. Since there is currently no corresponding extension for 3D data, in this study, a DICOM-compliant object called 3D presentation states (3DPR) is proposed for the parameterization and storage of 3D medical volumes. To accomplish this, the 3D medical visualization process is divided into four tasks, namely pre-processing, segmentation, post-processing, and rendering. The important parameters of each task are determined. Special focus is given to the compression of segmented data, parameterization of the rendering process, and DICOM-compliant implementation of the 3DPR object. The use of 3DPR was tested in a radiology department on three clinical cases, which require multiple segmentations and visualizations during the workflow of radiologists. The results show that 3DPR can effectively simplify the workload of physicians by directly regenerating 3D renderings without repeating intermediate tasks, increase efficiency by preserving all user interactions, and provide efficient storage as well as transfer of visualized data.

  6. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  7. Assessing the performance of wave breaking parameterizations in shallow waters in spectral wave models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shangfei; Sheng, Jinyu

    2017-12-01

    Depth-induced wave breaking is the primary dissipation mechanism for ocean surface waves in shallow waters. Different parametrizations were developed for parameterizing depth-induced wave breaking process in ocean surface wave models. The performance of six commonly-used parameterizations in simulating significant wave heights (SWHs) is assessed in this study. The main differences between these six parameterizations are representations of the breaker index and the fraction of breaking waves. Laboratory and field observations consisting of 882 cases from 14 sources of published observational data are used in the assessment. We demonstrate that the six parameterizations have reasonable performance in parameterizing depth-induced wave breaking in shallow waters, but with their own limitations and drawbacks. The widely-used parameterization suggested by Battjes and Janssen (1978, BJ78) has a drawback of underpredicting the SWHs in the locally-generated wave conditions and overpredicting in the remotely-generated wave conditions over flat bottoms. The drawback of BJ78 was addressed by a parameterization suggested by Salmon et al. (2015, SA15). But SA15 had relatively larger errors in SWHs over sloping bottoms than BJ78. We follow SA15 and propose a new parameterization with a dependence of the breaker index on the normalized water depth in deep waters similar to SA15. In shallow waters, the breaker index of the new parameterization has a nonlinear dependence on the local bottom slope rather than the linear dependence used in SA15. Overall, this new parameterization has the best performance with an average scatter index of ∼8.2% in comparison with the three best performing existing parameterizations with the average scatter index between 9.2% and 13.6%.

  8. Elastic full-waveform inversion and parameterization analysis applied to walk-away vertical seismic profile data for unconventional (heavy oil) reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenyong; Innanen, Kristopher A.; Geng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Seismic full-waveform inversion (FWI) methods hold strong potential to recover multiple subsurface elastic properties for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Simultaneously updating multiple physical parameters introduces the problem of interparameter tradeoff, arising from the covariance between different physical parameters, which increases nonlinearity and uncertainty of multiparameter FWI. The coupling effects of different physical parameters are significantly influenced by model parameterization and acquisition arrangement. An appropriate choice of model parameterization is critical to successful field data applications of multiparameter FWI. The objective of this paper is to examine the performance of various model parameterizations in isotropic-elastic FWI with walk-away vertical seismic profile (W-VSP) dataset for unconventional heavy oil reservoir characterization. Six model parameterizations are considered: velocity-density (α, β and ρ΄), modulus-density (κ, μ and ρ), Lamé-density (λ, μ΄ and ρ‴), impedance-density (IP, IS and ρ″), velocity-impedance-I (α΄, β΄ and I_P^'), and velocity-impedance-II (α″, β″ and I_S^'). We begin analyzing the interparameter tradeoff by making use of scattering radiation patterns, which is a common strategy for qualitative parameter resolution analysis. In this paper, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the scattering radiation patterns and recommend that interparameter tradeoffs be evaluated using interparameter contamination kernels, which provide quantitative, second-order measurements of the interparameter contaminations and can be constructed efficiently with an adjoint-state approach. Synthetic W-VSP isotropic-elastic FWI experiments in the time domain verify our conclusions about interparameter tradeoffs for various model parameterizations. Density profiles are most strongly influenced by the interparameter contaminations; depending on model parameterization, the inverted density

  9. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  10. The CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT): Where Climate Simulation Meets Weather Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; Potter, G L; Williamson, D L; Cederwall, R T; Boyle, J S; Fiorino, M; Hnilo, J J; Olson, J G; Xie, S; Yio, J J

    2003-11-21

    To significantly improve the simulation of climate by general circulation models (GCMs), systematic errors in representations of relevant processes must first be identified, and then reduced. This endeavor demands, in particular, that the GCM parameterizations of unresolved processes should be tested over a wide range of time scales, not just in climate simulations. Thus, a numerical weather prediction (NWP) methodology for evaluating model parameterizations and gaining insights into their behavior may prove useful, provied that suitable adaptations are made for implementation in climate GCMs. This method entails the generation of short-range weather forecasts by realistically initialized climate GCM, and the application of six-hourly NWP analyses and observations of parameterized variables to evaluate these forecasts. The behavior of the parameterizations in such a weather-forecasting framework can provide insights on how these schemes might be improved, and modified parameterizations then can be similarly tested. In order to further this method for evaluating and analyzing parameterizations in climate GCMs, the USDOE is funding a joint venture of its Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT). This article elaborates the scientific rationale for CAPT, discusses technical aspects of its methodology, and presents examples of its implementation in a representative climate GCM. Numerical weather prediction methods show promise for improving parameterizations in climate GCMs.

  11. A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.

  12. Distance parameterization for efficient seismic history matching with the ensemble Kalman Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.; Arts, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), in combination with travel-time parameterization, provides a robust and flexible method for quantitative multi-model history matching to time-lapse seismic data. A disadvantage of the parameterization in terms of travel-times is that it requires simulation of

  13. Tests of Parameterized Langmuir Circulation Mixing in the Oceans Surface Mixed Layer II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-11

    inertial oscillations in the ocean are governed by three-dimensional processes that are not accounted for in a one-dimensional simulation , and it was...Unlimited 52 Paul Martin (228) 688-5447 Recent large-eddy simulations (LES) of Langmuir circulation (LC) within the surface mixed layer (SML) of...used in the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and tested for (a) a simple wind-mixing case, (b) simulations of the upper ocean thermal structure at Ocean

  14. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  15. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  16. A test harness for accelerating physics parameterization advancements into operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firl, G. J.; Bernardet, L.; Harrold, M.; Henderson, J.; Wolff, J.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    The process of transitioning advances in parameterization of sub-grid scale processes from initial idea to implementation is often much quicker than the transition from implementation to use in an operational setting. After all, considerable work must be undertaken by operational centers to fully test, evaluate, and implement new physics. The process is complicated by the scarcity of like-to-like comparisons, availability of HPC resources, and the ``tuning problem" whereby advances in physics schemes are difficult to properly evaluate without first undertaking the expensive and time-consuming process of tuning to other schemes within a suite. To address this process shortcoming, the Global Model TestBed (GMTB), supported by the NWS NGGPS project and undertaken by the Developmental Testbed Center, has developed a physics test harness. It implements the concept of hierarchical testing, where the same code can be tested in model configurations of varying complexity from single column models (SCM) to fully coupled, cycled global simulations. Developers and users may choose at which level of complexity to engage. Several components of the physics test harness have been implemented, including a SCM and an end-to-end workflow that expands upon the one used at NOAA/EMC to run the GFS operationally, although the testbed components will necessarily morph to coincide with changes to the operational configuration (FV3-GFS). A standard, relatively user-friendly interface known as the Interoperable Physics Driver (IPD) is available for physics developers to connect their codes. This prerequisite exercise allows access to the testbed tools and removes a technical hurdle for potential inclusion into the Common Community Physics Package (CCPP). The testbed offers users the opportunity to conduct like-to-like comparisons between the operational physics suite and new development as well as among multiple developments. GMTB staff have demonstrated use of the testbed through a

  17. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  18. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  19. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  20. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  1. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  2. Experimental continuously reinforced concrete pavement parameterization using nondestructive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Salles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Four continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP sections were built at the University of São Paulo campus in order to analyze the pavement performance in a tropical environment. The sections short length coupled with particular project aspects made the experimental CRCP cracking be different from the traditional CRCP one. After three years of construction, a series of nondestructive testing were performed - Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD loadings - to verify and to parameterize the pavement structural condition based on two main properties: the elasticity modulus of concrete (E and the modulus of subgrade reaction (k. These properties estimation was obtained through the matching process between real and EverFE simulated basins with the load at the slab center, between two consecutive cracks. The backcalculation results show that the lack of anchorage at the sections end decreases the E and k values and that the longitudinal reinforcement percentage provides additional stiffness to the pavement. Additionally, FWD loadings tangential to the cracks allowed the load transfer efficiency (LTE estimation determination across cracks. The LTE resulted in values above 90 % for all cracks.

  3. Parameterization-based tracking for the P2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2017-08-01

    The P2 experiment in Mainz aims to determine the weak mixing angle θW at low momentum transfer by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry of elastic electronproton scattering. In order to achieve the intended precision of Δ(sin2 θW)/sin2θW = 0:13% within the planned 10 000 hours of running the experiment has to operate at the rate of 1011 detected electrons per second. Although it is not required to measure the kinematic parameters of each individual electron, every attempt is made to achieve the highest possible throughput in the track reconstruction chain. In the present work a parameterization-based track reconstruction method is described. It is a variation of track following, where the results of the computation-heavy steps, namely the propagation of a track to the further detector plane, and the fitting, are pre-calculated, and expressed in terms of parametric analytic functions. This makes the algorithm extremely fast, and well-suited for an implementation on an FPGA. The method also takes implicitly into account the actual phase space distribution of the tracks already at the stage of candidate construction. Compared to a simple algorithm, that does not use such information, this allows reducing the combinatorial background by many orders of magnitude, down to O(1) background candidate per one signal track. The method is developed specifically for the P2 experiment in Mainz, and the presented implementation is tightly coupled to the experimental conditions.

  4. Parameterization-based tracking for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii [Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the new MESA accelerator in Mainz aims to determine the weak mixing angle by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. To achieve an unprecedented precision an order of 10{sup 11} scattered electrons per second have to be acquired. %within the acceptance. Whereas the tracking system is not required to operate at such high rates, every attempt is made to achieve as high rate capability as possible. The P2 tracking system will consist of four planes of high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS). With the present preliminary design one expects about 150 signal electron tracks and 20000 background hits (from bremsstrahlung photons) per plane in every 50 ns readout frame at the full rate. In order to cope with this extreme combinatorial background in on-line mode, a parameterization-based tracking is considered as a possible solution. The idea is to transform the hit positions into a set of weakly correlated quantities, and to find simple (e.g. polynomial) functions of these quantities, that would give the required characteristics of the track (e.g. momentum). The parameters of the functions are determined from a sample of high-quality tracks, taken either from a simulation, or reconstructed in a conventional way from a sample of low-rate data.

  5. Factors influencing the parameterization of anvil clouds within GCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Chin, Hung-Neng.

    1993-03-01

    The overall goal of this project is to improve the representation of clouds and their effects within global climate models (GCMs). The authors have concentrated on a small portion of the overall goal, the evolution of convectively generated cirrus clouds and their effects on the large-scale environment. Because of the large range of time and length scales involved they have been using a multi-scale attack. For the early time generation and development of the cirrus anvil they are using a cloud-scale model with horizontal resolution of 1--2 kilometers; while for the larger scale transport by the larger scale flow they are using a mesoscale model with a horizontal resolution of 20--60 kilometers. The eventual goal is to use the information obtained from these simulations together with available observations to derive improved cloud parameterizations for use in GCMs. This paper presents results from their cloud-scale studies and describes a new tool, a cirrus generator, that they have developed to aid in their mesoscale studies

  6. Influence of Ice Nuclei Parameterization Schemes on the Hail Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ice nuclei are very important factors as they significantly affect the development and evolvement of convective clouds such as hail clouds. In this study, numerical simulations of hail processes in the Zhejiang Province were conducted using a mesoscale numerical model (WRF v3.4. The effects of six ice nuclei parameterization schemes on the macroscopic and microscopic structures of hail clouds were compared. The effect of the ice nuclei concentration on ground hailfall is stronger than that on ground rainfall. There were significant spatiotemporal, intensity, and distribution differences in hailfall. Changes in the ice nuclei concentration caused different changes in hydrometeors and directly affected the ice crystals, and, hence, the spatiotemporal distribution of other hydrometeors and the thermodynamic structure of clouds. An increased ice nuclei concentration raises the initial concentration of ice crystals with higher mixing ratio. In the developing and early maturation stages of hail cloud, a larger number of ice crystals competed for water vapor with increasing ice nuclei concentration. This effect prevents ice crystals from maturing into snow particles and inhibits the formation and growth of hail embryos. During later maturation stages, updraft in the cloud intensified and more supercooled water was transported above the 0°C level, benefitting the production and growth of hail particles. An increased ice nuclei concentration therefore favors the formation of hail.

  7. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM. The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research. First, by using the original WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, the land surface parameters and two van Genuchten parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil moistures at upper layers (5, 10 and 20 cm depths at the DY station in July. Second, by using the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme, two frozen soil parameters were calibrated using the observed soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the DY station from 21 November 2007 to 20 April 2008; while the other soil hydraulic parameters were optimized by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak in 2008. With these calibrated parameters, the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong validation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the cold regions catchment and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  8. Test Driven Development of a Parameterized Ice Sheet Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.

    2011-12-01

    Test driven development (TDD) is a software development methodology that offers many advantages over traditional approaches including reduced development and maintenance costs, improved reliability, and superior design quality. Although TDD is widely accepted in many software communities, the suitability to scientific software is largely undemonstrated and warrants a degree of skepticism. Indeed, numerical algorithms pose several challenges to unit testing in general, and TDD in particular. Among these challenges are the need to have simple, non-redundant closed-form expressions to compare against the results obtained from the implementation as well as realistic error estimates. The necessity for serial and parallel performance raises additional concerns for many scientific applicaitons. In previous work I demonstrated that TDD performed well for the development of a relatively simple numerical model that simulates the growth of snowflakes, but the results were anecdotal and of limited relevance to far more complex software components typical of climate models. This investigation has now been extended by successfully applying TDD to the implementation of a substantial portion of a new parameterized ice sheet component within a full climate model. After a brief introduction to TDD, I will present techniques that address some of the obstacles encountered with numerical algorithms. I will conclude with some quantitative and qualitative comparisons against climate components developed in a more traditional manner.

  9. Boundary layer parameterizations and long-range transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    A joint work group between the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and the EPA is perusing the construction of an air quality model that incorporates boundary layer parameterizations of dispersion and transport. This model could replace the currently accepted model, the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model. The ISC model is a Gaussian-plume multiple point-source model that provides for consideration of fugitive emissions, aerodynamic wake effects, gravitational settling and dry deposition. A work group of several Federal and State agencies is perusing the construction of an air quality modeling system for use in assessing and tracking visibility impairment resulting from long-range transport of pollutants. The modeling system is designed to use the hourly vertical profiles of wind, temperature and moisture resulting from a mesoscale meteorological processor that employs four dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). FDDA involves adding forcing functions to the governing model equations to gradually ''nudge'' the model state toward the observations (12-hourly upper air observations of wind, temperature and moisture, and 3-hourly surface observations of wind and moisture). In this way it is possible to generate data sets whose accuracy, in terms of transport, precipitation, and dynamic consistency is superior to both direct interpolation of synoptic-scale analyses of observations and purely predictive mode model result. (AB) ( 19 refs.)

  10. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  11. Removal of metallic ions from aqueous solutions by fluidized bed fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, S.; Delebarre, A.; Hequet, V. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Blondin, J. [Cerchar 62 - Mazingarbe (France)

    2001-07-01

    One of the main constraints deriving from the generation of power by coal combustion is to find some use for the fly ashes instead of disposing of them. Fly ashes from two fluidized bed power plants were tested to remove Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr (III), Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. Experimental design methodology was used to study the removal and the leaching as a function of (i) the water pollutant content, (ii) the metal concentration in water, (iii) the pH of the solution and (iv) the addition of lime to fly ashes. The results show that the percentage of adsorbed ions was more important when they were in contact with silico-aluminous fly ashes than sulfo-calcic fly ashes, except in the case of the ion Ni{sup 2+}. The removal of metallic ions increases with increasing pH. The metallic canons removal accounting for the leaching test was higher when lime was added to silico-aluminous fly ashes during the adsorption. (authors)

  12. The application of electrocoagulation for the conversion of MSWI fly ash into nonhazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wing-Ping; Yang, Renbo; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Huang, Jui-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    This research investigated the electrocoagulation of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash at a liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 20:1. The leachate that was obtained from this treatment was recovered for reutilization. Two different anodic electrodes were investigated, and two unit runs were conducted. In Unit I, the optimum anode was chosen, and in Unit II, the optimum anode and the recovered leachate were used to replace deionized water for repeating the same electrocoagulation experiments. The results indicate that the aluminum (Al) anode performed better than the iridium oxide (IrO2) anode. The electrocoagulation technique includes washing with water, changing the composition of the fly ash, and stabilizing the heavy metals in the ash. Washing with water can remove the soluble salts from fly ash, and the fly ash can be converted into Friedel's salt (3CaO·Al2O3·CaCl2·10H2O) under an uniform electric field and the sacrificial release of Al(+3) ions, which stabilizes the toxic heavy metals and brings the composition of the fly ash to within the regulatory limits of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Use of the Al anode to manage the MSWI fly ash and the leachate obtained from the electrocoagulation treatment is therefore feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parameterization of Fuel-Optimal Synchronous Approach Trajectories to Tumbling Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Charles Sternberg

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Docking with potentially tumbling Targets is a common element of many mission architectures, including on-orbit servicing and active debris removal. This paper studies synchronized docking trajectories as a way to ensure the Chaser satellite remains on the docking axis of the tumbling Target, thereby reducing collision risks and enabling persistent onboard sensing of the docking location. Chaser satellites have limited computational power available to them and the time allowed for the determination of a fuel optimal trajectory may be limited. Consequently, parameterized trajectories that approximate the fuel optimal trajectory while following synchronous approaches may be used to provide a computationally efficient means of determining near optimal trajectories to a tumbling Target. This paper presents a method of balancing the computation cost with the added fuel expenditure required for parameterization, including the selection of a parameterization scheme, the number of parameters in the parameterization, and a means of incorporating the dynamics of a tumbling satellite into the parameterization process. Comparisons of the parameterized trajectories are made with the fuel optimal trajectory, which is computed through the numerical propagation of Euler’s equations. Additionally, various tumble types are considered to demonstrate the efficacy of the presented computation scheme. With this parameterized trajectory determination method, Chaser satellites may perform terminal approach and docking maneuvers with both fuel and computational efficiency.

  14. Global model comparison of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations in mixed phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.

    2012-04-01

    A new aerosol-dependent mixed phase cloud parameterization for deposition/condensation/immersion (DCI) ice nucleation and one for contact freezing are compared to the original formulations in a coupled general circulation model and aerosol transport model. The present-day cloud liquid and ice water fields and cloud radiative forcing are analyzed and compared to observations. The new DCI freezing parameterization changes the spatial distribution of the cloud water field. Significant changes are found in the cloud ice water fraction and in the middle cloud fractions. The new DCI freezing parameterization predicts less ice water path (IWP) than the original formulation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. The smaller IWP leads to a less efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process resulting in a larger liquid water path, shortwave cloud forcing, and longwave cloud forcing. It is found that contact freezing parameterizations have a greater impact on the cloud water field and radiative forcing than the two DCI freezing parameterizations that we compared. The net solar flux at top of atmosphere and net longwave flux at the top of the atmosphere change by up to 8.73 and 3.52 W m-2, respectively, due to the use of different DCI and contact freezing parameterizations in mixed phase clouds. The total climate forcing from anthropogenic black carbon/organic matter in mixed phase clouds is estimated to be 0.16-0.93 W m-2using the aerosol-dependent parameterizations. A sensitivity test with contact ice nuclei concentration in the original parameterization fit to that recommended by Young (1974) gives results that are closer to the new contact freezing parameterization.

  15. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  16. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  17. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  18. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  19. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  20. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  1. Tool-driven Design and Automated Parameterization for Real-time Generic Drivetrain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Christina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time dynamic drivetrain modeling approaches have a great potential for development cost reduction in the automotive industry. Even though real-time drivetrain models are available, these solutions are specific to single transmission topologies. In this paper an environment for parameterization of a solution is proposed based on a generic method applicable to all types of gear transmission topologies. This enables tool-guided modeling by non- experts in the fields of mechanic engineering and control theory leading to reduced development and testing efforts. The approach is demonstrated for an exemplary automatic transmission using the environment for automated parameterization. Finally, the parameterization is validated via vehicle measurement data.

  2. USING PARAMETERIZATION OF OBJECTS IN AUTODESK INVENTOR IN DESIGNING STRUCTURAL CONNECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the parameterization of objects used for designing the type of elements as structural connectors and making modifications of their characteristics. The design process was carried out using Autodesk Inventor 2015. We show the latest software tools, which were used for parameterization and modeling selected types of structural connectors. We also show examples of the use of parameterization facilities in the process of constructing some details and making changes to geometry with holding of the shape the element. The presented method of Inventor usage has enabled fast and efficient creation of new objects based on sketches created.

  3. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  4. Bioavailability of radiocaesium in soil: parameterization using soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syssoeva, A.A.; Konopleva, I.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that radiocaesium availability to plants strongly influenced by soil properties. For the best evaluation of TFs it necessary to use mechanistic models that predict radionuclide uptake by plants based on consideration of sorption-desorption and fixation-remobilization of the radionuclide in the soil as well as root uptake processes controlled by the plant. The aim of the research was to characterise typical Russian soils on the basis of the radiocaesium availability. The parameter of the radiocaesium availability in soils (A) has been developed which consist on radiocaesium exchangeability; CF -concentration factor which is the ratio of the radiocaesium in plant to that in soil solution; K{sub Dex} - exchangeable solid-liquid distribution coefficient of radiocaesium. The approach was tested for a wide range of Russian soils using radiocaesium uptake data from a barley pot trial and parameters of the radiocaesium bioavailability. Soils were collected from the arable horizons in different soil climatic zones of Russia and artificially contaminated by {sup 137}Cs. The classification of soils in terms of the radiocaesium availability corresponds quite well to observed linear relationship between {sup 137}Cs TF for barley and A. K{sub Dex} is related to the soil radiocaesium interception potential (RIP), which was found to be positively and strongly related to clay and physical clay (<0,01 mm) content. The {sup 137}Cs exchangeability were found to be in close relation to the soil vermiculite content, which was estimated by the method of Cs{sup +} fixation. It's shown radiocaesium availability to plants in soils under study can be parameterized through mineralogical soil characteristics: % clay and the soil vermiculite content. (author)

  5. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  6. A parameterization of nuclear track profiles in CR-39 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azooz, A. A.; Al-Nia'emi, S. H.; Al-Jubbori, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the empirical parameterization describing the alpha particles’ track depth in CR-39 detectors is extended to describe longitudinal track profiles against etching time for protons and alpha particles. MATLAB based software is developed for this purpose. The software calculates and plots the depth, diameter, range, residual range, saturation time, and etch rate versus etching time. The software predictions are compared with other experimental data and with results of calculations using the original software, TRACK_TEST, developed for alpha track calculations. The software related to this work is freely downloadable and performs calculations for protons in addition to alpha particles. Program summary Program title: CR39 Catalog identifier: AENA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Copyright (c) 2011, Aasim Azooz Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors “as is” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright owner or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and

  7. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  8. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  9. Radon exhalation study from cement, cement slabs and concrete slabs with variation in fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nisha; Singh, Jaspal

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste product from coal-fired power plants. Fly ash has become a subject of world-wide interest in recent years because of its diverse uses, e.g. in the manufacture of concrete for building purposes, for the filling of underground cavities, or as a component of building material. The fly ash may contain enhanced levels of the natural radionuclides in the uranium and thorium series and by using the fly ash in building materials, the radiation levels in houses may thus be technologically enhanced. Because of its relatively high radionuclide contents (including 226 Ra), fly ash may, however, present a potential hazard to the population through its radon emanation, which would be highly undesirable. Since fly ash is frequently used as a building material, the idea of the experiment was to mix fly ash in different proportions in the cement in the powder form, cemented slabs and concrete slabs to study the combined behaviors. Alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detector, commonly known as Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), were used to measure the radon concentration. The alpha particles emitted from the radon causes the radiation damaged tracks. The chemical etching in NaOH at 60°C for about 90 minutes was done to reveal these latent tracks, which were then scanned and counted by an optical microscope of suitable magnification. By calculating the track density of registered tracks, the radon concentrations were determined. In case of cement in the powder form and in cemented slab, starting from the pure cement, fly ash was added up to 70% by weight. In this case the radon exhalation rate has increased by addition of fly ash in the cement and in case of concrete slabs by the addition of fly ash in the cement the radon exhalation increases up to 60% and then decreases. Therefore, on the basis of our investigations we concluded that in general radon exhalation rate increases with the addition of fly ash. (author)

  10. Parameterized isoprene and monoterpene emissions from the boreal forest floor: Implementation into a 1D chemistry-transport model and investigation of the influence on atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Ditte; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Gierens, Rosa; Smolander, Sampo; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from the biosphere and can work as precursor gases for aerosol particles that can affect the climate (e.g. Makkonen et al., ACP, 2012). VOC emissions from needles and leaves have gained the most attention, however other parts of the ecosystem also have the ability to emit a vast amount of VOCs. This, often neglected, source can be important e.g. at periods where leaves are absent. Both sources and drivers related to forest floor emission of VOCs are currently limited. It is thought that the sources are mainly due to degradation of organic matter (Isidorov and Jdanova, Chemosphere, 2002), living roots (Asensio et al., Soil Biol. Biochem., 2008) and ground vegetation. The drivers are biotic (e.g. microbes) and abiotic (e.g. temperature and moisture). However, the relative importance of the sources and the drivers individually are currently poorly understood. Further, the relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the tree species occupying the area of interest. The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes where measured from the boreal forest floor at the SMEAR II station in Southern Finland (Hari and Kulmala, Boreal Env. Res., 2005) during the snow-free period in 2010-2012. We used a dynamic method with 3 automated chambers analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (Aaltonen et al., Plant Soil, 2013). Using this data, we have developed empirical parameterizations for the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from the forest floor. These parameterizations depends on abiotic factors, however, since the parameterizations are based on field measurements, biotic features are captured. Further, we have used the 1D chemistry-transport model SOSAA (Boy et al., ACP, 2011) to test the seasonal relative importance of inclusion of these parameterizations of the forest floor compared to the canopy crown emissions, on the atmospheric reactivity throughout the canopy.

  11. A Comparative Study of Nucleation Parameterizations: 2. Three-Dimensional Model Application and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the examination and evaluation of 12 nucleation parameterizations presented in part 1, 11 of them representing binary, ternary, kinetic, and cluster‐activated nucleation theories are evaluated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality ...

  12. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biofuel Crops and Parameterization in the EPIC Biogeochemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes year 1 field measurements of N2O fluxes and crop yields which are used to parameterize the EPIC biogeochemical model for the corresponding field site. Initial model simulations are also presented.

  13. Improving Convection and Cloud Parameterization Using ARM Observations and NCAR Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The fundamental scientific objectives of our research are to use ARM observations and the NCAR CAM5 to understand the large-scale control on convection, and to develop improved convection and cloud parameterizations for use in GCMs.

  14. Radiative flux and forcing parameterization error in aerosol-free clear skies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Robert; Mlawer, Eli J; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Ackerman, Andrew S; Baek, Sunghye; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan A; Cady-Pereira, Karen E; Cole, Jason N S; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Kelley, Maxwell; Li, Jiangnan; Manners, James; Paynter, David J; Roehrig, Romain; Sekiguchi, Miho; Schwarzkopf, Daniel M

    2015-07-16

    Radiation parameterizations in GCMs are more accurate than their predecessorsErrors in estimates of 4 ×CO 2 forcing are large, especially for solar radiationErrors depend on atmospheric state, so global mean error is unknown.

  15. Parameterizing the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in cirrus cloud formation – monodisperse ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a parameterization of cirrus cloud formation that computes the ice crystal number and size distribution under the presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing. The parameterization is very simple to apply and is derived from the analytical solution of the cloud parcel equations, assuming that the ice nuclei population is monodisperse and chemically homogeneous. In addition to the ice distribution, an analytical expression is provided for the limiting ice nuclei number concentration that suppresses ice formation from homogeneous freezing. The parameterization is evaluated against a detailed numerical parcel model, and reproduces numerical simulations over a wide range of conditions with an average error of 6±33%. The parameterization also compares favorably against other formulations that require some form of numerical integration.

  16. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional

  17. Towards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Endalamaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling hydrological processes in the Alaskan sub-arctic is challenging because of the extreme spatial heterogeneity in soil properties and vegetation communities. Nevertheless, modeling and predicting hydrological processes is critical in this region due to its vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Coarse-spatial-resolution datasets used in land surface modeling pose a new challenge in simulating the spatially distributed and basin-integrated processes since these datasets do not adequately represent the small-scale hydrological, thermal, and ecological heterogeneity. The goal of this study is to improve the prediction capacity of mesoscale to large-scale hydrological models by introducing a small-scale parameterization scheme, which better represents the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation cover in the Alaskan sub-arctic. The small-scale parameterization schemes are derived from observations and a sub-grid parameterization method in the two contrasting sub-basins of the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW in Interior Alaska: one nearly permafrost-free (LowP sub-basin and one permafrost-dominated (HighP sub-basin. The sub-grid parameterization method used in the small-scale parameterization scheme is derived from the watershed topography. We found that observed soil thermal and hydraulic properties – including the distribution of permafrost and vegetation cover heterogeneity – are better represented in the sub-grid parameterization method than the coarse-resolution datasets. Parameters derived from the coarse-resolution datasets and from the sub-grid parameterization method are implemented into the variable infiltration capacity (VIC mesoscale hydrological model to simulate runoff, evapotranspiration (ET, and soil moisture in the two sub-basins of the CPCRW. Simulated hydrographs based on the small-scale parameterization capture most of the peak and low flows, with similar accuracy in both sub

  18. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  19. Parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections at LAMPF energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, R.L.; Smith, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    A parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections is developed for eventual use in modeling neutrino production by protons in a beam stop. Emphasis is placed upon smooth parameterizations for proton energies up to 800 MeV, for all pion energies and angles, and for a wide range of materials. The resulting representations of the data are well-behaved and can be used for extrapolation to regions where there are no measurements. 22 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A scheme for parameterizing ice cloud water content in general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Donner, Leo J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for specifying ice water content in GCMs is developed, based on theory and in-cloud measurements. A theoretical development of the conceptual precipitation model is given and the aircraft flights used to characterize the ice mass distribution in deep ice clouds is discussed. Ice water content values derived from the theoretical parameterization are compared with the measured values. The results demonstrate that a simple parameterization for atmospheric ice content can account for ice contents observed in several synoptic contexts.

  1. A Stochastic Lagrangian Basis for a Probabilistic Parameterization of Moisture Condensation in Eulerian Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we describe the construction of an efficient probabilistic parameterization that could be used in a coarse-resolution numerical model in which the variation of moisture is not properly resolved. An Eulerian model using a coarse-grained field on a grid cannot properly resolve regions of saturation---in which condensation occurs---that are smaller than the grid boxes. Thus, in the absence of a parameterization scheme, either the grid box must become saturated or condensation will ...

  2. A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in the earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-C.

    1976-01-01

    A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation as a function of the amount of water vapor in the earth's atmosphere is obtained. Absorption computations are based on the Goody band model and the near-infrared absorption band data of Ludwig et al. A two-parameter Curtis-Godson approximation is used to treat the inhomogeneous atmosphere. Heating rates based on a frequently used one-parameter pressure-scaling approximation are also discussed and compared with the present parameterization.

  3. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  4. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. A simple parameterization for the rising velocity of bubbles in a liquid pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hoon [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology, Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The determination of the shape and rising velocity of gas bubbles in a liquid pool is of great importance in analyzing the radioactive aerosol emissions from nuclear power plant accidents in terms of the fission product release rate and the pool scrubbing efficiency of radioactive aerosols. This article suggests a simple parameterization for the gas bubble rising velocity as a function of the volume-equivalent bubble diameter; this parameterization does not require prior knowledge of bubble shape. This is more convenient than previously suggested parameterizations because it is given as a single explicit formula. It is also shown that a bubble shape diagram, which is very similar to the Grace's diagram, can be easily generated using the parameterization suggested in this article. Furthermore, the boundaries among the three bubble shape regimes in the E{sub o}–R{sub e} plane and the condition for the bypass of the spheroidal regime can be delineated directly from the parameterization formula. Therefore, the parameterization suggested in this article appears to be useful not only in easily determining the bubble rising velocity (e.g., in postulated severe accident analysis codes) but also in understanding the trend of bubble shape change due to bubble growth.

  6. A review of the theoretical basis for bulk mass flux convective parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Plant

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most parameterizations for precipitating convection in use today are bulk schemes, in which an ensemble of cumulus elements with different properties is modelled as a single, representative entraining-detraining plume. We review the underpinning mathematical model for such parameterizations, in particular by comparing it with spectral models in which elements are not combined into the representative plume. The chief merit of a bulk model is that the representative plume can be described by an equation set with the same structure as that which describes each element in a spectral model. The equivalence relies on an ansatz for detrained condensate introduced by Yanai et al. (1973 and on a simplified microphysics. There are also conceptual differences in the closure of bulk and spectral parameterizations. In particular, we show that the convective quasi-equilibrium closure of Arakawa and Schubert (1974 for spectral parameterizations cannot be carried over to a bulk parameterization in a straightforward way. Quasi-equilibrium of the cloud work function assumes a timescale separation between a slow forcing process and a rapid convective response. But, for the natural bulk analogue to the cloud-work function, the relevant forcing is characterised by a different timescale, and so its quasi-equilibrium entails a different physical constraint. Closures of bulk parameterizations that use a parcel value of CAPE do not suffer from this timescale issue. However, the Yanai et al. (1973 ansatz must be invoked as a necessary ingredient of those closures.

  7. A simple parameterization for the rising velocity of bubbles in a liquid pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hoon; Park, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Byung Chul

    2017-01-01

    The determination of the shape and rising velocity of gas bubbles in a liquid pool is of great importance in analyzing the radioactive aerosol emissions from nuclear power plant accidents in terms of the fission product release rate and the pool scrubbing efficiency of radioactive aerosols. This article suggests a simple parameterization for the gas bubble rising velocity as a function of the volume-equivalent bubble diameter; this parameterization does not require prior knowledge of bubble shape. This is more convenient than previously suggested parameterizations because it is given as a single explicit formula. It is also shown that a bubble shape diagram, which is very similar to the Grace's diagram, can be easily generated using the parameterization suggested in this article. Furthermore, the boundaries among the three bubble shape regimes in the E_o–R_e plane and the condition for the bypass of the spheroidal regime can be delineated directly from the parameterization formula. Therefore, the parameterization suggested in this article appears to be useful not only in easily determining the bubble rising velocity (e.g., in postulated severe accident analysis codes) but also in understanding the trend of bubble shape change due to bubble growth

  8. Parameterized Disturbance Observer Based Controller to Reduce Cyclic Loads of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Imran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with bump-less transfer of parameterized disturbance observer based controller with individual pitch control strategy to reduce cyclic loads of wind turbine in full load operation. Cyclic loads are generated due to wind shear and tower shadow effects. Multivariable disturbance observer based linear controllers are designed with objective to reduce output power fluctuation, tower oscillation and drive-train torsion using optimal control theory. Linear parameterized controllers are designed by using a smooth scheduling mechanism between the controllers. The proposed parameterized controller with individual pitch was tested on nonlinear Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST code model of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL’s 5 MW wind turbine. The closed-loop system performance was assessed by comparing the simulation results of proposed controller with a fixed gain and parameterized controller with collective pitch for full load operation of wind turbine. Simulations are performed with step wind to see the behavior of the system with wind shear and tower shadow effects. Then, turbulent wind is applied to see the smooth transition of the controllers. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed parameterized control shows smooth transition from one controller to another controller. Moreover, 3p and 6p harmonics are well mitigated as compared to fixed gain DOBC and parameterized DOBC with collective pitch.

  9. Analysis of sensitivity to different parameterization schemes for a subtropical cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitián-Hernández, L.; Fernández-González, S.; González-Alemán, J. J.; Valero, F.; Martín, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    A sensitivity analysis to diverse WRF model physical parameterization schemes is carried out during the lifecycle of a Subtropical cyclone (STC). STCs are low-pressure systems that share tropical and extratropical characteristics, with hybrid thermal structures. In October 2014, a STC made landfall in the Canary Islands, causing widespread damage from strong winds and precipitation there. The system began to develop on October 18 and its effects lasted until October 21. Accurate simulation of this type of cyclone continues to be a major challenge because of its rapid intensification and unique characteristics. In the present study, several numerical simulations were performed using the WRF model to do a sensitivity analysis of its various parameterization schemes for the development and intensification of the STC. The combination of parameterization schemes that best simulated this type of phenomenon was thereby determined. In particular, the parameterization combinations that included the Tiedtke cumulus schemes had the most positive effects on model results. Moreover, concerning STC track validation, optimal results were attained when the STC was fully formed and all convective processes stabilized. Furthermore, to obtain the parameterization schemes that optimally categorize STC structure, a verification using Cyclone Phase Space is assessed. Consequently, the combination of parameterizations including the Tiedtke cumulus schemes were again the best in categorizing the cyclone's subtropical structure. For strength validation, related atmospheric variables such as wind speed and precipitable water were analyzed. Finally, the effects of using a deterministic or probabilistic approach in simulating intense convective phenomena were evaluated.

  10. Balancing accuracy, efficiency, and flexibility in a radiative transfer parameterization for dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, R.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Radiation is key process in numerical models of the atmosphere. The problem is well-understood and the parameterization of radiation has seen relatively few conceptual advances in the past 15 years. It is nonthelss often the single most expensive component of all physical parameterizations despite being computed less frequently than other terms. This combination of cost and maturity suggests value in a single radiation parameterization that could be shared across models; devoting effort to a single parameterization might allow for fine tuning for efficiency. The challenge lies in the coupling of this parameterization to many disparate representations of clouds and aerosols. This talk will describe RRTMGP, a new radiation parameterization that seeks to balance efficiency and flexibility. This balance is struck by isolating computational tasks in "kernels" that expose as much fine-grained parallelism as possible. These have simple interfaces and are interoperable across programming languages so that they might be repalced by alternative implementations in domain-specific langauges. Coupling to the host model makes use of object-oriented features of Fortran 2003, minimizing branching within the kernels and the amount of data that must be transferred. We will show accuracy and efficiency results for a globally-representative set of atmospheric profiles using a relatively high-resolution spectral discretization.

  11. Parameterization of a ruminant model of phosphorus digestion and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the current work was to parameterize the digestive elements of the model of Hill et al. (2008) using data collected from animals that were ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated, thereby providing a better understanding of the digestion and metabolism of P fractions in growing and lactating cattle. The model of Hill et al. (2008) was fitted and evaluated for adequacy using the data from 6 animal studies. We hypothesized that sufficient data would be available to estimate P digestion and metabolism parameters and that these parameters would be sufficient to derive P bioavailabilities of a range of feed ingredients. Inputs to the model were dry matter intake; total feed P concentration (fPtFd); phytate (Pp), organic (Po), and inorganic (Pi) P as fractions of total P (fPpPt, fPoPt, fPiPt); microbial growth; amount of Pi and Pp infused into the omasum or ileum; milk yield; and BW. The available data were sufficient to derive all model parameters of interest. The final model predicted that given 75 g/d of total P input, the total-tract digestibility of P was 40.8%, Pp digestibility in the rumen was 92.4%, and in the total-tract was 94.7%. Blood P recycling to the rumen was a major source of Pi flow into the small intestine, and the primary route of excretion. A large proportion of Pi flowing to the small intestine was absorbed; however, additional Pi was absorbed from the large intestine (3.15%). Absorption of Pi from the small intestine was regulated, and given the large flux of salivary P recycling, the effective fractional small intestine absorption of available P derived from the diet was 41.6% at requirements. Milk synthesis used 16% of total absorbed P, and less than 1% was excreted in urine. The resulting model could be used to derive P bioavailabilities of commonly used feedstuffs in cattle production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  13. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  14. The Optimization of Calcareous Fly Ash-Added Cement Containing Grinding Aids and Strength-Improving Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kaplan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental study which explores the physical, mechanical, and economic factors involved in the production of type CEM II A-B/W cement. In this context, 4 cement additives were used in two different dosages (200 and 800 g/t. Class C fly ash was used for composite cement production at ratios of 5%, 20%, and 35%. It was shown that Blaine fineness increases with the increasing fly ash content. The use of fly ash at ratios of 5% and 20% was not found to have any unfavorable effects on the compressive strength at the early days. It is found that the use of additive for improving the early-age strength is preferable when fly ash is used. It is possible to produce Class 52.5 N cement using additives to improve early strength and 20% fly ash. Loss in strength was observed in cement mortars produced using glycol-based grinding aid. Increasing the dosage of chemical additive also led to loss in strength due to nonhomogeneous distribution of hydration products. As a result, grinding fly ash with clinker and the use of cement chemicals contribute to the cement sector in terms of sustainability. It is possible to produce cements with improved mechanical properties especially with the use of 20% fly ash.

  15. Growth and physiological response of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) under different levels of fly ash-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Debabrata; Panda, Dibyajyoti; Padhan, Bandana; Biswas, Meghali

    2018-05-12

    Revegetation with metal tolerant plants for management of fly ash deposits is an important environmental perspective nowadays. Growth performance, photosynthesis, and antioxidant defense of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) were evaluated under various combination of fly ash amended with garden soil in order to assess its fly ash tolerance potential. Under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil, the plant growth parameters such as shoot, root, and total plant biomass as well as metal tolerance index were increased compared to the control plants grown on garden soil, followed by decline under higher concentration of fly ash (50%, 75% and 100%). In addition, leaf photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photosystem (PS) II activity were not significantly changed under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil compared to the garden soil but these parameters were significantly decreased further with increase of fly ash concentrations. Furthermore, increase of activities of some antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase over control were noticed in lemongrass under all fly ash treatments. Taken together, the study suggests that lemongrass can be used for phytoremediation of fly ash at 25% amended soil.

  16. Web Services Integration on the Fly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leong, Hoe W

    2008-01-01

    .... Given data, software agents and supporting software infrastructure, web services integration on the fly means that human coding is not required to integrate web services into a Web Service Architecture...

  17. Schlieren photography on freely flying hawkmoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Roll, Jesse; Van Kooten, Stephen; Deng, Xinyan

    2018-05-01

    The aerodynamic force on flying insects results from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren , a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth ( Manduca ). Flow features such as leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex, as well as the full vortex system in the wake were visualized directly. Quantification of the flow from the Schlieren images was then obtained by applying a physics-based optical flow method, extending the potential applications of the method to further studies of flying insects. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  19. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  20. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  1. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  2. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Attracting the attention of a fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can d...

  4. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  5. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  6. A factorial assessment of the sensitivity of the BATS land-surface parameterization scheme. [BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson-Sellers, A. (Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia))

    1993-02-01

    Land-surface schemes developed for incorporation into global climate models include parameterizations that are not yet fully validated and depend upon the specification of a large (20-50) number of ecological and soil parameters, the values of which are not yet well known. There are two methods of investigating the sensitivity of a land-surface scheme to prescribed values: simple one-at-a-time changes or factorial experiments. Factorial experiments offer information about interactions between parameters and are thus a more powerful tool. Here the results of a suite of factorial experiments are reported. These are designed (i) to illustrate the usefulness of this methodology and (ii) to identify factors important to the performance of complex land-surface schemes. The Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) is used and its sensitivity is considered (a) to prescribed ecological and soil parameters and (b) to atmospheric forcing used in the off-line tests undertaken. Results indicate that the most important atmospheric forcings are mean monthly temperature and the interaction between mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation, although fractional cloudiness and other parameters are also important. The most important ecological parameters are vegetation roughness length, soil porosity, and a factor describing the sensitivity of the stomatal resistance of vegetation to the amount of photosynthetically active solar radiation and, to a lesser extent, soil and vegetation albedos. Two-factor interactions including vegetation roughness length are more important than many of the 23 specified single factors. The results of factorial sensitivity experiments such as these could form the basis for intercomparison of land-surface parameterization schemes and for field experiments and satellite-based observation programs aimed at improving evaluation of important parameters.

  7. Impact of cloud parameterization on the numerical simulation of a super cyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, M.S.; Pattnaik, S.; Salvekar, P.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the role of parameterization of convection and explicit moisture processes on the simulated track, intensity and inner core structure of Orissa super cyclone (1999) in Bay of Bengal (north Indian Ocean). Sensitivity experiments are carried out to examine the impact of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS) using MM5 model (Version 3.7) in a two-way nested domain (D1 and D2) configuration at horizontal resolutions (45-15 km). Three different cumulus parameterization schemes, namely Grell (Gr), Betts-Miller (BM) and updated Kain Fritsch (KF2), are tested. It is noted that track and intensity both are very sensitive to CPS and comparatively, KF2 predicts them reasonably well. Particularly, the rapid intensification phase of the super cyclone is best simulated by KF2 compared to other CPS. To examine the effect of the cumulus parameterization scheme at high resolution (5 km), the three-domain configuration (45-15-5 km resolution) is utilized. Based on initial results, KF2 scheme is used for both the domains (D1 and D2). Two experiments are conducted: one in which KF2 is used as CPS and another in which no CPS is used in the third domain. The intensity is well predicted when no CPS is used in the innermost domain. The sensitivity experiments are also carried out to examine the impact from microphysics parameterization schemes (MPS). Four cloud microphysics parameterization schemes, namely mixed phase (MP), Goddard microphysics with Graupel (GG), Reisner Graupel (RG) and Schultz (Sc), are tested in these experiments. It is noted that the tropical cyclone tracks and intensity variation have considerable sensitivity to the varying cloud microphysical parameterization schemes. The MPS of MP and Sc could very well capture the rapid intensification phase. The final intensity is well predicted by MP, which is overestimated by Sc. The MPS of GG and RG underestimates the intensity. (orig.)

  8. Shallow cumuli ensemble statistics for development of a stochastic parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakradzija, Mirjana; Seifert, Axel; Heus, Thijs

    2014-05-01

    According to a conventional deterministic approach to the parameterization of moist convection in numerical atmospheric models, a given large scale forcing produces an unique response from the unresolved convective processes. This representation leaves out the small-scale variability of convection, as it is known from the empirical studies of deep and shallow convective cloud ensembles, there is a whole distribution of sub-grid states corresponding to the given large scale forcing. Moreover, this distribution gets broader with the increasing model resolution. This behavior is also consistent with our theoretical understanding of a coarse-grained nonlinear system. We propose an approach to represent the variability of the unresolved shallow-convective states, including the dependence of the sub-grid states distribution spread and shape on the model horizontal resolution. Starting from the Gibbs canonical ensemble theory, Craig and Cohen (2006) developed a theory for the fluctuations in a deep convective ensemble. The micro-states of a deep convective cloud ensemble are characterized by the cloud-base mass flux, which, according to the theory, is exponentially distributed (Boltzmann distribution). Following their work, we study the shallow cumulus ensemble statistics and the distribution of the cloud-base mass flux. We employ a Large-Eddy Simulation model (LES) and a cloud tracking algorithm, followed by a conditional sampling of clouds at the cloud base level, to retrieve the information about the individual cloud life cycles and the cloud ensemble as a whole. In the case of shallow cumulus cloud ensemble, the distribution of micro-states is a generalized exponential distribution. Based on the empirical and theoretical findings, a stochastic model has been developed to simulate the shallow convective cloud ensemble and to test the convective ensemble theory. Stochastic model simulates a compound random process, with the number of convective elements drawn from a

  9. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  10. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  11. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  12. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  13. The Use of Fly Ash and Lime Sludge as Partial Replacement of Cement in Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand of drinking water and power has led huge generation of water treatment plant residue i.e. sludge and the thermal power plant by-product such as fly ash. Large quantities of sludge and fly ash are produced in India and disposed off by landfilling or dumping in and around sites. In this study fly ash and water softening sludge (lime sludge has been utilized in mortar. Two types of mortar (type I and II with four binder combinations have been tried. Binder I consists of 70% fly ash (FA and 30% lime sludge (LS , 0 % gypsum (G, binder II is 70% FA, 30% LS and 1% G, binder III is 50% FA, 30% LS and 20% cement and the binder IV is 40% FA, 40% LS with 20% cement. The effect of various combinations on strength has been discussed here. This paper outlines the composition of the composite material, method of preparation of mortar specimen, testing procedure and salient results thereof.

  14. Evaluating cloud processes in large-scale models: Of idealized case studies, parameterization testbeds and single-column modelling on climate time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Roel

    2016-04-01

    Boundary-layer schemes have always formed an integral part of General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for numerical weather and climate prediction. The spatial and temporal scales associated with boundary-layer processes and clouds are typically much smaller than those at which GCMs are discretized, which makes their representation through parameterization a necessity. The need for generally applicable boundary-layer parameterizations has motivated many scientific studies, which in effect has created its own active research field in the atmospheric sciences. Of particular interest has been the evaluation of boundary-layer schemes at "process-level". This means that parameterized physics are studied in isolated mode from the larger-scale circulation, using prescribed forcings and excluding any upscale interaction. Although feedbacks are thus prevented, the benefit is an enhanced model transparency, which might aid an investigator in identifying model errors and understanding model behavior. The popularity and success of the process-level approach is demonstrated by the many past and ongoing model inter-comparison studies that have been organized by initiatives such as GCSS/GASS. A red line in the results of these studies is that although most schemes somehow manage to capture first-order aspects of boundary layer cloud fields, there certainly remains room for improvement in many areas. Only too often are boundary layer parameterizations still found to be at the heart of problems in large-scale models, negatively affecting forecast skills of NWP models or causing uncertainty in numerical predictions of future climate. How to break this parameterization "deadlock" remains an open problem. This presentation attempts to give an overview of the various existing methods for the process-level evaluation of boundary-layer physics in large-scale models. This includes i) idealized case studies, ii) longer-term evaluation at permanent meteorological sites (the testbed approach

  15. Evaluation of five dry particle deposition parameterizations for incorporation into atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanvir R.; Perlinger, Judith A.

    2017-10-01

    Despite considerable effort to develop mechanistic dry particle deposition parameterizations for atmospheric transport models, current knowledge has been inadequate to propose quantitative measures of the relative performance of available parameterizations. In this study, we evaluated the performance of five dry particle deposition parameterizations developed by Zhang et al. (2001) (Z01), Petroff and Zhang (2010) (PZ10), Kouznetsov and Sofiev (2012) (KS12), Zhang and He (2014) (ZH14), and Zhang and Shao (2014) (ZS14), respectively. The evaluation was performed in three dimensions: model ability to reproduce observed deposition velocities, Vd (accuracy); the influence of imprecision in input parameter values on the modeled Vd (uncertainty); and identification of the most influential parameter(s) (sensitivity). The accuracy of the modeled Vd was evaluated using observations obtained from five land use categories (LUCs): grass, coniferous and deciduous forests, natural water, and ice/snow. To ascertain the uncertainty in modeled Vd, and quantify the influence of imprecision in key model input parameters, a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis was conducted with the objective to determine the parameter ranking from the most to the least influential. Comparing the normalized mean bias factors (indicators of accuracy), we find that the ZH14 parameterization is the most accurate for all LUCs except for coniferous forest, for which it is second most accurate. From Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated mean normalized uncertainties in the modeled Vd obtained for seven particle sizes (ranging from 0.005 to 2.5 µm) for the five LUCs are 17, 12, 13, 16, and 27 % for the Z01, PZ10, KS12, ZH14, and ZS14 parameterizations, respectively. From the Sobol' sensitivity results, we suggest that the parameter rankings vary by particle size and LUC for a given parameterization. Overall, for dp = 0.001 to 1.0 µm, friction velocity was one of

  16. Evaluation of five dry particle deposition parameterizations for incorporation into atmospheric transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable effort to develop mechanistic dry particle deposition parameterizations for atmospheric transport models, current knowledge has been inadequate to propose quantitative measures of the relative performance of available parameterizations. In this study, we evaluated the performance of five dry particle deposition parameterizations developed by Zhang et al. (2001 (Z01, Petroff and Zhang (2010 (PZ10, Kouznetsov and Sofiev (2012 (KS12, Zhang and He (2014 (ZH14, and Zhang and Shao (2014 (ZS14, respectively. The evaluation was performed in three dimensions: model ability to reproduce observed deposition velocities, Vd (accuracy; the influence of imprecision in input parameter values on the modeled Vd (uncertainty; and identification of the most influential parameter(s (sensitivity. The accuracy of the modeled Vd was evaluated using observations obtained from five land use categories (LUCs: grass, coniferous and deciduous forests, natural water, and ice/snow. To ascertain the uncertainty in modeled Vd, and quantify the influence of imprecision in key model input parameters, a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis was conducted with the objective to determine the parameter ranking from the most to the least influential. Comparing the normalized mean bias factors (indicators of accuracy, we find that the ZH14 parameterization is the most accurate for all LUCs except for coniferous forest, for which it is second most accurate. From Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated mean normalized uncertainties in the modeled Vd obtained for seven particle sizes (ranging from 0.005 to 2.5 µm for the five LUCs are 17, 12, 13, 16, and 27 % for the Z01, PZ10, KS12, ZH14, and ZS14 parameterizations, respectively. From the Sobol' sensitivity results, we suggest that the parameter rankings vary by particle size and LUC for a given parameterization. Overall, for dp  =  0.001 to 1.0

  17. The importance of parameterization when simulating the hydrologic response of vegetative land-cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy; Stengel, Victoria; Rendon, Samuel; Banta, John

    2017-08-01

    Computer models of hydrologic systems are frequently used to investigate the hydrologic response of land-cover change. If the modeling results are used to inform resource-management decisions, then providing robust estimates of uncertainty in the simulated response is an important consideration. Here we examine the importance of parameterization, a necessarily subjective process, on uncertainty estimates of the simulated hydrologic response of land-cover change. Specifically, we applied the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) model to a 1.4 km2 watershed in southern Texas to investigate the simulated hydrologic response of brush management (the mechanical removal of woody plants), a discrete land-cover change. The watershed was instrumented before and after brush-management activities were undertaken, and estimates of precipitation, streamflow, and evapotranspiration (ET) are available; these data were used to condition and verify the model. The role of parameterization in brush-management simulation was evaluated by constructing two models, one with 12 adjustable parameters (reduced parameterization) and one with 1305 adjustable parameters (full parameterization). Both models were subjected to global sensitivity analysis as well as Monte Carlo and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) conditioning to identify important model inputs and to estimate uncertainty in several quantities of interest related to brush management. Many realizations from both parameterizations were identified as behavioral in that they reproduce daily mean streamflow acceptably well according to Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient, percent bias, and coefficient of determination. However, the total volumetric ET difference resulting from simulated brush management remains highly uncertain after conditioning to daily mean streamflow, indicating that streamflow data alone are not sufficient to inform the model inputs that influence the simulated outcomes of brush management

  18. On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, M. B.; Finsterle, Stefan A.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Murray, Christopher J.; Commer, Michael; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Englert, Andreas L.; Steefel, Carl I.; Hubbard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    We consider a field-scale tracer experiment conducted in 2007 in a shallow uranium-contaminated aquifer at Rifle, Colorado. In developing a reliable approach for inferring hydrological properties at the site through inverse modeling of the tracer data, decisions made on how to parameterize heterogeneity (i.e., how to represent a heterogeneous distribution using a limited number of parameters that are amenable to estimation) are of paramount importance. We present an approach for hydrological inversion of the tracer data and explore, using a 2D synthetic example at first, how parameterization affects the solution, and how additional characterization data could be incorporated to reduce uncertainty. Specifically, we examine sensitivity of the results to the configuration of pilot points used in a geostatistical parameterization, and to the sampling frequency and measurement error of the concentration data. A reliable solution of the inverse problem is found when the pilot point configuration is carefully implemented. In addition, we examine the use of a zonation parameterization, in which the geometry of the geological facies is known (e.g., from geophysical data or core data), to reduce the non-uniqueness of the solution and the number of unknown parameters to be estimated. When zonation information is only available for a limited region, special treatment in the remainder of the model is necessary, such as using a geostatistical parameterization. Finally, inversion of the actual field data is performed using 2D and 3D models, and results are compared with slug test data.

  19. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  1. A review of recent research on improvement of physical parameterizations in the GLA GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic assessment of the effect of a series of improvements in physical parameterizations of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) are summarized. The implementation of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) in the GCM is followed by a comparison of SiB GCM simulations with that of the earlier slab soil hydrology GCM (SSH-GCM) simulations. In the Sahelian context, the biogeophysical component of desertification was analyzed for SiB-GCM simulations. Cumulus parameterization is found to be the primary determinant of the organization of the simulated tropical rainfall of the GLA GCM using Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization. A comparison of model simulations with station data revealed excessive shortwave radiation accompanied by excessive drying and heating to the land. The perpetual July simulations with and without interactive soil moisture shows that 30 to 40 day oscillations may be a natural mode of the simulated earth atmosphere system.

  2. A MODIFIED CUMULUS PARAMETERIZATION SCHEME AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE SIMULATIONS OF THE HEAVY PRECIPITATION CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Fan; TANG Xi-ba; YIN Lei

    2016-01-01

    According to the characteristics of organized cumulus convective precipitation in China,a cumulus parameterization scheme suitable for describing the organized convective precipitation in East Asia is presented and modified.The Kain-Fristch scheme is chosen as the scheme to be modified based on analyses and comparisons of simulated precipitation in East Asia by several commonly-used mesoscale parameterization schemes.A key dynamic parameter to dynamically control the cumulus parameterization is then proposed to improve the Kain-Fristch scheme.Numerical simulations of a typhoon case and a Mei-yu front rainfall case are carried out with the improved scheme,and the results show that the improved version performs better than the original in simulating the track and intensity of the typhoons,as well as the distribution of Mei-yu front precipitation.

  3. Parameterizing the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in ice cloud formation – polydisperse ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive ice cloud formation parameterization that computes the ice crystal number, size distribution, and maximum supersaturation from precursor aerosol and ice nuclei. The parameterization provides an analytical solution of the cloud parcel model equations and accounts for the competition effects between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, and, between heterogeneous freezing in different modes. The diversity of heterogeneous nuclei is described through a nucleation spectrum function which is allowed to follow any form (i.e., derived from classical nucleation theory or from observations. The parameterization reproduces the predictions of a detailed numerical parcel model over a wide range of conditions, and several expressions for the nucleation spectrum. The average error in ice crystal number concentration was −2.0±8.5% for conditions of pure heterogeneous freezing, and, 4.7±21% when both homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing were active. The formulation presented is fast and free from requirements of numerical integration.

  4. Developing a stochastic parameterization to incorporate plant trait variability into ecohydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Ng, G. H. C.

    2017-12-01

    The global plant database has revealed that plant traits can vary more within a plant functional type (PFT) than among different PFTs, indicating that the current paradigm in ecohydrogical models of specifying fixed parameters based solely on plant functional type (PFT) could potentially bias simulations. Although some recent modeling studies have attempted to incorporate this observed plant trait variability, many failed to consider uncertainties due to sparse global observation, or they omitted spatial and/or temporal variability in the traits. Here we present a stochastic parameterization for prognostic vegetation simulations that are stochastic in time and space in order to represent plant trait plasticity - the process by which trait differences arise. We have developed the new PFT parameterization within the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM 4.5) and tested the method for a desert shrubland watershed in the Mojave Desert, where fixed parameterizations cannot represent acclimation to desert conditions. Spatiotemporally correlated plant trait parameters were first generated based on TRY statistics and were then used to implement ensemble runs for the study area. The new PFT parameterization was then further conditioned on field measurements of soil moisture and remotely sensed observations of leaf-area-index to constrain uncertainties in the sparse global database. Our preliminary results show that incorporating data-conditioned, variable PFT parameterizations strongly affects simulated soil moisture and water fluxes, compared with default simulations. The results also provide new insights about correlations among plant trait parameters and between traits and environmental conditions in the desert shrubland watershed. Our proposed stochastic PFT parameterization method for ecohydrological models has great potential in advancing our understanding of how terrestrial ecosystems are predicted to adapt to variable environmental conditions.

  5. A general framework for thermodynamically consistent parameterization and efficient sampling of enzymatic reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Saa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic models provide the means to understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of enzymes upon different perturbations. Despite their obvious advantages, classical parameterizations require large amounts of data to fit their parameters. Particularly, enzymes displaying complex reaction and regulatory (allosteric mechanisms require a great number of parameters and are therefore often represented by approximate formulae, thereby facilitating the fitting but ignoring many real kinetic behaviours. Here, we show that full exploration of the plausible kinetic space for any enzyme can be achieved using sampling strategies provided a thermodynamically feasible parameterization is used. To this end, we developed a General Reaction Assembly and Sampling Platform (GRASP capable of consistently parameterizing and sampling accurate kinetic models using minimal reference data. The former integrates the generalized MWC model and the elementary reaction formalism. By formulating the appropriate thermodynamic constraints, our framework enables parameterization of any oligomeric enzyme kinetics without sacrificing complexity or using simplifying assumptions. This thermodynamically safe parameterization relies on the definition of a reference state upon which feasible parameter sets can be efficiently sampled. Uniform sampling of the kinetics space enabled dissecting enzyme catalysis and revealing the impact of thermodynamics on reaction kinetics. Our analysis distinguished three reaction elasticity regions for common biochemical reactions: a steep linear region (0> ΔGr >-2 kJ/mol, a transition region (-2> ΔGr >-20 kJ/mol and a constant elasticity region (ΔGr <-20 kJ/mol. We also applied this framework to model more complex kinetic behaviours such as the monomeric cooperativity of the mammalian glucokinase and the ultrasensitive response of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. In both cases, our approach described appropriately not only

  6. Parturition in Tsetse Flies: Endocrine Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zd' arek, J; Cvacka, J; Sanda, M [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, AV CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Takac, P; Keszeliova, D; Simo, L; Roller, L [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    A problem in tsetse mass rearing facilities is the increased incidence of abortions of underdeveloped larvae or pupariation of larvae within the mother's uterus. We analysed the problem by investigating neural, hormonal and environmental factors controlling parturition. Input from the mother's brain is essential for normal parturition, since a female whose brain is disconnected by ligation fails to deposit her larva. The expulsion of a larva is stimulated by a putative parturition hormone present within the female's uterus. The hormone also elicits abortion when injected into neck ligated females at earlier stages of pregnancy. This report describes attempts to reveal the chemical nature of this hormone by purification of extracts of uteri of Glossina females and identification of behaviourally active fractions using a MALDI-MS instrument. Genomic (BLAST) analysis of the identified sequences did not reveal a significant match with any protein with bioactive properties in other species. However, similarity with various enzymes or structural proteins (and hypothetical proteins) was detected occasionally. In the Glossina genomic and cDNA databases no nucleotide sequence corresponding to the deduced AA sequences was found. Perhaps the deduced sequences are too short to obtain more significant hits both in protein and nucleotide databases. We also made investigations to elucidate environmental influences and physiological mechanisms associated with tsetse parturition. We found that the circadian rhythm of parturition of flies kept in Bratislava (G. m. morsitans, G. f. fuscipes and G. pallidipes) is less pronounced than under natural conditions. The loss of synchrony in the laboratory may have three possible causes: (i) genetic - absence of selective pressure, (ii) environmental - low intensity or absence of an entraining light or temperature stimulus, and (iii) physiological - impaired sensitivity to olfactory stimulation by a hypothetical 'oviposition' pheromone that

  7. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  9. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  10. Zlib: A numerical library for optimal design of truncated power series algebra and map parameterization routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.

    1996-11-01

    A brief review of the Zlib development is given. Emphasized is the Zlib nerve system which uses the One-Step Index Pointers (OSIPs) for efficient computation and flexible use of the Truncated Power Series Algebra (TPSA). Also emphasized is the treatment of parameterized maps with an object-oriented language (e.g. C++). A parameterized map can be a Vector Power Series (Vps) or a Lie generator represented by an exponent of a Truncated Power Series (Tps) of which each coefficient is an object of truncated power series

  11. Impact of model structure and parameterization on Penman-Monteith type evaporation models

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, A.; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, J.P.; Wood, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Overall, the results illustrate the sensitivity of Penman-Monteith type models to model structure, parameterization choice and biome type. A particular challenge in flux estimation relates to developing robust and broadly applicable model formulations. With many choices available for use, providing guidance on the most appropriate scheme to employ is required to advance approaches for routine global scale flux estimates, undertake hydrometeorological assessments or develop hydrological forecasting tools, amongst many other applications. In such cases, a multi-model ensemble or biome-specific tiled evaporation product may be an appropriate solution, given the inherent variability in model and parameterization choice that is observed within single product estimates.

  12. The bonding of heavy metals on nitric acid-etched coal fly ashes functionalized with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, M.I.; Aller, A.J.; Littlejohn, D.

    2014-01-01

    Coal fly ash is a waste by-product of the coal fire industry, which generates many environmental problems. Alternative uses of this material would provide efficient solutions for this by-product. In this work, nitric acid-etched coal fly ash labelled with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid was assessed for retention of Al(III), As(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Hg(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions. The bonding characteristics between the organic compounds with the solid support, as well as with the metal ions, were evaluated using various surface analytical techniques. Visualization of the organically-functionalized coal fly ash particle was possible using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the elemental composition of the functionalized material, before and after retention of the metal ions, was obtained by energy dispersive (ED)-X ray spectrometry (XRS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and Raman spectrometry were used to obtain information about the functional groups. It was found that some metal(oid) ions (As, Ni, Pb, Zn) were coordinated through the mercaptan group, while other metal(oid)s (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn) were apparently bonded to oxygen atoms. A low-cost and effective solid phase retention system for extraction of heavy metals from aqueous solutions was thus developed. - Graphical abstract: Nitric acid-etched coal fly ash labelled with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid was intended for the retention of heavy metals. The bonding characteristics between the organic compounds with the solid support, as well as with the metal ions, were evaluated using surface analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Coal fly ashes were organically-functionalized. • Organically-functionalized coal fly ashes were spectrometrically characterized. • Organically-functionalized coal fly ashes can be used as an effective solid sorbent for metal(oid)s. • This retention

  13. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  14. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  15. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  16. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  17. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  18. Parameterization of ion-induced nucleation rates based on ambient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nieminen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ions participate in the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles, yet their exact role in this process has remained unclear. Here we derive a new simple parameterization for ion-induced nucleation or, more precisely, for the formation rate of charged 2-nm particles. The parameterization is semi-empirical in the sense that it is based on comprehensive results of one-year-long atmospheric cluster and particle measurements in the size range ~1–42 nm within the EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions project. Data from 12 field sites across Europe measured with different types of air ion and cluster mobility spectrometers were used in our analysis, with more in-depth analysis made using data from four stations with concomitant sulphuric acid measurements. The parameterization is given in two slightly different forms: a more accurate one that requires information on sulfuric acid and nucleating organic vapor concentrations, and a simpler one in which this information is replaced with the global radiation intensity. These new parameterizations are applicable to all large-scale atmospheric models containing size-resolved aerosol microphysics, and a scheme to calculate concentrations of sulphuric acid, condensing organic vapours and cluster ions.

  19. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, S M

    2004-01-21

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.

  20. Evaluating parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer using field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat and water transfer have a significant impact on the accuracy of models of land – atmosphere interactions and of estimated surface fluxes using spectro-radiometric data collected from aircrafts and satellites. We have used measurements from an eddy correlation system to derive the aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer over a bare soil surface as well as over a maize canopy. Diurnal variations of aerodynamic resistance have been analyzed. The results showed that the diurnal variation of aerodynamic resistance during daytime (07:00 h–18:00 h was significant for both the bare soil surface and the maize canopy although the range of variation was limited. Based on the measurements made by the eddy correlation system, a comprehensive evaluation of eight popularly used parameterization schemes of aerodynamic resistance was carried out. The roughness length for heat transfer is a crucial parameter in the estimation of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer and can neither be taken as a constant nor be neglected. Comparing with the measurements, the parameterizations by Choudhury et al. (1986, Viney (1991, Yang et al. (2001 and the modified forms of Verma et al. (1976 and Mahrt and Ek (1984 by inclusion of roughness length for heat transfer gave good agreements with the measurements, while the parameterizations by Hatfield et al. (1983 and Xie (1988 showed larger errors even though the roughness length for heat transfer has been taken into account.

  1. Impact of different parameterization schemes on simulation of mesoscale convective system over south-east India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhulatha, A.; Rajeevan, M.

    2018-02-01

    Main objective of the present paper is to examine the role of various parameterization schemes in simulating the evolution of mesoscale convective system (MCS) occurred over south-east India. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, numerical experiments are conducted by considering various planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and cumulus parameterization schemes. Performances of different schemes are evaluated by examining boundary layer, reflectivity, and precipitation features of MCS using ground-based and satellite observations. Among various physical parameterization schemes, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) boundary layer scheme is able to produce deep boundary layer height by simulating warm temperatures necessary for storm initiation; Thompson (THM) microphysics scheme is capable to simulate the reflectivity by reasonable distribution of different hydrometeors during various stages of system; Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) cumulus scheme is able to capture the precipitation by proper representation of convective instability associated with MCS. Present analysis suggests that MYJ, a local turbulent kinetic energy boundary layer scheme, which accounts strong vertical mixing; THM, a six-class hybrid moment microphysics scheme, which considers number concentration along with mixing ratio of rain hydrometeors; and BMJ, a closure cumulus scheme, which adjusts thermodynamic profiles based on climatological profiles might have contributed for better performance of respective model simulations. Numerical simulation carried out using the above combination of schemes is able to capture storm initiation, propagation, surface variations, thermodynamic structure, and precipitation features reasonably well. This study clearly demonstrates that the simulation of MCS characteristics is highly sensitive to the choice of parameterization schemes.

  2. Ocean's response to Hurricane Frances and its implications for drag coefficient parameterization at high wind speeds

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, S. E.

    2009-04-25

    The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10 -3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Multi-sensor remote sensing parameterization of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faivre, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    The parameterization of heat transfer by remote sensing, and based on SEBS scheme for turbulent heat fluxes retrieval, already proved to be very convenient for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) over homogeneous land surfaces. However, the use of such a method over heterogeneous landscapes (e.g.

  4. Inclusion of Solar Elevation Angle in Land Surface Albedo Parameterization Over Bare Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiyuan; Wei, Zhigang; Wen, Zhiping; Dong, Wenjie; Li, Zhenchao; Wen, Xiaohang; Zhu, Xian; Ji, Dong; Chen, Chen; Yan, Dongdong

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo is a significant parameter for maintaining a balance in surface energy. It is also an important parameter of bare soil surface albedo for developing land surface process models that accurately reflect diurnal variation characteristics and the mechanism behind the solar spectral radiation albedo on bare soil surfaces and for understanding the relationships between climate factors and spectral radiation albedo. Using a data set of field observations, we conducted experiments to analyze the variation characteristics of land surface solar spectral radiation and the corresponding albedo over a typical Gobi bare soil underlying surface and to investigate the relationships between the land surface solar spectral radiation albedo, solar elevation angle, and soil moisture. Based on both solar elevation angle and soil moisture measurements simultaneously, we propose a new two-factor parameterization scheme for spectral radiation albedo over bare soil underlying surfaces. The results of numerical simulation experiments show that the new parameterization scheme can more accurately depict the diurnal variation characteristics of bare soil surface albedo than the previous schemes. Solar elevation angle is one of the most important factors for parameterizing bare soil surface albedo and must be considered in the parameterization scheme, especially in arid and semiarid areas with low soil moisture content. This study reveals the characteristics and mechanism of the diurnal variation of bare soil surface solar spectral radiation albedo and is helpful in developing land surface process models, weather models, and climate models.

  5. Assessing Impact, DIF, and DFF in Accommodated Item Scores: A Comparison of Multilevel Measurement Model Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Lockhart, L. Leland; Kaye, Alyssa D.

    2012-01-01

    This pedagogical article is intended to explain the similarities and differences between the parameterizations of two multilevel measurement model (MMM) frameworks. The conventional two-level MMM that includes item indicators and models item scores (Level 1) clustered within examinees (Level 2) and the two-level cross-classified MMM (in which item…

  6. Integrated cumulus ensemble and turbulence (ICET): An integrated parameterization system for general circulation models (GCMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.L.; Frank, W.M.; Young, G.S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Successful simulations of the global circulation and climate require accurate representation of the properties of shallow and deep convective clouds, stable-layer clouds, and the interactions between various cloud types, the boundary layer, and the radiative fluxes. Each of these phenomena play an important role in the global energy balance, and each must be parameterized in a global climate model. These processes are highly interactive. One major problem limiting the accuracy of parameterizations of clouds and other processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is that most of the parameterization packages are not linked with a common physical basis. Further, these schemes have not, in general, been rigorously verified against observations adequate to the task of resolving subgrid-scale effects. To address these problems, we are designing a new Integrated Cumulus Ensemble and Turbulence (ICET) parameterization scheme, installing it in a climate model (CCM2), and evaluating the performance of the new scheme using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites.

  7. Incorporating field wind data to improve crop evapotranspiration parameterization in heterogeneous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate parameterization of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is necessary for optimizing irrigation scheduling and avoiding costs associated with over-irrigation (water expense, loss of water productivity, energy costs, pollution) or with under-irrigation (crop stress and suboptimal yields or qua...

  8. Efficient Parameterization for Grey-box Model Identification of Complex Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    Grey box model identification preserves known physical structures in a model but with limits to the possible excitation, all parameters are rarely identifiable, and different parametrizations give significantly different model quality. Convenient methods to show which parameterizations are the be...... that need be constrained to achieve satisfactory convergence. Identification of nonlinear models for a ship illustrate the concept....

  9. Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in WRF Model:Sensitivity to Autoconversion Parameterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小宁; 刘晓东

    2015-01-01

    Cloud-to-rain autoconversion process is an important player in aerosol loading, cloud morphology, and precipitation variations because it can modulate cloud microphysical characteristics depending on the par-ticipation of aerosols, and aff ects the spatio-temporal distribution and total amount of precipitation. By applying the Kessler, the Khairoutdinov-Kogan (KK), and the Dispersion autoconversion parameterization schemes in a set of sensitivity experiments, the indirect eff ects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation are investigated for a deep convective cloud system in Beijing under various aerosol concentration backgrounds from 50 to 10000 cm−3. Numerical experiments show that aerosol-induced precipitation change is strongly dependent on autoconversion parameterization schemes. For the Kessler scheme, the average cumulative precipitation is enhanced slightly with increasing aerosols, whereas surface precipitation is reduced signifi-cantly with increasing aerosols for the KK scheme. Moreover, precipitation varies non-monotonically for the Dispersion scheme, increasing with aerosols at lower concentrations and decreasing at higher concentrations. These diff erent trends of aerosol-induced precipitation change are mainly ascribed to diff erences in rain wa-ter content under these three autoconversion parameterization schemes. Therefore, this study suggests that accurate parameterization of cloud microphysical processes, particularly the cloud-to-rain autoconversion process, is needed for improving the scientifi c understanding of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions.

  10. Modelling heterogeneous ice nucleation on mineral dust and soot with parameterizations based on laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoose, C.; Hande, L. B.; Mohler, O.; Niemand, M.; Paukert, M.; Reichardt, I.; Ullrich, R.

    2016-12-01

    Between 0 and -37°C, ice formation in clouds is triggered by aerosol particles acting as heterogeneous ice nuclei. At lower temperatures, heterogeneous ice nucleation on aerosols can occur at lower supersaturations than homogeneous freezing of solutes. In laboratory experiments, the ability of different aerosol species (e.g. desert dusts, soot, biological particles) has been studied in detail and quantified via various theoretical or empirical parameterization approaches. For experiments in the AIDA cloud chamber, we have quantified the ice nucleation efficiency via a temperature- and supersaturation dependent ice nucleation active site density. Here we present a new empirical parameterization scheme for immersion and deposition ice nucleation on desert dust and soot based on these experimental data. The application of this parameterization to the simulation of cirrus clouds, deep convective clouds and orographic clouds will be shown, including the extension of the scheme to the treatment of freezing of rain drops. The results are compared to other heterogeneous ice nucleation schemes. Furthermore, an aerosol-dependent parameterization of contact ice nucleation is presented.

  11. Parameterizing Subgrid-Scale Orographic Drag in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.

  12. Framework to parameterize and validate APEX to support deployment of the nutrient tracking tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelines have been developed to parameterize and validate the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) to support the Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT). This follow-up paper presents 1) a case study to illustrate how the developed guidelines are applied in a headwater watershed located in cent...

  13. Impact of APEX parameterization and soil data on runoff, sediment, and nutrients transport assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological models have become essential tools for environmental assessments. This study’s objective was to evaluate a best professional judgment (BPJ) parameterization of the Agricultural Policy and Environmental eXtender (APEX) model with soil-survey data against the calibrated model with either ...

  14. A unified spectral parameterization for wave breaking: From the deep ocean to the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipot, J.-F.; Ardhuin, F.

    2012-11-01

    A new wave-breaking dissipation parameterization designed for phase-averaged spectral wave models is presented. It combines wave breaking basic physical quantities, namely, the breaking probability and the dissipation rate per unit area. The energy lost by waves is first explicitly calculated in physical space before being distributed over the relevant spectral components. The transition from deep to shallow water is made possible by using a dissipation rate per unit area of breaking waves that varies with the wave height, wavelength and water depth. This parameterization is implemented in the WAVEWATCH III modeling framework, which is applied to a wide range of conditions and scales, from the global ocean to the beach scale. Wave height, peak and mean periods, and spectral data are validated using in situ and remote sensing data. Model errors are comparable to those of other specialized deep or shallow water parameterizations. This work shows that it is possible to have a seamless parameterization from the deep ocean to the surf zone.

  15. A new albedo parameterization for use in climate models over the Antarctic ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Flanner, M.G.; Gardner, A.S.; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611

    2011-01-01

    A parameterization for broadband snow surface albedo, based on snow grain size evolution, cloud optical thickness, and solar zenith angle, is implemented into a regional climate model for Antarctica and validated against field observations of albedo for the period 1995–2004. Over the Antarctic

  16. An Evaluation of Lightning Flash Rate Parameterizations Based on Observations of Colorado Storms during DC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarab, B.; Fuchs, B.; Rutledge, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting lightning activity in thunderstorms is important in order to accurately quantify the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) by lightning (LNOx). Lightning is an important global source of NOx, and since NOx is a chemical precursor to ozone, the climatological impacts of LNOx could be significant. Many cloud-resolving models rely on parameterizations to predict lightning and LNOx since the processes leading to charge separation and lightning discharge are not yet fully understood. This study evaluates predicted flash rates based on existing lightning parameterizations against flash rates observed for Colorado storms during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3). Evaluating lightning parameterizations against storm observations is a useful way to possibly improve the prediction of flash rates and LNOx in models. Additionally, since convective storms that form in the eastern plains of Colorado can be different thermodynamically and electrically from storms in other regions, it is useful to test existing parameterizations against observations from these storms. We present an analysis of the dynamics, microphysics, and lightning characteristics of two case studies, severe storms that developed on 6 and 7 June 2012. This analysis includes dual-Doppler derived horizontal and vertical velocities, a hydrometeor identification based on polarimetric radar variables using the CSU-CHILL radar, and insight into the charge structure using observations from the northern Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). Flash rates were inferred from the LMA data using a flash counting algorithm. We have calculated various microphysical and dynamical parameters for these storms that have been used in empirical flash rate parameterizations. In particular, maximum vertical velocity has been used to predict flash rates in some cloud-resolving chemistry simulations. We diagnose flash rates for the 6 and 7 June storms using this parameterization and compare

  17. Regional modelling of tracer transport by tropical convection – Part 1: Sensitivity to convection parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arteta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this series of papers is to evaluate long duration limited area simulations with idealised tracers as a tool to assess tracer transport in chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this first paper, we analyse the results of six simulations using different convection closures and parameterizations. The simulations are using the Grell and Dévényi (2002 mass-flux framework for the convection parameterization with different closures (Grell = GR, Arakawa-Shubert = AS, Kain-Fritch = KF, Low omega = LO, Moisture convergence = MC and an ensemble parameterization (EN based on the other five closures. The simulations are run for one month during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign lead from Darwin (Australia. They have a 60 km horizontal resolution and a fine vertical resolution in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Meteorological results are compared with satellite products, radiosoundings and SCOUT-O3 aircraft campaign data. They show that the model is generally in good agreement with the measurements with less variability in the model. Except for the precipitation field, the differences between the six simulations are small on average with respect to the differences with the meteorological observations. The comparison with TRMM rainrates shows that the six parameterizations or closures have similar behaviour concerning convection triggering times and locations. However, the 6 simulations provide two different behaviours for rainfall values, with the EN, AS and KF parameterizations (Group 1 modelling better rain fields than LO, MC and GR (Group 2. The vertical distribution of tropospheric tracers is very different for the two groups showing significantly more transport into the TTL for Group 1 related to the larger average values of the upward velocities. Nevertheless the low values for the Group 1 fluxes at and above the cold point level indicate that the model does not simulate significant overshooting. For stratospheric tracers

  18. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  19. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  20. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  1. Ozonolysis of α-pinene: parameterization of secondary organic aerosol mass fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pathak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing parameterizations tend to underpredict the α-pinene aerosol mass fraction (AMF or yield by a factor of 2–5 at low organic aerosol concentrations (<5 µg m−3. A wide range of smog chamber results obtained at various conditions (low/high NOx, presence/absence of UV radiation, dry/humid conditions, and temperatures ranging from 15–40°C collected by various research teams during the last decade are used to derive new parameterizations of the SOA formation from α-pinene ozonolysis. Parameterizations are developed by fitting experimental data to a basis set of saturation concentrations (from 10−2 to 104 µg m−3 using an absorptive equilibrium partitioning model. Separate parameterizations for α-pinene SOA mass fractions are developed for: 1 Low NOx, dark, and dry conditions, 2 Low NOx, UV, and dry conditions, 3 Low NOx, dark, and high RH conditions, 4 High NOx, dark, and dry conditions, 5 High NOx, UV, and dry conditions. According to the proposed parameterizations the α-pinene SOA mass fractions in an atmosphere with 5 µg m−3 of organic aerosol range from 0.032 to 0.1 for reacted α-pinene concentrations in the 1 ppt to 5 ppb range.

  2. Parameterization of Rocket Dust Storms on Mars in the LMD Martian GCM: Modeling Details and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Forget, François; Bertrand, Tanguy; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Navarro, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the detached dust layers observed by the Mars Climate Sounder aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is still debated. Spiga et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20046) revealed that deep mesoscale convective "rocket dust storms" are likely to play an important role in forming these dust layers. To investigate how the detached dust layers are generated by this mesoscale phenomenon and subsequently evolve at larger scales, a parameterization of rocket dust storms to represent the mesoscale dust convection is designed and included into the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) Martian Global Climate Model (GCM). The new parameterization allows dust particles in the GCM to be transported to higher altitudes than in traditional GCMs. Combined with the horizontal transport by large-scale winds, the dust particles spread out and form detached dust layers. During the Martian dusty seasons, the LMD GCM with the new parameterization is able to form detached dust layers. The formation, evolution, and decay of the simulated dust layers are largely in agreement with the Mars Climate Sounder observations. This suggests that mesoscale rocket dust storms are among the key factors to explain the observed detached dust layers on Mars. However, the detached dust layers remain absent in the GCM during the clear seasons, even with the new parameterization. This implies that other relevant atmospheric processes, operating when no dust storms are occurring, are needed to explain the Martian detached dust layers. More observations of local dust storms could improve the ad hoc aspects of this parameterization, such as the trigger and timing of dust injection.

  3. Mechanically activated fly ash as a high performance binder for civil engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, D; Kullová, L; Čekalová, M; Novotný, P; Pola, M

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed for investigation of fly ash binder with suitable properties for civil engineering needs. The fly ash from Czech brown coal power plant Prunerov II was used and mechanically activated to achieve suitable particle size for alkaline activation of hardening process. This process is driven by dissolution of aluminosilicate content of fly ash and by subsequent development of inorganic polymeric network called geopolymer. Hardening kinetics at 25 and 30 °C were measured by strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry with strain of 0.01 % and microstructure of hardened binder was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Strength development of hardened binder was investigated according to compressional and flexural strength for a period of 180 days. Our investigation finds out, that mechanically activated fly ash can be comparable to metakaolin geopolymers, according to setting time and mechanical parameters even at room temperature curing. Moreover, on the bases of long time strength development, achieved compressional strength of 134.5 after 180 days is comparable to performance of high grade Portland cement concretes. (paper)

  4. Radon induced radiological impact of coal, fly ash and cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Sharma, G.S.; Chakravarti, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Coal and its by-product fly ash are technologically important materials being used for power generation and in the manufacture of bricks, sheets, cement, land-filling, etc., respectively. Increased interest in measuring radon concentration in coal, fly ash and cement is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution. As the presence of radon in the environment (indoor and outdoor), soil, ground water, oil and gas deposits contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations, tracking its concentration is thus of paramount importance for radiological protection. Samples of coal and fly ash were collected from different thermal power stations in northern India and cement samples from National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh (Haryana), India and were analysed for radon concentration. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Based upon the available data, the annual effective dose and the lifetime fatality risk factors have been calculated. The radon concentration from coal samples varied from 433 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 2086 ± 28 Bqm -3 . The radon concentration from fly ash samples varied from 748 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 1417 ± 111 Bqm -3 and from 158 Bqm -3 to 1810 Bqm -3 in cement samples, with an average of 624 ± 169 Bqm -3 . (author)

  5. Blow flies as urban wildlife sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Rodríguez, Pablo; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2018-05-01

    Wildlife detection in urban areas is very challenging. Conventional monitoring techniques such as direct observation are faced with the limitation that urban wildlife is extremely elusive. It was recently shown that invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) can be used to assess wildlife diversity in tropical rainforests. Flies, which are ubiquitous and very abundant in most cities, may also be used to detect wildlife in urban areas. In urban ecosystems, however, overwhelming quantities of domestic mammal DNA could completely mask the presence of wild mammal DNA. To test whether urban wild mammals can be detected using fly iDNA, we performed DNA metabarcoding of pools of flies captured in Berlin, Germany, using three combinations of blocking primers. Our results show that domestic animal sequences are, as expected, very dominant in urban environments. Nevertheless, wild mammal sequences can often be retrieved, although they usually only represent a minor fraction of the sequence reads. Fly iDNA metabarcoding is therefore a viable approach for quick scans of urban wildlife diversity. Interestingly, our study also shows that blocking primers can interact with each other in ways that affect the outcome of metabarcoding. We conclude that the use of complex combinations of blocking primers, although potentially powerful, should be carefully planned when designing experiments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The peaks observed at 1546 and 1511 cm−1 correspond to CO3. 2- group. Symmetric .... The values of RL reported in Table 5 obtained were less than one, indicating that the adsorption of eosin dye ... This work. Coal fly ash. Crystal Violet.

  7. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  8. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  9. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  10. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  11. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to attempt making zeolite from fly ash (Höller and Wir- sching 1985; Henmi ... thermal treatment method to synthesize low silica NaX- type zeolite from .... catalytic applications. Mixture of ... amount of Fe2O3 and the oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti etc. The chemical ..... This work is partly supported by the Ministry of Human. Resource ...

  12. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  13. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  14. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.

  15. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  16. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of elevated temperature variation on the compressive strength of Fly Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Laterized concrete ... and 10% Fly ash content at 2500C. This is an indication that the strength of Fly ash/OPC Laterized concrete is generally sufficient for use at elevated temperature ...

  17. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  18. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  19. Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eucalyptol were evaluated against the house fly, Musca domestica L., and blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.. The bioassay of adults, using topical application, indicated that M. domestica males were more susceptible than females, with the LD50 being 118 and 177 mg/fly, respectively. A higher LD50 of C. megacephala was obtained; 197 mg/fly for males and 221 mg/fly for females. Living flies of both species yielded a shorter life span after being treated with eucalyptol. The bioassay of larvae, using the dipping method on the third instar, showed that M. domestica was more susceptible than C. megacephala, with their LC50 being 101 and 642 mg/ml, respectively. The emergence of adults, which had been treated with eucalyptol in larvae, decreased only in M. domestica. Having the volatile property, fumigation or impregnated paper test of eucalyptol or the efficacy of repellence or attractiveness merits further investigations to enhance bio-insecticidal efficacy.

  20. Splitting turbulence algorithm for mixing parameterization embedded in the ocean climate model. Examples of data assimilation and Prandtl number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Zalesny, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Series of experiments were performed with a three-dimensional, free surface, sigma coordinate eddy-permitting ocean circulation model for Atlantic (from 30°S) - Arctic and Bering sea domain (0.25 degrees resolution, Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model or INMOM) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence (40 sigma-levels). The model variables are horizontal velocity components, potential temperature, and salinity as well as free surface height. For parameterization of viscosity and diffusivity, the original splitting turbulence algorithm (STA) is used when total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF) split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage the analytical solution was obtained for TKE and TDF as functions of the buoyancy and velocity shift frequencies (BF and VSF). The proposed model with STA is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. For mixing simulation in the zone of turbulence decay, the two kind numerical experiments were carried out, as with assimilation of annual mean climatic buoyancy frequency, as with variation of Prandtl number function dependence upon the BF, VSF, TKE and TDF. The CORE-II data for 1948-2009 were used for experiments. Quality of temperature T and salinity S structure simulation is estimated by the comparison of model monthly profiles T and S averaged for 1980-2009, with T and S monthly data from the World Ocean Atlas 2013. Form of coefficients in equations for TKE and TDF on the generation-dissipation stage makes it possible to assimilate annual mean climatic buoyancy frequency in a varying degree that cardinally improves adequacy of model results to climatic data in all analyzed model domain. The numerical experiments with modified

  1. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  2. CD4+ T cell epitopes of FliC conserved between strains of Burkholderia: implications for vaccines against melioidosis and cepacia complex in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Julie A; Reynolds, Catherine J; Rinchai, Darawan; Nithichanon, Arnone; Khaenam, Prasong; Favry, Emmanuel; Spink, Natasha; Chu, Karen K Y; De Soyza, Anthony; Bancroft, Gregory J; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M; Robinson, John H

    2014-12-15

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis characterized by pneumonia and fatal septicemia and prevalent in Southeast Asia. Related Burkholderia species are strong risk factors of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). The B. pseudomallei flagellar protein FliC is strongly seroreactive and vaccination protects challenged mice. We assessed B. pseudomallei FliC peptide binding affinity to multiple HLA class II alleles and then assessed CD4 T cell immunity in HLA class II transgenic mice and in seropositive individuals in Thailand. T cell hybridomas were generated to investigate cross-reactivity between B. pseudomallei and the related Burkholderia species associated with Cepacia Complex CF. B. pseudomallei FliC contained several peptide sequences with ability to bind multiple HLA class II alleles. Several peptides were shown to encompass strong CD4 T cell epitopes in B. pseudomallei-exposed individuals and in HLA transgenic mice. In particular, the p38 epitope is robustly recognized by CD4 T cells of seropositive donors across diverse HLA haplotypes. T cell hybridomas against an immunogenic B. pseudomallei FliC epitope also cross-reacted with orthologous FliC sequences from Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia, important pathogens in CF. Epitopes within FliC were accessible for processing and presentation from live or heat-killed bacteria, demonstrating that flagellin enters the HLA class II Ag presentation pathway during infection of macrophages with B. cenocepacia. Collectively, the data support the possibility of incorporating FliC T cell epitopes into vaccination programs targeting both at-risk individuals in B. pseudomallei endemic regions as well as CF patients. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  4. Removal of Cr6 + and Ni2+ from aqueous solution using bagasse and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M; Parwate, A V; Bhole, A G

    2002-01-01

    Raw bagasse and fly ash, the waste generated in sugar mills and boilers respectively have been used as low-cost potential adsorbents. Raw bagasse was pretreated with 0.1N NaOH followed by 0.1N CH3COOH before its application. These low-cost adsorbents were used for the removal of chromium and nickel from an aqueous solution. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at equilibrium are dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate and experimental system. The effect of hydrogen ion concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, initial concentrations of adsorbate and adsorbent and particle size on the uptake of chromium and nickel were studied in batch experiments. The Sorption data has been correlated with Langmuir, Freundlich and Bhattacharya and Venkobachar adsorption models. The efficiencies of adsorbent materials for the removal of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) were found to be between 56.2 and 96.2% and 83.6 and 100%, respectively. These results were obtained at the optimized conditions of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, sorbate concentration of 100 mg/l and with the variation of adsorbent particles size between 0.075 and 4.75 mm. The order of selectivity is powdered activated carbon > bagasse > fly ash for Cr(VI) removal and powdered activated carbon > fly ash > bagasse for Ni(II) removal.

  5. A linear CO chemistry parameterization in a chemistry-transport model: evaluation and application to data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claeyman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of a new linear parameterization valid for the troposphere and the stratosphere, based on a first order approximation of the carbon monoxide (CO continuity equation. This linear scheme (hereinafter noted LINCO has been implemented in the 3-D Chemical Transport Model (CTM MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmospherique Grande Echelle. First, a one and a half years of LINCO simulation has been compared to output obtained from a detailed chemical scheme output. The mean differences between both schemes are about ±25 ppbv (part per billion by volume or 15% in the troposphere and ±10 ppbv or 100% in the stratosphere. Second, LINCO has been compared to diverse observations from satellite instruments covering the troposphere (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere: MOPITT and the stratosphere (Microwave Limb Sounder: MLS and also from aircraft (Measurements of ozone and water vapour by Airbus in-service aircraft: MOZAIC programme mostly flying in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. In the troposphere, the LINCO seasonal variations as well as the vertical and horizontal distributions are quite close to MOPITT CO observations. However, a bias of ~−40 ppbv is observed at 700 Pa between LINCO and MOPITT. In the stratosphere, MLS and LINCO present similar large-scale patterns, except over the poles where the CO concentration is underestimated by the model. In the UTLS, LINCO presents small biases less than 2% compared to independent MOZAIC profiles. Third, we assimilated MOPITT CO using a variational 3D-FGAT (First Guess at Appropriate Time method in conjunction with MOCAGE for a long run of one and a half years. The data assimilation greatly improves the vertical CO distribution in the troposphere from 700 to 350 hPa compared to independent MOZAIC profiles. At 146 hPa, the assimilated CO distribution is also improved compared to MLS observations by reducing the bias up to a factor of 2 in the tropics

  6. Impact of model structure and parameterization on Penman-Monteith type evaporation models

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, A.

    2015-04-12

    The impact of model structure and parameterization on the estimation of evaporation is investigated across a range of Penman-Monteith type models. To examine the role of model structure on flux retrievals, three different retrieval schemes are compared. The schemes include a traditional single-source Penman-Monteith model (Monteith, 1965), a two-layer model based on Shuttleworth and Wallace (1985) and a three-source model based on Mu et al. (2011). To assess the impact of parameterization choice on model performance, a number of commonly used formulations for aerodynamic and surface resistances were substituted into the different formulations. Model response to these changes was evaluated against data from twenty globally distributed FLUXNET towers, representing a cross-section of biomes that include grassland, cropland, shrubland, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. Scenarios based on 14 different combinations of model structure and parameterization were ranked based on their mean value of Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Results illustrated considerable variability in model performance both within and between biome types. Indeed, no single model consistently outperformed any other when considered across all biomes. For instance, in grassland and shrubland sites, the single-source Penman-Monteith model performed the best. In croplands it was the three-source Mu model, while for evergreen needleleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests, the Shuttleworth-Wallace model rated highest. Interestingly, these top ranked scenarios all shared the simple lookup-table based surface resistance parameterization of Mu et al. (2011), while a more complex Jarvis multiplicative method for surface resistance produced lower ranked simulations. The highly ranked scenarios mostly employed a version of the Thom (1975) formulation for aerodynamic resistance that incorporated dynamic values of roughness parameters. This was true for all cases except over deciduous broadleaf

  7. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  8. Description and Flight Test Results of the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A NASA program to develop digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) technology for aircraft applications is discussed. Phase I of the program demonstrated the feasibility of using a digital fly-by-wire system for aircraft control through developing and flight testing a single channel system, which used Apollo hardware, in an F-8C airplane. The objective of Phase II of the program is to establish a technology base for designing practical DFBW systems. It will involve developing and flight testing a triplex digital fly-by-wire system using state-of-the-art airborne computers, system hardware, software, and redundancy concepts. The papers included in this report describe the Phase I system and its development and present results from the flight program. Man-rated flight software and the effects of lightning on digital flight control systems are also discussed.

  9. NSLS-II Digital RF Controller Logic and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holub, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gao, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kulpin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marques, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Oliva, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rose, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Towne, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) accelerator consists of the Storage Ring, the Booster Ring and Linac along with their associated cavities. Given the number, types and variety of functions of these cavities, we sought to limit the logic development effort by reuse of parameterized code on one hardware platform. Currently there are six controllers installed in the NSLS-II system. There are two in the Storage ring, two in the Booster ring, one in the Linac and one in the Master Oscillator Distribution system.

  10. Fly ash dynamics in soil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Fulekar, M.H.; Jayalakshmi, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Studies regarding the effluents and coal ashes (or fly ash) resulting from coal burning are numerous, but their disposal and interactions with the soil and water systems and their detailed environmental impact assessment with concrete status reports on a global scale are scanty. Fly ash dynamics in soil and water systems are reviewed. After detailing the physical composition of fly ash, physicochemical changes in soil properties due to fly ash amendment are summarized. Areas covered include texture and bulk density, moisture retention, change in chemical equilibria, and effects of fly ash on soil microorganisms. Plant growth in amended soils is discussed, as well as plant uptake and accumulation of trace elements. In order to analyze the effect of fly ash on the physicochemical properties of water, several factors must be considered, including surface morphology of fly ash, pH of the ash sluice water, pH adjustments, leachability and solubility, and suspended ash and settling. The dynamics of fly ash in water systems is important due to pollution of groundwater resources from toxic components such as trace metals. Other factors summarized are bioaccumulation and biomagnification, human health effects of contaminants, and the impact of radionuclides in fly ash. Future research needs should focus on reduction of the environmental impact of fly ash and increasing utilization of fly ash as a soil amendment. 110 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/targe...t/FLI1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Bl

  13. Development of a cloud microphysical model and parameterizations to describe the effect of CCN on warm cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kuba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available First, a hybrid cloud microphysical model was developed that incorporates both Lagrangian and Eulerian frameworks to study quantitatively the effect of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN on the precipitation of warm clouds. A parcel model and a grid model comprise the cloud model. The condensation growth of CCN in each parcel is estimated in a Lagrangian framework. Changes in cloud droplet size distribution arising from condensation and coalescence are calculated on grid points using a two-moment bin method in a semi-Lagrangian framework. Sedimentation and advection are estimated in the Eulerian framework between grid points. Results from the cloud model show that an increase in the number of CCN affects both the amount and the area of precipitation. Additionally, results from the hybrid microphysical model and Kessler's parameterization were compared. Second, new parameterizations were developed that estimate the number and size distribution of cloud droplets given the updraft velocity and the number of CCN. The parameterizations were derived from the results of numerous numerical experiments that used the cloud microphysical parcel model. The input information of CCN for these parameterizations is only several values of CCN spectrum (they are given by CCN counter for example. It is more convenient than conventional parameterizations those need values concerned with CCN spectrum, C and k in the equation of N=CSk, or, breadth, total number and median radius, for example. The new parameterizations' predictions of initial cloud droplet size distribution for the bin method were verified by using the aforesaid hybrid microphysical model. The newly developed parameterizations will save computing time, and can effectively approximate components of cloud microphysics in a non-hydrostatic cloud model. The parameterizations are useful not only in the bin method in the regional cloud-resolving model but also both for a two-moment bulk microphysical model and

  14. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity of aerosol indirect forcing and autoconversion to cloud droplet parameterization: an assessment with the NASA Global Modeling Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, R. P.; Meshkhidze, N.; Nenes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The aerosol indirect forcing is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in assessments of anthropogenic climate change [IPCC, 2001]. Much of this uncertainty arises from the approach used for linking cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) to precursor aerosol. Global Climate Models (GCM) use a wide range of cloud droplet activation mechanisms ranging from empirical [Boucher and Lohmann, 1995] to detailed physically- based formulations [e.g., Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, 2000; Fountoukis and Nenes, 2005]. The objective of this study is to assess the uncertainties in indirect forcing and autoconversion of cloud water to rain caused by the application of different cloud droplet parameterization mechanisms; this is an important step towards constraining the aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Here we estimate the uncertainty in indirect forcing and autoconversion rate using the NASA Global Model Initiative (GMI). The GMI allows easy interchange of meteorological fields, chemical mechanisms and the aerosol microphysical packages. Therefore, it is an ideal tool for assessing the effect of different parameters on aerosol indirect forcing. The aerosol module includes primary emissions, chemical production of sulfate in clear air and in-cloud aqueous phase, gravitational sedimentation, dry deposition, wet scavenging in and below clouds, and hygroscopic growth. Model inputs include SO2 (fossil fuel and natural), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust and sea salt. The meteorological data used in this work were taken from the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) and two different GCMs: the NASA GEOS4 finite volume GCM (FVGCM) and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies version II' (GISS II') GCM. Simulations were carried out for "present day" and "preindustrial" emissions using different meteorological fields (i.e. DAO, FVGCM, GISS II'); cloud droplet number concentration is computed from the correlations of Boucher and Lohmann [1995], Abdul-Razzak and Ghan [2000

  16. Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Kakaras, E. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Karangelos, D.; Anagnostakis, M.; Hinis, E. [Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The main characteristics of fly ash from Greek coal-fired boilers are presented in this paper in relation to its exploitation potential. Both fuel and fly ash samples were collected and analyzed according to the ASTM Standards. Apart from the typical analyses (proximate, ultimate, ash analysis and calorific value), an ICP-AES spectrometer was used for the analysis of heavy metals in the ash. Experimental measurements in order to determine the radioactivity content of raw fuel and the fly ash were carried out as well. A representative fly ash sample from Ptolemais power plant was evaluated and tested as filler in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Ashes from the Greek brown coal are classified in type C, most of the fly ash being produced in Ptolemais of Northern Greece, while the rest in Megalopolis. Ptolemais fly ash is rich in calcium compounds, while Megalopolis fly ash contains more pyrite. Increased heavy metal concentrations are observed in the fly ash samples of Greek coal. Greek fly ash appears to have not only pozzolanic but also hydraulic behaviour. Furthermore, Greek fly ash, depending on its origin, may have relatively high natural radioactivity content, reaching in the case of Megalopolis fly ash 1 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The laboratory results showed that fly ashes can be a competitive substitute to conventional limestone filler material in SCC. Fly ash is mostly used in Greece in cement industry replacing cement clinker and aiming to the production of special types of Portland cements. However, a more aggressive utilisation strategy should be developed, since low quantities of the total produced fly ash are currently further utilised. (author)

  17. Evaluation and Improvement of Cloud and Convective Parameterizations from Analyses of ARM Observations and Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Genio, Anthony D. [NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS), New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Over this period the PI and his performed a broad range of data analysis, model evaluation, and model improvement studies using ARM data. These included cloud regimes in the TWP and their evolution over the MJO; M-PACE IOP SCM-CRM intercomparisons; simulations of convective updraft strength and depth during TWP-ICE; evaluation of convective entrainment parameterizations using TWP-ICE simulations; evaluation of GISS GCM cloud behavior vs. long-term SGP cloud statistics; classification of aerosol semi-direct effects on cloud cover; depolarization lidar constraints on cloud phase; preferred states of the winter Arctic atmosphere, surface, and sub-surface; sensitivity of convection to tropospheric humidity; constraints on the parameterization of mesoscale organization from TWP-ICE WRF simulations; updraft and downdraft properties in TWP-ICE simulated convection; insights from long-term ARM records at Manus and Nauru.

  18. Impact of climate seasonality on catchment yield: A parameterization for commonly-used water balance formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Andréassian, Vazken

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the hydrological impact of the seasonality of precipitation and maximum evaporation: seasonality is, after aridity, a second-order determinant of catchment water yield. Based on a data set of 171 French catchments (where aridity ranged between 0.2 and 1.2), we present a parameterization of three commonly-used water balance formulas (namely, Turc-Mezentsev, Tixeront-Fu and Oldekop formulas) to account for seasonality effects. We quantify the improvement of seasonality-based parameterization in terms of the reconstitution of both catchment streamflow and water yield. The significant improvement obtained (reduction of RMSE between 9 and 14% depending on the formula) demonstrates the importance of climate seasonality in the determination of long-term catchment water balance.

  19. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer parameterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dong; Liu, Yangang

    2014-01-01

    Subgrid-scale variability is one of the main reasons why parameterizations are needed in large-scale models. Although some parameterizations started to address the issue of subgrid variability by introducing a subgrid probability distribution function for relevant quantities, the spatial structure has been typically ignored and thus the subgrid-scale interactions cannot be accounted for physically. Here we present a new statistical-physics-like approach whereby the spatial autocorrelation function can be used to physically capture the net effects of subgrid cloud interaction with radiation. The new approach is able to faithfully reproduce the Monte Carlo 3D simulation results with several orders less computational cost, allowing for more realistic representation of cloud radiation interactions in large-scale models. (letter)

  20. Mesoscale model parameterizations for radiation and turbulent fluxes at the lower boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somieski, F.

    1988-11-01

    A radiation parameterization scheme for use in mesoscale models with orography and clouds has been developed. Broadband parameterizations are presented for the solar and the terrestrial spectral ranges. They account for clear, turbid or cloudy atmospheres. The scheme is one-dimensional in the atmosphere, but the effects of mountains (inclination, shading, elevated horizon) are taken into account at the surface. In the terrestrial band, grey and black clouds are considered. Furthermore, the calculation of turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat and momentum at an inclined lower model boundary is described. Surface-layer similarity and the surface energy budget are used to evaluate the ground surface temperature. The total scheme is part of the mesoscale model MESOSCOP. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs [de

  1. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Liu, Yangang

    2014-12-01

    Subgrid-scale variability is one of the main reasons why parameterizations are needed in large-scale models. Although some parameterizations started to address the issue of subgrid variability by introducing a subgrid probability distribution function for relevant quantities, the spatial structure has been typically ignored and thus the subgrid-scale interactions cannot be accounted for physically. Here we present a new statistical-physics-like approach whereby the spatial autocorrelation function can be used to physically capture the net effects of subgrid cloud interaction with radiation. The new approach is able to faithfully reproduce the Monte Carlo 3D simulation results with several orders less computational cost, allowing for more realistic representation of cloud radiation interactions in large-scale models.

  2. Chebyshev-Taylor Parameterization of Stable/Unstable Manifolds for Periodic Orbits: Implementation and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles James, J. D.; Murray, Maxime

    2017-12-01

    This paper develops a Chebyshev-Taylor spectral method for studying stable/unstable manifolds attached to periodic solutions of differential equations. The work exploits the parameterization method — a general functional analytic framework for studying invariant manifolds. Useful features of the parameterization method include the fact that it can follow folds in the embedding, recovers the dynamics on the manifold through a simple conjugacy, and admits a natural notion of a posteriori error analysis. Our approach begins by deriving a recursive system of linear differential equations describing the Taylor coefficients of the invariant manifold. We represent periodic solutions of these equations as solutions of coupled systems of boundary value problems. We discuss the implementation and performance of the method for the Lorenz system, and for the planar circular restricted three- and four-body problems. We also illustrate the use of the method as a tool for computing cycle-to-cycle connecting orbits.

  3. Application of a planetary wave breaking parameterization to stratospheric circulation statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William J.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1994-01-01

    The planetary wave parameterization scheme developed recently by Garcia is applied to statospheric circulation statistics derived from 12 years of National Meteorological Center operational stratospheric analyses. From the data a planetary wave breaking criterion (based on the ratio of the eddy to zonal mean meridional potential vorticity (PV) gradients), a wave damping rate, and a meridional diffusion coefficient are calculated. The equatorward flank of the polar night jet during winter is identified as a wave breaking region from the observed PV gradients; the region moves poleward with season, covering all high latitudes in spring. Derived damping rates maximize in the subtropical upper stratosphere (the 'surf zone'), with damping time scales of 3-4 days. Maximum diffusion coefficients follow the spatial patterns of the wave breaking criterion, with magnitudes comparable to prior published estimates. Overall, the observed results agree well with the parameterized calculations of Garcia.

  4. On quaternion based parameterization of orientation in computer vision and robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terzakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of orientation parameterization for applications in computer vision and robotics is examined in detail herein. The necessary intuition and formulas are provided for direct practical use in any existing algorithm that seeks to minimize a cost function in an iterative fashion. Two distinct schemes of parameterization are analyzed: The first scheme concerns the traditional axis-angle approach, while the second employs stereographic projection from unit quaternion sphere to the 3D real projective space. Performance measurements are taken and a comparison is made between the two approaches. Results suggests that there exist several benefits in the use of stereographic projection that include rational expressions in the rotation matrix derivatives, improved accuracy, robustness to random starting points and accelerated convergence.

  5. Classification of parameter-dependent quantum integrable models, their parameterization, exact solution and other properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu, Haile K; Yuzbashyan, Emil A

    2011-01-01

    We study general quantum integrable Hamiltonians linear in a coupling constant and represented by finite N x N real symmetric matrices. The restriction on the coupling dependence leads to a natural notion of nontrivial integrals of motion and classification of integrable families into types according to the number of such integrals. A type M family in our definition is formed by N-M nontrivial mutually commuting operators linear in the coupling. Working from this definition alone, we parameterize type M operators, i.e. resolve the commutation relations, and obtain an exact solution for their eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We show that our parameterization covers all type 1, 2 and 3 integrable models and discuss the extent to which it is complete for other types. We also present robust numerical observation on the number of energy-level crossings in type M integrable systems and analyze the taxonomy of types in the 1D Hubbard model. (paper)

  6. Parameterized entropy analysis of EEG following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Shanbao; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Malhotra, Amit; Zhu Yisheng; Thakor, Nitish

    2003-01-01

    In the present study Tsallis and Renyi entropy methods were used to study the electric activity of brain following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. We investigated the performances of these parameterized information measures in describing the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal of controlled experimental animal HI injury. The results show that (a): compared with Shannon and Renyi entropy, the parameterized Tsallis entropy acts like a spatial filter and the information rate can either tune to long range rhythms or to short abrupt changes, such as bursts or spikes during the beginning of recovery, by the entropic index q; (b): Renyi entropy is a compact and predictive indicator for monitoring the physiological changes during the recovery of brain injury. There is a reduction in the Renyi entropy after brain injury followed by a gradual recovery upon resuscitation

  7. Modeling the energy balance in Marseille: Sensitivity to roughness length parameterizations and thermal admittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, M.; De Ridder, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2008-08-01

    During the ESCOMPTE campaign (Experience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions), a 4-day intensive observation period was selected to evaluate the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), a nonhydrostatic meteorological mesoscale model that was optimized with a parameterization for thermal roughness length to better represent urban surfaces. The evaluation shows that the ARPS model is able to correctly reproduce temperature, wind speed, and direction for one urban and two rural measurements stations. Furthermore, simulated heat fluxes show good agreement compared to the observations, although simulated sensible heat fluxes were initially too low for the urban stations. In order to improve the latter, different roughness length parameterization schemes were tested, combined with various thermal admittance values. This sensitivity study showed that the Zilitinkevich scheme combined with and intermediate value of thermal admittance performs best.

  8. A Symbolic Computation Approach to Parameterizing Controller for Polynomial Hamiltonian Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers controller parameterization method of H∞ control for polynomial Hamiltonian systems (PHSs, which involves internal stability and external disturbance attenuation. The aims of this paper are to design a controller with parameters to insure that the systems are H∞ stable and propose an algorithm for solving parameters of the controller with symbolic computation. The proposed parameterization method avoids solving Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equations, and thus the obtained controllers with parameters are relatively simple in form and easy in operation. Simulation with a numerical example shows that the controller is effective as it can optimize H∞ control by adjusting parameters. All these results are expected to be of use in the study of H∞ control for nonlinear systems with perturbations.

  9. Solvation of monovalent anions in formamide and methanol: Parameterization of the IEF-PCM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boees, Elvis S.; Bernardi, Edson; Stassen, Hubert; Goncalves, Paulo F.B.

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamics of solvation for a series of monovalent anions in formamide and methanol has been studied using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The parameterization of this continuum model was guided by molecular dynamics simulations. The parameterized PCM model predicts the Gibbs free energies of solvation for 13 anions in formamide and 16 anions in methanol in very good agreement with experimental data. Two sets of atomic radii were tested in the definition of the solute cavities in the PCM and their performances are evaluated and discussed. Mean absolute deviations of the calculated free energies of solvation from the experimental values are in the range of 1.3-2.1 kcal/mol

  10. Plant nutrition on fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W J; Sidrak, G H

    1956-12-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plant nutritional potential of fly ash. Chemical analysis indicates that it contains all the essential nutrients. It is deficient in nitrogen and only manganese and aluminum appear to be available in quantities toxic to plants. Barley and spinach grown on fly ash accumulate excessive quantities of Al and Mn in their leaves and exhibit symptoms of toxicities of these metals. Atriplex hastata grows vigorously on the ash, has a high Al and Mn leaf content, but does not show toxicity symptoms. Atriplex, barley and spinach grown at reduced N levels gave lower yields than the normal controls, but symptoms of N deficiency which were evident in barley and spinach were not observed in Atriplex. 17 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  11. Utah Fly's Eye detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Cady, R.; Cassiday, G.L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J.W.; Gerhardy, P.R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E.C.; Salamon, M.; Steck, D.; Sokolsky, P.

    1985-10-15

    We report the details of the design, operation and performance of the University of Utah Fly's Eye detector which was built to record the passage of ultra-high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere via atmospheric fluorescence. Emphasized in the presentation are (1) light production by charged particles in the atmosphere, (2) kinematics of an EAS as seen by the Fly's Eye, (3) signal to noise considerations and its impact on detector design, (4) details of detector hardware and software, (5) detector calibration, (6) techniques employed in measurement of shower longitudinal development profiles and primary particle energy, and (7) assessment of detector performance by a comparison of Monte Carlo and real data distributions. (orig.).

  12. Pulse generation scheme for flying electromagnetic doughnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, Nikitas; Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Tsai, Din Ping; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-05-01

    Transverse electromagnetic plane waves are fundamental solutions of Maxwells equations. It is less known that a radically different type of solutions has been described theoretically, but has never been realized experimentally, that exist only in the form of short bursts of electromagnetic energy propagating in free space at the speed of light. They are distinguished from transverse waves by a doughnutlike configuration of electric and magnetic fields with a strong field component along the propagation direction. Here, we demonstrate numerically that such flying doughnuts can be generated from conventional pulses using a singular metamaterial converter designed to manipulate both the spatial and spectral structure of the input pulse. The ability to generate flying doughnuts is of fundamental interest, as they shall interact with matter in unique ways, including nontrivial field transformations upon reflection from interfaces and the excitation of toroidal response and anapole modes in matter, hence offering opportunities for telecommunications, sensing, and spectroscopy.

  13. Radiation dose to the global flying population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-01-01

    Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions. (paper)

  14. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  15. Parameterization of light absorption by components of seawater in optically complex coastal waters of the Crimea Peninsula (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Egor V; Khomenko, Georges; Chami, Malik; Sokolov, Anton A; Churilova, Tatyana Y; Korotaev, Gennady K

    2009-03-01

    The absorption of sunlight by oceanic constituents significantly contributes to the spectral distribution of the water-leaving radiance. Here it is shown that current parameterizations of absorption coefficients do not apply to the optically complex waters of the Crimea Peninsula. Based on in situ measurements, parameterizations of phytoplankton, nonalgal, and total particulate absorption coefficients are proposed. Their performance is evaluated using a log-log regression combined with a low-pass filter and the nonlinear least-square method. Statistical significance of the estimated parameters is verified using the bootstrap method. The parameterizations are relevant for chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.45 up to 2 mg/m(3).

  16. Fabrication and adsorption properties of hybrid fly ash composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Mengfan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an710119, Shaanxi (China); Ma, Qingliang, E-mail: maqingliang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024 (China); Lin, Qingwen; Chang, Jiali [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an710119, Shaanxi (China); Ma, Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an710119, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Hybrid hydrophilic/hydrophobic FA composites was constructed. • 99.2% O-II removal was obtained with MF/P(DMDAAC-co-AAM). • MF/KH-570 showed better hydrophobic property. • The possible mechanism of FA composite fabrication was studied. • The Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model fit better with kerosene adsorption. - Abstract: In order to realize the utilization of fly ash (FA) as industrial solid waste better, high-efficient inorganic/organic hybrid composite adsorbents derived from (Ca(OH){sub 2}/Na{sub 2}FeO{sub 4}) modified FA (MF) was fabricated. The hydrophilic cationic polymer (P(DMDAAC-co-AAM) or hydrophobic modifier (calcium-570) were used. The prepared composites were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and contact angle test. The adsorption of cationic composites MF/P(DMDAAC-co-AAM) towards Orange II in wastewater was investigated. The results show that: adsorption amount of 24.8 mg/g with 2000 mg/L of composites, 50 mg/L Orange II, original pH (6–8), at 40 min and room temperature, was obtained. Meanwhile, oil adsorption ratio Q(g/g) of hydrophobic composites MF/KH-570 was also evaluated. The maximum Q of 17.2 g/g to kerosene was obtained at 40 min. The isotherm and kinetics of these two adsorption processes were also studied. The results showed that the fabricated MF composites modified with hydrophilic or hydrophobic group can be used to adsorb dye in wastewater or oil effectively.

  17. Graphical Derivatives and Stability Analysis for Parameterized Equilibria with Conic Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří; Ramírez, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 687-704 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Variational analysis and optimization * Parameterized equilibria * Conic constraints * Sensitivity and stability analysis * Solution maps * Graphical derivatives * Normal and tangent cones Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/outrata-0449259.pdf

  18. Parameterizing correlations between hydrometeor species in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Vincent E.; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Fan, Jiwen; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-phase Arctic clouds, like other clouds, contain small-scale variability in hydrometeor fields, such as cloud water or snow mixing ratio. This variability may be worth parameterizing in coarse-resolution numerical models. In particular, for modeling multispecies processes such as accretion and aggregation, it would be useful to parameterize subgrid correlations among hydrometeor species. However, one difficulty is that there exist many hydrometeor species and many microphysical processes, leading to complexity and computational expense. Existing lower and upper bounds on linear correlation coefficients are too loose to serve directly as a method to predict subgrid correlations. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative method that begins with the spherical parameterization framework of Pinheiro and Bates (1996), which expresses the correlation matrix in terms of its Cholesky factorization. The values of the elements of the Cholesky matrix are populated here using a "cSigma" parameterization that we introduce based on the aforementioned bounds on correlations. The method has three advantages: (1) the computational expense is tolerable; (2) the correlations are, by construction, guaranteed to be consistent with each other; and (3) the methodology is fairly general and hence may be applicable to other problems. The method is tested noninteractively using simulations of three Arctic mixed-phase cloud cases from two field experiments: the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Benchmark simulations are performed using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model that includes a bin microphysical scheme. The correlations estimated by the new method satisfactorily approximate the correlations produced by the LES.

  19. An explicit parameterization for casting constraints in gradient driven topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2011-01-01

    From a practical point of view it is often desirable to limit the complexity of a topology optimization design such that casting/milling type manufacturing techniques can be applied. In the context of gradient driven topology optimization this work studies how castable designs can be obtained...... by use of a Heaviside design parameterization in a specified casting direction. This reduces the number of design variables considerably and the approach is simple to implement....

  20. Framework of cloud parameterization including ice for 3-D mesoscale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Jacob, D; Eppel, D; Grassl, H

    1989-01-01

    A parameterization scheme for the simulation of ice in clouds incorporated into the hydrostatic version of the GKSS three-dimensional mesoscale model. Numerical simulations of precipitation are performed: over the Northe Sea, the Hawaiian trade wind area and in the region of the intertropical convergence zone. Not only some major features of convective structures in all three areas but also cloud-aerosol interactions have successfully been simulated. (orig.) With 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Reliability and parameterization of Romberg Test in people who have suffered a stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Cruzado, David; Gonzalez Sanchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the reliability and describe the parameterization with inertial sensors, of Romberg test in people who have had a stroke. METHODS: Romberg's Test was performed during 20 seconds in four different setting, depending from supporting leg and position of the eyes (opened eyes / dominant leg; closed eyes / dominant leg; opened eyes / non-dominant leg; closed eyes / non-dominant leg) in people who have suffered a stroke over a year ago. Two inertial sensors (sampli...

  2. Multimodel Uncertainty Changes in Simulated River Flows Induced by Human Impact Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Cui, Huijuan; Mu, Mengfei; Gerten Dieter; Gosling, Simon; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Satoh, Yusuke; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    Human impacts increasingly affect the global hydrological cycle and indeed dominate hydrological changes in some regions. Hydrologists have sought to identify the human-impact-induced hydrological variations via parameterizing anthropogenic water uses in global hydrological models (GHMs). The consequently increased model complexity is likely to introduce additional uncertainty among GHMs. Here, using four GHMs, between-model uncertainties are quantified in terms of the ratio of signal to noise (SNR) for average river flow during 1971-2000 simulated in two experiments, with representation of human impacts (VARSOC) and without (NOSOC). It is the first quantitative investigation of between-model uncertainty resulted from the inclusion of human impact parameterizations. Results show that the between-model uncertainties in terms of SNRs in the VARSOC annual flow are larger (about 2 for global and varied magnitude for different basins) than those in the NOSOC, which are particularly significant in most areas of Asia and northern areas to the Mediterranean Sea. The SNR differences are mostly negative (-20 to 5, indicating higher uncertainty) for basin-averaged annual flow. The VARSOC high flow shows slightly lower uncertainties than NOSOC simulations, with SNR differences mostly ranging from -20 to 20. The uncertainty differences between the two experiments are significantly related to the fraction of irrigation areas of basins. The large additional uncertainties in VARSOC simulations introduced by the inclusion of parameterizations of human impacts raise the urgent need of GHMs development regarding a better understanding of human impacts. Differences in the parameterizations of irrigation, reservoir regulation and water withdrawals are discussed towards potential directions of improvements for future GHM development. We also discuss the advantages of statistical approaches to reduce the between-model uncertainties, and the importance of calibration of GHMs for not only

  3. Robust H∞ Control for Singular Time-Delay Systems via Parameterized Lyapunov Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-li Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new version of delay-dependent bounded real lemma for singular systems with state delay is established by parameterized Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach. In order to avoid generating nonconvex problem formulations in control design, a strategy that introduces slack matrices and decouples the system matrices from the Lyapunov-Krasovskii parameter matrices is used. Examples are provided to demonstrate that the results in this paper are less conservative than the existing corresponding ones in the literature.

  4. Approaches to highly parameterized inversion-A guide to using PEST for groundwater-model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2010-01-01

    Highly parameterized groundwater models can create calibration difficulties. Regularized inversion-the combined use of large numbers of parameters with mathematical approaches for stable parameter estimation-is becoming a common approach to address these difficulties and enhance the transfer of information contained in field measurements to parameters used to model that system. Though commonly used in other industries, regularized inversion is somewhat imperfectly understood in the groundwater field. There is concern that this unfamiliarity can lead to underuse, and misuse, of the methodology. This document is constructed to facilitate the appropriate use of regularized inversion for calibrating highly parameterized groundwater models. The presentation is directed at an intermediate- to advanced-level modeler, and it focuses on the PEST software suite-a frequently used tool for highly parameterized model calibration and one that is widely supported by commercial graphical user interfaces. A brief overview of the regularized inversion approach is provided, and techniques for mathematical regularization offered by PEST are outlined, including Tikhonov, subspace, and hybrid schemes. Guidelines for applying regularized inversion techniques are presented after a logical progression of steps for building suitable PEST input. The discussion starts with use of pilot points as a parameterization device and processing/grouping observations to form multicomponent objective functions. A description of potential parameter solution methodologies and resources available through the PEST software and its supporting utility programs follows. Directing the parameter-estimation process through PEST control variables is then discussed, including guidance for monitoring and optimizing the performance of PEST. Comprehensive listings of PEST control variables, and of the roles performed by PEST utility support programs, are presented in the appendixes.

  5. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  7. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  8. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  9. The relationship between a deformation-based eddy parameterization and the LANS-α turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Scott D.; Anstey, James A.; Zanna, Laure

    2018-06-01

    A recent class of ocean eddy parameterizations proposed by Porta Mana and Zanna (2014) and Anstey and Zanna (2017) modeled the large-scale flow as a non-Newtonian fluid whose subgridscale eddy stress is a nonlinear function of the deformation. This idea, while largely new to ocean modeling, has a history in turbulence modeling dating at least back to Rivlin (1957). The new class of parameterizations results in equations that resemble the Lagrangian-averaged Navier-Stokes-α model (LANS-α, e.g., Holm et al., 1998a). In this note we employ basic tensor mathematics to highlight the similarities between these turbulence models using component-free notation. We extend the Anstey and Zanna (2017) parameterization, which was originally presented in 2D, to 3D, and derive variants of this closure that arise when the full non-Newtonian stress tensor is used. Despite the mathematical similarities between the non-Newtonian and LANS-α models which might provide insight into numerical implementation, the input and dissipation of kinetic energy between these two turbulent models differ.

  10. Current state of aerosol nucleation parameterizations for air-quality and climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, Kirill; Dastoor, Ashu

    2018-04-01

    Aerosol nucleation parameterization models commonly used in 3-D air quality and climate models have serious limitations. This includes classical nucleation theory based variants, empirical models and other formulations. Recent work based on detailed and extensive laboratory measurements and improved quantum chemistry computation has substantially advanced the state of nucleation parameterizations. In terms of inorganic nucleation involving BHN and THN including ion effects these new models should be considered as worthwhile replacements for the old models. However, the contribution of organic species to nucleation remains poorly quantified. New particle formation consists of a distinct post-nucleation growth regime which is characterized by a strong Kelvin curvature effect and is thus dependent on availability of very low volatility organic species or sulfuric acid. There have been advances in the understanding of the multiphase chemistry of biogenic and anthropogenic organic compounds which facilitate to overcome the initial aerosol growth barrier. Implementation of processes influencing new particle formation is challenging in 3-D models and there is a lack of comprehensive parameterizations. This review considers the existing models and recent innovations.

  11. A Heuristic Parameterization for the Integrated Vertical Overlap of Cumulus and Stratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungsu

    2017-10-01

    The author developed a heuristic parameterization to handle the contrasting vertical overlap structures of cumulus and stratus in an integrated way. The parameterization assumes that cumulus is maximum-randomly overlapped with adjacent cumulus; stratus is maximum-randomly overlapped with adjacent stratus; and radiation and precipitation areas at each model interface are grouped into four categories, that is, convective, stratiform, mixed, and clear areas. For simplicity, thermodynamic scalars within individual portions of cloud, radiation, and precipitation areas are assumed to be internally homogeneous. The parameterization was implemented into the Seoul National University Atmosphere Model version 0 (SAM0) in an offline mode and tested over the globe. The offline control simulation reasonably reproduces the online surface precipitation flux and longwave cloud radiative forcing (LWCF). Although the cumulus fraction is much smaller than the stratus fraction, cumulus dominantly contributes to precipitation production in the tropics. For radiation, however, stratus is dominant. Compared with the maximum overlap, the random overlap of stratus produces stronger LWCF and, surprisingly, more precipitation flux due to less evaporation of convective precipitation. Compared with the maximum overlap, the random overlap of cumulus simulates stronger LWCF and weaker precipitation flux. Compared with the control simulation with separate cumulus and stratus, the simulation with a single-merged cloud substantially enhances the LWCF in the tropical deep convection and midlatitude storm track regions. The process-splitting treatment of convective and stratiform precipitation with an independent precipitation approximation (IPA) simulates weaker surface precipitation flux than the control simulation in the tropical region.

  12. GHI calculation sensitivity on microphysics, land- and cumulus parameterization in WRF over the Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meij, A.; Vinuesa, J.-F.; Maupas, V.

    2018-05-01

    The sensitivity of different microphysics and dynamics schemes on calculated global horizontal irradiation (GHI) values in the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model is studied. 13 sensitivity simulations were performed for which the microphysics, cumulus parameterization schemes and land surface models were changed. Firstly we evaluated the model's performance by comparing calculated GHI values for the Base Case with observations for the Reunion Island for 2014. In general, the model calculates the largest bias during the austral summer. This indicates that the model is less accurate in timing the formation and dissipation of clouds during the summer, when higher water vapor quantities are present in the atmosphere than during the austral winter. Secondly, the model sensitivity on changing the microphysics, cumulus parameterization and land surface models on calculated GHI values is evaluated. The sensitivity simulations showed that changing the microphysics from the Thompson scheme (or Single-Moment 6-class scheme) to the Morrison double-moment scheme, the relative bias improves from 45% to 10%. The underlying reason for this improvement is that the Morrison double-moment scheme predicts the mass and number concentrations of five hydrometeors, which help to improve the calculation of the densities, size and lifetime of the cloud droplets. While the single moment schemes only predicts the mass for less hydrometeors. Changing the cumulus parameterization schemes and land surface models does not have a large impact on GHI calculations.

  13. Parameterized data-driven fuzzy model based optimal control of a semi-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamesh, Reddi; Rani, K Yamuna

    2016-09-01

    A parameterized data-driven fuzzy (PDDF) model structure is proposed for semi-batch processes, and its application for optimal control is illustrated. The orthonormally parameterized input trajectories, initial states and process parameters are the inputs to the model, which predicts the output trajectories in terms of Fourier coefficients. Fuzzy rules are formulated based on the signs of a linear data-driven model, while the defuzzification step incorporates a linear regression model to shift the domain from input to output domain. The fuzzy model is employed to formulate an optimal control problem for single rate as well as multi-rate systems. Simulation study on a multivariable semi-batch reactor system reveals that the proposed PDDF modeling approach is capable of capturing the nonlinear and time-varying behavior inherent in the semi-batch system fairly accurately, and the results of operating trajectory optimization using the proposed model are found to be comparable to the results obtained using the exact first principles model, and are also found to be comparable to or better than parameterized data-driven artificial neural network model based optimization results. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring the potential of machine learning to break deadlock in convection parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M. S.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    We explore the potential of modern machine learning tools (via TensorFlow) to replace parameterization of deep convection in climate models. Our strategy begins by generating a large ( 1 Tb) training dataset from time-step level (30-min) output harvested from a one-year integration of a zonally symmetric, uniform-SST aquaplanet integration of the SuperParameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM). We harvest the inputs and outputs connecting each of SPCAM's 8,192 embedded cloud-resolving model (CRM) arrays to its host climate model's arterial thermodynamic state variables to afford 143M independent training instances. We demonstrate that this dataset is sufficiently large to induce preliminary convergence for neural network prediction of desired outputs of SP, i.e. CRM-mean convective heating and moistening profiles. Sensitivity of the machine learning convergence to the nuances of the TensorFlow implementation are discussed, as well as results from pilot tests from the neural network operating inline within the SPCAM as a replacement to the (super)parameterization of convection.

  15. Amplification of intrinsic emittance due to rough metal cathodes: Formulation of a parameterization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, T.K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168 (Australia); Paganin, D.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Dowd, R.T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168 (Australia)

    2016-08-21

    Intrinsic emittance is often the limiting factor for brightness in fourth generation light sources and as such, a good understanding of the factors affecting intrinsic emittance is essential in order to be able to decrease it. Here we present a parameterization model describing the proportional increase in emittance induced by cathode surface roughness. One major benefit behind the parameterization approach presented here is that it takes the complexity of a Monte Carlo model and reduces the results to a straight-forward empirical model. The resulting models describe the proportional increase in transverse momentum introduced by surface roughness, and are applicable to various metal types, photon wavelengths, applied electric fields, and cathode surface terrains. The analysis includes the increase in emittance due to changes in the electric field induced by roughness as well as the increase in transverse momentum resultant from the spatially varying surface normal. We also compare the results of the Parameterization Model to an Analytical Model which employs various approximations to produce a more compact expression with the cost of a reduction in accuracy.

  16. Parameterization of a Hydrological Model for a Large, Ungauged Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to the replacement of natural areas by impervious surfaces and affects the catchment hydrological cycle with adverse environmental impacts. Low impact development tools (LID that mimic hydrological processes of natural areas have been developed and applied to mitigate these impacts. Hydrological simulations are one possibility to evaluate the LID performance but the associated small-scale processes require a highly spatially distributed and explicit modeling approach. However, detailed data for model development are often not available for large urban areas, hampering the model parameterization. In this paper we propose a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model to a large, ungauged urban area by maintaining at the same time a detailed surface discretization for direct parameter manipulation for LID simulation and a firm reliance on available data for model conceptualization. Catchment delineation was based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM and model parameterization relied on a novel model regionalization approach. The impact of automated delineation and model regionalization on simulation results was evaluated for three monitored study catchments (5.87–12.59 ha. The simulated runoff peak was most sensitive to accurate catchment discretization and calibration, while both the runoff volume and the fit of the hydrograph were less affected.

  17. Tsunami damping by mangrove forest: a laboratory study using parameterized trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strusińska-Correia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami attenuation by coastal vegetation was examined under laboratory conditions for mature mangroves Rhizophora sp. The developed novel tree parameterization concept, accounting for both bio-mechanical and structural tree properties, allowed to substitute the complex tree structure by a simplified tree model of identical hydraulic resistance. The most representative parameterized mangrove model was selected among the tested models with different frontal area and root density, based on hydraulic test results. The selected parameterized tree models were arranged in a forest model of different width and further tested systematically under varying incident tsunami conditions (solitary waves and tsunami bores. The damping performance of the forest models under these two flow regimes was compared in terms of wave height and force envelopes, wave transmission coefficient as well as drag and inertia coefficients. Unlike the previous studies, the results indicate a significant contribution of the foreshore topography to solitary wave energy reduction through wave breaking in comparison to that attributed to the forest itself. A similar rate of tsunami transmission (ca. 20% was achieved for both flow conditions (solitary waves and tsunami bores and the widest forest (75 m in prototype investigated. Drag coefficient CD attributed to the solitary waves tends to be constant (CD = 1.5 over the investigated range of the Reynolds number.

  18. Parameterization of Mixed Layer and Deep-Ocean Mesoscales Including Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.; Howard, A. M.; Leboissetier, A.

    2018-01-01

    In 2011, Chelton et al. carried out a comprehensive census of mesoscales using altimetry data and reached the following conclusions: "essentially all of the observed mesoscale features are nonlinear" and "mesoscales do not move with the mean velocity but with their own drift velocity," which is "the most germane of all the nonlinear metrics."� Accounting for these results in a mesoscale parameterization presents conceptual and practical challenges since linear analysis is no longer usable and one needs a model of nonlinearity. A mesoscale parameterization is presented that has the following features: 1) it is based on the solutions of the nonlinear mesoscale dynamical equations, 2) it describes arbitrary tracers, 3) it includes adiabatic (A) and diabatic (D) regimes, 4) the eddy-induced velocity is the sum of a Gent and McWilliams (GM) term plus a new term representing the difference between drift and mean velocities, 5) the new term lowers the transfer of mean potential energy to mesoscales, 6) the isopycnal slopes are not as flat as in the GM case, 7) deep-ocean stratification is enhanced compared to previous parameterizations where being more weakly stratified allowed a large heat uptake that is not observed, 8) the strength of the Deacon cell is reduced. The numerical results are from a stand-alone ocean code with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiment I (CORE-I) normal-year forcing.

  19. Intercomparison of Martian Lower Atmosphere Simulated Using Different Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Murali; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Smith, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We use the mesoscale modeling capability of Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) model to study the sensitivity of the simulated Martian lower atmosphere to differences in the parameterization of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Characterization of the Martian atmosphere and realistic representation of processes such as mixing of tracers like dust depend on how well the model reproduces the evolution of the PBL structure. MarsWRF is based on the NCAR WRF model and it retains some of the PBL schemes available in the earth version. Published studies have examined the performance of different PBL schemes in NCAR WRF with the help of observations. Currently such assessments are not feasible for Martian atmospheric models due to lack of observations. It is of interest though to study the sensitivity of the model to PBL parameterization. Typically, for standard Martian atmospheric simulations, we have used the Medium Range Forecast (MRF) PBL scheme, which considers a correction term to the vertical gradients to incorporate nonlocal effects. For this study, we have also used two other parameterizations, a non-local closure scheme called Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme and a turbulent kinetic energy closure scheme called Mellor- Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) PBL scheme. We will present intercomparisons of the near surface temperature profiles, boundary layer heights, and wind obtained from the different simulations. We plan to use available temperature observations from Mini TES instrument onboard the rovers Spirit and Opportunity in evaluating the model results.

  20. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  2. An analysis of MM5 sensitivity to different parameterizations for high-resolution climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, D.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, J. M.; Gámiz-Fortis, S. R.; Esteban-Parra, M. J.; Castro-Díez, Y.

    2009-04-01

    An evaluation of MM5 mesoscale model sensitivity to different parameterizations schemes is presented in terms of temperature and precipitation for high-resolution integrations over Andalusia (South of Spain). As initial and boundary conditions ERA-40 Reanalysis data are used. Two domains were used, a coarse one with dimensions of 55 by 60 grid points with spacing of 30 km and a nested domain of 48 by 72 grid points grid spaced 10 km. Coarse domain fully covers Iberian Peninsula and Andalusia fits loosely in the finer one. In addition to parameterization tests, two dynamical downscaling techniques have been applied in order to examine the influence of initial conditions on RCM long-term studies. Regional climate studies usually employ continuous integration for the period under survey, initializing atmospheric fields only at the starting point and feeding boundary conditions regularly. An alternative approach is based on frequent re-initialization of atmospheric fields; hence the simulation is divided in several independent integrations. Altogether, 20 simulations have been performed using varying physics options, of which 4 were fulfilled applying the re-initialization technique. Surface temperature and accumulated precipitation (daily and monthly scale) were analyzed for a 5-year period covering from 1990 to 1994. Results have been compared with daily observational data series from 110 stations for temperature and 95 for precipitation Both daily and monthly average temperatures are generally well represented by the model. Conversely, daily precipitation results present larger deviations from observational data. However, noticeable accuracy is gained when comparing with monthly precipitation observations. There are some especially conflictive subregions where precipitation is scarcely captured, such as the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, mainly due to its extremely convective nature. Regarding parameterization schemes performance, every set provides very

  3. Analyses of the stratospheric dynamics simulated by a GCM with a stochastic nonorographic gravity wave parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serva, Federico; Cagnazzo, Chiara; Riccio, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the propagation and breaking of atmospheric gravity waves have long been considered crucial for their impact on the circulation, especially in the stratosphere and mesosphere, between heights of 10 and 110 km. These waves, that in the Earth's atmosphere originate from surface orography (OGWs) or from transient (nonorographic) phenomena such as fronts and convective processes (NOGWs), have horizontal wavelengths between 10 and 1000 km, vertical wavelengths of several km, and frequencies spanning from minutes to hours. Orographic and nonorographic GWs must be accounted for in climate models to obtain a realistic simulation of the stratosphere in both hemispheres, since they can have a substantial impact on circulation and temperature, hence an important role in ozone chemistry for chemistry-climate models. Several types of parameterization are currently employed in models, differing in the formulation and for the values assigned to parameters, but the common aim is to quantify the effect of wave breaking on large-scale wind and temperature patterns. In the last decade, both global observations from satellite-borne instruments and the outputs of very high resolution climate models provided insight on the variability and properties of gravity wave field, and these results can be used to constrain some of the empirical parameters present in most parameterization scheme. A feature of the NOGW forcing that clearly emerges is the intermittency, linked with the nature of the sources: this property is absent in the majority of the models, in which NOGW parameterizations are uncoupled with other atmospheric phenomena, leading to results which display lower variability compared to observations. In this work, we analyze the climate simulated in AMIP runs of the MAECHAM5 model, which uses the Hines NOGW parameterization and with a fine vertical resolution suitable to capture the effects of wave-mean flow interaction. We compare the results obtained with two

  4. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  5. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  6. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  7. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  8. Joyce and Ulysses: integrated and user-friendly tools for the parameterization of intramolecular force fields from quantum mechanical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Cacelli, Ivo; De Mitri, Nicola; Licari, Daniele; Monti, Susanna; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2013-03-21

    The Joyce program is augmented with several new features, including the user friendly Ulysses GUI, the possibility of complete excited state parameterization and a more flexible treatment of the force field electrostatic terms. A first validation is achieved by successfully comparing results obtained with Joyce2.0 to literature ones, obtained for the same set of benchmark molecules. The parameterization protocol is also applied to two other larger molecules, namely nicotine and a coumarin based dye. In the former case, the parameterized force field is employed in molecular dynamics simulations of solvated nicotine, and the solute conformational distribution at room temperature is discussed. Force fields parameterized with Joyce2.0, for both the dye's ground and first excited electronic states, are validated through the calculation of absorption and emission vertical energies with molecular mechanics optimized structures. Finally, the newly implemented procedure to handle polarizable force fields is discussed and applied to the pyrimidine molecule as a test case.

  9. The urban land use in the COSMO-CLM model: a comparison of three parameterizations for Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Trusilova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The regional non-hydrostatic climate model COSMO-CLM is increasingly being used on fine spatial scales of 1–5 km. Such applications require a detailed differentiation between the parameterization for natural and urban land uses. Since 2010, three parameterizations for urban land use have been incorporated into COSMO-CLM. These parameterizations vary in their complexity, required city parameters and their computational cost. We perform model simulations with the COSMO-CLM coupled to these three parameterizations for urban land in the same model domain of Berlin on a 1-km grid and compare results with available temperature observations. While all models capture the urban heat island, they differ in spatial detail, magnitude and the diurnal variation.

  10. Polynomial Chaos–Based Bayesian Inference of K-Profile Parameterization in a General Circulation Model of the Tropical Pacific

    KAUST Repository

    Sraj, Ihab; Zedler, Sarah E.; Knio, Omar; Jackson, Charles S.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a polynomial chaos (PC)-based Bayesian inference method for quantifying the uncertainties of the K-profile parameterization (KPP) within the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) of the tropical Pacific. The inference

  11. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR). In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM) in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night. We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD) and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD) of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between -2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations to local conditions

  12. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  13. The influence of sex and fly species on the development of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Peacock

    Full Text Available Unlike other dipteran disease vectors, tsetse flies of both sexes feed on blood and transmit pathogenic African trypanosomes. During transmission, Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex cycle of proliferation and development inside the tsetse vector, culminating in production of infective forms in the saliva. The insect manifests robust immune defences throughout the alimentary tract, which eliminate many trypanosome infections. Previous work has shown that fly sex influences susceptibility to trypanosome infection as males show higher rates of salivary gland (SG infection with T. brucei than females. To investigate sex-linked differences in the progression of infection, we compared midgut (MG, proventriculus, foregut and SG infections in male and female Glossina morsitans morsitans. Initially, infections developed in the same way in both sexes: no difference was observed in numbers of MG or proventriculus infections, or in the number and type of developmental forms produced. Female flies tended to produce foregut migratory forms later than males, but this had no detectable impact on the number of SG infections. The sex difference was not apparent until the final stage of SG invasion and colonisation, showing that the SG environment differs between male and female flies. Comparison of G. m. morsitans with G. pallidipes showed a similar, though less pronounced, sex difference in susceptibility, but additionally revealed very different levels of trypanosome resistance in the MG and SG. While G. pallidipes was more refractory to MG infection, a very high proportion of MG infections led to SG infection in both sexes. It appears that the two fly species use different strategies to block trypanosome infection: G. pallidipes heavily defends against initial establishment in the MG, while G. m. morsitans has additional measures to prevent trypanosomes colonising the SG, particularly in female flies. We conclude that the tsetse-trypanosome interface works

  14. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  15. Parameterization of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function as a Function of the Zenith Angle around the Knee Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsttar, Marwah M.; Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Ali, Abdul Halim Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (CLLDF) simulation was fulfilled using CORSIKA code for configurations of Tunka EAS array of different zenith angles. The parameterization of the CLLDF was carried out as a function of the distance from the shower core in extensive air showers (EAS) and zenith angle on the basis of the CORSIKA simulation of primary proton around the knee region with the energy 3.10^15 eV at different zenith angles. The parameterized CLLDF is verified in comparison...

  16. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Distinction of Fly Artifacts from Human Blood using Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Chen, Dorothy; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2018-02-21

    Insect stains produced by necrophagous flies are indistinguishable morphologically from human bloodstains. At present, no diagnostic tests exist to overcome this deficiency. As the first step toward developing a chemical test to recognize fly artifacts, polyclonal antisera were generated in rats against three distinct antigenic sequences of fly cathepsin D-like proteinase, an enzyme that is structurally distinct in cyclorrhaphous Diptera from other animals. The resulting rat antisera bound to artifacts produced by Protophormia terraenovae and synthetic peptides used to generate the polyclonal antisera, but not with any type of mammalian blood tested in immunoassays. Among the three antisera, anti-md3 serum displayed the highest reactivity for fly stains, demonstrated cross-reactivity for all synthetic peptides representing antigenic sequences of the mature fly enzyme, and bound artifacts originating from the fly digestive tract. Further work is needed to determine whether the antisera are suitable for non-laboratory conditions. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  19. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state. PMID:27875580

  20. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Batsching

    Full Text Available Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  1. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  2. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  3. Phase II Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeNovio, Nicole M.; Bryant, Nathan; King, Chrissi B.; Bhark, Eric; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Pickens, John F.; Farnham, Irene; Brooks, Keely M.; Reimus, Paul; Aly, Alaa

    2005-04-01

    This report documents pertinent transport data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Phase II FF CAU transport model.

  4. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Banks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  5. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value......), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy, and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y....

  6. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  7. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  8. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  9. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  10. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  11. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-31

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  12. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01


    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived insects and have to take a blood meal regularly. Tsetse flies use smell and vision to find their hosts. In the last decade, many aspects of tsetse foraging and host-location behaviour have been elucida...

  13. Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.

    OpenAIRE

    Partha S Bhagavatula; Charles Claudianos; Michael R Ibbotson; Mandyam V Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to cont...

  14. Radioactivity of coals and fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-01-01

    The level and the behavior of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K in coals and fly ashes are described. The activity concentrations of the examined coals and originated from coal mines in Greece ranged from 117 to 435 Bq x kg -1 for 238 U, from 44 to 255 Bq x kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq x kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq x kg -1 for 228 Ra and from 59 to 227 Bq x kg -1 for 40 K. These levels are comparable to those appeared in coals of different countries worldwide. The activity concentrations of the examined fly ashes and produced in coal-fired power plants in Greece ranged from 263 to 950 Bq x kg -1 for 238 U, from 142 to 605 Bq x kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq x kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq x kg -1 for 228 Ra and from 204 to 382 Bq x kg -1 for 40 K. The results showed that there is an enrichment of the radionuclides in fly ash relative to the input coal during the combustion process. The enrichment factors (EF) ranged from 0.60 to 0.76 for 238 U, from 0.69 to 1.07 for 226 Ra, from 0.57 to 0.75 for 210 Pb, from 0.86 to 1.11 for 228 Ra and from 0.95 to 1.10 for 40 K. (author)

  15. Strength Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Quarry Dust Stabilized Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Bidula Bose

    2015-01-01

    Effects of quarry dust and polypropylene fiber on compaction properties, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio (CBR) of a fly ash have been discussed in this paper. Quarry dust was added to a fly ash from 0 to 60% at an increment of 10%, compaction and soaked CBR tests were conducted on fly ash-quarry dust mixes and the optimum percentage of quarry dust was found out to be 40%. Polypropylene fiber was added to fly ash stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust, from 0...

  16. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  17. Sintering of a class F fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Biernacki; Anil K. Vazrala; H. Wayne Leimer [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The sinterability of a class F fly ash was investigated as a function of processing conditions including sintering temperature (1050-1200{sup o}C) and sintering time (0-90 min). Density, shrinkage, splitting tensile strength, water absorption and residual loss on ignition (RLOI) were evaluated as measures of sintering efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction was used to examine microstructure and phase development due to processing. The results show that premature densification can inhibit complete carbon removal and that carbon combustion is influenced by both internal and external mass transfer conditions. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Flying Airplanes: Realizing Circadian Effects (FARCE)

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Dickinson; Todd McElroy

    2009-01-01

    People differ in their diurnal (time-of-day) preferences—some are morning-types and others are evening-types. These differences are explored in a unique experiment design in which subjects are randomly assigned to produce paper airplanes at either 8:00 a.m. or 10:00 p.m. Our results show that evening-types at their more optimal time-of-day (10:00 p.m.) produce planes that fly statistically significantly farther than those produced by morning-types at their more optimal time-of-day (8:00 a.m.)...

  19. Economic metal recovery from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Canon, R.M.; Egan, B.Z.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Watson, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    Results are presented to show that fly ash can be an economical source of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and several other metals. Two processes are examined in detail, the direct acid leach of ash with hydrochloric acid and a pressure digestion-acid leach method. An economic evaluation is presented for each process, and direct acid leaching is considered the most attractive process. The benefits derived from using such a process are discussed. (15 refs.)

  20. Capture of melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a food-baited Multilure trap: influence of distance, diet, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...

  1. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report A : evaluation of HVFA cementitious paste and concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In the Paste Screening Study, 25 combinations of five Type I/II portland cements : and five Class C fly ashes commonly used in Missouri were tested in paste form with no : chemical or powder additives. Testing procedures included semi-adiabatic calor...

  2. Adolescent transition: Ordinary People (1980), Fly Away Home (1996), and (500) Days Of Summer (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick C

    2011-06-01

    Five important transitional tasks of adolescent development are (i) taming the upsurge of desires and impulses, both sexual and aggressive, into constructive and creative directions; (ii) establishing independence from infantile family ties (while maintaining some involvement with the family of origin); (iii) reconciling self-preoccupations with social attachments; (iv) reworking identifications, especially sexual; and (v) establishing romantic attachments and solidifying ongoing stable love relationships. These tasks are illustrated with the help of three movies, namely Ordinary People, Fly Away Home, and (500) Days of Summer.

  3. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); León-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  5. Micostructural and mechanical properties of geopolymers synthesised from three coal fly ashes from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludlu, MK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, coal fly ashes (CFAs) from three different boiler sites in South Africa, Eskom (E coal fly ash), George Mukhari Academic Hospital (GMH coal fly ash), and KarboChem (KBC coal fly ash), were used to produce geopolymers. The coal fly...

  6. COII "long fragment" reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa M; Mahmoud, Shereen M

    2016-01-01

    Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII) in identification of forensically important flies. Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps, C. rufifacies, C. megacephala, Lucilia sericata, L. cuprina; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria, S. dux, S. albiceps, Wohlfahrtia nuba; Muscidae: Musca domestica, M. autumnalis) were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter) distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining) phylogenetic tree was constructed. All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  7. COII ”long fragment” reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Aly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII in identification of forensically important flies. Material and methods: Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species ( Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps , C. rufifacies , C. megacephala , Lucilia sericata , L. cuprina ; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria , S. dux , S. albiceps , Wohlfahrtia nuba ; Muscidae: Musca domestica , M. autumnalis were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results : All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. Conclusions : The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  8. Measurement of alpha radioactive air pollutants in fly ash brick dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Kant, K.; Sharma, S.K.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period lead to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. In the present study indoor radon monitoring has been carried out in fly ash brick dwellings in some villages/towns of district Faridabad, Haryana (India) using alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. The radon concentration levels in fly ash brick dwellings varied from 197 to 448 Bq m -3 with an average of 277±13 Bq m -3 while annual effective dose received by the occupants varied from 3.4 to 7.7 mSv with an average of 4.8±0.2 mSv. These results have been compared with the radon levels found in cemented and mud dwellings taken from our studies for these dwellings. These studies were also made simultaneously along with fly ash dwellings using same technique and in the same regions

  9. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Radomska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC. This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins.

  10. Dehalogenation Potential of Municipal Waste Incineration Fly Ash. II. Comparison of Dehalogenation Pathways of Fly Ash and Model Fly Ash with Thermodynamic Calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bureš, M.; Pekárek, Vladimír; Karban, Jindřich; Fišerová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2003), s. 121-125 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072901; GA AV ČR IBS4072108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : dechlorination * thermodynamics * hexachlorobenzene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2003

  11. WRF model sensitivity to choice of parameterization: a study of the `York Flood 1999'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesan, Renji; Bellerby, Tim; Holman, Ian; Frostick, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    Numerical weather modelling has gained considerable attention in the field of hydrology especially in un-gauged catchments and in conjunction with distributed models. As a consequence, the accuracy with which these models represent precipitation, sub-grid-scale processes and exceptional events has become of considerable concern to the hydrological community. This paper presents sensitivity analyses for the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model with respect to the choice of physical parameterization schemes (both cumulus parameterisation (CPSs) and microphysics parameterization schemes (MPSs)) used to represent the `1999 York Flood' event, which occurred over North Yorkshire, UK, 1st-14th March 1999. The study assessed four CPSs (Kain-Fritsch (KF2), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell-Devenyi ensemble (GD) and the old Kain-Fritsch (KF1)) and four MPSs (Kessler, Lin et al., WRF single-moment 3-class (WSM3) and WRF single-moment 5-class (WSM5)] with respect to their influence on modelled rainfall. The study suggests that the BMJ scheme may be a better cumulus parameterization choice for the study region, giving a consistently better performance than other three CPSs, though there are suggestions of underestimation. The WSM3 was identified as the best MPSs and a combined WSM3/BMJ model setup produced realistic estimates of precipitation quantities for this exceptional flood event. This study analysed spatial variability in WRF performance through categorical indices, including POD, FBI, FAR and CSI during York Flood 1999 under various model settings. Moreover, the WRF model was good at predicting high-intensity rare events over the Yorkshire region, suggesting it has potential for operational use.

  12. Subgrid Parameterization of the Soil Moisture Storage Capacity for a Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variability plays an important role in nonlinear hydrologic processes. Due to the limitation of computational efficiency and data resolution, subgrid variability is usually assumed to be uniform for most grid-based rainfall-runoff models, which leads to the scale-dependence of model performances. In this paper, the scale effect on the Grid-Xinanjiang model was examined. The bias of the estimation of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture at the different grid scales, along with the scale-dependence of the effective parameters, highlights the importance of well representing the subgrid variability. This paper presents a subgrid parameterization method to incorporate the subgrid variability of the soil storage capacity, which is a key variable that controls runoff generation and partitioning in the Grid-Xinanjiang model. In light of the similar spatial pattern and physical basis, the soil storage capacity is correlated with the topographic index, whose spatial distribution can more readily be measured. A beta distribution is introduced to represent the spatial distribution of the soil storage capacity within the grid. The results derived from the Yanduhe Basin show that the proposed subgrid parameterization method can effectively correct the watershed soil storage capacity curve. Compared to the original Grid-Xinanjiang model, the model performances are quite consistent at the different grid scales when the subgrid variability is incorporated. This subgrid parameterization method reduces the recalibration necessity when the Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution is changed. Moreover, it improves the potential for the application of the distributed model in the ungauged basin.

  13. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section in the PWR fuel element considering burn-up cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo, Thiago F.; Fiel, Joao Claudio B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactor core analysis involves neutronic modeling and the calculations require problem dependent nuclear data generated with few neutron energy groups, as for instance the neutron cross sections. The methods used to obtain these problem-dependent cross sections, in the reactor calculations, generally uses nuclear computer codes that require a large processing time and computational memory, making the process computationally very expensive. Presently, analysis of the macroscopic cross section, as a function of nuclear parameters, has shown a very distinct behavior that cannot be represented by simply using linear interpolation. Indeed, a polynomial representation is more adequate for the data parameterization. To provide the cross sections of rapidly and without the dependence of complex systems calculations, this work developed a set of parameterized cross sections, based on the Tchebychev polynomials, by fitting the cross sections as a function of nuclear parameters, which include fuel temperature, moderator temperature and density, soluble boron concentration, uranium enrichment, and the burn-up. In this study is evaluated the problem-dependent about fission, scattering, total, nu-fission, capture, transport and absorption cross sections for a typical PWR fuel element reactor, considering burn-up cycle. The analysis was carried out with the SCALE 6.1 code package. The results of comparison with direct calculations with the SCALE code system and also the test using project parameters, such as the temperature coefficient of reactivity and fast fission factor, show excellent agreements. The differences between the cross-section parameterization methodology and the direct calculations based on the SCALE code system are less than 0.03 percent. (author)

  14. Prediction of heavy rainfall over Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India: Impact of microphysical parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. S.; Bonthu, Subbareddy; Purvaja, R.; Robin, R. S.; Kannan, B. A. M.; Ramesh, R.

    2018-04-01

    This study attempts to investigate the real-time prediction of a heavy rainfall event over the Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India that occurred on 01 December 2015 using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The study evaluates the impact of six microphysical (Lin, WSM6, Goddard, Thompson, Morrison and WDM6) parameterization schemes of the model on prediction of heavy rainfall event. In addition, model sensitivity has also been evaluated with six Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and two Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes. Model forecast was carried out using nested domain and the impact of model horizontal grid resolutions were assessed at 9 km, 6 km and 3 km. Analysis of the synoptic features using National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) analysis data revealed strong upper-level divergence and high moisture content at lower level were favorable for the occurrence of heavy rainfall event over the northeast coast of Tamil Nadu. The study signified that forecasted rainfall was more sensitive to the microphysics and PBL schemes compared to the LSM schemes. The model provided better forecast of the heavy rainfall event using the logical combination of Goddard microphysics, YSU PBL and Noah LSM schemes, and it was mostly attributed to timely initiation and development of the convective system. The forecast with different horizontal resolutions using cumulus parameterization indicated that the rainfall prediction was not well represented at 9 km and 6 km. The forecast with 3 km horizontal resolution provided better prediction in terms of timely initiation and development of the event. The study highlights that forecast of heavy rainfall events using a high-resolution mesoscale model with suitable representations of physical parameterization schemes are useful for disaster management and planning to minimize the potential loss of life and property.

  15. A Parameterization of Dry Thermals and Shallow Cumuli for Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergaud, Julien; Masson, Valéry; Malardel, Sylvie; Couvreux, Fleur

    2009-07-01

    For numerical weather prediction models and models resolving deep convection, shallow convective ascents are subgrid processes that are not parameterized by classical local turbulent schemes. The mass flux formulation of convective mixing is now largely accepted as an efficient approach for parameterizing the contribution of larger plumes in convective dry and cloudy boundary layers. We propose a new formulation of the EDMF scheme (for Eddy DiffusivityMass Flux) based on a single updraft that improves the representation of dry thermals and shallow convective clouds and conserves a correct representation of stratocumulus in mesoscale models. The definition of entrainment and detrainment in the dry part of the updraft is original, and is specified as proportional to the ratio of buoyancy to vertical velocity. In the cloudy part of the updraft, the classical buoyancy sorting approach is chosen. The main closure of the scheme is based on the mass flux near the surface, which is proportional to the sub-cloud layer convective velocity scale w *. The link with the prognostic grid-scale cloud content and cloud cover and the projection on the non- conservative variables is processed by the cloud scheme. The validation of this new formulation using large-eddy simulations focused on showing the robustness of the scheme to represent three different boundary layer regimes. For dry convective cases, this parameterization enables a correct representation of the countergradient zone where the mass flux part represents the top entrainment (IHOP case). It can also handle the diurnal cycle of boundary-layer cumulus clouds (EUROCSARM) and conserve a realistic evolution of stratocumulus (EUROCSFIRE).

  16. Modelling and parameterizing the influence of tides on ice-shelf melt rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, N.; Molines, J. M.; Le Sommer, J.; Mathiot, P.; de Lavergne, C.; Gurvan, M.; Durand, G.

    2017-12-01

    Significant Antarctic ice sheet thinning is observed in several sectors of Antarctica, in particular in the Amundsen Sea sector, where warm circumpolar deep waters affect basal melting. The later has the potential to trigger marine ice sheet instabilities, with an associated potential for rapid sea level rise. It is therefore crucial to simulate and understand the processes associated with ice-shelf melt rates. In particular, the absence of tides representation in ocean models remains a caveat of numerous ocean hindcasts and climate projections. In the Amundsen Sea, tides are relatively weak and the melt-induced circulation is stronger than the tidal circulation. Using a regional 1/12° ocean model of the Amundsen Sea, we nonetheless find that tides can increase melt rates by up to 36% in some ice-shelf cavities. Among the processes that can possibly affect melt rates, the most important is an increased exchange at the ice/ocean interface resulting from the presence of strong tidal currents along the ice drafts. Approximately a third of this effect is compensated by a decrease in thermal forcing along the ice draft, which is related to an enhanced vertical mixing in the ocean interior in presence of tides. Parameterizing the effect of tides is an alternative to the representation of explicit tides in an ocean model, and has the advantage not to require any filtering of ocean model outputs. We therefore explore different ways to parameterize the effects of tides on ice shelf melt. First, we compare several methods to impose tidal velocities along the ice draft. We show that getting a realistic spatial distribution of tidal velocities in important, and can be deduced from the barotropic velocities of a tide model. Then, we explore several aspects of parameterized tidal mixing to reproduce the tide-induced decrease in thermal forcing along the ice drafts.

  17. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section in the PWR fuel element considering burn-up cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belo, Thiago F.; Fiel, Joao Claudio B., E-mail: thiagofbelo@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear reactor core analysis involves neutronic modeling and the calculations require problem dependent nuclear data generated with few neutron energy groups, as for instance the neutron cross sections. The methods used to obtain these problem-dependent cross sections, in the reactor calculations, generally uses nuclear computer codes that require a large processing time and computational memory, making the process computationally very expensive. Presently, analysis of the macroscopic cross section, as a function of nuclear parameters, has shown a very distinct behavior that cannot be represented by simply using linear interpolation. Indeed, a polynomial representation is more adequate for the data parameterization. To provide the cross sections of rapidly and without the dependence of complex systems calculations, this work developed a set of parameterized cross sections, based on the Tchebychev polynomials, by fitting the cross sections as a function of nuclear parameters, which include fuel temperature, moderator temperature and density, soluble boron concentration, uranium enrichment, and the burn-up. In this study is evaluated the problem-dependent about fission, scattering, total, nu-fission, capture, transport and absorption cross sections for a typical PWR fuel element reactor, considering burn-up cycle. The analysis was carried out with the SCALE 6.1 code package. The results of comparison with direct calculations with the SCALE code system and also the test using project parameters, such as the temperature coefficient of reactivity and fast fission factor, show excellent agreements. The differences between the cross-section parameterization methodology and the direct calculations based on the SCALE code system are less than 0.03 percent. (author)

  18. Morphing methods to parameterize specimen-specific finite element model geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Ian A; Yang, Hongli; Roberts, Michael D; Downs, J Crawford

    2010-01-19

    Shape plays an important role in determining the biomechanical response of a structure. Specimen-specific finite element (FE) models have been developed to capture the details of the shape of biological structures and predict their biomechanics. Shape, however, can vary considerably across individuals or change due to aging or disease, and analysis of the sensitivity of specimen-specific models to these variations has proven challenging. An alternative to specimen-specific representation has been to develop generic models with simplified geometries whose shape is relatively easy to parameterize, and can therefore be readily used in sensitivity studies. Despite many successful applications, generic models are limited in that they cannot make predictions for individual specimens. We propose that it is possible to harness the detail available in specimen-specific models while leveraging the power of the parameterization techniques common in generic models. In this work we show that this can be accomplished by using morphing techniques to parameterize the geometry of specimen-specific FE models such that the model shape can be varied in a controlled and systematic way suitable for sensitivity analysis. We demonstrate three morphing techniques by using them on a model of the load-bearing tissues of the posterior pole of the eye. We show that using relatively straightforward procedures these morphing techniques can be combined, which allows the study of factor interactions. Finally, we illustrate that the techniques can be used in other systems by applying them to morph a femur. Morphing techniques provide an exciting new possibility for the analysis of the biomechanical role of shape, independently or in interaction with loading and material properties. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multisite Evaluation of APEX for Water Quality: I. Best Professional Judgment Parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffaut, Claire; Nelson, Nathan O; Lory, John A; Senaviratne, G M M M Anomaa; Bhandari, Ammar B; Udawatta, Ranjith P; Sweeney, Daniel W; Helmers, Matt J; Van Liew, Mike W; Mallarino, Antonio P; Wortmann, Charles S

    2017-11-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is capable of estimating edge-of-field water, nutrient, and sediment transport and is used to assess the environmental impacts of management practices. The current practice is to fully calibrate the model for each site simulation, a task that requires resources and data not always available. The objective of this study was to compare model performance for flow, sediment, and phosphorus transport under two parameterization schemes: a best professional judgment (BPJ) parameterization based on readily available data and a fully calibrated parameterization based on site-specific soil, weather, event flow, and water quality data. The analysis was conducted using 12 datasets at four locations representing poorly drained soils and row-crop production under different tillage systems. Model performance was based on the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), the coefficient of determination () and the regression slope between simulated and measured annualized loads across all site years. Although the BPJ model performance for flow was acceptable (NSE = 0.7) at the annual time step, calibration improved it (NSE = 0.9). Acceptable simulation of sediment and total phosphorus transport (NSE = 0.5 and 0.9, respectively) was obtained only after full calibration at each site. Given the unacceptable performance of the BPJ approach, uncalibrated use of APEX for planning or management purposes may be misleading. Model calibration with water quality data prior to using APEX for simulating sediment and total phosphorus loss is essential. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Parameterization of electrical equivalent circuits for pem fuel cells; Parametrierung elektrischer Aequivalentschaltbilder von PEM Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubrock, J.

    2007-12-13

    Fuel cells are a very promising technology for energy conversion. For optimization purpose, useful simulation tools are needs. Simulation tools should simulate the static and dynamic electrical behaviour and the models should parameterized by measurment results which should be done easily. In this dissertation, a useful model for simulating a pem fuel cell is developed. the model should parametrizes by V-I curve measurment and by current step respond. The model based on electrical equivalent circuits and it is shown, that it is possible to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a pem fuel cell stack. The simulation results are compared by measurment results. (orig.)

  1. Theoretical aspects of the internal element connectivity parameterization approach for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.; Langelaar, M.

    2008-01-01

    The internal element connectivity parameterization (I-ECP) method is an alternative approach to overcome numerical instabilities associated with low-stiffness element states in non-linear problems. In I-ECP, elements are connected by zero-length links while their link stiffness values are varied....... Therefore, it is important to interpolate link stiffness properly to obtain stably converging results. The main objective of this work is two-fold (1) the investigation of the relationship between the link stiffness and the stiffness of a domain-discretizing patch by using a discrete model and a homogenized...

  2. Magic neutrino mass matrix and the Bjorken-Harrison-Scott parameterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Observed neutrino mixing can be described by a tribimaximal MNS matrix. The resulting neutrino mass matrix in the basis of a diagonal charged lepton mass matrix is both 2-3 symmetric and magic. By a magic matrix, I mean one whose row sums and column sums are all identical. I study what happens if 2-3 symmetry is broken but the magic symmetry is kept intact. In that case, the mixing matrix is parameterized by a single complex parameter U e3 , in a form discussed recently by Bjorken, Harrison, and Scott

  3. Physically sound parameterization of incomplete ionization in aluminum-doped silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Steinkemper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete ionization is an important issue when modeling silicon devices featuring aluminum-doped p+ (Al-p+ regions. Aluminum has a rather deep state in the band gap compared to boron or phosphorus, causing strong incomplete ionization. In this paper, we considerably improve our recent parameterization [Steinkemper et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 074504 (2015]. On the one hand, we found a fundamental criterion to further reduce the number of free parameters in our fitting procedure. And on the other hand, we address a mistake in the original publication of the incomplete ionization formalism in Altermatt et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113715 (2006.

  4. Impact mitigation using kinematic constraints and the full space parameterization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgansen, K.A.; Pin, F.G.

    1996-02-01

    A new method for mitigating unexpected impact of a redundant manipulator with an object in its environment is presented. Kinematic constraints are utilized with the recently developed method known as Full Space Parameterization (FSP). System performance criterion and constraints are changed at impact to return the end effector to the point of impact and halt the arm. Since large joint accelerations could occur as the manipulator is halted, joint acceleration bounds are imposed to simulate physical actuator limitations. Simulation results are presented for the case of a simple redundant planar manipulator.

  5. Real-time image parameterization in high energy gamma-ray astronomy using transputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punch, M.; Fegan, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, significant advances in Very-High-Energy gamma-ray astronomy have been made by parameterization of the Cherenkov images arising from gamma-ray initiated showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A prototype system to evaluate the use of Transputers as a parallel-processing elements for real-time analysis of data from a Cherenkov imaging camera is described in this paper. The operation of and benefits resulting from such a system are described, and the viability of an applicaiton of the prototype system is discussed

  6. On the sensitivity of mesoscale models to surface-layer parameterization constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.

    1989-09-01

    The Colorado State University standard mesoscale model is used to evaluate the sensitivity of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) fields to differences in surface-layer parameterization “constants”. Such differences reflect the range in the published values of the von Karman constant, Monin-Obukhov stability functions and the temperature roughness length at the surface. The sensitivity of 1D boundary-layer structure, and 2D sea-breeze intensity, is generally less than that found in published comparisons related to turbulence closure schemes generally.

  7. Parameterization of atmosphere-surface exchange of CO2 over sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2014-01-01

    are discussed. We found the flux to be small during the late winter with fluxes in both directions. Not surprisingly we find that the resistance across the surface controls the fluxes and detailed knowledge of the brine volume and carbon chemistry within the brines as well as knowledge of snow cover and carbon...... chemistry in the ice are essential to estimate the partial pressure of pCO2 and CO2 flux. Further investigations of surface structure and snow cover and driving parameters such as heat flux, radiation, ice temperature and brine processes are required to adequately parameterize the surface resistance....

  8. Impact of Vegetation Cover Fraction Parameterization schemes on Land Surface Temperature Simulation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, M.; Li, C.; Lu, H.; Yang, K.; Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of vegetation cover fraction (VCF) is an important component of land surface models. This paper investigates the impacts of three VCF parameterization schemes on land surface temperature (LST) simulation by the Common Land Model (CoLM) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The first scheme is a simple land cover (LC) based method; the second one is based on remote sensing observation (hereafter named as RNVCF) , in which multi-year climatology VCFs is derived from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index); the third VCF parameterization scheme derives VCF from the LAI simulated by LSM and clump index at every model time step (hereafter named as SMVCF). Simulated land surface temperature(LST) and soil temperature by CoLM with three VCF parameterization schemes were evaluated by using satellite LST observation and in situ soil temperature observation, respectively, during the period of 2010 to 2013. The comparison against MODIS Aqua LST indicates that (1) CTL produces large biases for both four seasons in early afternoon (about 13:30, local solar time), while the mean bias in spring reach to 12.14K; (2) RNVCF and SMVCF reduce the mean bias significantly, especially in spring as such reduce is about 6.5K. Surface soil temperature observed at 5 cm depth from three soil moisture and temperature monitoring networks is also employed to assess the skill of three VCF schemes. The three networks, crossing TP from West to East, have different climate and vegetation conditions. In the Ngari network, located in the Western TP with an arid climate, there are not obvious differences among three schemes. In Naqu network, located in central TP with a semi-arid climate condition, CTL shows a severe overestimates (12.1 K), but such overestimations can be reduced by 79% by RNVCF and 87% by SMVCF. In the third humid network (Maqu in eastern TP), CoLM performs similar to Naqu. However, at both Naqu and Maqu networks

  9. All ternary permutation constraint satisfaction problems parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Van Iersel, Leo; Mnich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A ternary Permutation-CSP is specified by a subset Π of the symmetric group S3. An instance of such a problem consists of a set of variables V and a multiset of constraints, which are ordered triples of distinct variables of V. The objective is to find a linear ordering α of V that maximizes...... the number of triples whose rearrangement (under α) follows a permutation in Π. We prove that all ternary Permutation-CSPs parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables....

  10. Observations of surface momentum exchange over the marginal-ice-zone and recommendations for its parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvidge, A. D.; Renfrew, I. A.; Weiss, A. I.; Brooks, I. M.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; King, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive aircraft observations are used to characterise surface roughness over the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and consequently make recommendations for the parameterization of surface momentum exchange in the MIZ. These observations were gathered in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait from two aircraft as part of the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) project. They represent a doubling of the total number of such aircraft observations currently available over the Arctic MIZ. The eddy covariance method is used to derive estimates of the 10 m neutral drag coefficient (CDN10) from turbulent wind velocity measurements, and a novel method using albedo and surface temperature is employed to derive ice fraction. Peak surface roughness is found at ice fractions in the range 0.6 to 0.8 (with a mean interquartile range in CDN10 of 1.25 to 2.85 × 10-3). CDN10 as a function of ice fraction is found to be well approximated by the negatively skewed distribution provided by a leading parameterization scheme (Lüpkes et al., 2012) tailored for sea ice drag over the MIZ in which the two constituent components of drag - skin and form drag - are separately quantified. Current parameterization schemes used in the weather and climate models are compared with our results and the majority are found to be physically unjustified and unrepresentative. The Lüpkes et al. (2012) scheme is recommended in a computationally simple form, with adjusted parameter settings. A good agreement is found to hold for subsets of the data from different locations despite differences in sea ice conditions. Ice conditions in the Barents Sea, characterised by small, unconsolidated ice floes, are found to be associated with higher CDN10 values - especially at the higher ice fractions - than those of Fram Strait, where typically larger, smoother floes are observed. Consequently, the important influence of sea ice morphology and floe size on surface roughness is

  11. The cloud-phase feedback in the Super-parameterized Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, M. A.; Randall, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent comparisons of observations and climate model simulations by I. Tan and colleagues have suggested that the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process tends to be too active in climate models, making too much cloud ice, and resulting in an exaggerated negative cloud-phase feedback on climate change. We explore the WBF process and its effect on shortwave cloud forcing in present-day and future climate simulations with the Community Earth System Model, and its super-parameterized counterpart. Results show that SP-CESM has much less cloud ice and a weaker cloud-phase feedback than CESM.

  12. Flying Drosophila orient to sky polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2012-01-10

    Insects maintain a constant bearing across a wide range of spatial scales. Monarch butterflies and locusts traverse continents [1, 2], and foraging bees and ants travel hundreds of meters to return to their nests [1, 3, 4], whereas many other insects fly straight for only a few centimeters before changing direction. Despite this variation in spatial scale, the brain region thought to underlie long-distance navigation is remarkably conserved [5, 6], suggesting that the use of a celestial compass is a general and perhaps ancient capability of insects. Laboratory studies of Drosophila have identified a local search mode in which short, straight segments are interspersed with rapid turns [7, 8]. However, this flight mode is inconsistent with measured gene flow between geographically separated populations [9-11], and individual Drosophila can travel 10 km across desert terrain in a single night [9, 12, 13]-a feat that would be impossible without prolonged periods of straight flight. To directly examine orientation behavior under outdoor conditions, we built a portable flight arena in which a fly viewed the natural sky through a liquid crystal device that could experimentally rotate the polarization angle. Our findings indicate that Drosophila actively orient using the sky's natural polarization pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  14. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  15. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  16. Pilot oriental fruit fly management program in Guimaras island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Resilva, S.S.; Reyes, M.R.; Golez, H.G.; Covacha, S.A.; Bignayan, H.G.; Gaitan, E.G.; Zamora, N.F.; Maranon, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The pilot project on the integrated fruit fly management program based on sterile insect technique (SIT) was conducted in Guimaras island. The first island-wide male annihilation treatment (MAT) was implemented from February to October 1997. A total of 6 applications consisting of 525,534 pieces of lured particle board squares (PBS) were distributed in Guimaras both by aerial and ground applications. There was a significant reduction in fruit fly population indicating fruit fly suppression through MAT. However, MAT only reduces the male fruit fly density so many fruits were still found infested with fruit flies. Hence, biweekly releases of sterile flies were conducted from November 1997 to April 1998. About 91.74 million sterile pupae were sent by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to Guimaras. A total of 34,490,888 sterile flies were released by aerial applications and 12,632,163 sterile flies were released by ground applications. An increase in the S/N ratio was observed from 0.37 in December 1997 to 4.19 in April 1998. However, since the eradication phase was discontinued due to budgetary constraints, the required S/N ratio of more than 10 for a successful application of SIT was not achieved. A second series of MAT application were again conducted from May to September 1998. A total of 4 applications consisting of 357,650 pcs. of lured PBS were distributed throughout the island. Interestingly, the results of fruit fly density estimation before (1995) and after application (1998) of MAT and SIT using Lincoln method showed that the number of fruit flies per hectare was significantly reduced in all areas in Guimaras. Continues biweekly releases of 25 million flies therefore have to be undertaken to eradicate the remaining population. (Author)

  17. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  18. New Parameterizations for Neutral and Ion-Induced Sulfuric Acid-Water Particle Formation in Nucleation and Kinetic Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Merikanto, Joonas; Henschel, Henning; Duplissy, Jonathan; Makkonen, Risto; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    We have developed new parameterizations of electrically neutral homogeneous and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water particle formation for large ranges of environmental conditions, based on an improved model that has been validated against a particle formation rate data set produced by Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiments at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The model uses a thermodynamically consistent version of the Classical Nucleation Theory normalized using quantum chemical data. Unlike the earlier parameterizations for H2SO4-H2O nucleation, the model is applicable to extreme dry conditions where the one-component sulfuric acid limit is approached. Parameterizations are presented for the critical cluster sulfuric acid mole fraction, the critical cluster radius, the total number of molecules in the critical cluster, and the particle formation rate. If the critical cluster contains only one sulfuric acid molecule, a simple formula for kinetic particle formation can be used: this threshold has also been parameterized. The parameterization for electrically neutral particle formation is valid for the following ranges: temperatures 165-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1013 cm-3, and relative humidities 0.001-100%. The ion-induced particle formation parameterization is valid for temperatures 195-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1016 cm-3, and relative humidities 10-5-100%. The new parameterizations are thus applicable for the full range of conditions in the Earth's atmosphere relevant for binary sulfuric acid-water particle formation, including both tropospheric and stratospheric conditions. They are also suitable for describing particle formation in the atmosphere of Venus.

  19. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  20. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  1. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  2. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  3. Pore Structure Characterization in Concrete Prepared with Carbonated Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sanjukta

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technique to address the global concern of continuously rising CO2 level in the atmosphere. Fly ash is considered as a suitable medium for CCS due to presence of metal oxides. The fly ash which has already sequestered carbon dioxide is referred to as carbonated fly ash. Recent research reveals better durability of concretes using carbonated fly ash as part replacement of cement. In the present research pore structure characterization of the carbonated fly ash concrete has been carried out. Mercury Intrusion porosimetry test has been conducted on control concrete and concrete specimens using fly ash and carbonated fly ash at replacement levels of 25% and 40%. The specimens have been water cured for 28 days and 90 days. It is observed that porosity reduction rate is more pronounced in carbonated fly ash concrete compared to control concrete at higher water curing age. Correlation analysis is also carried out which indicates moderately linear relationship between porosity % and pore distribution with particle size and water curing.

  4. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  5. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Mark P.; McCreadie, John W.; Major, Clinton S.

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA) during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart). Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., C...

  6. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  7. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a) Civil...

  8. Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm forenvironment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plantgrowth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed.Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimentalstudies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated withtype of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/hadetermined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash.Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined thegrowth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilizedvariant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in thepresence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.

  9. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  10. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  11. Status of biopesticides for control of house flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) have resisted human attempts to control them since antiquity, and the global problem of fly resistance to conventional insecticides has resulted in renewed interest in biopesticides as alternative management tools. Entomopathogenic nematodes such as Steinernema and ...

  12. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  13. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01


    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived

  14. Parameterization of a fuzzy classifier for the diagnosis of an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, R.; Lyonnet, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a classifier based on a fuzzy inference system. For this classifier, we propose a parameterization method, which is not necessarily based on an iterative training. This approach can be seen as a pre-parameterization, which allows the determination of the rules base and the parameters of the membership functions. We also present a continuous and derivable version of the previous classifier and suggest an iterative learning algorithm based on a gradient method. An example using the learning basis IRIS, which is a benchmark for classification problems, is presented showing the performances of this classifier. Finally this classifier is applied to the diagnosis of a DC motor showing the utility of this method. However in many cases the total knowledge necessary to the synthesis of the fuzzy diagnosis system (FDS) is not, in general, directly available. It must be extracted from an often-considerable mass of information. For this reason, a general methodology for the design of a FDS is presented and illustrated on a non-linear plant

  15. A new simple parameterization of daily clear-sky global solar radiation including horizon effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Gabriel; Javier Batlles, F.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of clear-sky global solar radiation is usually an important previous stage for calculating global solar radiation under all sky conditions. This is, for instance, a common procedure to derive incoming solar radiation from remote sensing or by using digital elevation models. In this work, we present a new model to calculate daily values of clear-sky global solar irradiation. The main goal is the simple parameterization in terms of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, Angstroem's turbidity coefficient, ground albedo and site elevation, including a factor to take into account horizon obstructions. This allows us to obtain estimates even though a free horizon is not present as is the case of mountainous locations. Comparisons of calculated daily values with measured data show that this model is able to provide a good level of accurate estimates using either daily or mean monthly values of the input parameters. This new model has also been shown to improve daily estimates against those obtained using the clear-sky model from the European Solar Radiation Atlas and other accurate parameterized daily irradiation models. The introduction of Angstroem's turbidity coefficient and ground albedo should allow us to use the increasing worldwide aerosol information available and to consider those sites affected by snow covers in an easy and fast way. In addition, the proposed model is intended to be a useful tool to select clear-sky conditions

  16. Sensitivity test of parameterizations of subgrid-scale orographic form drag in the NCAR CESM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yishuang; Wang, Lanning; Zhang, Guang Jun; Wu, Qizhong

    2017-05-01

    Turbulent drag caused by subgrid orographic form drag has significant effects on the atmosphere. It is represented through parameterization in large-scale numerical prediction models. An indirect parameterization scheme, the Turbulent Mountain Stress scheme (TMS), is currently used in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model v1.0.4. In this study we test a direct scheme referred to as BBW04 (Beljaars et al. in Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1327-1347, 10.1256/qj.03.73), which has been used in several short-term weather forecast models and earth system models. Results indicate that both the indirect and direct schemes increase surface wind stress and improve the model's performance in simulating low-level wind speed over complex orography compared to the simulation without subgrid orographic effect. It is shown that the TMS scheme produces a more intense wind speed adjustment, leading to lower wind speed near the surface. The low-level wind speed by the BBW04 scheme agrees better with the ERA-Interim reanalysis and is more sensitive to complex orography as a direct method. Further, the TMS scheme increases the 2-m temperature and planetary boundary layer height over large areas of tropical and subtropical Northern Hemisphere land.

  17. Gravitational wave tests of general relativity with the parameterized post-Einsteinian framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil; Sampson, Laura; Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy has tremendous potential for studying extreme astrophysical phenomena and exploring fundamental physics. The waves produced by binary black hole mergers will provide a pristine environment in which to study strong-field dynamical gravity. Extracting detailed information about these systems requires accurate theoretical models of the gravitational wave signals. If gravity is not described by general relativity, analyses that are based on waveforms derived from Einstein's field equations could result in parameter biases and a loss of detection efficiency. A new class of ''parameterized post-Einsteinian'' waveforms has been proposed to cover this eventuality. Here, we apply the parameterized post-Einsteinian approach to simulated data from a network of advanced ground-based interferometers and from a future space-based interferometer. Bayesian inference and model selection are used to investigate parameter biases, and to determine the level at which departures from general relativity can be detected. We find that in some cases the parameter biases from assuming the wrong theory can be severe. We also find that gravitational wave observations will beat the existing bounds on deviations from general relativity derived from the orbital decay of binary pulsars by a large margin across a wide swath of parameter space.

  18. Parameterizing unresolved obstacles with source terms in wave modeling: A real-world application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Kakoulaki, Georgia; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Feyen, Luc; Besio, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Parameterizing the dissipative effects of small, unresolved coastal features, is fundamental to improve the skills of wave models. The established technique to deal with this problem consists in reducing the amount of energy advected within the propagation scheme, and is currently available only for regular grids. To find a more general approach, Mentaschi et al., 2015b formulated a technique based on source terms, and validated it on synthetic case studies. This technique separates the parameterization of the unresolved features from the energy advection, and can therefore be applied to any numerical scheme and to any type of mesh. Here we developed an open-source library for the estimation of the transparency coefficients needed by this approach, from bathymetric data and for any type of mesh. The spectral wave model WAVEWATCH III was used to show that in a real-world domain, such as the Caribbean Sea, the proposed approach has skills comparable and sometimes better than the established propagation-based technique.

  19. Microphysical Parameterizations for NWP: It's All About the Sizes and Production Pathways of Hydrometeors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Sara A.; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Evelyn D.

    2017-04-01

    Bulk microphysical parameterization schemes are popularly used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to simulate clouds and precpitation. These schemes are based on assumed number distribution functions for individual hydrometeor species, which are integratable over size distributions of diameters from zero to infinity. Typically, hydrometeor mass and number mixing ratios are predicted in these schemes. Some schemes also predict a third parameter of hydrometeor distribution characteristics. In this study, four commonly-used microphysics schemes of various complexity that are available in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) are investigated and compared using numerical model simulations of an idealized 2-D squall line and microphysics budget analysis. Diagnoses of the parameterized pathways for hydrometeor production reveal that the differences related to the assumptions of hydrometeor size distributions between the schemes lead to the differences in the simulations due to the net effect of various microphysical processes on the interaction between latent heating/evaporative cooling and flow dynamics as the squall line develops. Results from this study also highlight the possibility that the advantage of double-moment formulations can be overshadowed by the uncertainties in the spectral definition of individual hydrometeor categories and spectrum-dependent microphysical processes. It is concluded that the major differences between the schemes investigated here are in the assumed hydrometeor size distributions and pathways for their production.

  20. Parameterization of the ACRU model for estimating biophysical and climatological change impacts, Beaver Creek, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, K. A.; Kienzle, S. W.; Coburn, C. A.; Byrne, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Multiple threats, including intensification of agricultural production, non-renewable resource extraction and climate change, are threatening Southern Alberta's water supply. The objective of this research is to calibrate/evaluate the Agricultural Catchments Research Unit (ACRU) agrohydrological model; with the end goal of forecasting the impacts of a changing environment on water quantity. The strength of this model is the intensive multi-layered soil water budgeting routine that integrates water movement between the surface and atmosphere. The ACRU model was parameterized using data from Environment Canada's climate database for a twenty year period (1984-2004) and was used to simulate streamflow for Beaver Creek. The simulated streamflow was compared to Environment Canada's historical streamflow database to validate the model output. The Beaver Creek Watershed, located in the Porcupine Hills southwestern Alberta, Canada contains a heterogeneous cover of deciduous, coniferous, native prairie grasslands and forage crops. In a catchment with highly diversified land cover, canopy architecture cannot be overlooked in rainfall interception parameterization. Preliminary testing of ACRU suggests that streamflows were sensitive to varied levels of leaf area index (LAI), a representative fraction of canopy foliage. Further testing using remotely sensed LAI's will provide a more accurate representation of canopy foliage and ultimately best represent this important element of the hydrological cycle and the associated processes which govern the natural hydrology of the Beaver Creek watershed.