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Sample records for flies glossina morsitans

  1. The Effects of a DNA Virus Infection on the Reproductive Potential of Female Tsetse Flies, Glossina morsitans centralis and Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae

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    Sang Rosemary C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive anomalies associated with the tsetse DNA virus infection in the female tsetse hosts, Glossina morsitans centralis Machado and Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, inoculated with the virus during the 3rd instar larval stage were studied and the data compared to those obtained from the control females injected with sterile physiological saline. Virus infected flies had significantly longer first and second pregnancy cycles (P<0.0001 and produced pupae that were of significantly less weight in milligrams (P<0.0001 compared to controls. Transmission of the virus to progeny was not absolute and only 21% of G. m. centralis and 48% of G. m. morsitans first progeny flies from infected females developed salivary gland hypertrophy as a result of transmission from mother to progeny. The virus infected females produced significantly fewere pupae compared to the controls during the experimental period (P<0.00001.

  2. Properties Of A Midgut Trypanolysin From The Tsetse Fly Glossina Morsitans Morsitans

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    Mahamat H.Abakar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a bloodmeal-induced trypanolysin from the midgut of the tsetse G. m. morsitans was studied in vitro. The semi-purified trypanolysin from twice-fed tsetse had the highest trypanolysin activity against bloodstream trypanosomes followed by those once-fed and the unfed flies. Serum found to display trypanolysin activity. The trypanolysin had no trypsin activity nor even affected by the enzyme. In addition trypanolysin was not affected by protease inhibitors such as soy bean trypsin inhibitor STI N-a-p-Tosyl-L-lysine chromethyl ketone TLCK phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride PMSF diisopropyl fluoro-phosphate DFP and tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone TPCK. However the activity was completely inhibited by diethyl pyrocarbonate DEPC and partially by aprotinin. The induction of trypanolysin activity by bloodmeal increased gradually reaching a peak at 72-120 h after the bloodmeal and then decreased rapidly with only 25 of the peak activity remaining after 192 h. The trypanolysin was inactivated during storage at 27amp8451 and 4amp8451 after 15 and 32 days respectively. Similarly heating the midguts trypanolysin to 60 - 80amp8451 led to loss of activity. On the other hand 50amp8451 was found to be the optimum temperature for trypanolysin activity. The activity was also unstable by freeze-thaw at 80amp8451 -70amp8451 -20amp8451 and 0amp8451 after 33 41 55 and 63 days respectively. Trypanolysin caused lyses of bloodstream-form T. b. brucei while the procyclic trypanosomes were unaffected. The highest trypanolysin activity in different tsetse species was found with Glossina longipennis followed by Glossina pallidipes Glossina morsitans centralis Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. m. morsitans. When the midgut homogenate was separated by anion-exchange chromatography the trypanolysin activity was recovered in the bound fraction. These results suggest that the midgut trypanolysin plays an important role in the establishment of

  3. Transcriptome analysis of reproductive tissue and intrauterine developmental stages of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans

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    Wu Yineng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tsetse flies, vectors of African trypanosomes, undergo viviparous reproduction (the deposition of live offspring. This reproductive strategy results in a large maternal investment and the deposition of a small number of progeny during a female's lifespan. The reproductive biology of tsetse has been studied on a physiological level; however the molecular analysis of tsetse reproduction requires deeper investigation. To build a foundation from which to base molecular studies of tsetse reproduction, a cDNA library was generated from female tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans reproductive tissues and the intrauterine developmental stages. 3438 expressed sequence tags were sequenced and analyzed. Results Analysis of a nonredundant catalogue of 1391 contigs resulted in 520 predicted proteins. 475 of these proteins were full length. We predict that 412 of these represent cytoplasmic proteins while 57 are secreted. Comparison of these proteins with other tissue specific tsetse cDNA libraries (salivary gland, fat body/milk gland, and midgut identified 51 that are unique to the reproductive/immature cDNA library. 11 unique proteins were homologus to uncharacterized putative proteins within the NR database suggesting the identification of novel genes associated with reproductive functions in other insects (hypothetical conserved. The analysis also yielded seven putative proteins without significant homology to sequences present in the public database (unknown genes. These proteins may represent unique functions associated with tsetse's viviparous reproductive cycle. RT-PCR analysis of hypothetical conserved and unknown contigs was performed to determine basic tissue and stage specificity of the expression of these genes. Conclusion This paper identifies 51 putative proteins specific to a tsetse reproductive/immature EST library. 11 of these proteins correspond to hypothetical conserved genes and 7 proteins are tsetse specific.

  4. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

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    Watanabe, Junichi

    2014-04-24

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  5. Peptidomics of Neuropeptidergic Tissues of the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans

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    Caers, Jelle; Boonen, Kurt; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Schoofs, Liliane; Van Hiel, Matthias B.

    2015-12-01

    Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate nearly all physiological processes. The recent release of the tsetse fly genome allowed the construction of a detailed in silico neuropeptide database (International Glossina Genome Consortium, Science 344, 380-386 (2014)), as well as an in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of the most important neuropeptidergic tissues of this medically and economically important insect species. Mass spectrometric confirmation of predicted peptides is a vital step in the functional characterization of neuropeptides, as in vivo peptides can be modified, cleaved, or even mispredicted. Using a nanoscale reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we detected 51 putative bioactive neuropeptides encoded by 19 precursors: adipokinetic hormone (AKH) I and II, allatostatin A and B, capability/pyrokinin (capa/PK), corazonin, calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH), FMRFamide, hugin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, natalisin, neuropeptide-like precursor (NPLP) 1, orcokinin, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and tachykinin. In addition, propeptides, truncated and spacer peptides derived from seven additional precursors were found, and include the precursors of allatostatin C, crustacean cardioactive peptide, corticotropin releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (CRF/DH), ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), ion transport peptide (ITP), neuropeptide F, and proctolin, respectively. The majority of the identified neuropeptides are present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of peptides in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata and midgut. Owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference for comparative studies in other insects.

  6. Ultrastructural localization of unique neurosecretory granules in the corpora cardiaca of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans.

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    Meola, S M; Pendleton, M W; Langley, P A; Lovering, S L

    1999-05-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of the corpora cardiaca of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, revealed the presence of elementary neurosecretory granules (ENG) unique to the intrinsic neurosecretory cells (INC) of these species. In addition to electron-dense spheres, the INC of the corpus species. In addition to electron-dense spheres, the INC of the corpus cardiacum of the stable fly contain electrondense angular granules, either square or rectangular in shape, while the INC of the tsetse fly contain electron-dense spindle-shaped ENG. The distinctive granules of these INC can be traced within nerves to their sites of storage and release, eliminating the need for labeling with artificial probes. Although the INC of the corpus cardiacum of most species have been found to be fuchsinophilic, neither the INC of the stable fly nor the tsetse fly are aldehyde-fuchsinophilic. These peptigenic cells offer neuroendocrinologists a unique opportunity to study the physiology and biochemistry of neurosecretory cells.

  7. Presence of extensive Wolbachia symbiont insertions discovered in the genome of its host Glossina morsitans morsitans.

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    Corey Brelsfoard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the cyclical vectors of Trypanosoma spp., which are unicellular parasites responsible for multiple diseases, including nagana in livestock and sleeping sickness in humans in Africa. Glossina species, including Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm, for which the Whole Genome Sequence (WGS is now available, have established symbiotic associations with three endosymbionts: Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Sodalis glossinidius and Wolbachia pipientis (Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in both natural and laboratory populations of Glossina species, including the presence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT events in a laboratory colony of Gmm, has already been shown. We herein report on the draft genome sequence of the cytoplasmic Wolbachia endosymbiont (cytWol associated with Gmm. By in silico and molecular and cytogenetic analysis, we discovered and validated the presence of multiple insertions of Wolbachia (chrWol in the host Gmm genome. We identified at least two large insertions of chrWol, 527,507 and 484,123 bp in size, from Gmm WGS data. Southern hybridizations confirmed the presence of Wolbachia insertions in Gmm genome, and FISH revealed multiple insertions located on the two sex chromosomes (X and Y, as well as on the supernumerary B-chromosomes. We compare the chrWol insertions to the cytWol draft genome in an attempt to clarify the evolutionary history of the HGT events. We discuss our findings in light of the evolution of Wolbachia infections in the tsetse fly and their potential impacts on the control of tsetse populations and trypanosomiasis.

  8. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

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    Uzma Alam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia, without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can

  9. Isolation and properties of 600-kDa and 23-kDa haemolymph proteins from the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans: their possible role as biological insecticides.

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    Ochanda, J O; Osir, E O; Nguu, E K; Olembo, N K

    1992-01-01

    The haemolymph of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. The purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. The lipophorin is of high molecular weight (M(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin I (M(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin II (M(r) integral of 80,000) both of which are glycosylated. Lipophorin also has a pI of 6.1. However, electrophoresis under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions showed the low molecular weight protein to be a single polypeptide chain (M(r) integral of 23,000). Amino acid analysis revealed a relatively high content of the acidic amino acids as well as serine and glycine. The protein contained lipids as shown by Sudan Black staining but was unglycosylated. Using rabbit antiserum against the isolated protein in immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments, no cross-reactivity was detected with haemolymph samples from insects representing six orders. In conclusion, the finding of lipophorin suggests that, although flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements. However, the results for the low molecular weight protein indicate that the protein is unique to Glossina, suggesting that it may have an important role in the physiology of this insect and is therefore a significant target for vector management.

  10. The Homeodomain Protein Ladybird Late Regulates Synthesis of Milk Proteins during Pregnancy in the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans)

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    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michalkova, Veronika; Patrick, Kevin R.; Krause, Tyler B.; Aksoy, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina), the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1) by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl) as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This system is critical

  11. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

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    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  12. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

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    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  13. The Spermatophore in Glossina morsitans morsitans: Insights into Male Contributions to Reproduction

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    Scolari, Francesca; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michalkova, Veronika; Aksoy, Emre; Takac, Peter; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Malacrida, Anna R.; Aksoy, Serap; Attardo, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Male Seminal Fluid Proteins (SFPs) transferred during copulation modulate female reproductive physiology and behavior, impacting sperm storage/use, ovulation, oviposition, and remating receptivity. These capabilities make them ideal targets for developing novel methods of insect disease vector control. Little is known about the nature of SFPs in the viviparous tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae), vectors of Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis. In tsetse, male ejaculate is assembled into a capsule-like spermatophore structure visible post-copulation in the female uterus. We applied high-throughput approaches to uncover the composition of the spermatophore in Glossina morsitans morsitans. We found that both male accessory glands and testes contribute to its formation. The male accessory glands produce a small number of abundant novel proteins with yet unknown functions, in addition to enzyme inhibitors and peptidase regulators. The testes contribute sperm in addition to a diverse array of less abundant proteins associated with binding, oxidoreductase/transferase activities, cytoskeletal and lipid/carbohydrate transporter functions. Proteins encoded by female-biased genes are also found in the spermatophore. About half of the proteins display sequence conservation relative to other Diptera, and low similarity to SFPs from other studied species, possibly reflecting both their fast evolutionary pace and the divergent nature of tsetse’s viviparous biology. PMID:26847001

  14. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

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    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  15. A proteomics approach reveals molecular manipulators of distinct cellular processes in the salivary glands of Glossina m. morsitans in response to Trypanosoma b. brucei infections

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    Kariithi, Henry M.; Boeren, Sjef; Murungi, Edwin K.; Vlak, Just M.; Abd-Alla, Adly M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glossina m. morsitans is the primary vector of the Trypanosoma brucei group, one of the causative agents of African trypanosomoses. The parasites undergo metacyclogenesis, i.e. transformation into the mammalian-infective metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) parasites, in the salivary glands

  16. Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infections in laboratory and natural populations of different species of tsetse flies (genus Glossina

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    Doudoumis Vangelis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia is a genus of endosymbiotic α-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia is able to induce reproductive abnormalities such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI, thelytokous parthenogenesis, feminization and male killing, thus affecting biology, ecology and evolution of its hosts. The bacterial group has prompted research regarding its potential for the control of agricultural and medical disease vectors, including Glossina spp., which transmits African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Results In the present study, we employed a Wolbachia specific 16S rRNA PCR assay to investigate the presence of Wolbachia in six different laboratory stocks as well as in natural populations of nine different Glossina species originating from 10 African countries. Wolbachia was prevalent in Glossina morsitans morsitans, G. morsitans centralis and G. austeni populations. It was also detected in G. brevipalpis, and, for the first time, in G. pallidipes and G. palpalis gambiensis. On the other hand, Wolbachia was not found in G. p. palpalis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Wolbachia infections of different laboratory and natural populations of Glossina species were characterized using 16S rRNA, the wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein gene and MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing gene markers. This analysis led to the detection of horizontal gene transfer events, in which Wobachia genes were inserted into the tsetse flies fly nuclear genome. Conclusions Wolbachia infections were detected in both laboratory and natural populations of several different Glossina species. The characterization of these Wolbachia strains promises to lead to a deeper insight in tsetse flies-Wolbachia interactions, which is essential for the development and use of Wolbachia-based biological control methods.

  17. The salivary secretome of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae infected by salivary gland hypertrophy virus.

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    Henry M Kariithi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV, to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG lumen. However, secretion of host proteins is of equal importance for successful transmission and requires cataloging of G. pallidipes secretome proteins from hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied SGs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After electrophoretic profiling and in-gel trypsin digestion, saliva proteins were analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. MaxQuant/Andromeda search of the MS data against the non-redundant (nr GenBank database and a G. morsitans morsitans SG EST database, yielded a total of 521 hits, 31 of which were SGHV-encoded. On a false discovery rate limit of 1% and detection threshold of least 2 unique peptides per protein, the analysis resulted in 292 Glossina and 25 SGHV MS-supported proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, at least one gene ontology (GO term could be assigned to 89.9% (285/317 of the detected proteins. Five (∼1.8% Glossina and three (∼12% SGHV proteins remained without a predicted function after blast searches against the nr database. Sixty-five of the 292 detected Glossina proteins contained an N-terminal signal/secretion peptide sequence. Eight of the SGHV proteins were predicted to be non-structural (NS, and fourteen are known structural (VP proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SGHV alters the protein expression pattern in Glossina. The G. pallidipes SG secretome encompasses a spectrum of proteins that may be required during the SGHV infection cycle. These detected proteins have putative interactions with at least 21 of the 25 SGHV-encoded proteins. Our findings opens venues for developing novel SGHV mitigation

  18. Phylogeny of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to ITS2 sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小爱; 李嵩; 李昌本; 赵寿元; Aksoy; Serap

    1999-01-01

    The flies of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) are an important vector of African trypanosomiases which cause diseases in humans and animals. The ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences from different Glossina species were PCR-amplified and analyzed in order to construct a molecular phylogeny for genus Glossina. Trees generated by parsimony confirmed the monophyletic taxonomic placement of genus Glossina where fusca group species formed the deepest branch followed by morsitans and palpalis groups, respectively. The placement of Glossina austeni by both the traditional morphological and biochemical criteria has been controversial. Results presented here, based on ITS-2 locus sequence analysis, suggest that Glossina austeni can be placed into a separate subgenerus which forms a sister-group relationship with the morsitans group species.

  19. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: east African Species Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides.

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    Francis Oloo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Riverine species of tsetse are responsible for most human African trypanosomiasis (HAT transmission and are also important vectors of animal trypanosomiasis. This study concerns the development of visual control devices for two such species, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides, at the eastern limits of their continental range. The goal was to determine the most long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that induces the strongest landing responses in these species for use as insecticide-impregnated tools in vector population suppression.Field trials were conducted in different seasons on G. f. fuscipes in Kenya, Ethiopia and the Sudan and on G. tachinoides in Ethiopia to measure the performance of traps and 2D targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used to enumerate flies at these remote locations to compare trapping efficiencies. The findings show that targets made from black and blue fabrics (either phthalogen or turquoise covered with adhesive film render them equal to or more efficient than traps at capturing G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Biconical trap efficiency varied between 25% and 33% for the two species. Smaller 0.25 m×0.25 m phthalogen blue-black targets proved more efficient than the regular 1 m2 target for both species, by over six times for Glossina f. fuscipes and two times for G. tachinoides based on catches per m2. Overall, targets with a higher edge/surface area ratio were more efficient at capturing flies.Taking into account practical considerations and fly preferences for edges and colours, we propose a 0.5×0.75 m blue-black target as a simple cost-effective device for management of G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides, impregnated with insecticide for control and covered with adhesive film for population sampling.

  20. The salivary secretome of the tsetse fly Glossina pallipides (Diptera: Glossinidae) infected by salivary gland hypertrophy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariithi, H.M.; Ince, I.A.; Boeren, S.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Parker, A.G.; Aksoy, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to

  1. Tryptophan metabolism in tsetse flies and the consequences of its derangement

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    R. H. Gooding

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature comparing salmon and wild type Glossina morsitans morsitans and that comparing tan and wild type Glossina palpalis palpalis is reviewed. New information is presented on behaviour and biochemistry of salmon and wild type G. m. morsitans. The eye color mutants result from two lesions in the tryptophan to xanthommatin pathway: lack of tryptophan oxygenase in G. m morsitans and failure to produce or retain xanthommatin in eyes (but not in testes of G. p. palpalis. The salmon allele in G. m. morsitans is pleiotropic and profoundly affects many aspects of fly biology including longevity, reproductive capacity, vision, vectorial capacity and duration of flight, but not circadian rhythms. The tan allele in G. p. palpalis has little effect upon the biology of flies under laboratory conditions, except that tan flies appear less active than normal. Adult tsetse flies metabolize tryptophan to kynurenine which is excreted; fluctuations in activities of the enzymes producing kynurenine suggest this pathway is under metabolic control.

  2. Comparative analysis of salivary gland proteomes of two Glossina species with differential hytrosavirus pathologies

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    Henry Muriuki Kariithi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae is a dsDNA virus exclusively pathogenic to tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae. The 190 kb GpSGHV genome contains 160 open reading frames and encodes more than 60 confirmed proteins. The asymptomatic GpSGHV infection in flies can convert to symptomatic infection that is characterized by overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH. Flies with SGH show reduced general fitness and reproductive dysfunction. Although the occurrence of SGH is an exception rather than the rule, G. pallidipes is thought to be the most susceptible to expression of overt SGH symptoms compared to other Glossina species that are largely asymptomatic. Although Glossina salivary glands (SGs play an essential role in GpSGHV transmission, the functions of the salivary components during the virus infection are poorly understood. In this study, we used mass spectrometry to study SG proteomes of G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans, two Glossina model species that exhibit differential GpSGHV pathologies (high and low incidence of SGH, respectively. A total of 540 host proteins were identified, of which 23 and 9 proteins were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in G. pallidipes compared to G. m. morsitans. Whereas 58 GpSGHV proteins were detected in G. pallidipes F1 progenies, only 5 viral proteins were detected in G. m. morsitans. Unlike in G. pallidipes, qPCR assay did not show any significant increase in virus titers in G. m. morsitans F1 progenies, confirming that G. m. morsitans is less susceptible to GpSGHV infection and replication compared to G. pallidipes. Based on our results, we speculate that in the case of G. pallidipes GpSGHV employs a repertoire of host intracellular signaling pathways for successful infection. In the case of G. m. morsitans, antiviral responses appeared to be dominant. These results are useful for designing additional tools to investigate the Glossina

  3. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Proteomes of Two Glossina Species that Exhibit Differential Hytrosavirus Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariithi, Henry M.; İnce, İkbal Agah; Boeren, Sjef; Murungi, Edwin K.; Meki, Irene K.; Otieno, Everlyne A.; Nyanjom, Steven R. G.; van Oers, Monique M.; Vlak, Just M.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) is a dsDNA virus exclusively pathogenic to tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae). The 190 kb GpSGHV genome contains 160 open reading frames and encodes more than 60 confirmed proteins. The asymptomatic GpSGHV infection in flies can convert to symptomatic infection that is characterized by overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). Flies with SGH show reduced general fitness and reproductive dysfunction. Although the occurrence of SGH is an exception rather than the rule, G. pallidipes is thought to be the most susceptible to expression of overt SGH symptoms compared to other Glossina species that are largely asymptomatic. Although Glossina salivary glands (SGs) play an essential role in GpSGHV transmission, the functions of the salivary components during the virus infection are poorly understood. In this study, we used mass spectrometry to study SG proteomes of G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans, two Glossina model species that exhibit differential GpSGHV pathologies (high and low incidence of SGH, respectively). A total of 540 host proteins were identified, of which 23 and 9 proteins were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, in G. pallidipes compared to G. m. morsitans. Whereas 58 GpSGHV proteins were detected in G. pallidipes F1 progenies, only 5 viral proteins were detected in G. m. morsitans. Unlike in G. pallidipes, qPCR assay did not show any significant increase in virus titers in G. m. morsitans F1 progenies, confirming that G. m. morsitans is less susceptible to GpSGHV infection and replication compared to G. pallidipes. Based on our results, we speculate that in the case of G. pallidipes, GpSGHV employs a repertoire of host intracellular signaling pathways for successful infection. In the case of G. m. morsitans, antiviral responses appeared to be dominant. These results are useful for designing additional tools to investigate the Glossina-GpSGHV interactions

  4. Search for tsetse attractants : A structure-activity study on 1-octen-3-ol in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanNaters, WMVG; Bootsma, L; denOtter, CJ; Belemtougri, RG

    1996-01-01

    Trapping tsetse flies belonging to the palpalis group still relies totally upon luring by visual cues even though odor-baited trapping is used effectively against the morsitans-group species. Forty-three percent of the antennal olfactory cells of Glossina f. fuscipes, a member of the palpalis group,

  5. Comprehensive annotation of Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd-Alla, Adly M.M.; Kariithi, H.M.; Cousserans, F.; Parker, N.J.; Ince, Ikbal Agah; Scully, Erin D.; Boeren, J.A.; Geib, Scott M.; Mekonnen, Solomon; Vlak, J.M.; Parker, A.G.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Bergoin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish asymptomatic and symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host. Here, we present a comprehensive annotation of the genome of an Ethiopian GpSGHV isolate (GpSGHV-Eth) compared with the reference Ugandan

  6. Neural coding in antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; Noorman, N; Mastebroek, H.A K; van Schoot, N.E.G.; den Otter, C.J

    1998-01-01

    Spike trains from individual antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) obtained during steady-state conditions (spontaneous as well as during stimulation with 1-octen-3-ol) and dynamic stimulation with repetitive pulses of 1-octen-3-ol were investigated by studying the spike frequency

  7. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived insects and have to take a blood meal regularly. Tsetse f

  8. Virology, Epidemiology and Pathology of Glossina Hytrosavirus, and Its Control Prospects in Laboratory Colonies of the Tsetse Fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae

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    Andrew G. Parker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Glossina hytrosavirus (family Hytrosaviridae is a double-stranded DNA virus with rod-shaped, enveloped virions. Its 190 kbp genome encodes 160 putative open reading frames. The virus replicates in the nucleus, and acquires a fragile envelope in the cell cytoplasm. Glossina hytrosavirus was first isolated from hypertrophied salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera; Glossinidae collected in Kenya in 1986. A certain proportion of laboratory G. pallidipes flies infected by Glossina hytrosavirus develop hypertrophied salivary glands and midgut epithelial cells, gonadal anomalies and distorted sex-ratios associated with reduced insemination rates, fecundity and lifespan. These symptoms are rare in wild tsetse populations. In East Africa, G. pallidipes is one of the most important vectors of African trypanosomosis, a debilitating zoonotic disease that afflicts 37 sub-Saharan African countries. There is a large arsenal of control tactics available to manage tsetse flies and the disease they transmit. The sterile insect technique (SIT is a robust control tactic that has shown to be effective in eradicating tsetse populations when integrated with other control tactics in an area-wide integrated approach. The SIT requires production of sterile male flies in large production facilities. To supply sufficient numbers of sterile males for the SIT component against G. pallidipes, strategies have to be developed that enable the management of the Glossina hytrosavirus in the colonies. This review provides a historic chronology of the emergence and biogeography of Glossina hytrosavirus, and includes researches on the infectomics (defined here as the functional and structural genomics and proteomics and pathobiology of the virus. Standard operation procedures for viral management in tsetse mass-rearing facilities are proposed and a future outlook is sketched.

  9. Chemosensory receptors in tsetse flies provide link between chemical and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiga, Daniel; Obiero, George; Macharia, Rosaline; Mireji, Paul; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Tsetse flies survive in a variety of environments across tropical Africa, often rising to large numbers, despite their low birth rate of one offspring every seven to nine days. They use olfactory receptors to process chemical signals in their environments to find food, escape from predators, and locate suitable larviposition sites. We discuss the identification of odorant and gustatory receptors in Glossina morsitans morsitans and the role genomics could play in management of nuisance insects.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus virions for immune intervention in tsetse fly colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariithi, H.M.; Ince, I.A.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Bergoin, M.; Oers, van M.M.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) can be infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). The viruses isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) and Musca somestica (MdSGHV) have recently been sequenced. Tsetse flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility

  11. Electroantennogram responses of tsetse flies (Glossina pallidipes) to host odours in an open field and riverine woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; den Otter, C.J; Noorman, N

    1998-01-01

    The present study was initiated to gain insight into the way in which tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) sense odours at different locations in odour plumes in both an open field and a wooded area. We recorded the antennal responses (EAGs) from stationary living female G. pallidipes 15 m upwind and at var

  12. Studies on the role of serum proteins in the ovarian function of the Tsetse fly, Glossina palpalis palpalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.

    1980-01-01

    Nutritional factors in the diet of the obligatory haematophagous tsetse fly Glossina p. palpalis have been investigated, as an initial step towards the development of an artificial diet for this insect. Emphasis was laid on the role of serum proteins in the reproductive physiology, particularly with

  13. Comprehensive annotation of the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish a chronic covert asymptomatic infection and an acute overt symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host (Diptera: Glossinidae). Expression of the disease symptoms, the salivary gland hypertrophy sy...

  14. Post eclosion age predicts the prevalence of midgut trypanosome infections in Glossina.

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    Deirdre P Walshe

    Full Text Available The teneral phenomenon, as observed in Glossina sp., refers to the increased susceptibility of the fly to trypanosome infection when the first bloodmeal taken is trypanosome-infected. In recent years, the term teneral has gradually become synonymous with unfed, and thus fails to consider the age of the newly emerged fly at the time the first bloodmeal is taken. Furthermore, conflicting evidence exists of the effect of the age of the teneral fly post eclosion when it is given the infected first bloodmeal in determining the infection prevalence. This study demonstrates that it is not the feeding history of the fly but rather the age (hours after eclosion of the fly from the puparium of the fly when it takes the first (infective bloodmeal that determines the level of fly susceptibility to trypanosome infection. We examine this phenomenon in male and female flies from two distinct tsetse clades (Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina palpalis palpalis infected with two salivarian trypanosome species, Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon brucei brucei and Trypanosoma (Nannomonas congolense using Fisher's exact test to examine differences in infection rates. Teneral tsetse aged less than 24 hours post-eclosion (h.p.e. are twice as susceptible to trypanosome infection as flies aged 48 h.p.e. This trend is conserved across sex, vector clade and parasite species. The life cycle stage of the parasite fed to the fly (mammalian versus insect form trypanosomes does not alter this age-related bias in infection. Reducing the numbers of parasites fed to 48 h.p.e., but not to 24 h.p.e. flies, increases teneral refractoriness. The importance of this phenomenon in disease biology in the field as well as the necessity of employing flies of consistent age in laboratory-based infection studies is discussed.

  15. Patterns of Genome-Wide Variation in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Tsetse Flies from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Dunn, W Augustine; Telleria, Erich L; Evans, Benjamin R; Okedi, Loyce; Echodu, Richard; Warren, Wesley C; Montague, Michael J; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-06-01

    The tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) is the insect vector of the two forms of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) that exist in Uganda. Understanding Gff population dynamics, and the underlying genetics of epidemiologically relevant phenotypes is key to reducing disease transmission. Using ddRAD sequence technology, complemented with whole-genome sequencing, we developed a panel of ∼73,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the Gff genome that can be used for population genomics and to perform genome-wide-association studies. We used these markers to estimate genomic patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Gff, and used the information, in combination with outlier-locus detection tests, to identify candidate regions of the genome under selection. LD in individual populations decays to half of its maximum value (r(2) max/2) between 1359 and 2429 bp. The overall LD estimated for the species reaches r(2) max/2 at 708 bp, an order of magnitude slower than in Drosophila Using 53 infected (Trypanosoma spp.) and uninfected flies from four genetically distinct Ugandan populations adapted to different environmental conditions, we were able to identify SNPs associated with the infection status of the fly and local environmental adaptation. The extent of LD in Gff likely facilitated the detection of loci under selection, despite the small sample size. Furthermore, it is probable that LD in the regions identified is much higher than the average genomic LD due to strong selection. Our results show that even modest sample sizes can reveal significant genetic associations in this species, which has implications for future studies given the difficulties of collecting field specimens with contrasting phenotypes for association analysis.

  16. Patterns of Genome-Wide Variation in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Tsetse Flies from Uganda

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    Andrea Gloria-Soria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the insect vector of the two forms of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT that exist in Uganda. Understanding Gff population dynamics, and the underlying genetics of epidemiologically relevant phenotypes is key to reducing disease transmission. Using ddRAD sequence technology, complemented with whole-genome sequencing, we developed a panel of ∼73,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across the Gff genome that can be used for population genomics and to perform genome-wide-association studies. We used these markers to estimate genomic patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD in Gff, and used the information, in combination with outlier-locus detection tests, to identify candidate regions of the genome under selection. LD in individual populations decays to half of its maximum value (r2max/2 between 1359 and 2429 bp. The overall LD estimated for the species reaches r2max/2 at 708 bp, an order of magnitude slower than in Drosophila. Using 53 infected (Trypanosoma spp. and uninfected flies from four genetically distinct Ugandan populations adapted to different environmental conditions, we were able to identify SNPs associated with the infection status of the fly and local environmental adaptation. The extent of LD in Gff likely facilitated the detection of loci under selection, despite the small sample size. Furthermore, it is probable that LD in the regions identified is much higher than the average genomic LD due to strong selection. Our results show that even modest sample sizes can reveal significant genetic associations in this species, which has implications for future studies given the difficulties of collecting field specimens with contrasting phenotypes for association analysis.

  17. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: East African species Glossina swynnertoni.

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    Furaha Mramba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Here we set out to standardize long-lasting, visually-attractive devices for Glossina swynnertoni, a vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in open savannah in Tanzania and Kenya, and in neighbouring conservation areas used by pastoralists. The goal was to determine the most practical device/material that would induce the strongest landing response in G. swynnertoni for use in area-wide population suppression of this fly with insecticide-impregnated devices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Serengeti and Maasai Mara to measure the performance of traps and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a simple enumerator at these remote locations to compare trapping efficiencies of devices. Independent of season or presence of chemical baits, targets in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue cloth with adhesive film were the best devices for capturing G. swynnertoni in all situations, catching up to 19 times more flies than pyramidal traps. Baiting with chemicals did not affect the relative performance of devices. Fly landings were two times higher on 1 m(2 blue-black targets as on pyramidal traps when equivalent areas of both were covered with adhesive film. Landings on 1 m(2 blue-black targets were compared to those on smaller phthalogen blue 0.5 m(2 all-blue or blue-black-blue cloth targets, and to landings on all-blue plastic 0.32-0.47 m(2 leg panels painted in phthalogen blue. These smaller targets and leg panels captured equivalent numbers of G. swynnertoni per unit area as bigger targets. CONCLUSIONS: Leg panels and 0.5 m(2 cloth targets show promise as cost effective devices for management of G. swynnertoni as they can be used for both control (insecticide-impregnated cloth and for sampling (rigid plastic with insect glue or adhesive film of

  18. Laboratory colonisation and genetic bottlenecks in the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes.

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    Marc Ciosi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The IAEA colony is the only one available for mass rearing of Glossina pallidipes, a vector of human and animal African trypanosomiasis in eastern Africa. This colony is the source for Sterile Insect Technique (SIT programs in East Africa. The source population of this colony is unclear and its genetic diversity has not previously been evaluated and compared to field populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the genetic variation within and between the IAEA colony and its potential source populations in north Zimbabwe and the Kenya/Uganda border at 9 microsatellites loci to retrace the demographic history of the IAEA colony. We performed classical population genetics analyses and also combined historical and genetic data in a quantitative analysis using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. There is no evidence of introgression from the north Zimbabwean population into the IAEA colony. Moreover, the ABC analyses revealed that the foundation and establishment of the colony was associated with a genetic bottleneck that has resulted in a loss of 35.7% of alleles and 54% of expected heterozygosity compared to its source population. Also, we show that tsetse control carried out in the 1990's is likely reduced the effective population size of the Kenya/Uganda border population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All the analyses indicate that the area of origin of the IAEA colony is the Kenya/Uganda border and that a genetic bottleneck was associated with the foundation and establishment of the colony. Genetic diversity associated with traits that are important for SIT may potentially have been lost during this genetic bottleneck which could lead to a suboptimal competitiveness of the colony males in the field. The genetic diversity of the colony is lower than that of field populations and so, studies using colony flies should be interpreted with caution when drawing general conclusions about G. pallidipes biology.

  19. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

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    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  20. Standardising Visual Control Devices for Tsetse Flies: Central and West African Species Glossina palpalis palpalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Zacarie, Tusevo; M'Pondi, Alexis Makumyaviri; Njiokou, Flobert; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Kröber, Thomas; McMullin, Andrew; Mihok, Steve; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis) is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal) and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8–51%). There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. Conclusions/Significance Blue-black 0.25 m2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for population sampling when

  1. Tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (Glossina genus by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.

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    Catherine N Muturi

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. It is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. This knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding preferences. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI and cytochrome b (cytb gene sequences for identification of tsetse fly blood meals, in order to provide a foundation for rational decisions to guide control of trypanosomiasis, and their vectors. Glossina swynnertoni were sampled from Serengeti (Tanzania and G. pallidipes from Kenya (Nguruman and Busia, and Uganda. Sequences were used to query public databases, and the percentage identities obtained used to identify hosts. An initial assay showed that the feeds were from single sources. Hosts identified from blood fed flies collected in Serengeti ecosystem, included buffaloes (25/40, giraffes (8/40, warthogs (3/40, elephants (3/40 and one spotted hyena. In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13 and warthogs (5/13, while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each. Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda. Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard. These results demonstrate that cattle will form an integral part of a control strategy for trypanosomiasis in Busia and Uganda, while different approaches are required for Serengeti and Nguruman ecosystems, where wildlife abound and are the major component of the tsetse fly food source.

  2. Tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (Glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Catherine N; Ouma, Johnson O; Malele, Imna I; Ngure, Raphael M; Rutto, Jane J; Mithöfer, Klaus M; Enyaru, John; Masiga, Daniel K

    2011-02-28

    Tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. It is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. This knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding preferences. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences for identification of tsetse fly blood meals, in order to provide a foundation for rational decisions to guide control of trypanosomiasis, and their vectors. Glossina swynnertoni were sampled from Serengeti (Tanzania) and G. pallidipes from Kenya (Nguruman and Busia), and Uganda. Sequences were used to query public databases, and the percentage identities obtained used to identify hosts. An initial assay showed that the feeds were from single sources. Hosts identified from blood fed flies collected in Serengeti ecosystem, included buffaloes (25/40), giraffes (8/40), warthogs (3/40), elephants (3/40) and one spotted hyena. In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13) and warthogs (5/13), while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each. Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda. Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard. These results demonstrate that cattle will form an integral part of a control strategy for trypanosomiasis in Busia and Uganda, while different approaches are required for Serengeti and Nguruman ecosystems, where wildlife abound and are the major component of the tsetse fly food source.

  3. Multiple Trypanosoma infections are common amongst Glossina species in the new farming areas of Rufiji district, Tanzania

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    Malele Imna I

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis are among several factors that constrain livestock development in Tanzania. Over the years Rufiji District was excluded from livestock production owing to tsetse fly infestation, however, a few years ago there was an influx of livestock following evictions aimed at conserving the Usangu wetlands. Methods A study was conducted to determine the efficiency of available traps for catching tsetse flies, Glossina species infesting the area, their infection rates and Trypanosoma species circulating in the area. Trapping was conducted during the semi dry season for a total of 30 days (ten days each month during the onset of the dry season of May - July 2009. Harvested flies after every 24 hours were dissected and examined under a light microscope for trypanosome infections and whole fly DNA was extracted from 82 flies and analyzed for trypanosomes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using different sets of primers. Results The proportions of total tsetse catches per trap were in the following decreasing order S3 (33%, H-Trap (27%, Pyramidal (19%, sticky panel (11% and biconical trap (10%. Of the 1200 trapped flies, 75.6% were identified as Glossina pallidipes, 11.7% as G. brevipalpis, 9.6% as G. austeni and 3.0% G. morsitans morsitans. Dissections revealed the overall infection rate of 6.6% (13/197. Whole DNA was extracted from 82 tsetse flies and the prevalence of trypanosomes circulating in the area in descending order was 92.7% (76/82 for T. simiae; 70.7% (58/82 for T. brucei types; 48.8% (40/82 for the T. vivax types and 32.9% (27/82 for the T. congolense types as determined by PCR. All trypanosome types were found in all tsetse species analysed except for the T. congolense types, which were absent in G. m. morsitans. None of the T. brucei positive samples contained human infective trypanosomes by SRA - PCR test Conclusion All tsetse species found in Rufiji are biologically important in the

  4. A 4-alkyl-substituted analogue of guaiacol shows greater repellency to savannah tsetse (Glossina spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajindar K; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2007-05-01

    The responses of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood to guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), a mild repellent constituent of bovid odors, and seven analogues comprising 2-methoxyfuran, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (4-methylguaiacol), 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol (4-ethylguaiacol), 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (4-allylguaiacol; eugenol), 3,4-methylenedioxytoluene, and 3,4-dimethoxystyrene were compared in a two-choice wind tunnel. The 4-methyl-substituted derivative (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol) was found to elicit stronger repellent responses from the flies compared with guaiacol. None of the other analogues showed significant repellent effects on flies. 4-Methylguaiacol, guaiacol, and eugenol (which was included because of previous reports of its repellency against a number of arthropods) were further evaluated in the field with wild populations of predominantly Glossina pallidipes Austen. The presence of guaiacol or eugenol near odor-baited traps caused some nonsignificant reduction in the number of tsetse catches at relatively high release rates (approximately 50 mg/hr). In contrast, the 4-methyl derivative at three different release rates (2.2, 4.5, and 9.0 mg/hr) reduced trap catches of baited traps in a dose-response manner. At 10 mg/hr release rate, it reduced the catches of baited and unbaited traps by approximately 80 and approximately 70%, respectively. In addition, the compound not only reduced the number of tsetse attracted to natural ox odor (approximately 80%), but also had an effect on their feeding responses, reducing the proportion that fed on an ox by more than 80%. Our study shows that the presence of a methyl substituent at the 4-position of guaiacol enhances the repellency of the molecule to savannah tsetse and suggests that 4-methylguaiacol may represent a promising additional tool in the arsenal of techniques in trypanosomiasis control.

  5. Tsetse Flies (Glossina) as Vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamwiri, Florence Njeri; Changasi, Robert Emojong

    2016-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) transmitted by the tsetse fly continues to be a public health issue, despite more than a century of research. There are two types of the disease, the chronic gambiense and the acute rhodesiense-HAT. Fly abundance and distribution have been affected by changes in land-use patterns and climate. However, disease transmission still continues. Here, we review some aspects of HAT ecoepidemiology in the context of altered infestation patterns and maintenance of the transmission cycle as well as emerging options in disease and vector control.

  6. Tsetse Flies (Glossina as Vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis: A Review

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    Florence Njeri Wamwiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT transmitted by the tsetse fly continues to be a public health issue, despite more than a century of research. There are two types of the disease, the chronic gambiense and the acute rhodesiense-HAT. Fly abundance and distribution have been affected by changes in land-use patterns and climate. However, disease transmission still continues. Here, we review some aspects of HAT ecoepidemiology in the context of altered infestation patterns and maintenance of the transmission cycle as well as emerging options in disease and vector control.

  7. Glossina hytrosavirus control strategies in tsetse fly factories: application of infectomics in virus management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariithi, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    African trypanosomosis is a fatal zoonotic disease transmitted by tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae); blood-sucking insects found only in sub-Saharan Africa. Two forms of trypanosomoses occur: the animal African trypanosomosis (AAT; nagana), and the human African trypanosomosis (HAT; sleeping sickn

  8. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Chemosensory Gene Families in Five Tsetse Fly Species.

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    Rosaline Macharia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades, odour-baited traps have been used for control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae, vectors of African trypanosomes. However, differential responses to known attractants have been reported in different Glossina species, hindering establishment of a universal vector control tool. Availability of full genome sequences of five Glossina species offers an opportunity to compare their chemosensory repertoire and enhance our understanding of their biology in relation to chemosensation. Here, we identified and annotated the major chemosensory gene families in Glossina. We identified a total of 118, 115, 124, and 123 chemosensory genes in Glossina austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. f. fuscipes, G. pallidipes, respectively, relative to 127 reported in G. m. morsitans. Our results show that tsetse fly genomes have fewer chemosensory genes when compared to other dipterans such as Musca domestica (n>393, Drosophila melanogaster (n = 246 and Anopheles gambiae (n>247. We also found that Glossina chemosensory genes are dispersed across distantly located scaffolds in their respective genomes, in contrast to other insects like D. melanogaster whose genes occur in clusters. Further, Glossina appears to be devoid of sugar receptors and to have expanded CO2 associated receptors, potentially reflecting Glossina's obligate hematophagy and the need to detect hosts that may be out of sight. We also identified, in all species, homologs of Ir84a; a Drosophila-specific ionotropic receptor that promotes male courtship suggesting that this is a conserved trait in tsetse flies. Notably, our selection analysis revealed that a total of four gene loci (Gr21a, GluRIIA, Gr28b, and Obp83a were under positive selection, which confers fitness advantage to species. These findings provide a platform for studies to further define the language of communication of tsetse with their environment, and influence development of novel approaches for control.

  9. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia

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    Kumela Lelisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%. Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% – 14.3% were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%, Trypanosoma brucei (23.8% and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05. About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity.

  10. Wolbachia association with the tsetse fly, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, reveals high levels of genetic diversity and complex evolutionary dynamics

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    Symula Rebecca E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia pipientis, a diverse group of α-proteobacteria, can alter arthropod host reproduction and confer a reproductive advantage to Wolbachia-infected females (cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. This advantage can alter host population genetics because Wolbachia-infected females produce more offspring with their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes than uninfected females. Thus, these host haplotypes become common or fixed (selective sweep. Although simulations suggest that for a CI-mediated sweep to occur, there must be a transient phase with repeated initial infections of multiple individual hosts by different Wolbachia strains, this has not been observed empirically. Wolbachia has been found in the tsetse fly, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, but it is not limited to a single host haplotype, suggesting that CI did not impact its population structure. However, host population genetic differentiation could have been generated if multiple Wolbachia strains interacted in some populations. Here, we investigated Wolbachia genetic variation in G. f. fuscipes populations of known host genetic composition in Uganda. We tested for the presence of multiple Wolbachia strains using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST and for an association between geographic region and host mtDNA haplotype using Wolbachia DNA sequence from a variable locus, groEL (heat shock protein 60. Results MLST demonstrated that some G. f. fuscipes carry Wolbachia strains from two lineages. GroEL revealed high levels of sequence diversity within and between individuals (Haplotype diversity = 0.945. We found Wolbachia associated with 26 host mtDNA haplotypes, an unprecedented result. We observed a geographical association of one Wolbachia lineage with southern host mtDNA haplotypes, but it was non-significant (p = 0.16. Though most Wolbachia-infected host haplotypes were those found in the contact region between host mtDNA groups, this association was non

  11. Serological responses and biomarker evaluation in mice and pigs exposed to tsetse fly bites.

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    Guy Caljon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are obligate blood-feeding insects that transmit African trypanosomes responsible for human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock. The tsetse salivary proteome contains a highly immunogenic family of the endonuclease-like Tsal proteins. In this study, a recombinant version of Tsal1 (rTsal1 was evaluated in an indirect ELISA to quantify the contact with total Glossina morsitans morsitans saliva, and thus the tsetse fly bite exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice and pigs were experimentally exposed to different G. m. morsitans exposure regimens, followed by a long-term follow-up of the specific antibody responses against total tsetse fly saliva and rTsal1. In mice, a single tsetse fly bite was sufficient to induce detectable IgG antibody responses with an estimated half-life of 36-40 days. Specific antibody responses could be detected for more than a year after initial exposure, and a single bite was sufficient to boost anti-saliva immunity. Also, plasmas collected from tsetse-exposed pigs displayed increased anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva IgG levels that correlated with the exposure intensity. A strong correlation between the detection of anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva responses was recorded. The ELISA test performance and intra-laboratory repeatability was adequate in the two tested animal models. Cross-reactivity of the mouse IgGs induced by exposure to different Glossina species (G. m. morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes and other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao was evaluated. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential use of rTsal1 from G. m. morsitans as a sensitive biomarker of exposure to a broad range of Glossina species. We propose that the detection of anti-rTsal1 IgGs could be a promising serological indicator of tsetse fly presence that will be a valuable tool to monitor the impact of tsetse control efforts on the African continent.

  12. Phenetic and genetic structure of tsetse fly populations (Glossina palpalis palpalis) in southern Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Ravel, Sophie; Acapovi-Yao, Geneviève; Solano, Philippe; Allou, Koffi; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Gardes, Laetitia; N'Goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Schofield, Christopher John; Koné, Moussa; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-30

    Sleeping sickness, transmitted by G. p. palpalis, is known to be present in the Ivory Coast. G. p. palpalis has recently been reported to occur in several places within the town of Abidjan, including: (i) the Banco forest, (ii) the Abobo Adjamé University campus and (iii) the zoological park. Could these three places be treated sequentially, as separate tsetse populations, or should they be taken as one area comprising a single, panmictic population? The amount of gene flow between these places provides strategic information for vector control. It was estimated by the use of both microsatellite DNA and morphometric markers. The idea was to assess the interest of the faster and much less expensive morphometric approach in providing relevant information about population structure. Thus, to detect possible lack of insect exchange between these neighbouring areas of Abidjan, we used both genetic (microsatellite DNA) and phenetic (geometric morphometrics) markers on the same specimens.Using these same markers, we also compared these samples with specimens from a more distant area of south Ivory Coast, the region of Aniassué (186 km north from Abidjan). Neither genetic nor phenetic markers detected significant differentiation between the three Abidjan G. p. palpalis samples. Thus, the null hypothesis of a single panmictic population within the city of Abidjan could not be rejected, suggesting the control strategy should not consider them separately. The markers were also in agreement when comparing G. p. palpalis from Abidjan with those of Aniassué, showing significant divergence between the two sites. Both markers suggested that a successful control of tsetse in Abidjan would require the three Abidjan sites to be considered together, either by deploying control measures simultaneously in all three sites, or by a continuous progression of interventions following for instance the "rolling carpet" principle. To compare the geometry of wing venation of tsetse flies is a

  13. Phenetic and genetic structure of tsetse fly populations (Glossina palpalis palpalis in southern Ivory Coast

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    Kaba Dramane

    2012-07-01

    . To compare the geometry of wing venation of tsetse flies is a cheap and fast technique. Agreement with the microsatellite approach highlights its potential for rapid assessment of population structure.

  14. Experimental demonstration of possible cryptic female choice on male tsetse fly genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, W G

    2009-11-01

    A possible explanation for one of the most general trends in animal evolution - rapid divergent evolution of animal genitalia - is that male genitalia are used as courtship devices that influence cryptic female choice. But experimental demonstrations of stimulatory effects of male genitalia on female reproductive processes have generally been lacking. Previous studies of female reproductive physiology in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans suggested that stimulation during copulation triggers ovulation and resistance to remating. In this study we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in G. morsitans centralis and induced, as predicted, cryptic female choice against the male: sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments in which we altered the female sensory abilities at the site contacted by these male structures during copulation, and severely altered or eliminated the stimuli the male received from this portion of his genitalia, suggested that the effects of genital alteration on sperm storage were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female, rather than altered male behavior. These data support the hypothesis that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has been responsible for the rapid divergent evolution of male genitalia in Glossina; limitations of this support are discussed. It appears that a complex combination of stimuli trigger female ovulation, sperm storage, and remating, and different stimuli affect different processes in G. morsitans, and that the same processes are controlled differently in G. pallidipes. This puzzling diversity in female triggering mechanisms may be due to the action of sexual selection.

  15. Thermal tolerance in a south-east African population of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera, Glossinidae): implications for forecasting climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Deere, Jacques A; Chown, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    For tsetse (Glossina spp.), the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiases, the physiological mechanisms linking variation in population dynamics with changing weather conditions have not been well established. Here, we investigate high- and low-temperature tolerance in terms of activity limits and survival in a natural population of adult Glossina pallidipes from eastern Zambia. Due to increased interest in chilling flies for handling and aerial dispersal in sterile insect technique control and eradication programmes, we also provide further detailed investigation of low-temperature responses. In wild-caught G. pallidipes, the probability of survival for 50% of the population at low-temperatures was at 3.7, 8.9 and 9.6 degrees C (95% CIs: +/-1.5 degrees C) for 1, 2 and 3 h treatments, respectively. At high temperatures, it was estimated that treatments at 37.9, 36.2 and 35.6 degrees C (95% CIs: +/-0.5 degrees C) would yield 50% population survival for 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. Significant effects of time and temperature were detected at both temperature extremes (GLZ, pcoma temperatures under natural conditions (approximately 20-21 degrees C). The results from acute hardening experiments in the Zambian population demonstrate limited ability to improve low-temperature tolerance over short (hourly) timescales after non-lethal pre-treatments. In flies which survived chilling, recovery times were non-linear with plateaus between 2-6 and 8-12 degrees C. Survival times ranged between 4 and 36 h and did not vary between flies which had undergone chill coma by comparison with flies which had not, even after factoring body condition into the analyses (p>0.5 in all cases). However, flies with low chill coma values had the highest body water and fat content, indicating that when energy reserves are depleted, low-temperature tolerance may be compromised. Overall, these results suggest that physiological mechanisms may provide insight into tsetse population dynamics, hence

  16. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae) Tetraspanins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungi, E.K.; Kariithi, H.M.; Adunga, V.; Obonyo, M.; Christoffels, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major role

  17. Application of the Sterility Principle for Tsetse Fly Eradication or Control. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-14

    morsitans morsitans, G. austeni, G. tachinoides, G. palpalis xambiensis, G. fuscipes fuscipes) are maintained at Maisons -Alfort, three species (G. m...a’e~les. Environ de Fort Lamy (Tchad). Ill. Lieux et hauteurs do repos . Comportement alimentaire. Rev. Elev. Mfid. vit. Pays trop. 26 (3):323-38...J. 1975. Nutrition de Glossina tachinoides Westw. (IV). Rev. Elev. M6d. vit. Pays trop. 21 (1)49-69. Gruvel, J. 1975. Lieux de repos de Glossina

  18. Horizontally Transferred Genetic Elements in the Tsetse Fly Genome: An Alignment-Free Clustering Approach Using Batch Learning Self-Organising Map (BLSOM)

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    Nakao, Ryo; Funayama, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the primary vectors of trypanosomes, which can cause human and animal African trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to explore the genome of Glossina morsitans morsitans for evidence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from microorganisms. We employed an alignment-free clustering method, that is, batch learning self-organising map (BLSOM), in which sequence fragments are clustered based on the similarity of oligonucleotide frequencies independently of sequence homology. After an initial scan of HGT events using BLSOM, we identified 3.8% of the tsetse fly genome as HGT candidates. The predicted donors of these HGT candidates included known symbionts, such as Wolbachia, as well as bacteria that have not previously been associated with the tsetse fly. We detected HGT candidates from diverse bacteria such as Bacillus and Flavobacteria, suggesting a past association between these taxa. Functional annotation revealed that the HGT candidates encoded loci in various functional pathways, such as metabolic and antibiotic biosynthesis pathways. These findings provide a basis for understanding the coevolutionary history of the tsetse fly and its microbes and establish the effectiveness of BLSOM for the detection of HGT events. PMID:28074180

  19. OLFACTORY RESPONSES OF TSETSE-FLIES TO PHENOLS FROM BUFFALO URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENOTTER, CJ

    1991-01-01

    A comparison was made of the EAG responses of males and females of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, G. austeni Newstead and G. tachinoides Westwood to various doses of compounds known to be components of ox and buffalo urine fractions which are attractive to tsetse in the field (phenol, 3- and

  20. Artificial warthog burrows used to sample adult and immature tsetse (Glossina spp in the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe.

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    John W Hargrove

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biology of adult tsetse (Glossina spp, vectors of trypanosomiasis in Africa, has been extensively studied - but little is known about larviposition in the field.In September-November 1998, in the hot-dry season in Zimbabwe's Zambezi Valley, we used artificial warthog burrows to capture adult females as they deposited larvae. Females were subjected to ovarian dissection and were defined as perinatal flies, assumed to have entered burrows to larviposit, if oocyte sizes indicated >95% pregnancy completion. Perinatal flies were defined as full-term pregnant if there was a late third instar larva in utero, or postpartum if the uterus was empty. All other females were defined as pre-full-term pregnant (pre-FT. Of 845 G. m. morsitans captured, 91% (765 were female and 295/724 (41% of females dissected were perinatal flies. By contrast, of 2805 G. pallidipes captured only 71% (2003 were female and only 33% (596/1825 of females were perinatal. Among all perinatal females 67% (596/891 were G. pallidipes. Conversely, in burrows not fitted with traps - such that flies were free to come and go - 1834 (59% of pupae deposited were G. m. morsitans and only 1297 (41% were G. pallidipes. Thus, while more full-term pregnant G. pallidipes enter burrows, greater proportions of G. m. morsitans larviposit in them, reflecting a greater discrimination among G. pallidipes in choosing larviposition sites. Catches of males and pre-FT females increased strongly with temperatures above 32°C, indicating that these flies used burrows as refuges from high ambient temperatures. Conversely, catches of perinatal females changed little with maximum temperature but declined from late September through November: females may anticipate that burrows will be inundated during the forthcoming wet season. Ovarian age distributions of perinatal and pre-FT females were similar, consistent with all ages of females larvipositing in burrows with similar probability.Artificial warthog

  1. Optimizing the colour and fabric of targets for the control of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes.

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    Jenny M Lindh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT start with a bite from one of the subspecies of Glossina fuscipes. Tsetse use a range of olfactory and visual stimuli to locate their hosts and this response can be exploited to lure tsetse to insecticide-treated targets thereby reducing transmission. To provide a rational basis for cost-effective designs of target, we undertook studies to identify the optimal target colour. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the Chamaunga islands of Lake Victoria , Kenya, studies were made of the numbers of G. fuscipes fuscipes attracted to targets consisting of a panel (25 cm square of various coloured fabrics flanked by a panel (also 25 cm square of fine black netting. Both panels were covered with an electrocuting grid to catch tsetse as they contacted the target. The reflectances of the 37 different-coloured cloth panels utilised in the study were measured spectrophotometrically. Catch was positively correlated with percentage reflectance at the blue (460 nm wavelength and negatively correlated with reflectance at UV (360 nm and green (520 nm wavelengths. The best target was subjectively blue, with percentage reflectances of 3%, 29%, and 20% at 360 nm, 460 nm and 520 nm respectively. The worst target was also, subjectively, blue, but with high reflectances at UV (35% reflectance at 360 nm wavelengths as well as blue (36% reflectance at 460 nm; the best low UV-reflecting blue caught 3× more tsetse than the high UV-reflecting blue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Insecticide-treated targets to control G. f. fuscipes should be blue with low reflectance in both the UV and green bands of the spectrum. Targets that are subjectively blue will perform poorly if they also reflect UV strongly. The selection of fabrics for targets should be guided by spectral analysis of the cloth across both the spectrum visible to humans and the UV region.

  2. Polyandry is a common event in wild populations of the Tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and may impact population reduction measures.

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    Angelica Bonomi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa, particularly in Uganda. Attempts to control/eradicate this species using biological methods require knowledge of its reproductive biology. An important aspect is the number of times a female mates in the wild as this influences the effective population size and may constitute a critical factor in determining the success of control methods. To date, polyandry in G.f. fuscipes has not been investigated in the laboratory or in the wild. Interest in assessing the presence of remating in Ugandan populations is driven by the fact that eradication of this species is at the planning stage in this country.Two well established populations, Kabukanga in the West and Buvuma Island in Lake Victoria, were sampled to assess the presence and frequency of female remating. Six informative microsatellite loci were used to estimate the number of matings per female by genotyping sperm preserved in the female spermathecae. The direct count of the minimum number of males that transferred sperm to the spermathecae was compared to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian probability estimates. The three estimates provided evidence that remating is common in the populations but the frequency is substantially different: 57% in Kabukanga and 33% in Buvuma.The presence of remating, with females maintaining sperm from different mates, may constitute a critical factor in cases of re-infestation of cleared areas and/or of residual populations. Remating may enhance the reproductive potential of re-invading propagules in terms of their effective population size. We suggest that population age structure may influence remating frequency. Considering the seasonal demographic changes that this fly undergoes during the dry and wet seasons, control programmes based on SIT should release large numbers of sterile males, even in residual surviving target populations, in the dry season.

  3. Polyandry is a common event in wild populations of the Tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and may impact population reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Angelica; Bassetti, Federico; Gabrieli, Paolo; Beadell, Jon; Falchetto, Marco; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Regazzini, Eugenio; Ouma, Johnson O; Caccone, Adalgisa; Okedi, Loyce M; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Guglielmino, Carmela R; Aksoy, Serap; Malacrida, Anna R

    2011-06-01

    Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa, particularly in Uganda. Attempts to control/eradicate this species using biological methods require knowledge of its reproductive biology. An important aspect is the number of times a female mates in the wild as this influences the effective population size and may constitute a critical factor in determining the success of control methods. To date, polyandry in G.f. fuscipes has not been investigated in the laboratory or in the wild. Interest in assessing the presence of remating in Ugandan populations is driven by the fact that eradication of this species is at the planning stage in this country. Two well established populations, Kabukanga in the West and Buvuma Island in Lake Victoria, were sampled to assess the presence and frequency of female remating. Six informative microsatellite loci were used to estimate the number of matings per female by genotyping sperm preserved in the female spermathecae. The direct count of the minimum number of males that transferred sperm to the spermathecae was compared to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian probability estimates. The three estimates provided evidence that remating is common in the populations but the frequency is substantially different: 57% in Kabukanga and 33% in Buvuma. The presence of remating, with females maintaining sperm from different mates, may constitute a critical factor in cases of re-infestation of cleared areas and/or of residual populations. Remating may enhance the reproductive potential of re-invading propagules in terms of their effective population size. We suggest that population age structure may influence remating frequency. Considering the seasonal demographic changes that this fly undergoes during the dry and wet seasons, control programmes based on SIT should release large numbers of sterile males, even in residual surviving target populations, in the dry season.

  4. Towards an early warning system for Rhodesian sleeping sickness in savannah areas: man-like traps for tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the savannahs of East and Southern Africa, tsetse flies (Glossina spp. transmit Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense which causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness, the zoonotic form of human African trypanosomiasis. The flies feed mainly on wild and domestic animals and are usually repelled by humans. However, this innate aversion to humans can be undermined by environmental stresses on tsetse populations, so increasing disease risk. To monitor changes in risk, we need traps designed specifically to quantify the responsiveness of savannah tsetse to humans, but the traps currently available are designed to simulate other hosts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Zimbabwe, two approaches were made towards developing a man-like trap for savannah tsetse: either modifying an ox-like trap or creating new designs. Tsetse catches from a standard ox-like trap used with and without artificial ox odor were reduced by two men standing nearby, by an average of 34% for Glossina morsitans morsitans and 56% for G. pallidipes, thus giving catches more like those made by hand-nets from men. Sampling by electrocuting devices suggested that the men stopped flies arriving near the trap and discouraged trap-entering responses. Most of human repellence was olfactory, as evidenced by the reduction in catches when the trap was used with the odor of hidden men. Geranyl acetone, known to occur in human odor, and dispensed at 0.2 mg/h, was about as repellent as human odor but not as powerfully repellent as wood smoke. New traps looking and smelling like men gave catches like those from men. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Catches from the completely new man-like traps seem too small to give reliable indices of human repellence. Better indications would be provided by comparing the catches of an ox-like trap either with or without artificial human odor. The chemistry and practical applications of the repellence of human odor and smoke deserve further study.

  5. Vector competence of Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis for Trypanosoma congolense in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Makhosazana Motloang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis (nagana has been the cause of stock losses in the recent past and still presents a major problem to livestock owners in certain areas of KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa. Over 10 000 cattle mortalities were reported in the 1990 nagana outbreak. Although information on the distribution and abundance of the tsetse flies Glossina brevipalpis and Glossina austeni in KwaZulu-Natal exists, data on their vector competence are lacking. This study aimed to determine the rate of natural Trypanosoma congolense infection by field-collected as well as colony-reared flies of these species. A total of 442 field-collected G. brevipalpis and 40 G. austeni flies were dissected immediately after collection to determine their infection rates, whilst 699 G. brevipalpis and 49 G. austeni flies were fed on susceptible animals in 10 and four batches, respectively, for use in xenodiagnosis experiments. Teneral colony flies were fed on infected animals and dissected 21 days post infection to confirm their infectivity testing. Glossina austeni harboured 8% immature and mature infections. In G. brevipalpis, the infection with the immature stages was lower (1% and no mature infections were observed. Although all four batches of G. austeni transmitted T. congolense to four susceptible animals, no transmission resulted from 10 batches of G. brevipalpis fed on susceptible cattle. Colony-derived G. austeni (534 and G. brevipalpis (882 were fed on four bovines infected with different T. congolense isolates. Both G. austeni and G. brevipalpis acquired trypanosome infection from the bovines, with immature infection ranges of 20% – 33% and 1% – 4%, respectively. Parasites, however, only matured in G. austeni (average = 4%. Glossina austeni plays a larger role in the epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis in KwaZulu-Natal than G. brevipalpis and therefore more focus should be aimed at the former when control measures are implemented.

  6. Dynamics of the salivary gland hypertrophy virus in laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Kariithi, H.M.; Parker, A.G.; Robinson, A.S.; Kiflom, M.; Bergoin, M.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. To better understand the impact of this virus in a laboratory

  7. Identification of a tsetse fly salivary protein with dual inhibitory action on human platelet aggregation.

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    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Glossina sp., the African trypanosome vectors, rely on anti-hemostatic compounds for efficient blood feeding. Despite their medical importance, very few salivary proteins have been characterized and functionally annotated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on the functional characterisation of a 5'nucleotidase-related (5'Nuc saliva protein of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. This protein is encoded by a 1668 bp cDNA corresponding at the genomic level with a single-copy 4 kb gene that is exclusively transcribed in the tsetse salivary gland tissue. The encoded 5'Nuc protein is a soluble 65 kDa glycosylated compound of tsetse saliva with a dual anti-hemostatic action that relies on its combined apyrase activity and fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa antagonistic properties. Experimental evidence is based on the biochemical and functional characterization of recombinant protein and on the successful silencing of the 5'nuc translation in the salivary gland by RNA interference (RNAi. Refolding of a 5'Nuc/SUMO-fusion protein yielded an active apyrase enzyme with K(m and V(max values of 43+/-4 microM and 684+/-49 nmol Pi/min xmg for ATPase and 49+/-11 microM and 177+/-37 nmol Pi/min xmg for the ADPase activity. In addition, recombinant 5'Nuc was found to bind to GPIIb/IIIa with an apparent K(D of 92+/-25 nM. Consistent with these features, 5'Nuc potently inhibited ADP-induced thrombocyte aggregation and even caused disaggregation of ADP-triggered human platelets. The importance of 5'Nuc for the tsetse fly hematophagy was further illustrated by specific RNAi that reduced the anti-thrombotic activities in saliva by approximately 50% resulting in a disturbed blood feeding process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that this 5'nucleotidase-related apyrase exhibits GPIIb/IIIa antagonistic properties and represents a key thromboregulatory compound of tsetse fly saliva.

  8. [New data on parasitization of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) by Hexamermis glossinae (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in a forested area of Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnogo, M; Gouteux, J P

    2003-09-01

    Observations on the parasitism of Glossina palpalis palpalis by Hexamermis glossinae were carried out over a period of one year by catching flies at Abengourou, Aboisso and Daloa (forested area of Ivory Coast). No parasite is observed out of 2,168 Glossina palpalis palpalis caught in Abengourou and 9,732 in Aboisso. At Daloa, dissections of 7,341 Glossina reveal 1.75% parasited flies. All the worms were located in the abdominal cavity, loosely intertwined with the internal organ. Males were more infested than females (2.68% versus 1.26%). The parasites were more abundant among the nulliparous (2.30%) than the young parous (1.19%) and than the old parous (0.52%). The majority of infected flies were caught at the beginning of the rainy season (5.17%) and few in the dry season (0.23%). The low parasitic infection rate observed here indicates a minimal effect on the population dynamics of the vector of sleeping sickness in Ivory Coast.

  9. Comparative analysis of salivary gland proteomes of two Glossina species that exhibit differential hytrosavirus pathologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariithi, Henry M.; Ince, Ikbal Agah; Boeren, Sjef; Murungi, Edwin K.; Meki, Irene K.; Otieno, Everlyne A.; Nyanjom, Steven R.G.; Oers, van Monique M.; Vlak, Just M.; Abd-Alla, Adly M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) is a dsDNA virus exclusively pathogenic to tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae). The 190 kb GpSGHV genome contains 160 open reading frames and encodes more than 60 confirmed proteins. The asymptomatic GpSGHV infec

  10. Managing hytrosavirus infections in Glossina pallidipes colonies: Feeding regime affects the prevalence of the salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariithi, H.M.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Mohamed, H.A.; Lapiz, E.; Parker, A.G.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of SGHV on G.

  11. Aquaporins are critical for provision of water during lactation and intrauterine progeny hydration to maintain tsetse fly reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B Benoit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies undergo drastic fluctuations in their water content throughout their adult life history due to events such as blood feeding, dehydration and lactation, an essential feature of the viviparous reproductive biology of tsetse. Aquaporins (AQPs are transmembrane proteins that allow water and other solutes to permeate through cellular membranes. Here we identify tsetse aquaporin (AQP genes, examine their expression patterns under different physiological conditions (blood feeding, lactation and stress response and perform functional analysis of three specific genes utilizing RNA interference (RNAi gene silencing. Ten putative aquaporins were identified in the Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm genome, two more than has been previously documented in any other insect. All organs, tissues, and body parts examined had distinct AQP expression patterns. Two AQP genes, gmmdripa and gmmdripb ( = gmmaqp1a and gmmaqp1b are highly expressed in the milk gland/fat body tissues. The whole-body transcript levels of these two genes vary over the course of pregnancy. A set of three AQPs (gmmaqp5, gmmaqp2a, and gmmaqp4b are expressed highly in the Malpighian tubules. Knockdown of gmmdripa and gmmdripb reduced the efficiency of water loss following a blood meal, increased dehydration tolerance and reduced heat tolerance of adult females. Knockdown of gmmdripa extended pregnancy length, and gmmdripb knockdown resulted in extended pregnancy duration and reduced progeny production. We found that knockdown of AQPs increased tsetse milk osmolality and reduced the water content in developing larva. Combined knockdown of gmmdripa, gmmdripb and gmmaqp5 extended pregnancy by 4-6 d, reduced pupal production by nearly 50%, increased milk osmolality by 20-25% and led to dehydration of feeding larvae. Based on these results, we conclude that gmmDripA and gmmDripB are critical for diuresis, stress tolerance and intrauterine lactation through the regulation of water and

  12. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

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    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09749-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 2.2 1 ( BX549292 ) Glossina morsitans morsitans (Tseatse fly) EST fr... 46 2.2 1 ( EY504003 ) CBBP7247.fwd CBBP Hirudo medicina...lis hermaphrodit... 46 2.2 1 ( EY490211 ) CBBP17514.fwd CBBP Hirudo medicina

  14. Proteomics of Tsetse salivary glands before and after infection with Trypanosoma parasite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeren, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei causes African trypanosomosis to humans and cattle, against which there are no effective vaccines or drugs. The tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans is the primary vector of the species of T. brucei group. At the moment there is limited knowledge on how trypanosomes adapt to

  15. Application of nuclear insect sterile technique to eradicate tsetse fly(Glossina austeni Newstead) on Zanzibar, Tanzania%应用核不育技术根治桑给巴尔采采蝇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝增荣; M.J.BVreysen; V.A.Dyck; 潘红杰; A.parker; P.Mkonyi; A.Msangi; K.G.Juma; U.Feldamann

    2001-01-01

    1994年开始应用昆虫不育技术根治坦桑尼亚桑给巴尔的温古贾岛采采蝇(Glossina austeni Newstead)项目.该项目在坦桑大陆东北部建立了采采蝇人工大量繁殖、辐射不育设施,在温古贾岛上空用轻型飞机航空释放雄性不育采采蝇.在全岛设立多达700个粘虫板,监测野生和不育采采蝇种群,同时在38个监测区用MHCT等技术监测采采蝇传播的家畜锥虫病.释放了约800万只雄性不育采采蝇.南半岛不育/野生的雄蝇比由1995年中期前的小于20/1上升到大于100/1,导致雌蝇诱导不育率快速上升.野生采采蝇密度于1996年初开始急速下降,最后1只野生雄性和雌性采采蝇分别于1996年第32、36周捕获.锥虫病发病率也降至1%以下,而且仅限于Trypanosoma vivax.在最后1只野生采采蝇捕获约6代的时间后,于1997年11月底停止航空释放雄性不育采采蝇,经独立专家组评估后,正式宣告桑给巴尔采采蝇已被根治.

  16. Temporal stability of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations in Uganda

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    Hyseni Chaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes, a riverine species of tsetse, is the major vector of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the population dynamics, and specifically the temporal stability, of G. fuscipes will be important for informing vector control activities. We evaluated genetic changes over time in seven populations of the subspecies G. f. fuscipes distributed across southeastern Uganda, including a zone of contact between two historically isolated lineages. A total of 667 tsetse flies were genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci and at one mitochondrial locus. Results Results of an AMOVA indicated that time of sampling did not explain a significant proportion of the variance in allele frequencies observed across all samples. Estimates of differentiation between samples from a single population ranged from approximately 0 to 0.019, using Jost's DEST. Effective population size estimates using momentum-based and likelihood methods were generally large. We observed significant change in mitochondrial haplotype frequencies in just one population, located along the zone of contact. The change in haplotypes was not accompanied by changes in microsatellite frequencies, raising the possibility of asymmetric mating compatibility in this zone. Conclusion Our results suggest that populations of G. f. fuscipes were stable over the 8-12 generations studied. Future studies should aim to reconcile these data with observed seasonal fluctuations in the apparent density of tsetse.

  17. Effects of flow rate and temperature on cyclic gas exchange in tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L

    2010-05-01

    Air flow rates may confound the investigation and classification of insect gas exchange patterns. Here we report the effects of flow rates (50, 100, 200, 400 ml min(-1)) on gas exchange patterns in wild-caught Glossina morsitans morsitans from Zambia. At rest, G. m. morsitans generally showed continuous or cyclic gas exchange (CGE) but no evidence of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE). Flow rates had little influence on the ability to detect CGE in tsetse, at least in the present experimental setup and under these laboratory conditions. Importantly, faster flow rates resulted in similar gas exchange patterns to those identified at lower flower rates suggesting that G. m. morsitans did not show DGE which had been incorrectly identified as CGE at lower flow rates. While CGE cycle frequency was significantly different among the four flow rates (prate treatment variation. Using a laboratory colony of closely related, similar-sized G. morsitans centralis we subsequently investigated the effects of temperature, gender and feeding status on CGE pattern variation since these factors can influence insect metabolic rates. At 100 ml min(-1) CGE was typical of G. m. centralis at rest, although it was significantly more common in females than in males (57% vs. 43% of 14 individuals tested per gender). In either sex, temperature (20, 24, 28 and 32 degrees C) had little influence on the number of individuals showing CGE. However, increases in metabolic rate with temperature were modulated largely by increases in burst volume and cycle frequency. This is unusual among insects showing CGE or DGE patterns because increases in metabolic rate are usually modulated by increases in frequency, but either no change or a decline in burst volume.

  18. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE CONTROL OF GLOSSINA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proportion of tsetse flies exhaust their food reserves before they succeed in ... that a tsetse fly has of meeting a suitable host on anyone day) and the average expectation of ... time were spent in hunting during later parts of the feeding span, the ...

  19. The diurnal activity, movement and trypanosome infection rates of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)in Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONJINO M. OGWAL; ANDREW KALYEBI; JOHN B. KADDU

    2007-01-01

    The diurnal activity patterns, trypanosome infection rates and movement of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes(Diptera: Glossinidae) were investigated in Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda. Hourly trapping of tsetse flies was undertaken to determine their activity rhythm while a capture-mark-release-recapture method was conducted to assess the movement and dispersal of tsetse flies between lakeshore, hinterland and further inland sites along a transected area. Dissection of tsetse flies was also undertaken to determine the trypanosome infection rates in salivary glands, proboscis and mid-gut. Results indicated a bimodal diurnal activity profile for G. f. fuscipes on the Island, both on the lakeshore and in the hinterland.Movement and dispersal of G. f. fuscipes tsetse flies occurred between lakeshore, hinterland and further inland sites with a greater tendency of flies to move to the lakeshore. Trypanosome infection rates of 4.32% for Trypasoma vivax and 1.15% for T. congolense were found in G. f. fuscipes.

  20. Amino acids as taste stimuli for tsetse flies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goes van Naters, W.M; den Otter, C.J

    This paper reports the responses of taste cells on the legs of the blood-feeding tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead 1910 (Diptera: Glossinidae) to twenty protein amino acids and to their mixture as it is present in human;sweat. It is investigated whether the mixture is sensed differently

  1. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Solano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10flies within the island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  2. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Philippe; Ravel, Sophie; Bouyer, Jeremy; Camara, Mamadou; Kagbadouno, Moise S; Dyer, Naomi; Gardes, Laetitia; Herault, Damien; Donnelly, Martin J; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness. We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10population sizes suggest high levels of inbreeding in tsetse flies within the island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of the Glossina palpalis palpalis population in the Mbini focus (Equatorial Guinea

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    Nzambo-Ondo Sisinio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human African Trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease. The geographical distribution of the disease is linked to the spatial distribution of the tsetse fly. As part of a control campaign using traps, the spatial and temporal variability is analysed of the glossina populations present in the Mbini sleeping sickness foci (Equatorial Guinea. Results A significant drop in the annual mean of the G. p. palpalis apparent density was noted from 2004 to 2005, although seasonal differences were not observed. The apparent density (AD of G. p. palpalis varies significantly from one biotope to another. The fish dryers turned out to be zones with the greatest vector density, although the AD of G. p. palpalis fell significantly in all locations from 2004 to 2005. Conclusion Despite the tsetse fly density being relatively low in fish dryers and jetties, the population working in those zones would be more exposed to infection. The mono-pyramidal traps in the Mbini focus have been proven to be a useful tool to control G. p. palpalis, even though the activity on the banks of the River Wele needs to be intensified. The application of spatial analysis techniques and geographical information systems are very useful tools to discriminate zones with high and low apparent density of G. p. palpalis, probably associated with different potential risk of sleeping sickness transmission.

  4. Genetically distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations in the Lake Kyoga region of Uganda and its relevance for human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echodu, Richard; Sistrom, Mark; Hyseni, Chaz; Enyaru, John; Okedi, Loyce; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei--the agent of human (HAT) and animal (AAT) trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) is the main vector species in Uganda--the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense) occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  5. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Echodu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT and animal (AAT trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1049 gb|ACB46268.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Glossina morsitans morsitan...s] gb|ACB46269.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Glossina morsitans centralis] ACB46268.1 0.85 28% ...

  7. The effect of age on the mating competitiveness of male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. palpalis palpalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Abila

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age on male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Newstead, and Glossina palpalis palpalis, Austin (Diptera: Glossinidae competiveness were investigated with a view to estimate optimal age for sterile male release. Sterile insect technique involves the mass production, sterilization and sequential release of males of the target species to out compete the wild male population. Mating between released sterile males and wild females produce inviable progeny and the population is reduced over several generations to unsustainable levels. It is vital that the released male are of high quality and are sexually competitive. Age is one parameter affecting the sexual competiveness of the male tsetse fly. The optimal release age was estimated by assessing sexual competitiveness of flies of different age categories, 1, 5, 8 and 13-days after adult eclosion. A walk-in field-cage was used in order to approximate as closely as possible the actual field scenario during sterile insect release programes. It was shown that 8 and 13-day old males mated significantly more frequently, i.e. were more competitive, in the presence of equal numbers of 1 and 5-day old males. The age of male tsetse flies significantly affected competitiveness in both species studied. The ability of G. f. fuscipes to inseminate was not age dependent, and insemination occurred in all females that mated regardless of male age. In G. p. palpalis, however, 1-day old males were least able to inseminate. Mating duration was not significantly affected by age in both species. Eight to thirteen day old males of the test species are here recommended as the optimal sterile male release age.

  8. Fipronil 1% pour-on: further studies of its effects against lab-reared Glossina palpalis gambiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, B; Rayaisse, J B; Adakal, H; Kabre, A T; Bauer, B

    2017-09-21

    In order to assess the residual effects of fipronil 1% on tsetse fly survival, male Glossina palpalis gambiensis were released on non-treated and treated cattle, with 0.1 ml of fipronil/kg b.w. as a pour-on formulation. In a second trial, the female fecundity performances were evaluated by feeding teneral females on the same cattle. These females were then mated and their production parameters monitored, as well as the survival of freshly emerged flies. Fipronil had a significant effect on tsetse fly survival (p < 0.001). Over a period of 30 days, up to 40% of tsetse fly mortality was observed within 72 h after tsetse were released. The residual effects ranged between 51 and 74 days when tsetse flies were released twice within a 15-day interval in the presence of a treated animal. When tsetse flies were fed on treated cattle through a parafilm membrane, 92 days after the treatment, no significant effect of fipronil was observed on the reproductive performance of females, i.e., as well as on fecundity (p = 0.948) and emergence rates (p = 0.743), or puparial weight (p = 0.422). This was also the case for the survival of young flies, with no difference observed between the two groups. After this study, it is confirmed that fipronil is highly effective against tsetse flies. Its efficacy in controlling ticks is already known but other externalities such as the control of biting insects add value to its use.

  9. Transgenerational transmission of the Glossina pallidipes hytrosavirus depends on the presence of a functional symbiome.

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    Drion G Boucias

    Full Text Available The vertically transmitted endosymbionts (Sodalis glossinidius and Wigglesworthia glossinidia of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae are known to supplement dietary deficiencies and modulate the reproductive fitness and the defense system of the fly. Some tsetse fly species are also infected with the bacterium, Wolbachia and with the Glossina hytrosavirus (GpSGHV. Laboratory-bred G. pallidipes exhibit chronic asymptomatic and acute symptomatic GpSGHV infection, with the former being the most common in these colonies. However, under as yet undefined conditions, the asymptomatic state can convert to the symptomatic state, leading to detectable salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH(+ syndrome. In this study, we investigated the interplay between the bacterial symbiome and GpSGHV during development of G. pallidipes by knocking down the symbionts with antibiotic. Intrahaemocoelic injection of GpSGHV led to high virus titre (10(9 virus copies, but was not accompanied by either the onset of detectable SGH(+, or release of detectable virus particles into the blood meals during feeding events. When the F1 generations of GpSGHV-challenged mothers were dissected within 24 h post-eclosion, SGH(+ was observed to increase from 4.5% in the first larviposition cycle to >95% in the fourth cycle. Despite being sterile, these F1 SGH(+ progeny mated readily. Removal of the tsetse symbiome, however, suppressed transgenerational transfer of the virus via milk secretions and blocked the ability of GpSGHV to infect salivary glands of the F1 progeny. Whereas GpSGHV infects and replicates in salivary glands of developing pupa, the virus is unable to induce SGH(+ within fully differentiated adult salivary glands. The F1 SGH(+ adults are responsible for the GpSGHV-induced colony collapse in tsetse factories. Our data suggest that GpSGHV has co-evolved with the tsetse symbiome and that the symbionts play key roles in the virus transmission from mother to progeny.

  10. [Ecology of Glossina palpalis VANDERPLANK, 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) in mangrove area of Guinea: influence of tides on tsetse densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagbadouno, S M; Salou, E; Rayaisse, J B; Courtin, F; Sanon, A; Solano, P; Camara, M

    2016-05-01

    The mangrove area on the Guinea littoral constitutes a favourable habitat for transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiens, the parasite causing sleeping sickness also called Human African Trypanosmosis (HAT), due the simultaneous presence of the vector (tsetse flies) and the human hosts. In order to assess the influence of the sea tides on the densities of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Gpg), major vector of HAT in the mangrove, entomological surveys were performed using two transects, according to tides coefficient (great and small) and tide daily fluctuations (high and low). On each transect, 12 biconical traps were deployed through the mangrove to the continent. In total, up to 612 Gpg were caught, giving a density of 2.13 flies/trap/day (f/t/d). Highest captures were recorded during small tides and more tsetse were caught during the dry season than in the wet season. There were significant differences between captures when considering the different biotopes, and highest tsetse densities were recorded at the junction of the river and the channel of the mangrove (6.17±5.24); and in the channels of mangrove (3.50±3.76), during high tides of small coefficients. The results of this study may be used to improve vector control methods.

  11. Managing hytrosavirus infections in Glossina pallidipes colonies: feeding regime affects the prevalence of salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome.

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    Adly M M Abd-Alla

    Full Text Available Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH syndrome and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of SGHV on G. pallidipes colonies, several approaches were investigated to develop a virus management strategy. Horizontal virus transmission is the major cause of the high prevalence of the GpSGHV in tsetse colonies. Implementation of a "clean feeding" regime (fresh blood offered to each set of flies so that there is only one feed per membrane, instead of the regular feeding regime (several successive feeds per membrane, was among the proposed approaches to reduce GpSGHV infections. However, due to the absence of disposable feeding equipment (feeding trays and silicone membranes, the implementation of a clean feeding approach remains economically difficult. We developed a new clean feeding approach applicable to large-scale tsetse production facilities using existing resources. The results indicate that implementing this approach is feasible and leads to a significant reduction in virus load from 10(9 virus copies in regular colonies to an average of 10(2.5 and eliminates the SGH syndrome from clean feeding colonies by28 months post implementation of this approach. The clean feeding approach also reduced the virus load from an average of 10(8 virus copy numbers to an average of 10(3 virus copies and SGH prevalence of 10% to 4% in flies fed after the clean fed colony. Taken together, these data indicate that the clean feeding approach is applicable in large-scale G. pallidipes production facilities and eliminates the deleterious effects of the virus and the SGH syndrome in these colonies.

  12. Phylogeography and population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in Uganda: implications for control of tsetse.

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    Jon S Beadell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a riverine species of tsetse, is the main vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in Uganda. Successful implementation of vector control will require establishing an appropriate geographical scale for these activities. Population genetics can help to resolve this issue by characterizing the extent of linkage among apparently isolated groups of tsetse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted genetic analyses on mitochondrial and microsatellite data accumulated from approximately 1000 individual tsetse captured in Uganda and neighboring regions of Kenya and Sudan. Phylogeographic analyses suggested that the largest scale genetic structure in G. f. fuscipes arose from an historical event that divided two divergent mitochondrial lineages. These lineages are currently partitioned to northern and southern Uganda and co-occur only in a narrow zone of contact extending across central Uganda. Bayesian assignment tests, which provided evidence for admixture between northern and southern flies at the zone of contact and evidence for northerly gene flow across the zone of contact, indicated that this structure may be impermanent. On the other hand, microsatellite structure within the southern lineage indicated that gene flow is currently limited between populations in western and southeastern Uganda. Within regions, the average F(ST between populations separated by less than 100 km was less than approximately 0.1. Significant tests of isolation by distance suggested that gene flow is ongoing between neighboring populations and that island populations are not uniformly more isolated than mainland populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the presence of population structure arising from historical colonization events, our results have revealed strong signals of current gene flow within regions that should be accounted for when planning tsetse control in Uganda. Populations in southeastern Uganda

  13. The antiviral drug valacyclovir successfully suppresses salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV in laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes.

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    Adly M M Abd-Alla

    Full Text Available Many species of tsetse flies are infected with a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH symptoms associated with a reduced fecundity and fertility. A high prevalence of SGH has been correlated with the collapse of two laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes and colony maintenance problems in a mass rearing facility in Ethiopia. Mass-production of G. pallidipes is crucial for programs of tsetse control including the sterile insect technique (SIT, and therefore requires a management strategy for this virus. Based on the homology of DNA polymerase between salivary gland hypertrophy virus and herpes viruses at the amino acid level, two antiviral drugs, valacyclovir and acyclovir, classically used against herpes viruses were selected and tested for their toxicity on tsetse flies and their impact on virus replication. While long term per os administration of acyclovir resulted in a significant reduction of productivity of the colonies, no negative effect was observed in colonies fed with valacyclovir-treated blood. Furthermore, treatment of a tsetse colony with valacyclovir for 83 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of viral loads and consequently suppression of SGH symptoms. The combination of initial selection of SGHV-negative flies by non-destructive PCR, a clean feeding system, and valacyclovir treatment resulted in a colony that was free of SGH syndromes in 33 weeks. This is the first report of the use of a drug to control a viral infection in an insect and of the demonstration that valacyclovir can be used to suppress SGH in colonies of G. pallidipes.

  14. The bacterial flora of tsetse fly midgut and its effect on trypanosome transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Soumana, I. H.; Simo, G.; Njiokou, F.; Tchicaya, B.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Cuny, Gérard; Geiger, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The tsetse fly, Glossina palpalis is a vector of the trypanosome that causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle along with associated human health problems and massive economic losses. The insect is also known to carry a number of symbionts such as Sodalis, Wigglesworthia, Wolbachia whose effects on the physiology of the insect have been studied in depth. However, effects of other bacterial flora on the physiology of the host and vector competence have received little attention....

  15. Effect of sampling methods, effective population size and migration rate estimation in Glossina palpalis palpalis from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélachio, Tanekou Tito Trésor; Njiokou, Flobert; Ravel, Sophie; Simo, Gustave; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Human and animal trypanosomiases are two major constraints to development in Africa. These diseases are mainly transmitted by tsetse flies in particular by Glossina palpalis palpalis in Western and Central Africa. To set up an effective vector control campaign, prior population genetics studies have proved useful. Previous studies on population genetics of G. p. palpalis using microsatellite loci showed high heterozygote deficits, as compared to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, mainly explained by the presence of null alleles and/or the mixing of individuals belonging to several reproductive units (Wahlund effect). In this study we implemented a system of trapping, consisting of a central trap and two to four satellite traps around the central one to evaluate a possible role of the Wahlund effect in tsetse flies from three Cameroon human and animal African trypanosomiases foci (Campo, Bipindi and Fontem). We also estimated effective population sizes and dispersal. No difference was observed between the values of allelic richness, genetic diversity and Wright's FIS, in the samples from central and from satellite traps, suggesting an absence of Wahlund effect. Partitioning of the samples with Bayesian methods showed numerous clusters of 2-3 individuals as expected from a population at demographic equilibrium with two expected offspring per reproducing female. As previously shown, null alleles appeared as the most probable factor inducing these heterozygote deficits in these populations. Effective population sizes varied from 80 to 450 individuals while immigration rates were between 0.05 and 0.43, showing substantial genetic exchanges between different villages within a focus. These results suggest that the "suppression" with establishment of physical barriers may be the best strategy for a vector control campaign in this forest context.

  16. Advancements in bait technology to control Glossina swynnertoni Austen, the species of limited distribution in Kenya and Tanzania border: A review

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    Yakob P Nagagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glossina swynnertoni is a savannah tsetse that is largely confined to the Serengeti-Mara [a very small part of East Africa covering northern Tanzania (Arusha and Manyara regions and parts of Shinyanga and Mara regions extending to Maasai Mara ecosystem in southwestern Kenya]. Nevertheless, it is of great concern to human and animal health and is one of the top target tsetse species for eradication. To achieve this eradication objective, it is important to know about its behaviour so that the appropriate tools/measures especially the right traps can be applied against it. In this paper G. swynnertoni is reviewed in terms of its behaviour, and development of traps for its survey and control. Glossina swynnertoni control is of paramount importance in Tanzania tourism industry and country’s income. Since, G. swynnertoni is also distributed in national parks, control is vital as it might reduce tourists excursion/movement, by transmitting the African trypanosomiasis among travelers. Different literature search engines such as Google Scholar and PubMed were deployed for literature search. It was found that the behaviour of G. swynnertoni is relatively similar but unique from other tsetse flies. Its feeding cycle is 2½-3 days as opposed to 3–1 days observed in other tsetse species. The flight activity pattern varied between sex, with male having their peak at 1100-1200 hrs and females 1400-1600 hrs. The activity in both sexes decline rapidly towards the dusk (1700-1800 hrs. It was further depicted that host odours, relatively smaller and vertically oriented devices, as well as host movement are the main attractive factors to this tsetse species, which can be exploited to design efficient artificial devices for control of G. swynnertoni. Therefore, due to its restricted distribution and threat it poses on tourism industry, deliberate efforts need to be made against G. swynnertoni as a next candidate to be eradicated using artificial bait technology.

  17. Advancements in bait technology to control Glossina swynnertoni Austen, the species of limited distribution in Kenya and Tanzania border: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagagi, Yakob P; Silayo, Richard S; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-01-01

    Glossina swynnertoni is a savannah tsetse that is largely confined to the Serengeti-Mara [a very small part of East Africa covering northern Tanzania (Arusha and Manyara regions and parts of Shinyanga and Mara regions) extending Maasai Mara ecosystem in southwestern Kenya]. Nevertheless, it is of great concern to human and animal health and is one of the top target tsetse species for eradication. To achieve this eradication objective, it is important to know about its behaviour so that the appropriate tools/measures especially the right traps can be applied against it. In this paper G. swynnertoni is reviewed in terms of its behaviour, and development of traps for its survey and control. Glossina swynnertoni control is of paramount importance in Tanzania tourism industry and country's income. Since, G. swynnertoni is also distributed in national parks, control is vital as it might reduce tourists excursion/movement, by transmitting the African trypanosomiasis among travelers. Different literature search engines such as Google Scholar and PubMed were deployed for literature search. It was found that the behaviour of G. swynnertoni is relatively similar but unique from other tsetse flies. Its feeding cycle is 2½-3 days as opposed to 3-4 days observed in other tsetse species. The flight activity pattern varied between sex, with male having their peak at 1100-1200 hrs and females 1400-1600 hrs. The activity in both sexes decline rapidly towards the dusk (1700-1800 hrs). It was further that host odours, relatively smaller and vertically oriented devices, as well as host movement are the main attractive factors to this tsetse species, which can be exploited to design efficient artificial devices for control of G. swynnertoni . Therefore, due to its restricted distribution and threat it poses on tourism industry, deliberate efforts need to be made against G. swynnertoni as a next candidate to be eradicated using artificial bait technology.

  18. Impact of salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection on the mating success of male Glossina pallidipes: consequences for the sterile insect technique.

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    Gratian N Mutika

    Full Text Available Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus (GpSGHV that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH. Female Glossina pallidipes (Austen with SGH symptoms (SGH+ have reduced fecundity and SGH+ male G. pallidipes are unable to inseminate female flies. Consequently, G. pallidipes laboratory colonies with a high prevalence of SGH have been difficult to maintain and have collapsed on several occasions. To assess the potential impact of the release of SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes on the efficacy of an integrated control programme with a sterile insect technique (SIT component, we examined the mating efficiency and behaviour of male G. pallidipes in field cages in relation to SGH prevalence. The results showed in a field cage setting a significantly reduced mating frequency of 19% for a male G. pallidipes population with a high prevalence of SGH (83% compared to 38% for a male population with a low prevalence of SGH (7%. Premating period and mating duration did not vary significantly with SGH status. A high percentage (>80% of females that had mated with SGH+ males had empty spermathecae. The remating frequency of female G. pallidipes was very low irrespective of the SGH status of the males in the first mating. These results indicate that a high prevalence of SGH+ in G. pallidipes not only affects colony stability and performance but, in view of their reduced mating propensity and competitiveness, releasing SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes will reduce the efficiency of a sterile male release programme.

  19. Genetic comparison of Glossina tachinoides populations in three river basins of the Upper West Region of Ghana and implications for tsetse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Y; Bouyer, J; Dayo, G-K; Mahama, C I; Vreysen, M J B; Cecchi, G; Abd-Alla, A M M; Solano, P; Ravel, S; de Meeûs, T

    2014-12-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) and human African trypanosomosis (HAT). In March 2010, the Government of Ghana initiated a large scale integrated tsetse eradication campaign in the Upper West Region (UWR) (≈18,000 km(2)) under the umbrella of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We investigated the structuring of Glossina tachinoides populations within and between the three main river basins of the target area in the UWR. Out of a total sample of 884 flies, a sub-sample of 266 was genotyped at nine microsatellite loci. The significance of the different hierarchical levels was tested using Yang's parameters estimated with Weir and Cockerham's method. A significant effect of traps within groups (pooling traps no more than 3 km distant from each other), of groups within river basins and of river basins within the whole target area was observed. Isolation by distance between traps was highly significant. A local density of 0.48-0.61 flies/m(2) was estimated and a dispersal distance that approximated 11 m per generation [CI 9, 17]. No significant sex-biased dispersal was detected. Dispersal distances of G. tachinoides in the UWR were relatively low, possibly as a result of the fragmentation of the habitat and the seasonality of the Kulpawn and Sissili rivers. Moreover, very high fly population densities were observed in the sample sites, which potentially reduces dispersal at constant habitat saturation, because the probability that migrants can established is reduced (density dependent dispersal). However, the observed spatial dispersal was deemed sufficient for a G. tachinoides-cleared area to be reinvaded from neighboring populations in adjacent river basins. These data corroborate results from other population genetics studies in West Africa, which indicate that G. tachinoides populations from different river basins cannot be considered isolated. Copyright © 2014 The Authors

  20. Have tsetse flies disappeared from Brazzaville town?

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    Patrick Bitsindou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 1980 to 1985, the zoological park of Brazzaville was the only tsetse resting site located in downtown which supplied others temporary sites. The last trapping survey carried out in this area in 1987 showed that there were no more tsetse flies. Knowing that areas free of tsetse used to be reinvaded many years later, we have carried out an entomological survey in the area with the aim to verify what has happened more than twenty years later; given that suitable environmental conditions for Glossina are still available. Methods: Sixteen pyramidal traps were set out at the edge of the forest, along paths and around animal’s cages and were examined twice a day, at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during four days. Results: No tsetse fly was captured. Using the formula previously described; the probability of capturing a tsetse fly is 0.002. Conclusion: The zoological park seems close to be free of tsetse flies. Long-lasting surveys within the town and around are required before stating a complete disappearance of tsetse in the town.

  1. Quantifying Heterogeneity in Host-Vector Contact: Tsetse (Glossina swynnertoni and G. pallidipes) Host Choice in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Harriet; Cleaveland, Sarah; Malele, Imna; Masoy, Joseph; Lembo, Tiziana; Bessell, Paul; Torr, Stephen; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying hosts of blood-feeding insect vectors is crucial in understanding their role in disease transmission. Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT), also known as acute sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transmitted by tsetse flies. The disease is commonly associated with wilderness areas of east and southern Africa. Such areas hold a diverse range of species which form communities of hosts for disease maintenance. The relative importance of different wildlife hosts remains unclear. This study quantified tsetse feeding preferences in a wilderness area of great host species richness, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, assessing tsetse feeding and host density contemporaneously. Methods Glossina swynnertoni and G. pallidipes were collected from six study sites. Bloodmeal sources were identified through matching Cytochrome B sequences amplified from bloodmeals from recently fed flies to published sequences. Densities of large mammal species in each site were quantified, and feeding indices calculated to assess the relative selection or avoidance of each host species by tsetse. Results The host species most commonly identified in G. swynnertoni bloodmeals, warthog (94/220), buffalo (48/220) and giraffe (46/220), were found at relatively low densities (3-11/km2) and fed on up to 15 times more frequently than expected by their relative density. Wildebeest, zebra, impala and Thomson’s gazelle, found at the highest densities, were never identified in bloodmeals. Commonly identified hosts for G. pallidipes were buffalo (26/46), giraffe (9/46) and elephant (5/46). Conclusions This study is the first to quantify tsetse host range by molecular analysis of tsetse diet with simultaneous assessment of host density in a wilderness area. Although G. swynnertoni and G. pallidipes can feed on a range of species, they are highly selective. Many host species are rarely fed on, despite being present in areas where tsetse are

  2. Man-fly contact in the Gambian trypanosomiasis focus of Nola-Bilolo (Central African Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, J P; Kounda Gboumbi, J C; Noutoua, L; D'Amico, F; Bailly, C; Roungou, J B

    1993-09-01

    A study using bipyramid tetse fly traps in the Nola-Bilolo sleeping sickness focus (Central African Republic) reveals ecological and behavioural differences between two vectors, Glossina palpalis palpalis and G. fuscipes fuscipes. The latter species inhabits mainly open water sites and surrounding forest, whereas G. p. palpalis occurs mainly in coffe plantations near villages. Consequently, the man-fly contact differs considerably according to the species. The intensity of trypanosomiasis transmission, estimated by the probable distribution of cases, showed significant positive correlation with the density of the flies. Analysis of the fly blood meals in two villages show that, unlike G. g. palpalis, G. f. fuscipes feeds on men more than on pigs. Trypanosoma vivax infection was observed only in G. fuscipes fuscipes. The differences in occupation of the environment between the two vectors must be taken in account in trapping programmes which may modify this distribution.

  3. Flying Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  4. Trapping tsetse flies on water

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    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  5. Glossina fuscipes populations provide insights for human African trypanosomiasis transmission in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa; Galvani, Alison P; Okedi, Loyce M

    2013-08-01

    Uganda has both forms of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT): the chronic gambiense disease in the northwest and the acute rhodesiense disease in the south. The recent spread of rhodesiense into central Uganda has raised concerns given the different control strategies the two diseases require. We present knowledge on the population genetics of the major vector species Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in Uganda with a focus on population structure, measures of gene flow between populations, and the occurrence of polyandry. The microbiome composition and diversity is discussed, focusing on their potential role on trypanosome infection outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for large-scale tsetse control programs, including suppression or eradication, being undertaken in Uganda, and potential future genetic applications.

  6. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  7. A pilot study to delimit tsetse target populations in Zimbabwe.

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    Gerald Chikowore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse (Glossina sensu stricto are cyclical vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses, that are presently targeted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC coordinated by the African Union. In order to achieve effective control of tsetse, there is need to produce elaborate plans to guide intervention programmes. A model intended to aid in the planning of intervention programmes and assist a fuller understanding of tsetse distribution was applied, in a pilot study in the Masoka area, Mid-Zambezi valley in Zimbabwe, and targeting two savannah species, Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina pallidipes.The field study was conducted between March and December 2015 in 105 sites following a standardized grid sampling frame. Presence data were used to study habitat suitability of both species based on climatic and environmental data derived from MODIS and SPOT 5 satellite images. Factors influencing distribution were studied using an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA whilst habitat suitability was predicted using a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt model at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Area Under the Curve (AUC, an indicator of model performance, was 0.89 for G. m. morsitans and 0.96 for G. pallidipes. We then used the predicted suitable areas to calculate the probability that flies were really absent from the grid cells where they were not captured during the study based on a probability model using a risk threshold of 0.05. Apart from grid cells where G. m. morsitans and G. pallidipes were captured, there was a high probability of presence in an additional 128 km2 and 144 km2 respectively.The modelling process promised to be useful in optimizing the outputs of presence/absence surveys, allowing the definition of tsetse infested areas with improved accuracy. The methodology proposed here can be extended to all the tsetse infested parts of Zimbabwe and may also be useful for other PATTEC national initiatives in other

  8. Time flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke

    , the LS fly might be able to spend energy more generously on different tasks. Therefor, the capacity of LS and C lines to locate resources in a natural environment was tested. It turns out that LS flies are less likely to find food than C flies in such a setting, yet that as they age, their ability...... to locate food decreases slower than that of C lines. Gene expression of 10 candidate genes for longevity was quantified in two types of C and LS lines at three different ages. One of these genes, CG32638, indeed appears to be involved in life span determination in both males and females, regardless...... of mating status. Generalising studies on ageing in D. melanogaster can be cumbersome, especially in light of discrepancy between correlated responses between studies. To elucidate which mechanisms might be conserved due to evolutionary constraints, life span of 13 species of Drosophila was determined...

  9. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

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    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    . This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art......Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction...

  11. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J. de Beer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated. From November 2005 to November 2007 selected dip tanks were surveyed for trypanosome infection prevalence. During April 2005 to August 2009 the distribution and abundance of tsetse populations were assessed with odour-baited H traps. The tsetse and trypanosome distribution maps were updated and potential correlations between tsetse apparent densities (ADs and the prevalence of trypanosomosis were assessed. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were recorded in locations where they have not previously been collected. No significant correlation between tsetse relative abundance and nagana prevalence was found, which indicated complex interactions between tsetse fly presence and disease prevalence. This was epitomised by data that indicated that despite large differences in the ADs of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis, trypanosome infection prevalence was similar in all three districts in the area. This study clearly indicated that both tsetse species play significant roles in trypanosome transmission and that it will be essential that any control strategy, which aims at sustainable management of the disease, should target both species.Keywords: Tsetse distribution; Glossina brevipalpis; Glossina austeni; trypanosome infection prevalence

  12. Nouvelles données sur le parasitisme de Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera : Glossinidae par Hexamermis glossinae (Nematoda : Mermithidae en secteur pré-forestier de Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnogo M.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Une étude sur un cycle annuel du parasitisme de Glossina palpalis palpalis par Hexamermis glossinae a été effectuée dans les secteurs d'Abengourou, d'Aboisso et de Daloa (zones forestières de Côte d'Ivoire. Les dissections de 2 168 glossines à Abengourou et 9732 à Aboisso n'ont pas permis de mettre le parasite en évidence. À Daloa, en revanche, le pourcentage d'infection est de 1,75 % sur un total de 7341 mouches disséquées. Tous les parasites sont localisés dans la cavité abdominale sans léser les organes. Les mâles sont plus infectés que les femelles (2,68 % contre 1,26 %, et parmi celles-ci les nullipares sont plus infectées que les jeunes pares et vieilles pares (2,30 % contre 1,19 % et 0,52 % respectivement. Le parasite est le plus abondant chez les glossines en début de saison des pluies (5, 17 % et plus rare en saison sèche (0,23 %. Le faible niveau de parasitisme observé ici semble indiquer que celui-ci a naturellement peu d'impact sur la dynamique du principal vecteur de la maladie du sommeil en Côte d'Ivoire.

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  14. How do tsetse recognise their hosts? The role of shape in the responses of tsetse (Glossina fuscipes and G. palpalis to artificial hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaki Tirados

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Palpalis-group tsetse, particularly the subspecies of Glossina palpalis and G. fuscipes, are the most important transmitters of human African trypanomiasis (HAT, transmitting >95% of cases. Traps and insecticide-treated targets are used to control tsetse but more cost-effective baits might be developed through a better understanding of the fly's host-seeking behaviour. Electrocuting grids were used to assess the numbers of G. palpalis palpalis and G. fuscipes quanzensis attracted to and landing on square or oblong targets of black cloth varying in size from 0.01 m(2 to 1.0 m(2. For both species, increasing the size of a square target from 0.01 m(2 (dimensions=0.1 × 0.1 m to 1.0 m(2 (1.0 × 1.0 m increased the catch ~4x however the numbers of tsetse killed per unit area of target declined with target size suggesting that the most cost efficient targets are not the largest. For G. f. quanzensis, horizontal oblongs, (1 m wide × 0.5 m high caught ~1.8x more tsetse than vertical ones (0.5 m wide × 1.0 m high but the opposite applied for G. p. palpalis. Shape preference was consistent over the range of target sizes. For G. p. palpalis square targets caught as many tsetse as the oblong; while the evidence is less strong the same appears to apply to G. f. quanzensis. The results suggest that targets used to control G. p. palpalis and G. f. quanzensis should be square, and that the most cost-effective designs, as judged by the numbers of tsetse caught per area of target, are likely to be in the region of 0.25 × 0.25 m(2. The preference of G. p. palpalis for vertical oblongs is unique amongst tsetse species, and it is suggested that this response might be related to its anthropophagic behaviour and hence importance as a vector of HAT.

  15. How do tsetse recognise their hosts? The role of shape in the responses of tsetse (Glossina fuscipes and G. palpalis) to artificial hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirados, Inaki; Esterhuizen, Johan; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste; Diarrassouba, Abdoulaye; Kaba, Dramane; Mpiana, Serge; Vale, Glyn A; Solano, Philippe; Lehane, Michael J; Torr, Stephen J

    2011-08-01

    Palpalis-group tsetse, particularly the subspecies of Glossina palpalis and G. fuscipes, are the most important transmitters of human African trypanomiasis (HAT), transmitting >95% of cases. Traps and insecticide-treated targets are used to control tsetse but more cost-effective baits might be developed through a better understanding of the fly's host-seeking behaviour. Electrocuting grids were used to assess the numbers of G. palpalis palpalis and G. fuscipes quanzensis attracted to and landing on square or oblong targets of black cloth varying in size from 0.01 m(2) to 1.0 m(2). For both species, increasing the size of a square target from 0.01 m(2) (dimensions=0.1 × 0.1 m) to 1.0 m(2) (1.0 × 1.0 m) increased the catch ~4x however the numbers of tsetse killed per unit area of target declined with target size suggesting that the most cost efficient targets are not the largest. For G. f. quanzensis, horizontal oblongs, (1 m wide × 0.5 m high) caught ~1.8x more tsetse than vertical ones (0.5 m wide × 1.0 m high) but the opposite applied for G. p. palpalis. Shape preference was consistent over the range of target sizes. For G. p. palpalis square targets caught as many tsetse as the oblong; while the evidence is less strong the same appears to apply to G. f. quanzensis. The results suggest that targets used to control G. p. palpalis and G. f. quanzensis should be square, and that the most cost-effective designs, as judged by the numbers of tsetse caught per area of target, are likely to be in the region of 0.25 × 0.25 m(2). The preference of G. p. palpalis for vertical oblongs is unique amongst tsetse species, and it is suggested that this response might be related to its anthropophagic behaviour and hence importance as a vector of HAT.

  16. Population structuring of the tsetse Glossina tachinoides resulting from landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, N; De Meeûs, T; Bouyer, J; Ravel, S; Guerrini, L; N'Goran, E K; Vial, L

    2010-06-01

    The impact of landscape fragmentation resulting from human- and climate-mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Mouhoun River basin, Burkina Faso, was investigated. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci were compared in four populations. The average distance between samples was 72 km. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river loop that enlarged from upstream to downstream. Microsatellite DNA demonstrated no structuring among the groups studied (F(ST) = 0.015, P = 0.07), which is contrary to findings pertaining to Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank in the same geographical area. The populations of G. tachinoides showed complete panmixia (F(IS) = 0, P = 0.5 for the whole sample) and no genetic differentiation among populations or global positioning system trap locations. This is in line with the results of dispersal studies which indicated higher diffusion coefficients for G. tachinoides than for G. p. gambiensis. The impact of these findings is discussed within the framework of control campaigns currently promoted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  17. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  18. Flying Fortress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    当欧洲的年轻人想到关于德国的两种熊,一个是传统的布娃娃熊,另一个就是充满欧洲街头墙上的Teddy熊涂鸦,而这个涂鸦熊的创作者就是著名的涂鸦艺术家“Flying Fortress”,他称这些熊军队为“Teddy Tmops”。

  19. EST Table: FY000628 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY000628 bmov2m12 11/11/04 34 %/153 aa gb|ADD19286.1| mitotic checkpoint protein MAD1 [Glossina morsitan...s morsitans] 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h FS758520 bmov ...

  20. EST Table: FY039056 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY039056 rbmte19m23 11/11/04 30 %/178 aa gb|ADD19610.1| synaptic vesicle transporter sVOP [Glossina morsitan...s morsitans] 11/11/04 low homology 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 low homology FS742187 bmte ...

  1. EST Table: FY010264 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY010264 bmov29l24 11/11/04 32 %/153 aa gb|ADD19626.1| hypothetical conserved protein [Glossina morsitan...s morsitans] 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h FS806207 bmov ...

  2. EST Table: FY005763 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY005763 bmov17c15 11/11/04 32 %/153 aa gb|ADD19626.1| hypothetical conserved protein [Glossina morsitan...s morsitans] 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h 11/11/04 n.h FS806207 bmov ...

  3. Immunogenicity and Serological Cross-Reactivity of Saliva Proteins among Different Tsetse Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    Full Text Available Tsetse are vectors of pathogenic trypanosomes, agents of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa. Components of tsetse saliva (sialome are introduced into the mammalian host bite site during the blood feeding process and are important for tsetse's ability to feed efficiently, but can also influence disease transmission and serve as biomarkers for host exposure. We compared the sialome components from four tsetse species in two subgenera: subgenus Morsitans: Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm and Glossina pallidipes (Gpd, and subgenus Palpalis: Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Gpg and Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff, and evaluated their immunogenicity and serological cross reactivity by an immunoblot approach utilizing antibodies from experimental mice challenged with uninfected flies. The protein and immune profiles of sialome components varied with fly species in the same subgenus displaying greater similarity and cross reactivity. Sera obtained from cattle from disease endemic areas of Africa displayed an immunogenicity profile reflective of tsetse species distribution. We analyzed the sialome fractions of Gmm by LC-MS/MS, and identified TAg5, Tsal1/Tsal2, and Sgp3 as major immunogenic proteins, and the 5'-nucleotidase family as well as four members of the Adenosine Deaminase Growth Factor (ADGF family as the major non-immunogenic proteins. Within the ADGF family, we identified four closely related proteins (TSGF-1, TSGF-2, ADGF-3 and ADGF-4, all of which are expressed in tsetse salivary glands. We describe the tsetse species-specific expression profiles and genomic localization of these proteins. Using a passive-immunity approach, we evaluated the effects of rec-TSGF (TSGF-1 and TSGF-2 polyclonal antibodies on tsetse fitness parameters. Limited exposure of tsetse to mice with circulating anti-TSGF antibodies resulted in a slight detriment to their blood feeding ability as reflected by compromised digestion, lower weight gain and less total

  4. Immunogenicity and Serological Cross-Reactivity of Saliva Proteins among Different Tsetse Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; Cronin, Laura; Savage, Amy F; O'Neill, Michelle; Nerima, Barbara; Okedi, Loyce M; Aksoy, Serap

    2015-01-01

    Tsetse are vectors of pathogenic trypanosomes, agents of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa. Components of tsetse saliva (sialome) are introduced into the mammalian host bite site during the blood feeding process and are important for tsetse's ability to feed efficiently, but can also influence disease transmission and serve as biomarkers for host exposure. We compared the sialome components from four tsetse species in two subgenera: subgenus Morsitans: Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm) and Glossina pallidipes (Gpd), and subgenus Palpalis: Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Gpg) and Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff), and evaluated their immunogenicity and serological cross reactivity by an immunoblot approach utilizing antibodies from experimental mice challenged with uninfected flies. The protein and immune profiles of sialome components varied with fly species in the same subgenus displaying greater similarity and cross reactivity. Sera obtained from cattle from disease endemic areas of Africa displayed an immunogenicity profile reflective of tsetse species distribution. We analyzed the sialome fractions of Gmm by LC-MS/MS, and identified TAg5, Tsal1/Tsal2, and Sgp3 as major immunogenic proteins, and the 5'-nucleotidase family as well as four members of the Adenosine Deaminase Growth Factor (ADGF) family as the major non-immunogenic proteins. Within the ADGF family, we identified four closely related proteins (TSGF-1, TSGF-2, ADGF-3 and ADGF-4), all of which are expressed in tsetse salivary glands. We describe the tsetse species-specific expression profiles and genomic localization of these proteins. Using a passive-immunity approach, we evaluated the effects of rec-TSGF (TSGF-1 and TSGF-2) polyclonal antibodies on tsetse fitness parameters. Limited exposure of tsetse to mice with circulating anti-TSGF antibodies resulted in a slight detriment to their blood feeding ability as reflected by compromised digestion, lower weight gain and less total lipid reserves

  5. Population structuring of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Jeremy; Ravel, Sophie; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; de Meeüs, Thierry; Vial, Laurence; Thévenon, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Sidibé, Issa; Solano, Philippe

    2007-09-01

    The impact of landscape fragmentation due to human and climatic mediated factors on the structure of a population of Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) was investigated in the Mouhoun river basin, Burkina Faso. Allele frequencies at five microsatellite loci, and metric properties based on 11 wing landmarks, were compared between four populations. The populations originated from the Mouhoun river and one of its tributaries. The average distance between samples was 72 km with the two most widely spaced populations being 216 km apart. The sampling points traversed an ecological cline in terms of rainfall and riverine forest ecotype, along a river enlarging from downstream to upstream and oriented south to north. Microsatellite DNA comparison demonstrated structuring between the populations, but not complete isolation, with an overall Fst = 0.012 (P fragmentation of riparian landscapes on tsetse population structure is discussed in the context of control campaigns currently promoted by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  6. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  7. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  9. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  10. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  11. Trypanosome infection establishment in the tsetse fly gut is influenced by microbiome-regulated host immune barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Weiss

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. vector pathogenic African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domesticated animals. Additionally, tsetse harbors 3 maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria that modulate their host's physiology. Tsetse is highly resistant to infection with trypanosomes, and this phenotype depends on multiple physiological factors at the time of challenge. These factors include host age, density of maternally-derived trypanolytic effector molecules present in the gut, and symbiont status during development. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that result in tsetse's resistance to trypanosomes. We found that following parasite challenge, young susceptible tsetse present a highly attenuated immune response. In contrast, mature refractory flies express higher levels of genes associated with humoral (attacin and pgrp-lb and epithelial (inducible nitric oxide synthase and dual oxidase immunity. Additionally, we discovered that tsetse must harbor its endogenous microbiome during intrauterine larval development in order to present a parasite refractory phenotype during adulthood. Interestingly, mature aposymbiotic flies (Gmm(Apo present a strong immune response earlier in the infection process than do WT flies that harbor symbiotic bacteria throughout their entire lifecycle. However, this early response fails to confer significant resistance to trypanosomes. Gmm(Apo adults present a structurally compromised peritrophic matrix (PM, which lines the fly midgut and serves as a physical barrier that separates luminal contents from immune responsive epithelial cells. We propose that the early immune response we observe in Gmm(Apo flies following parasite challenge results from the premature exposure of gut epithelia to parasite-derived immunogens in the absence of a robust PM. Thus, tsetse's PM appears to regulate the timing of host immune induction following parasite challenge. Our results

  12. TonB-dependent heme iron acquisition in the tsetse fly symbiont Sodalis glossinidius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrusa, Gili; Farmer, William; Weiss, Brian L; Applebaum, Taylor; Roma, Jose Santinni; Szeto, Lauren; Aksoy, Serap; Runyen-Janecky, Laura J

    2015-04-01

    Sodalis glossinidius is an intra- and extracellular symbiont of the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.), which feeds exclusively on vertebrate blood. S. glossinidius resides in a wide variety of tsetse tissues and may encounter environments that differ dramatically in iron content. The Sodalis chromosome encodes a putative TonB-dependent outer membrane heme transporter (HemR) and a putative periplasmic/inner membrane ABC heme permease system (HemTUV). Because these gene products mediate iron acquisition processes by other enteric bacteria, we characterized their regulation and physiological role in the Sodalis/tsetse system. Our results show that the hemR and tonB genes are expressed by S. glossinidius in the tsetse fly. Furthermore, transcription of hemR in Sodalis is repressed in a high-iron environment by the iron-responsive transcriptional regulator Fur. Expression of the S. glossinidius hemR and hemTUV genes in an Escherichia coli strain unable to use heme as an iron source stimulated growth in the presence of heme or hemoglobin as the sole iron source. This stimulation was dependent on the presence of either the E. coli or Sodalis tonB gene. Sodalis tonB and hemR mutant strains were defective in their ability to colonize the gut of tsetse flies that lacked endogenous symbionts, while wild-type S. glossinidius proliferated in this same environment. Finally, we show that the Sodalis HemR protein is localized to the bacterial membrane and appears to bind hemin. Collectively, this study provides strong evidence that TonB-dependent, HemR-mediated iron acquisition is important for the maintenance of symbiont homeostasis in the tsetse fly, and it provides evidence for the expression of bacterial high-affinity iron acquisition genes in insect symbionts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A tsetse and tabanid fly survey of African great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votýpka, Jan; Rádrová, Jana; Skalický, Tomáš; Jirků, Milan; Jirsová, Dagmar; Mihalca, Andrei D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Petrželková, Klára J; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Tsetse and tabanid flies transmit several Trypanosoma species, some of which are human and livestock pathogens of major medical and socioeconomic impact in Africa. Recent advances in molecular techniques and phylogenetic analyses have revealed a growing diversity of previously unidentified tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes potentially pathogenic to livestock and/or other domestic animals as well as wildlife, including African great apes. To map the distribution, prevalence and co-occurrence of known and novel trypanosome species, we analyzed tsetse and tabanid flies collected in the primary forested part of the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic, which hosts a broad spectrum of wildlife including primates and is virtually devoid of domestic animals. Altogether, 564 tsetse flies and 81 tabanid flies were individually screened for the presence of trypanosomes using 18S rRNA-specific nested PCR. Herein, we demonstrate that wildlife animals are parasitized by a surprisingly wide range of trypanosome species that in some cases may circulate via these insect vectors. While one-third of the examined tsetse flies harbored trypanosomes either from the Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma simiae complex, or one of the three new members of the genus Trypanosoma (strains 'Bai', 'Ngbanda' and 'Didon'), more than half of the tabanid flies exclusively carried T. theileri. To establish the putative vertebrate hosts of the novel trypanosome species, we further analyzed the provenance of blood meals of tsetse flies. DNA individually isolated from 1033 specimens of Glossina spp. and subjected to high-throughput library-based screening proved that most of the examined tsetse flies engorged on wild ruminants (buffalo, sitatunga, bongo), humans and suids. Moreover, they also fed (albeit more rarely) on other vertebrates, thus providing indirect but convincing evidence that trypanosomes can be transmitted via these vectors among a wide range of

  14. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  15. Improving the cost-effectiveness of visual devices for the control of riverine tsetse flies, the major vectors of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Esterhuizen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of the Riverine (Palpalis group of tsetse flies is normally achieved with stationary artificial devices such as traps or insecticide-treated targets. The efficiency of biconical traps (the standard control device, 1×1 m black targets and small 25×25 cm targets with flanking nets was compared using electrocuting sampling methods. The work was done on Glossina tachinoides and G. palpalis gambiensis (Burkina Faso, G. fuscipes quanzensis (Democratic Republic of Congo, G. f. martinii (Tanzania and G. f. fuscipes (Kenya. The killing effectiveness (measured as the catch per m(2 of cloth for small targets plus flanking nets is 5.5-15X greater than for 1 m(2 targets and 8.6-37.5X greater than for biconical traps. This has important implications for the costs of control of the Riverine group of tsetse vectors of sleeping sickness.

  16. Infections with immunogenic trypanosomes reduce tsetse reproductive fitness: potential impact of different parasite strains on vector population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyun Hu

    Full Text Available The parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and its insect vector Glossina morsitans morsitans were used to evaluate the effect of parasite clearance (resistance as well as the cost of midgut infections on tsetse host fitness. Tsetse flies are viviparous and have a low reproductive capacity, giving birth to only 6-8 progeny during their lifetime. Thus, small perturbations to their reproductive fitness can have a major impact on population densities. We measured the fecundity (number of larval progeny deposited and mortality in parasite-resistant tsetse females and untreated controls and found no differences. There was, however, a typanosome-specific impact on midgut infections. Infections with an immunogenic parasite line that resulted in prolonged activation of the tsetse immune system delayed intrauterine larval development resulting in the production of fewer progeny over the fly's lifetime. In contrast, parasitism with a second line that failed to activate the immune system did not impose a fecundity cost. Coinfections favored the establishment of the immunogenic parasites in the midgut. We show that a decrease in the synthesis of Glossina Milk gland protein (GmmMgp, a major female accessory gland protein associated with larvagenesis, likely contributed to the reproductive lag observed in infected flies. Mathematical analysis of our empirical results indicated that infection with the immunogenic trypanosomes reduced tsetse fecundity by 30% relative to infections with the non-immunogenic strain. We estimate that a moderate infection prevalence of about 26% with immunogenic parasites has the potential to reduce tsetse populations. Potential repercussions for vector population growth, parasite-host coevolution, and disease prevalence are discussed.

  17. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaïla Pagabeleguem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso.Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5' end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis.This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs.

  18. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  19. Flying in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying all over the world is very challenging and demanding. Although ICAO is covering every specific detail by rules, there are some personal experiences which cannot be substituted. Some of them are point out in the article.

  20. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  1. EST Table: CK543931 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein MAD1 [Glossina morsitans morsitans] 10/08/31 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 low homology FS758520 swh ... ...CK543931 rswhb0_012457.y1 10/09/29 30 %/160 aa gb|ADD19286.1| mitotic checkpoint pr

  2. Experimental modifications imply a stimulatory function for male tsetse fly genitalia, supporting cryptic female choice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, William G

    2009-07-01

    One of the most sweeping of all patterns in morphological evolution is that animal genitalia tend to diverge more rapidly than do other structures. Abundant indirect evidence supports the cryptic female choice (CFC) explanation of this pattern, which supposes that male genitalia often function to court females during copulation; but direct experimental demonstrations of a stimulatory function have been lacking. In this study, we altered the form of two male genital structures that squeeze the female's abdomen rhythmically in Glossina pallidipes flies. As predicted by theory, this induced CFC against the male: ovulation and sperm storage decreased, while female remating increased. Further experiments showed that these effects were due to changes in tactile stimuli received by the female from the male's altered genitalia, and were not due to other possible changes in the males due to alteration of their genital form. Stimulation from male genital structures also induces females to permit copulation to occur. Together with previous studies of tsetse reproductive physiology, these data constitute the most complete experimental confirmation that sexual selection (probably by CFC) acts on the stimulatory properties of male genitalia.

  3. ANALYSIS OF FLYING BIKE

    OpenAIRE

    Momin Irfan Ali Nasir Husain *1, Shah mohd. Rafique rahmatullah *2, Naumanulhaq Barkatullah Shaikh *3, Khatib Mohd. Azimuddin Najimuddin *4, Ansari Mohammad Naasir Shamsudduha *5, Ansari Mohammad Parvez Abdul Qayyum*6, Momin Mohammad Rayyan Mohammad Shakeel*7, Ansari Peer Mohammed Munna *8, Prof. Mohd. Musharraf Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Flying Bike vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) type machine which also follows Newton’s third law. It is thought of as a conventional type of aircraft with special features added to enable it to rise vertically during take-off and to land from a vertical descent.  It flies with two propellers located at front and back side. These propellers are having hovering abilities. The vehicle is controlled by tilting the propellers by using lever mechanism. Rotation is carried out by diffe...

  4. Kite-Flying Fun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s kite capital welcomes flying enthusiasts from across the world to its annual carnival Tens of thousands of kite enthusiast from all over the world gathered under the growing swarm of brightly colored kites. Some of the floating and billowing forms had been fashioned into

  5. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  6. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  7. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  8. Impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse populations and trypanosomosis risk in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweempwa, Cornelius; Marcotty, Tanguy; De Pus, Claudia; Penzhorn, Barend Louis; Dicko, Ahmadou Hamady; Bouyer, Jérémy; De Deken, Reginald

    2015-08-04

    Fragmentation of tsetse habitat in eastern Zambia is largely due to encroachments by subsistence farmers into new areas in search of new agricultural land. The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse populations is not clearly understood. This study was aimed at establishing the impact of habitat fragmentation on physiological and demographic parameters of tsetse flies in order to enhance the understanding of the relationship between fragmentation and African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) risk. A longitudinal study was conducted to establish the age structure, abundance, proportion of females and trypanosome infection rate of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in areas of varying degrees of habitat fragmentation in Eastern Zambia. Black screen fly rounds were used to sample tsetse populations monthly for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to analyse age, proportion of females and infection rate data. Flies got significantly older as fragmentation increased (p fragmented site (Lusandwa) to 74.2% (CI 56.8-86.3) at the highly fragmented site (Chisulo). In the most fragmented area (Kasamanda), tsetse flies had almost disappeared. In the highly fragmented area a significantly higher trypanosome infection rate in tsetse (P fragmentation was observed. Consequently a comparatively high trypanosomosis incidence rate in livestock was observed there despite lower tsetse density (p fragmentation reduced. The proportion increased from 0.135 (CI 0.10-0.18) to 0.285 (CI 0.26-0.31) at the highly and least fragmented sites, respectively. Habitat fragmentation creates conditions to which tsetse populations respond physiologically and demographically thereby affecting tsetse-trypanosome interactions and hence influencing trypanosomosis risk. Temperature rise due to fragmentation coupled with dominance of old flies in populations increases infection rate in tsetse and hence creates high risk of trypanosomosis in fragmented areas. Possibilities of how

  9. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  10. Where, when and why do tsetse contact humans? Answers from studies in a national park of Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Torr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleeping sickness, also called human African trypanosomiasis, is transmitted by the tsetse, a blood-sucking fly confined to sub-Saharan Africa. The form of the disease in West and Central Africa is carried mainly by species of tsetse that inhabit riverine woodland and feed avidly on humans. In contrast, the vectors for the East and Southern African form of the disease are usually savannah species that feed mostly on wild and domestic animals and bite humans infrequently, mainly because the odours produced by humans can be repellent. Hence, it takes a long time to catch many savannah tsetse from people, which in turn means that studies of the nature of contact between savannah tsetse and humans, and the ways of minimizing it, have been largely neglected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The savannah tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, were caught from men in the Mana Pools National park of Zimbabwe. Mostly the catch consisted of young G. m. morsitans, with little food reserve. Catches were increased by 4-8 times if the men were walking, not stationary, and increased about ten times more if they rode on a truck at 10 km/h. Catches were unaffected if the men used deodorant or were baited with artificial ox odour, but declined by about 95% if the men were with an ox. Surprisingly, men pursuing their normal daily activities were bitten about as much when in or near buildings as when in woodland. Catches from oxen and a standard ox-like trap were poor indices of the number and physiological state of tsetse attacking men. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The search for new strategies to minimize the contact between humans and savannah tsetse should focus on that occurring in buildings and vehicles. There is a need to design a man-like trap to help to provide an index of sleeping sickness risk.

  11. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  12. Vision in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  13. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  14. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.quote>

  15. Refractive Index of Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index reported previously for the rhabdomeres of flies (1.349) has been corrected for waveguide effects. The presented correction method has yielded n1 = 1.365 ± 0.006. It is argued that an acceptable estimate for the refractive index of the inhomogeneous surroundings of fly

  16. Ex-ante benefit-cost analysis of the elimination of a Glossina palpalis gambiensis population in the Niayes of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Fanny; Seck, Momar Talla; Dicko, Ahmadou H; Sall, Baba; Lo, Mbargou; Vreysen, Marc J B; Chia, Eduardo; Bouyer, Jérémy; Wane, Abdrahmane

    2014-08-01

    In 2005, the Government of Senegal embarked on a campaign to eliminate a Glossina palpalis gambiensis population from the Niayes area (∼ 1000 km(2)) under the umbrella of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). The project was considered an ecologically sound approach to intensify cattle production. The elimination strategy includes a suppression phase using insecticide impregnated targets and cattle, and an elimination phase using the sterile insect technique, necessary to eliminate tsetse in this area. Three main cattle farming systems were identified: a traditional system using trypanotolerant cattle and two "improved" systems using more productive cattle breeds focusing on milk and meat production. In improved farming systems herd size was 45% lower and annual cattle sales were €250 (s.d. 513) per head as compared to €74 (s.d. 38) per head in traditional farming systems (psystems (p = 0.001), with 34% (s.d. 4%) and 6% (s.d. 4%) of improved systems in the tsetse-free and tsetse-infested areas, respectively. We calculated the potential increases of cattle sales as a result of tsetse elimination considering two scenarios, i.e. a conservative scenario with a 2% annual replacement rate from traditional to improved systems after elimination, and a more realistic scenario with an increased replacement rate of 10% five years after elimination. The final annual increase of cattle sales was estimated at ∼ €2800/km(2) for a total cost of the elimination campaign reaching ∼ €6400/km(2). Despite its high cost, the benefit-cost analysis indicated that the project was highly cost-effective, with Internal Rates of Return (IRR) of 9.8% and 19.1% and payback periods of 18 and 13 years for the two scenarios, respectively. In addition to an increase in farmers' income, the benefits of tsetse elimination include a reduction of grazing pressure on the ecosystems.

  17. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  18. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  19. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to investigat

  20. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  1. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  2. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  3. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii.

  5. Ex-ante benefit-cost analysis of the elimination of a Glossina palpalis gambiensis population in the Niayes of Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Bouyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Government of Senegal embarked on a campaign to eliminate a Glossina palpalis gambiensis population from the Niayes area (∼ 1000 km(2 under the umbrella of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC. The project was considered an ecologically sound approach to intensify cattle production. The elimination strategy includes a suppression phase using insecticide impregnated targets and cattle, and an elimination phase using the sterile insect technique, necessary to eliminate tsetse in this area.Three main cattle farming systems were identified: a traditional system using trypanotolerant cattle and two "improved" systems using more productive cattle breeds focusing on milk and meat production. In improved farming systems herd size was 45% lower and annual cattle sales were €250 (s.d. 513 per head as compared to €74 (s.d. 38 per head in traditional farming systems (p<10-3. Tsetse distribution significantly impacted the occurrence of these farming systems (p = 0.001, with 34% (s.d. 4% and 6% (s.d. 4% of improved systems in the tsetse-free and tsetse-infested areas, respectively. We calculated the potential increases of cattle sales as a result of tsetse elimination considering two scenarios, i.e. a conservative scenario with a 2% annual replacement rate from traditional to improved systems after elimination, and a more realistic scenario with an increased replacement rate of 10% five years after elimination. The final annual increase of cattle sales was estimated at ∼ €2800/km(2 for a total cost of the elimination campaign reaching ∼ €6400/km(2.Despite its high cost, the benefit-cost analysis indicated that the project was highly cost-effective, with Internal Rates of Return (IRR of 9.8% and 19.1% and payback periods of 18 and 13 years for the two scenarios, respectively. In addition to an increase in farmers' income, the benefits of tsetse elimination include a reduction of grazing pressure on

  6. Chorologie et infection par les trypanosomes de Glossina palpalis palpalis dans la forêt du banco et ses reliques, abidjan (Côte d’ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allou K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le but de mettre en place un programme de lutte anti-vectorielle dans la périphérie d’Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire, des enquêtes ont été effectuées pour évaluer les densités glossiniennes ainsi que les infections par les trypanosomes. Les captures ont été réalisées en saison des pluies et en saison sèche avec des pièges Vavoua posés pendant quatre jours consécutifs sur différents sites (forêt du Banco, Parc zoologique d’Abidjan, domaine de l’Université d’Abobo- Adjamé. Une seule espèce de glossine (Glossina palpalis palpalis et deux espèces de trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax ont été mises en évidence. La densité apparente par piège et par jour (DAP est très élevée au Parc zoologique, 54,8 glossines/piège/jour en saison sèche et 28,1 glossines/piège/jour en saison des pluies. À l’Université d’Abobo-Adjamé, la DAP est respectivement de 13,5 et 8,1 glossines/piège/jour en saison des pluies, et en saison sèche, elle n’est que de 0,9 et 0,8 dans la forêt du Banco. L’âge physiologique sur l’ensemble des sites est le suivant : 57,5 % de vieilles pares, 39 % de jeunes pares et 3,6 % de nullipares en saison des pluies. Ces proportions passent à 51,9 % de jeunes pares, 47,1 % de vieilles pares et 1 % de nullipares en saison sèche. Le taux global d’infection est estimé à 20,7 % en saison des pluies et à 20 % en saison sèche. Les analyses statistiques ont montré une différence significative dans la distribution des taux d’infections.

  7. Fiber optics that fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Michael J.; Thelen, Donald C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for autonomous systems to work under unanticipated conditions requires the use of smart sensors. High resolution systems develop tremendous computational loads. Inspiration from animal vision systems can guide us in developing preprocessing approaches implementable in real time with high resolution and deduced computational load. Given a high quality optical path and a 2D array of photodetectors, the resolution of a digital image is determined by the density of photodetectors sampling the image. In order to reconstruct an image, resolution is limited by the distance between adjacent detectors. However, animal eyes resolve images 10-100 times better than either the acceptance angle of a single photodetector or the center-to-center distance between neighboring photodetectors. A new model of the fly's visual system emulates this improved performance, offering a different approach to subpixel resolution. That an animal without a cortex is capable of this performance suggests that high level computation is not involved. The model takes advantage of a photoreceptor cell's internal structure for capturing light. This organelle is a waveguide. Neurocircuitry exploits the waveguide's optical nonlinearities, namely in the shoulder region of its gaussian sensitivity-profile, to extract high resolution information from the visual scene. The receptive fields of optically disparate inputs overlap in space. Photoreceptor input is continuous rather than discretely sampled. The output of the integrating module is a signal proportional to the position of the target within the detector array. For tracking a point source, resolution is 10 times better than the detector spacing. For locating absolute position and orientation of an edge, the model performs similarly. Analog processing is used throughout. Each element is an independent processor of local luminance. Information processing is in real time with continuous update. This processing principle will be reproduced in an

  8. Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Storey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes drawing upon examples from North America and Australia.

  9. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY ar...

  10. Dermatobia, the neotropical warble fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E

    1988-09-01

    The neotropical warble fly, Dermatobia hominis (Fig. 1), has plagued neotropical America since preColombian times, and has become an economically important pest causing substantial losses to the meat, milk and leather industries from northern Mexico down to northern Argentina. Its life cycle (Box 1) is astonishingly complex, requiring another insect as a phoretic carrier of its eggs to the skin of its mammal hosts. Here Eugenio Sancho discusses factors that contribute to the current economic and public health importance of this myiasis-causing fly.

  11. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  12. Phenotypic characteristics and trypanosome prevalence of Mursi cattle breed in the Bodi and Mursi districts of South Omo Zone, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Endashaw; Haile, Aynalem; Mulatu, Wudyalew; Dessie, Tadelle; Mwai, Okeyo

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to characterize the morphological features of Mursi cattle breed and to identify the species of trypanosome infecting the cattle and its prevalence in these traditionally managed cattle in the Bodi and Mursi pastoral communities. Cattle body description and measurements were made on 201 matured animals. Blood samples were collected from 409 animals into heparin-treated capillary tubes and were centrifuged to 12,000 rpm for 5 min to identify trypanosome species from the wet smeared buffy coat and to estimate the degree of anemia (PCV). Tsetse flies were collected using phenol-treated biconical trap and the caught flies identified to species level. The breed possesses variable coat color pattern, coat color type, and have small to medium hump size on the thoracic vertebrae. Body measurement of Mursi cattle in the two locations did not show significant differences except chest girth, rump width, and horn length. Trypanosome prevalence in the Mursi cattle breed was 6.1%. The highest trypanosome infection was caused by Trypanosoma congolense (56%) followed by Trypanosoma vivax (40%) and Trypanosoma brucei (4%). Trypanosome prevalence significantly varies between dry (2.0%) and late rainy (10.1%) seasons (P < 0.001) and between lean (11.9%) and medium (2.4%) body condition score (P < 0.01). The PCV value was 22.1 ± 0.5%, which is significantly varied with season (P < 0.01) and parasitism (P < 0.001). Parasitaemic cattle show the lowest PCV value (20.4 ± 1%) than aparasitaemic (23.7 ± 0.3%) cattle and cattle with lean BCS showed the lowest (P < 0.0001) PCV value (20.4 ± 0.6%). Tsetse fly species identified in the study area were Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans, and Glossina fuscipes. The number of flies captured in late rainy season was higher than in dry season (P < 0.01). Despite the existence of trypanosome and high tsetse fly infestation in the areas, large proportion of the Mursi

  13. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  14. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Gustave

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Methods Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. Results About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2% of which were dissected, 60 (20.3% blood meals collected and 57 (19.3% trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. Conclusion The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined

  15. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese) sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Gustave; Silatsa, Barberine; Flobert, Njiokou; Lutumba, Pascal; Mansinsa, Philemon; Madinga, Joule; Manzambi, Emile; De Deken, Reginald; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2012-09-19

    The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2%) of which were dissected, 60 (20.3%) blood meals collected and 57 (19.3%) trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined with the circulation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in this focus

  16. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  17. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  18. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  19. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  20. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  1. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  2. Interactions comportementales et rythmes d’activité de Glossina palpalis gambiensis et G. tachinoides (Diptera : Glossinidae en galerie forestière au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salou E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glossina palpalis gambiensis et G. tachinoides sont des vecteurs majeurs des trypanosomoses humaines et animales en Afrique de l’Ouest. Sur une partie de leur aire de répartition, elles sont présentes en sympatrie, mais très peu d’informations sont disponibles sur leurs interactions. Nous avons capturé ces deux espèces en utilisant un système attractif composé d’écrans de tissu noir/bleu/ noir muni de film adhésif, afin de retenir toutes les glossines posées et de pouvoir mesurer la hauteur à laquelle elles se sont posées, ainsi que leur rythme d’activité en fonction de l’heure de la journée. L’étude a eu lieu dans deux zones du sud du Burkina Faso : Kartasso en amont du fleuve Mouhoun, où seule G. p. gambiensis est présente, et Folonzo sur le fleuve Comoé, où les deux espèces cohabitent. Les résultats, sur 3 800 glossines capturées, montrent une forte prédominance des captures de G. tachinoides par rapport à G. p. gambiensis à Folonzo (84 % contre 16 % des captures respectivement. À Kartasso, où elle est seule, G. p. gambiensis est capturée en moyenne à 46 cm du sol. À Folonzo, G. p. gambiensis est en moyenne attrapée à une hauteur de 65 cm, et G. tachinoides à 55 cm, ces différences de hauteurs étant significatives. Les femelles sont capturées en général plus haut que les mâles. Les deux espèces montrent un rythme d’activité similaire en fonction de l’heure de capture, mais seule G. p. gambiensis réduit sa hauteur de vol aux heures les plus chaudes. Plusieurs hypothèses, non exclusives, sont évoquées pour expliquer ces hauteurs de capture différentes : la nature de la galerie forestière, un comportement d’approche qui différerait entre espèces, mais aussi la possibilité de phénomènes de compétition interspécifique en relation avec l’utilisation de ressources énergétiques limitées (métabolisme lié à la proline. Sont également discutées les conséquences possibles

  3. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  4. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  5. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  6. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Duistermars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to imposed course deviations, the fast optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, the monocular front-to-back (progressive and back-to-front (regressive visual motion components generated by horizontal rotation are selectively encoded, respectively, by homo and heterolateral motion sensitive circuits in the third optic ganglion, the lobula plate. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular and monocular visual rotation. With stimulus parameters generating large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular progressive motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation but contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular regressive motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the dynamic interplay of contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions and serve to maintain a stable optomotor equilibrium across a range of visual contrasts.

  7. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  8. "Fly me to the moon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's first lunar probe Chang'e-I, named after a mythical Chinese goddess who, according to legend, made her home on the moon, blasted off on 24 October from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. In addition to making the dream cherished by Chinese people to fly to the moon come true, it is the first step into China's ambitious threestage moon mission, marking a new milestone in the country's space exploration history.

  9. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15589-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 ) Sequence 46462 from patent US 7314974. 163 2e-59 7 ( EE006381 ) ROE00013761 Rhizopus oryzae Company Rhiz...Glossina morsitans morsitans Fat body ... 117 4e-40 7 ( EE003371 ) ROE00008572 Rhizopus oryzae Company Rhizo...lone ... 100 2e-21 2 ( EC998896 ) ROE00011347 Rhizopus oryzae Company Rhizopus oryz... 72 2e-21 3 ( CB926938...20 4 ( EE009871 ) ROE00004945 Rhizopus oryzae Company Rhizopus oryz... 50 7e-20 4 ( CN151385 ) WOUND1_75_D08...119TR Haematobia irritans eggs Haematobia irr... 74 1e-29 6 ( EE000914 ) ROE00011251 Rhizopus oryzae Compa

  11. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  12. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  13. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  14. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  15. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  16. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  17. What the fly's nose tells the fly's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-07-28

    The fly olfactory system has a three-layer architecture: The fly's olfactory receptor neurons send odor information to the first layer (the encoder) where this information is formatted as combinatorial odor code, one which is maximally informative, with the most informative neurons firing fastest. This first layer then sends the encoded odor information to the second layer (decoder), which consists of about 2,000 neurons that receive the odor information and "break" the code. For each odor, the amplitude of the synaptic odor input to the 2,000 second-layer neurons is approximately normally distributed across the population, which means that only a very small fraction of neurons receive a large input. Each odor, however, activates its own population of large-input neurons and so a small subset of the 2,000 neurons serves as a unique tag for the odor. Strong inhibition prevents most of the second-stage neurons from firing spikes, and therefore spikes from only the small population of large-input neurons is relayed to the third stage. This selected population provides the third stage (the user) with an odor label that can be used to direct behavior based on what odor is present.

  18. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  19. Antiviral drug valacyclovir treatment combined with a clean feeding system enhances the suppression of salivary gland hypertrophy in laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hytrosaviridae cause salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome in some infected tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Infected male and female G. pallidipes with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of the virus on G. pallidipes colonies, adding the antiviral drug valacyclovir to the blood diet and changing the feeding regime to a clean feeding system (each fly receives for each feeding a fresh clean blood meal) have been investigated to develop virus management strategies. Although both approaches used alone successfully reduced the virus load and the SGH prevalence in small experimental groups, considerable time was needed to obtain the desired SGH reduction and both systems were only demonstrated with colonies that had a low initial virus prevalence (SGH ≤ 10%). As problems with SGH are often only recognized once the incidence is already high, it was necessary to demonstrate that this combination would also work for high prevalence colonies. Findings Combining both methods at colony level successfully suppressed the SGH in G. pallidipes colonies that had a high initial virus prevalence (average SGH of 24%). Six months after starting the combined treatment SGH symptoms were eliminated from the treated colony, in contrast to 28 months required to obtain the same results using clean feeding alone and 21 months using antiviral drug alone. Conclusions Combining valacyclovir treatment with the clean feeding system provides faster control of SGH in tsetse than either method alone and is effective even when the initial SGH prevalence is high. PMID:24886248

  20. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  1. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash. ... In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by ... This will encourage the use of fly ash economically as a construction material.

  2. Répartition spatiale et préférences trophiques de Glossina palpalis palpalis dans le foyer forestier de Zoukougbeu (Cote d'Ivoire. Implications épidémiologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sané B.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le foyer de maladie du sommeil de Zoukougbeu (Côte d'Ivoire, plus d'un quart des glossines capturées s'étaient gorgées sur cochon en zone de plantations, lieux préférentiels de transmission de la trypanosomose humaine. En outre, on y observe une concordance nette entre la localisation des sites où Glossina palpalis palpalis a été capturée gorgée sur ces animaux et la présence de trypanosomés. Ceci laisse penser que, dans le foyer de Zoukougbeu, mais peut-être aussi dans d'autres foyers de trypanosomose humaine africaine du secteur forestier, le cochon joue un rôle plus actif qu'on ne le pense généralement, dans la transmission de l'endémie en permettant une large diffusion du parasite par l'intermédiaire des glossines.

  3. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  4. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  5. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Antanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  6. Flying Probe Tester: Architecture, Principle and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu,Xu; Fang,Kangling; Chen,Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the flying probe tester, which is a testing device for PCB. The architecture and principle of flying probe tester are firstly introduced. Then the implementation of hardware and software is illuminated briefly. Finally, the optimizing method for the probe's moving path is researched based on the traveling salesman problem.

  7. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  8. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  9. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  10. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  11. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  12. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  13. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  14. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song Chang; Z. Jane Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat...

  15. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  17. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    CERN Document Server

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  18. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  20. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  1. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  2. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  3. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  4. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  5. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  6. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms - obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV. Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse’s physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse’s microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  7. Dynamic Optimization Algorithm for Flying Trajectory of a Free-flying Space Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method of dynamic optimization for the flying trajectory of a free-flying space robot based on its flying motion characteristics is presented. The continuous flying trajectory is broken into a number of segment and the control efforts and the duration of the segment are chosen as the optimization parameters. The objective function is made by using the weighted sum of the fuel used and the time spent, and the constraint equations are selected. Finally, the internal point punishment function method is adopted in the optimization program, and the results of computer simulation are given.

  8. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  9. VectorBase: improvements to a bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vector genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megy, Karine; Emrich, Scott J; Lawson, Daniel; Campbell, David; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Hughes, Daniel S T; Koscielny, Gautier; Louis, Christos; Maccallum, Robert M; Redmond, Seth N; Sheehan, Andrew; Topalis, Pantelis; Wilson, Derek

    2012-01-01

    VectorBase (http://www.vectorbase.org) is a NIAID-supported bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. It hosts data for nine genomes: mosquitoes (three Anopheles gambiae genomes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus), tick (Ixodes scapularis), body louse (Pediculus humanus), kissing bug (Rhodnius prolixus) and tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans). Hosted data range from genomic features and expression data to population genetics and ontologies. We describe improvements and integration of new data that expand our taxonomic coverage. Releases are bi-monthly and include the delivery of preliminary data for emerging genomes. Frequent updates of the genome browser provide VectorBase users with increasing options for visualizing their own high-throughput data. One major development is a new population biology resource for storing genomic variations, insecticide resistance data and their associated metadata. It takes advantage of improved ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Combined, these new features ensure timely release of multiple types of data in the public domain while helping overcome the bottlenecks of bioinformatics and annotation by engaging with our user community.

  10. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.

    2008-06-01

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic "flying mirror", which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of ≈4-6×1019 cm-3. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are ˜55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3×107 photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  11. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. My Friendship with the Flying Tigers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yingshan

    2015-01-01

    "I believe I owe a debt to the Chinese people...It’s so huge there’s no way I can pay it back."This is what Flying Tigers pilot Glen Beneda said to his family time and again.I have been working in the CPAFFC for over 10 years now,and my feelings for the Flying Tigers have deepened over time.I had heard of its

  13. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  15. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  16. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  17. Intrinsic Membrane Targeting of the Flagellar Export ATPase FliI: Interaction with Acidic Phospholipids and FliH

    OpenAIRE

    Auvray, Frédéric; Ozin, Amanda J.; Claret, Laurent; Hughes, Colin

    2002-01-01

    The specialised ATPase FliI is central to export of flagellar axial protein subunits during flagellum assembly. We establish the normal cellular location of FliI and its regulatory accessory protein FliH in motile Salmonella typhimurium, and ascertain the regions involved in FliH2/FliI heterotrimerisation. Both FliI and FliH localised to the cytoplasmic membrane in the presence and in the absence of proteins making up the flagellar export machinery and basal body. Membrane association was tig...

  18. Direct regulation of BCL-2 by FLI-1 is involved in the survival of FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lesault, Isabelle; Tran Quang, Christine; Frampton, Jon; Ghysdael, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Rearrangement of the FLI-1 locus with ensuing overexpression of FLI-1 is an early event in Friend murine leukemia virus-induced disease. When overexpressed in primary erythroblasts, FLI-1 blocks erythropoeitin (Epo)-induced terminal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis normally induced in response to Epo withdrawal. We show here that the survival-inducing property of FLI-1 is associated with increased transcription of BCL-2. We further show that FLI-1 binds BCL-2 promoter sequences in trans...

  19. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  20. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  1. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  2. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  3. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  4. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  5. FlyBase: improvements to the bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Leyland, Paul C; Seal, Ruth L; Goodman, Joshua L; Thurmond, Jim; Strelets, Victor B; Wilson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    An accurate, comprehensive, non-redundant and up-to-date bibliography is a crucial component of any Model Organism Database (MOD). Principally, the bibliography provides a set of references that are specific to the field served by the MOD. Moreover, it serves as a backbone to which all curated biological data can be attributed. Here, we describe the organization and main features of the bibliography in FlyBase (flybase.org), the MOD for Drosophila melanogaster. We present an overview of the current content of the bibliography, the pipeline for identifying and adding new references, the presentation of data within Reference Reports and effective methods for searching and retrieving bibliographic data. We highlight recent improvements in these areas and describe the advantages of using the FlyBase bibliography over alternative literature resources. Although this article is focused on bibliographic data, many of the features and tools described are applicable to browsing and querying other datasets in FlyBase.

  6. Attracting the attention of a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-04-26

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can direct the attention of the fly to one or the other of the two visual half-fields. The cue can precede the test stimulus by several seconds and may also be spatially separated from the test by at least 20° and yet attract attention. This kind of external guidance of attention is found only in the lower visual field.

  7. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  8. Research on Partner-fly Infrared Decoys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Yang; LI Yan-jun; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of new generation of infrared-guided missiles, it is very difficult for the traditional point-source infrared decoys to confront them. Therefore it is important to research the jamming mechanism and tactical application of infrared decoys. Through the research on rocket-propelled infrared decoys, a movement model and a radiation pattern of partner-fly infrared decoy are established based on the jamming mechanism of infrared centroid effect, the aerodynamics principle as well as the aeronautical dynamics principle. A dynamic simulation seeking superiority is conducted for its firing range and direction, a tactical application method of partner-fly infrared decoy against infrared-guided missile is explored, and the technical conditions of partner-fly infrared decoys are determined.

  9. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  10. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  11. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  12. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  13. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  14. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  15. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  16. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  17. Lixiviation of fly ash. Uitloging van vliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The lixiviation of a number of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, As, Sb and Hg) from different fly ash products (fired and cement bounded products) is investigated. A theoretical description of diffusion from a fly ash product is given as well as a standard test to determine the lixiviation rate. Lixiviation can be interpreted as a diffusion process. Diffusion of an element X from a fly ash product can be described with the following parameters: the effective diffusion coefficient, the fraction that is available for lixiviation and the tortuosity of the product. The physical meaning of the determined tortuosity is not clear. The behavior of tracers in the product is compared with the behavior of the corresponding element. Often this behavior deviates, sometimes even considerably. From a comparison of fly ash products it appears that cement bounded products are better able to combine with arsenicum and antimony than fired products. None of the investigated products caused concentrations of micro-elements way above the stated norm. Improvement as for lixiviation behavior of the products seems to be possible, in particular for bricks. 8 refs., 17 tabs., 26 figs.

  18. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  19. Refractive index of the fly rhabdomere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoenders, B.J.; Huiser, A.M.J.; Toorn, P. van

    1982-01-01

    The refractive index and the diameter of the fly rhabdomere were determined by comparing the experimental results derived from interference microscopy with the results of a theoretical study on the scattering of plane waves by a homogeneous, isotropic cylindrical dielectric rod. It was found that

  20. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  1. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  2. Decision-making capacity of flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) can make appropriate choices among alternative flight options based on the relative salience of competing visual cues, according to a recent study by a team under the leadership of GUO Aike from the CAS Institute of Neuroscience.

  3. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  4. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    volunteers took on many of the following duties to help enable CAP functions: clerical work , aircraft maintenance , refueling operations, first aid...Highway Patrol, Monterey County Aero Squadron, Lane County Sheriff’s Office, Civil Air Patrol, volunteer flying organizations, law enforcement...5 3. Civil Air Patrol’s Use in Law Enforcement .................................7 D. POTENTIAL EXPLANATIONS AND HYPOTHESES

  5. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Also, fly ash has been found to be an efficient adsorbent for water treatment in the removal of ... properties for the removal of metal ions and organics; the residual sludge produced is used in ... investigate the reuse of the adsorbent for better economy of the process. ..... Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria to complete this article.

  6. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  7. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  8. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  9. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  10. "Lord of the Flies". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on William Golding's novel "Lord of the Flies," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that, on a literal level, the novel deals with what happens to a group of boys stranded on an island; and that on a symbolic level, it investigates what happens to civilized people when the structures of civilization…

  11. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  12. Measurement on Camber Deformation of Wings of Free-flying Dragonflies and Beating-flying Dragonflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqiang Song; Lijiang Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of wing orientation and deformation during flapping flight is necessary for a complete aerodynamic analysis, but to date those kinematic features have not been simultaneously quantified for free-flying insects. A projected comb-fringe (PCF) method has been developed for measuring spanwise camber changes on free-flying dragonflies and on beating-flying dragonflies through the course of a wingbeat, which bases on projecting a fringe pattern over the whole measurement area and then measuring the wing deformation from the distorted fringe pattern. Experimental results demonstrate substantial camber changes both along the wingspan and through the course of a wingbeat. The ratio of camber deformation to chord length for hind wing is up to 0.11 at 75% spanwise with a flapping angle of -0.66 degree for a free-flying dragonfly.

  13. Advanced control technology and airworthiness flying qualities requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Flying quality requirements are specified in terms of the complete pilot-airframe-systems loop, the task, and the environment. Results from a study of flying qualities are reported. A review of the treatment of failure cases in various flying quality requirements is presented along with a description of the methods used and relevant lessons learned from recent Autoland certification programs.

  14. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  15. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  16. Flies remember the time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Nitin S; Wolf, Reinhard; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Heisenberg, Martin

    2015-06-15

    The circadian clock enables organisms to anticipate daily environmental cycles and drives corresponding changes in behavior [1, 2]. Such endogenous oscillators also enable animals to display time-specific memory [1, 3-5]. For instance, mice and honeybees associate the location of a stimulus (like food or mate) with a certain time of day (time-place learning) [6, 7]. However, the mechanism underlying time-related learning and memory is not known. In the present study, we investigate time-specific odor learning. We use a genetically tractable animal, the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Starved flies are trained in the morning and afternoon to associate distinct odors with sucrose reward. The training is repeated the next day, and their time-dependent odor preference is tested on the third day. Our results indicate that Drosophila can express appetitive memory at the relevant time of day if the two conditioning events are separated by more than 4 hr. Flies can form time-odor associations in constant darkness (DD) as well as in a daily light-dark (LD) cycle, but not when kept under constant light (LL) conditions. Circadian clock mutants, period(01) (per(01)) and clock(AR) (clk(AR)), learned to associate sucrose reward with a certain odor but were unable to form time-odor associations. Our findings show that flies can utilize temporal information as an additional cue in appetitive learning. Time-odor learning in flies depends on a per- and clk-dependent endogenous mechanism that is independent of environmental light cues.

  17. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  18. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  19. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  20. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  1. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  2. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  3. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  5. Focus characteristics of long distance flying optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兆谷; 蒋金波; 李现勤; 许国良; 夏金安; W.M.Steen; G.Dearden

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD law for the complex parameter q of the TEM00 Gaussian beam is generally not valid for high-order modes. It can be used for the high-order modes or their superposition when the spot size w in the virtual part of the parameter q is substituted by the Rayleigh range ZR of a certain resonator. The focus characteristics of long distance flying optics are studied in this paper theoretically and experimentally for the TEMmn Gaussian beams between the two types of resonators without and with distortion. It is very important for the applications of the flying optical processing, the laser space craft and the spatial filter in the large laser project.

  6. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  7. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  8. Evil in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    Lord of the Flies deals with the problem of the nature of human personality and the reflection of personality on society.Devils hidesomewhere dee in side of all people.Without morals,law and order it will eventually surface and come out.Evil it;the natural product of their con-sciousness.Simon understands,and this is the wisdom Golding treats with awe.that evil is"only us".

  9. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  10. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  11. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  12. Spacecraft formation flying: Dynamics, control and navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, Kyle Terry; Vadali, Srinivas Rao; Gurfil, Pini; How, Jonathan; Breger, Louis S.

    2009-12-01

    Space agencies are now realizing that much of what has previously been achieved using hugely complex and costly single platform projects - large unmanned and manned satellites (including the present International Space Station) - can be replaced by a number of smaller satellites networked together. The key challenge of this approach, namely ensuring the proper formation flying of multiple craft, is the topic of this second volume in Elsevier's Astrodynamics Series, Spacecraft Formation Flying: Dynamics, control and navigation. In this unique text, authors Alfriend et al. provide a coherent discussion of spacecraft relative motion, both in the unperturbed and perturbed settings, explain the main control approaches for regulating relative satellite dynamics, using both impulsive and continuous maneuvers, and present the main constituents required for relative navigation. The early chapters provide a foundation upon which later discussions are built, making this a complete, standalone offering. Intended for graduate students, professors and academic researchers in the fields of aerospace and mechanical engineering, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics, Spacecraft Formation Flying is a technical yet accessible, forward-thinking guide to this critical area of astrodynamics.

  13. Examining the nature of fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins-Gilligan, Janice; Dygdon, Judith A; Conger, Anthony J

    2011-10-01

    The nature of fear of flying (FOF) is not well understood. It is commonly assumed to be a fear learned from flight-specific experiences. However, existing literature suggests that FOF is a manifestation of fears of other stimuli (e.g., heights) embedded in the flying situation, but not specific to it. This study compared the level of prediction of FOF attained from flight-specific conditioning experiences (specifically, classical conditioning experiences in direct, observational, and verbal modes) with the level of prediction attained from flight-embedded fears. There were 109 university students who completed the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire (FAS) and the Fear Survey Schedule, Version III (FSS) as well as demographic and flying experience questionnaires built for this study. All FOF measures were highly predicted by at least one flight-embedded fear. Conversely, conditioning experiences predicted only four of five FOF measures and this prediction was not strong. In general, conditioning experiences did not behave as in previous studies of conditioning and fear. The results suggest that FOF is based more on several flight-embedded innate fears than on learned fears. The implications of these results for FOF emergence and prevention are discussed.

  14. Accurate Segmentation for Infrared Flying Bird Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hong; HUANG Ying; LING Haibin; ZOU Qi; YANG Hao

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes present a huge risk for air ve-hicles, especially since traditional airport bird surveillance is mainly dependent on inefficient human observation. For improving the effectiveness and efficiency of bird monitor-ing, computer vision techniques have been proposed to detect birds, determine bird flying trajectories, and pre-dict aircraft takeoff delays. Flying bird with a huge de-formation causes a great challenge to current tracking al-gorithms. We propose a segmentation based approach to enable tracking can adapt to the varying shape of bird. The approach works by segmenting object at a region of inter-est, where is determined by the object localization method and heuristic edge information. The segmentation is per-formed by Markov random field, which is trained by fore-ground and background mixture Gaussian models. Exper-iments demonstrate that the proposed approach provides the ability to handle large deformations and outperforms the m ost state-of-the-art tracker in the infrared flying bird tracking problem.

  15. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. FlyCap: Markerless Motion Capture Using Multiple Autonomous Flying Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Liu, Yebin; Cheng, Wei; Guo, Kaiwen; Zhou, Guyue; Dai, Qionghai; Fang, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Aiming at automatic, convenient and non-instrusive motion capture, this paper presents a new generation markerless motion capture technique, the FlyCap system, to capture surface motions of moving characters using multiple autonomous flying cameras (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) each integrated with an RGBD video camera). During data capture, three cooperative flying cameras automatically track and follow the moving target who performs large-scale motions in a wide space. We propose a novel non-rigid surface registration method to track and fuse the depth of the three flying cameras for surface motion tracking of the moving target, and simultaneously calculate the pose of each flying camera. We leverage the using of visual-odometry information provided by the UAV platform, and formulate the surface tracking problem in a non-linear objective function that can be linearized and effectively minimized through a Gaussian-Newton method. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results demonstrate the plausible surface and motion reconstruction results.

  17. Proteomic footprints of a member of Glossinavirus (Hytrosaviridae): An expeditious approach to virus control strategies in tsetse factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariithi, H.M.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Oers, van M.M.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Glossinavirus (Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV)) is a rod-shaped enveloped insect virus containing a 190,032bp-long, circular dsDNA genome. The virus is pathogenic for the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes and has been associated with the collapse of selected mass-reare

  18. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NOx, SOx, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. 428 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar-788010, Assam (India)

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. (author)

  20. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  1. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  2. A novel highly divergent protein family identified from a viviparous insect by RNA-seq analysis: a potential target for tsetse fly-specific abortifacients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B Benoit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In tsetse flies, nutrients for intrauterine larval development are synthesized by the modified accessory gland (milk gland and provided in mother's milk during lactation. Interference with at least two milk proteins has been shown to extend larval development and reduce fecundity. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of tsetse milk proteins using lactation-specific transcriptome/milk proteome analyses and to define functional role(s for the milk proteins during lactation. Differential analysis of RNA-seq data from lactating and dry (non-lactating females revealed enrichment of transcripts coding for protein synthesis machinery, lipid metabolism and secretory proteins during lactation. Among the genes induced during lactation were those encoding the previously identified milk proteins (milk gland proteins 1-3, transferrin and acid sphingomyelinase 1 and seven new genes (mgp4-10. The genes encoding mgp2-10 are organized on a 40 kb syntenic block in the tsetse genome, have similar exon-intron arrangements, and share regions of amino acid sequence similarity. Expression of mgp2-10 is female-specific and high during milk secretion. While knockdown of a single mgp failed to reduce fecundity, simultaneous knockdown of multiple variants reduced milk protein levels and lowered fecundity. The genomic localization, gene structure similarities, and functional redundancy of MGP2-10 suggest that they constitute a novel highly divergent protein family. Our data indicates that MGP2-10 function both as the primary amino acid resource for the developing larva and in the maintenance of milk homeostasis, similar to the function of the mammalian casein family of milk proteins. This study underscores the dynamic nature of the lactation cycle and identifies a novel family of lactation-specific proteins, unique to Glossina sp., that are essential to larval development. The specificity of MGP2-10 to tsetse and their critical role during

  3. Tsetse immune system maturation requires the presence of obligate symbionts in larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Weiss

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microbial symbionts serve important functions within their hosts, including dietary supplementation and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Little is known about the mechanisms that enable these bacteria to induce specific host phenotypes during development and into adulthood. Here we used the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, and its obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, to investigate the co-evolutionary adaptations that influence the development of host physiological processes. Wigglesworthia is maternally transmitted to tsetse's intrauterine larvae through milk gland secretions. We can produce flies that lack Wigglesworthia (Gmm(Wgm- yet retain their other symbiotic microbes. Such offspring give rise to adults that exhibit a largely normal phenotype, with the exception being that they are reproductively sterile. Our results indicate that when reared under normal environmental conditions Gmm(Wgm- adults are also immuno-compromised and highly susceptible to hemocoelic E. coli infections while age-matched wild-type individuals are refractory. Adults that lack Wigglesworthia during larval development exhibit exceptionally compromised cellular and humoral immune responses following microbial challenge, including reduced expression of genes that encode antimicrobial peptides (cecropin and attacin, hemocyte-mediated processes (thioester-containing proteins 2 and 4 and prophenoloxidase, and signal-mediating molecules (inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, Gmm(Wgm- adults harbor a reduced population of sessile and circulating hemocytes, a phenomenon that likely results from a significant decrease in larval expression of serpent and lozenge, both of which are associated with the process of early hemocyte differentiation. Our results demonstrate that Wigglesworthia must be present during the development of immature progeny in order for the immune system to function properly in adult tsetse. This phenomenon provides

  4. Use of insecticide-impregnated ear tags for the control of face flies and horn-flies on pastured cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R E; Westby, E J; Hendrix, K S; Lemenager, R P

    1981-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated ear tags in controlling face flies, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linn.), on pastured beef cattle. In one 16-week trial, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ear tags treated with stirofos (Rabon) insecticide reduced horn fly numbers by 79% (P less than .05) and face fly numbers by 30% (P less than .05). Coumaphos (Co-Ral) insecticide dust bags used in a separate herd produced an 86% (P less than .05) reduction in horn flies and an 18% (P less than .05) reduction in face flies. In the second study, 5 and 10% permethrin (Atroban), PVC-treated ear tags in a one-piece design were tested. In this 11 week trial, horn fly control averaged 95% (P less than .05) with the 10% tag and 77% (P less than .05) with the 5% tag. Face fly control averaged 49% (P less than .05) for 8 weeks with the 10% permethrin tag. No significant face fly control was achieved with the 5% permethrin tag. In a herd treated with coumaphos dust bags, horn fly control averaged 93% (P less than .05) and face fly control averaged 34% (P less than .05). The third study tested 5 and 10% permethrin, PVC-treated ear tags in a two-piece design and two-piece 5% permethrin-treated ear tags in a polyurethane matrix. Fourteen-week horn fly control averaged 88% (P less than .05) with the 10% PVC-treated tag, 83% (P less than .05) with the 5% PVC-treated tag, 71% (P less than .05) with the 5% polyurethane-treated tag and 74% (P less than .05) with coumaphos dust bags. Face fly control averaged less than 50% (P greater than .05) throughout the trial with all treatments.

  5. FliH and FliI ensure efficient energy coupling of flagellar type III protein export in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru; Kinoshita, Miki; Inoue, Yumi; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Ihara, Kunio; Koya, Satomi; Hara, Noritaka; Nishioka, Noriko; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-06-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, flagellar proteins are exported via its specific export apparatus from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure. The flagellar export apparatus consists of a transmembrane (TM) export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlhA is a TM export gate protein and plays important roles in energy coupling of protein translocation. However, the energy coupling mechanism remains unknown. Here, we performed a cross-complementation assay to measure robustness of the energy transduction system of the export apparatus against genetic perturbations. Vibrio FlhA restored motility of a Salmonella ΔflhA mutant but not that of a ΔfliH-fliI flhB(P28T) ΔflhA mutant. The flgM mutations significantly increased flagellar gene expression levels, allowing Vibrio FlhA to exert its export activity in the ΔfliH-fliI flhB(P28T) ΔflhA mutant. Pull-down assays revealed that the binding affinities of Vibrio FlhA for FliJ and the FlgN-FlgK chaperone-substrate complex were much lower than those of Salmonella FlhA. These suggest that Vibrio FlhA requires the support of FliH and FliI to efficiently and properly interact with FliJ and the FlgN-FlgK complex. We propose that FliH and FliI ensure robust and efficient energy coupling of protein export during flagellar assembly.

  6. Environmental impact of using fly ash in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    An attempt was made to estimate the chemical composition of fly ash using the known chemical composition of coals from numerous regions of the country and the known behavior of elements in a limited number of coal and fly-ash samples. This technique assumes that each element in every piece of coal in the United States partitions itself into fly ash to the same extent and leaches from fly ash at the same rate. Using these limited data, enrichment factors were then calculated by dividing the composition in the fly ash by the composition in the corresponding coal samples. These enrichment factors were then applied to all of the coal samples for which chemical compositions were available to estimate the chemical composition of the fly ash.

  7. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  8. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  9. Control of bloodsucking black fly (Simuliidae) populations in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Bartninkaitė, Ilona; Bernotienė, Rasa; Pakalniškis, Saulius; Žygutienė, Milda

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of bloodsucking black flies began in the 70s of the 20th century in the south-eastern part of Lithuania. By 1990, the biting activity of bloodsucking black flies increased and had become a serious problem. The bloodsucking insects caused losses of cattle and domestic birds and tormented holiday-makers in the Druskininkai health-resort. Biological larvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was used for bloodsucking black fly control in 1999–2005. The larvicide was ...

  10. A soil emergence trap for collections of phlebotomine sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Cláudio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of breeding sites of sand flies is of great epidemiological interest. A soil emergence trap for investigating potential sand fly breeding sites is described. The trap was tested in two rural areas in the Mogi Guaçu River Valley where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease. Seventy-three sand fly individuals of three species, Lutzomyia intermedia s. l., L. whitmani and L. pessoai, were collected on the forest floor and peridomicile.

  11. Adaptive Supervisory Engine for Autonomous Formation Flying GNC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying represents a critical enabling technology for future space missions, including NASA's Space and Earth Science...

  12. Surface Modification of Fly Ash for Active Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash based effective solid base catalyst (KF/Al2O3/fly ash473, KF/Al2O3/fly ash673, and KF/Al2O3/fly ash873 was synthesized by loading KF over chemically and thermally activated fly ash. The chemical activation was done by treating fly ash with aluminum nitrate via precipitation method followed by thermal activation at 650°C to increase the alumina content in fly ash. The increased alumina content was confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. The alumina enriched fly ash was then loaded with KF (10 wt% and calcined at three different temperatures 473 K, 673 K and 873 K. The amount of loaded KF was monitored by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, TEM and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were tested in the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde with 2′-hydroxyacetophenone to produce 2′-hydroxychalcone and 4-methoxy-2′-hydroxychalcone respectively. Higher conversion (83% of benzaldehyde and (89% of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde reveals that among these heterogeneous catalysts KF/Al2O3/fly ash673 is very active.

  13. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  14. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, adding aggregate with reasonable ratio and additives with reasonable dosage and do the experimental research on manufacture products for properties, production technology and selection about technology parameter of production equipment. Index of strength grade and freezing-thawing resisting etc and the high doping fly ash brick building which we are working on can achieve the national standard on building materials industry. Based on the tests, this achievement of research has a very wide practical prospect in using fly ash, industrial waste residue, environmental protection and reducing the cost of enterprises. The efficient reuse of fly ash from coal boiler and power plants has very vital significance of protecting the environment, benefiting descendants and developing of circular economy.

  15. The Cement Solidification of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Haobo; HE Xinghua; ZHU Shujing; ZHANG Dajie

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition, the content and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration ( MSWI) fly ash were tested and analyzed. It is shown that the leachability of Pb and Cr exceeds the leaching toxicity standard, and so the MSWI fly ash is considered as hazardous waste and must be solidifled. The effect of solidifying the MSWI fly ash by cement was studied, and it is indicated that the heavy metals can be well immobilized if the mass fraction of the fly ash is appropriate. The heavy metals were immobilized within cement hydration products through either physical fixation, substitution, deposition or adsorption mechanisms.

  16. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The te...

  17. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes was invest......Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes...

  18. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  19. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  20. The flying carpet and other tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, Noah Thomas

    In this thesis we demonstrate propulsion of a thin plastic piezoelectric sheet using controlled traveling wave deformations. This is achieved in air, without touching the ground, thus confirming the physical basis for a "flying" carpet near a horizontal surface. The device developed in this work demonstrates a novel form of propulsion, which operates without separate moving parts, since all actuation elements are formed from the same thin sheet of material. Potential advantages of this include low manufacturing costs and long lifetime. This work also demonstrates the advantages, in general, of using integrated sensors to control the vibrations of thin plastic sheets. Although we focus here on traveling waves, the same techniques could be used to produce a wide variety of time-varying deformations. The device could be used to model biological organisms, for example, for fluid dynamics studies. In addition, sensor arrays, for example chemical or biological, could be integrated onto the sheet. We discuss the fundamental and experimental conditions for realizing such a device, and describe the experimental approach to produce the traveling waves and demonstrate propulsion. The propulsive forces qualitatively agree with previous theoretical predictions. Theory predicts that such a sheet needs to reach speeds of ~20 cm/s to produce its own lift (the so-called "flying carpet" effect). Currently, the sheet is not free, so the observed velocity is ~1-2 cm/s. We present preliminary work to free the sheet from its tethers by providing on-board power using a boost-converter circuit, and, alternatively, using a cart that carries the tethering wires and follows the sheet. In addition, to enable the sheet to begin moving without external lift, methods to reduce friction and static electricity are presented. Experiments with passive test samples show indications of lift beginning at ~20-30 cm/s. Two aspects related to the integration of improved functionality on the sheet are also

  1. Interkingdom responses of flies to bacteria mediated by fly physiology and bacterial quorum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect location and utilization of a resource is influenced by a host of variables, including nutrients acquired prior to encountering a stimulus and age of the individual. For the carrion system, we hypothesized the volatiles to which primary colonizers such as blow flies respond are the same sign...

  2. The Hungry Fly: Hydrodynamics of feeding in the common house fly

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2010-01-01

    A large number of insect species feed primarily on a fluid diet. To do so, they must overcome the numerous challenges that arise in the design of high-efficiency, miniature pumps. Although the morphology of insect feeding structures has been described for decades, their dynamics remain largely unknown even in the most well studied species (e.g. fruit fly). Here, in the fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate in-vivo imaging and microsurgery to elucidate the design principles of feeding structures of the common house fly. Using high-resolution X-ray absorption microscopy, we record in-vivo flow of sucrose solutions through the body over many hours during fly feeding. Borrowing from microsurgery techniques common in neurophysiology, we are able to perturb the pump to a stall position and thus evaluate function under load conditions. Furthermore, fluid viscosity-dependent feedback is observed for optimal pump performance. As the gut of the fly starts to fill up, feedback from the stretch receptors in the cuticle di...

  3. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Ordoñez, Soledad R.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC). This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins. PMID:28659885

  4. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Radomska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC. This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins.

  5. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  6. Uncontrolled Stability in Freely Flying Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, James, Jr.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    One of the key flight modes of a flying insect is longitudinal flight, traveling along a localized two-dimensional plane from one location to another. Past work on this topic has shown that flying insects, unless stabilized by some external stimulus, are typically unstable to a well studied pitching instability. In our work, we examine this instability in a computational study to understand whether it is possible for either evolution or an aero-vehicle designer to stabilize longitudinal flight through changes to insect morphology, kinematics, or aerodynamic quantities. A quasi-steady wingbeat averaged flapping flight model is used to describe the insect. From this model, a number of non-dimensional parameters are identified. The effect of these parameters was then quantified using linear stability analysis, applied to various translational states of the insect. Based on our understanding of these parameters, we demonstrate how to find an intrinsically stable flapping flight sequence for a dragonfly-like flapping flier in an instantaneous flapping flight model.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  8. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  9. Modes of thrust generation in flying animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Song, Jialei; Tobalske, Bret; Luo Team; Tobalske Team

    2016-11-01

    For flying animals in forward flight, thrust is usually much smaller as compared with weight support and has not been given the same amount of attention. Several modes of thrust generation are discussed in this presentation. For insects performing slow flight that is characterized by low advance ratios (i.e., the ratio between flight speed and wing speed), thrust is usually generated by a "backward flick" mode, in which the wings moves upward and backward at a faster speed than the flight speed. Paddling mode is another mode used by some insects like fruit flies who row their wings backward during upstroke like paddles (Ristroph et al., PRL, 2011). Birds wings have high advance ratios and produce thrust during downstroke by directing aerodynamic lift forward. At intermediate advance ratios around one (e.g., hummingbirds and bats), the animal wings generate thrust during both downstroke and upstroke, and thrust generation during upstroke may come at cost of negative weight support. These conclusions are supported by previous experiment studies of insects, birds, and bats, as well as our recent computational modeling of hummingbirds. Supported by the NSF.

  10. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  11. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  12. Durability of biomass fly ash concrete: Freezing and thawing and rapid chloride permeability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Emilio Llamazos; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Strict interpretation of ASTM C 618 excludes non-coal fly ashes, such as biomass fly ashes from addition in concrete. Biomass fly ash in this investigation includes (1) cofired fly ash from burning biomass with coal; (2) wood fly ash and (3) blended fly ash (wood fly ash mixing with coal fly ash). A set of experiments conducted on concrete from pure cement and cement with fly ash provide basic data to assess the effects of several biomass fly ashes on the performances of freezing and thawing (F-T) and rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT). The F-T tests indicate that all fly ash concrete has statistically equal or less weight loss than the pure cement concrete (control). The RCPT illustrate that all kinds of fly ash concrete have lower chloride permeability than the pure cement control concrete. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J.B. Vreysen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are among the least developed in the world and hunger and poverty remains widespread in most of the rural communities. Reducing hunger and chronic under nourishment through the introduction of productive livestock as a source of traction and manure for crop production, transport, milk and meat is deemed to be a fundamental first step towards better rural development. The presence of the tsetse fly in one third of the African continent and the disease trypanosomosis it transmits is considered the major barrier to the development of productive livestock. Despite the yearly administration of 35 million doses of trypanocidal drugs (at US$ 1 per dose, African farmers lose 3 million cattle every year to the disease and annual direct economic losses are estimated at US$ 600 to 1200 million. Tsetse flies mainly affect the rural poor and are rightfully considered 'a root cause of poverty ' in Africa . The most desirable way of containing the disease trypanosomosis is undoubtedly the elimination of entire populations of the vector from delimited geographical areas using an integration of various control tactics, i.e. an areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approach. Efficient methods to suppress or even eliminate tsetse populations have been available for the last 50 years and are mostly based on the use of insecticides or entail devices that attract and kill. Nevertheless, despite gigantic efforts in the past century, there are only a few examples where the elimination of tsetse flies has proven to be sustainable, e.g. the elimination of Glossina pallidipes Austen from South Africa in the 1950 's using mainly aerial spraying of residual insecticides or the creation of a zone free of Glossina austeni Newstead on Unguja Island of Zanzibar (1994-1997 through the integration of various control tactics including the release of sterile insects. The decentralisation of the tsetse control offices resulting in a shift from

  14. Geological behavior of wet outflow deposition fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德泉; 赵明华; 刘宏利; 周毅; 严聪

    2008-01-01

    The geological behaviors of wet outflow deposition fly ash were investigated, including the feature of in-situ single and even bridge cone penetration test (CPT) curves, the change of the penetration parameters and vane strength with the increase of depth and the difference of the penetration resistance on and down the water level. Drilling, CPT and vane shear test were carried out in silty clay, fine sand, and fly ash of the ash-dam. The CPT curves of the fly ash do not show a critical depth. The cone resistance (qc) of the fly ash is smaller than that of silty clay or sand; the friction resistance is smaller than that of filling silty clay, similar to that of deposition silty clay or more than that of fine sand; the friction ratio is smaller than that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay or much more than that of fine sand. The specific penetration resistance (ps) is similar to that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay. There is a clear interface effect between the deposition fly ash and the clay. Interface effect of ps-h curve at the groundwater table is clear, and ps of the fly ash reduces significantly under the table. The vane strength of the fly ash increases as the depth increases. The deposition fly ash with wet outflow is similar to silt in the geological behavior.

  15. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  16. 7 CFR 29.3151 - Flyings (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... tolerance. X4M Fair Mixed Color Flyings. Medium to tissuey body, mature to ripe, firm to porous, wrinkly to... Mixed Color Flyings. Medium to tissuey body, mature to ripe, firm to porous, wrinkly, dingy finish, pale...

  17. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  18. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a)...

  19. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  20. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  1. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Stable flies are considered to be one of themajor blood-feeding pests in theUS livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is ex...

  2. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  3. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  4. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm3 of 5 mol · dm−3 NaOH + 0.4...

  7. Use of Recycled Aggregate and Fly Ash in Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myle N. James

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recycled materials aggregate from the demolished concrete structures and fly ash from burning coal shows the possible application as structural and non structural components in concrete structures. This research aims to evaluate the feasibility of using concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate and fly ash in concrete pavement. Approach: Two water cement ratio (0.45 and 0.55 the compressive strength, modulus of electricity and flexural strength for concrete with recycled aggregate and fly ash with 0, 25% replacing cement in mass were considered. Results: The material properties of recycled aggregate concrete with fly ash indicate comparable results with that of concrete with natural aggregate and without fly ash. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recycled materials could be used in concrete pavement and it will promote the sustainability of concrete.

  8. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value...... as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms, yet recent research has suggested that fly relationships have been...... (including the wingless Braulidae) of bees and other insects. Furthermore, we use micro-RNAs to resolve a node with implications for the evolution of embryonic development in Diptera. We demonstrate that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation—lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma...

  9. Dry coal fly ash cleaning using rotary triboelectrostatic separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Daniel; FAN Mao-ming; JIANG Xin-kai

    2009-01-01

    More than 80 million metric tons of fly ash is produced annually in the U.S. As coal combustion by-product. Coal fly ash can be converted to value-added products if unburned carbon is reduced to less than 2.5%. However, most of fly ash is currently landfilled as waste due to lack of efficient purification technologies to separate unburned carbon from fly ash. A rotary triboelectrostatic separator has been developed and patented recently at the University of Kentucky with unique features. Several fly ash samples have been used to understand the effects of major process parameters on the separation performance. The results show that compared to existing triboelectrostatic separators, the rotary triboelectrostatic separator has significant advantages in particle charging efficiency, solids throughput, separation efficiency, applicable particle size range.

  10. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  11. Self-healing ability of fly ash-cement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipat Termkhajornkit; Toyoharu Nawa; Yoichi Yamashiro; Toshiki Saito [Lafarge Research Centre, Quentin Fallavier (France). Reactive Components Department

    2009-03-15

    Concrete is susceptible to cracking due to both autogenous and drying shrinkage. Nevertheless, most of these types of cracks occur before 28 days. Because fly ash continues to hydrate after 28 days, it is likely that hydrated products from fly ash may modify microstructure, seal these cracks, and prolong the service life. This research investigates the self-healing ability of fly ash-cement paste. Compressive strength, porosity, chloride diffusion coefficients, hydration reactions and hydrated products were studied. The research focuses on behavior after 28 days. According to the experimental results, the fly ash-cement system has the self-healing ability for cracks that occur from shrinkage. The self-healing ability increased when the fraction of fly ash increased.

  12. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  13. Palpebral myiasis in a Danish traveler caused by the human bot-fly (Dermatobia hominis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...

  14. Feasibility study on solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash with circulating fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; Zhang, Chuhao; Zhang, Dajie

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash with circulation fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ash, which is unsuitable as a cement replacement due to its high amounts of carbon, lime and anhydrite. The solidification process was conducted on samples prepared from MSWI fly ash, binders (cement clinkers and CFBC fly ash were mixed at two replacement ratios) and water (water/solid weight ratio = 0.4), among which the MSWI fly ash replaced each binder at the ratio of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% by dry weight. The samples were subjected to compressive strength tests and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the results showed that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standard imposed by US EPA after 28 days of curing. Micro-analysis (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry) revealed that the main hydrate products were C-S-H gel and ettringite, which have a positive effect on heavy metals retention. Therefore, this method provides a possibility to achieve a cheap and effective solution for MSWI fly ash management and use for CFBC fly ash.

  15. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  16. Network Configuration Analysis for Formation Flying Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of two networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. Both systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation, with one of the satellites designated as the central or 'mother ship.' All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/EP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation, and the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IP queuing delay, IP queue size and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as end-to-end delay for both systems. In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  17. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keka Ojha; Narayan C Pradhan; Amar Nath Samanta

    2004-12-01

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain highly crystalline zeolite with maximum BET surface area. The maximum surface area of the product was found to be 383 m2/g with high purity. The crystallinity of the prepared zeolite was found to change with fusion temperature and a maximum value was obtained at 823 K. The cost of synthesized zeolite was estimated to be almost one-fifth of that of commercial 13X zeolite available in the market.

  18. Objective Symbols in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2013-01-01

      The novel Lord of the Flies was published in 1954, since then, a lot of praise, including the honor of the Nobel Prize in literature, was given to the novel and its author. The magic of the novel lies in something under the surface meaning of the novel it⁃self. With symbolism as a main figurative device, there are various symbols in this novel. Symbol, in literature, is a thing that refers or suggests something more than its literal meaning. In this novel, a lot of symbols are employed, some of them are obvious, others are obscure. This paper will focus on the objective symbols, the things and the people that can be seen by our eyes.

  19. Fly ash for durable concrete construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This is essentially a review paper, bringing together the various studies undertaken at the University of Dundee as well as many others selected from published work. A full range of durability properties have been considered dealing with the effects of fly ash (FA) in concrete. It is shown that the use of FA generally effects improvement in the resistance of concrete to various forms of attack. FA is shown to greatly improve concrete resistance to chloride ingress and to reduce expansion caused by ASR. In the case of sulphate attack the use of FA is recommended. With regard to carbonation, FA can slightly reduce the resistance. It is also shown that FA concrete will benefit more from curing than OPC concrete in developing its resistance to deterioration with age. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09799-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C096962 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-95L19, WORKING DRAF... 38 5.1 2 ( BI493759 ) df105c03.y1 Morton Feta...si... 40 6.8 2 ( AW022714 ) df42f12.y1 Morton Fetal Cochlea Homo sapiens cDNA... 30 7.1 3 ( DV611607 ) EST12...14603 Glossina morsitans morsitans Fat body ... 40 7.1 2 ( AW021315 ) df20g04.y1 Morton... Fetal Cochlea Homo sapiens cDNA... 30 7.3 3 ( AW021457 ) df23h01.y1 Morton Fetal Cochlea Homo sapiens... cDNA... 30 7.4 3 ( BI497151 ) df132f05.y1 Morton Fetal Cochlea Homo sapiens cDN... 30 7.5 3 ( BI497187 ) df133b12.y1 Morton

  2. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  3. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The test method followed the procedures applied for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC concrete. Test results show that fly ash-based geopolymer concrete undergoes low creep which is generally less than that of OPC concrete. After one year of loading, the results for specific creep of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete in this study ranges from 15 to 29 microstrain for concrete compressive strength 67–40 MPa respectively. From the test results, it is also found out that the creep coefficient of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is about half of that predicted using Gilbert’s Method for OPC concrete.

  5. Stabilization of Expansive Soil by Lime and Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; CAO Xing

    2002-01-01

    An experimental program was undertaken to study the individual and admixed effects of lime and fly ash on the geotechnical characteristics of expansive soil. Lime and fly ash were added to the expansive soil at 4% -6% and 40% - 50% by dry weight of soil, respectively. Testing specimens were determined and examined in chemical composition, grain size distribution, consistency limits, compaction, CBR ,free swell and swell capacity. The effect of lime and fly ash addition on reducing the swelling potential of an expansive soil is presented.It is revealed that a change of expansive soil texture takes place when lime and fly ash are mixed with expansive soil. Plastic limit increases by mixing lime and liquid limit decreases by mixing fly ash, which decreases plasticity index. As the amount of lime and fly ash is increased, there are an apparent reduction in maximum dry density,free swell and swelling capacity under 50 kPa pressure, and a corresponding increase in the percentage of coarse particles, optimum moisture content and CBR value. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the expansive soil can be successfully stabilized by lime and fly ash.

  6. Carbonatation Influence on Fly Ash and Portland Cement Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Valdez–Tamez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbonation on mortars containing 25% of fly ash instead of the cementitious materials was studied. Mortar cylinder specimens were fabricated for 4 different W/C ratios: 0.35, 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65. Mortars with and without fly ash were subjected to an accelerated carbonation process. Volumetric weight, water absorption, compressive strength, water permeability, pH and mercury intrusion porosimetry of the mortar specimens were determined. Due to the fly ash pozzolanic potential, for all W/C ratios, results of the compressive strength tests at 28 days of the mortars with and without fly ash were similar. Mortars with fly ash presented similar water permeability as mortars without fly ash. PH results showed that alkalinity reduction is lower in mortars with fly ash compared to those containing cement only. In all the mortars, the porosimetric analysis indicated that porosity is reduced due to carbonation. Further more, it is showed the predominance of the macro and mesopores.

  7. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  8. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  9. Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: A global review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha Basu; Manish Pande; P.B.S. Bhadoria; S.C. Mahapatra

    2009-01-01

    Though in last four decades various alternate energy sources have come into the limelight, the hyperbolic use of coal as a prime energy source cannot be counterbalanced. Disposal of high amount of fly-ash from thermal power plants absorbs huge amount of water, energy and land area by ash ponds. In order to meet the growing energy demand, various environmental, economic and social problems associated with the disposal of fly-ash would continue to increase. Therefore, fly-ash management would remain a great concern of the century. Fly-ash has great potentiality in agriculture due to its efficacy in modification of soil health and crop performance. The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in fly-ash increases the yield of many agricultural crops. But compared to other sectors, the use of fly-ash in agriculture is limited. An exhaustive review of numerous studies of last four decades took place in this paper, which systematically covers the importance, scope and apprehension regarding utilization of fly-ash in agriculture. The authors concluded that though studies have established some solutions to handle the problems of radioactivity and heavy metal content in flyash, long-term confirmatory research and demonstration are necessary. This paper also identified some areas, like proper handling of dry ash in plants as well as in fields, ash pond management (i.e., faster decantation, recycling of water, vertical expansion rather than horizontal), monitoring of soil health, crop quality, and fate of fly-ash in time domain, where research thrust is required. Agricultural lime application contributes to global warming as Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumes that all the carbon in agricultural lime is finally released as CO2to the atmosphere. It is expected that use of fly-ash instead of lime in agriculture can reduce net CO2emission, thus reduce global warming also.

  10. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn;

    2001-01-01

    in the Entomophthora muscae species complex (E. muscae sensu lato) caused high infection levels in several species of flies. However, only a few specimens of cattle flies were infected by E. muscae sensu stricto despite the fact that cattle flies were observed to perch on spear thistles, which acted as transmission...... site for all four Entomophthora species. Transmission experiments with E. muscae s.l. supported the field data. Of the two species considered host specific, E. syrphi caused substantial infection in a muscid, and E. scatophagae likewise could be transmitted to a muscid. This emphasizes the need...

  11. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Schoubroeck, van, F.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doub...

  12. Usage of fly ash as a coal desulphurization reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-12-31

    This paper covers the direct usage of fly ash to remove sulphur from coal. Experiments were carried out on a high sulphur Turkish lignite. 5 g of fly ash was extracted in 200 ml of water under pressure and the dilute solution containing water extractable parts of fly ash was used as desulphurization reagent. Oxygen pressure was created over desulphurization medium during the extraction period by which dissolved oxygen was concentrated in the solution. Effects of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, and time were investigated in the ranges of 403--498 K, 0.0--1.5 MPa and 15--90 min, respectively.

  13. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  14. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion...... fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  15. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  16. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  17. The role of FLI-1-EWS, a fusion gene reciprocal to EWS-FLI-1, in Ewing sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Elzi, David J.; Song, Meihua; Houghton, Peter J.; Chen, Yidong; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly FLI-1. The EWS-FLI-1 fusion oncogene is widely believed to play a central role in Ewing sarcoma. The EWS-FLI-1 gene product regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cancer progression, can transform mouse cells such as NIH3T3 and C3H10T1/2, and is necessary for proliferation and tumorigenicity ...

  18. Autonomous and FliK-dependent length control of the flagellar rod in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F V; Hughes, Kelly T; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-10-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism.

  19. Autonomous and FliK-Dependent Length Control of the Flagellar Rod in Salmonella enterica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Hughes, Kelly T.; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism. PMID:19666714

  20. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  1. FlyBase at 25: looking to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramates, L. Sian; Marygold, Steven J.; dos Santos, Gilberto; Urbano, Jose-Maria; Antonazzo, Giulia; Matthews, Beverley B.; Rey, Alix J.; Tabone, Christopher J.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Emmert, David B.; Falls, Kathleen; Goodman, Joshua L.; Hu, Yanhui; Ponting, Laura; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Strelets, Victor B.; Thurmond, Jim; Zhou, Pinglei

    2017-01-01

    Since 1992, FlyBase (flybase.org) has been an essential online resource for the Drosophila research community. Concentrating on the most extensively studied species, Drosophila melanogaster, FlyBase includes information on genes (molecular and genetic), transgenic constructs, phenotypes, genetic and physical interactions, and reagents such as stocks and cDNAs. Access to data is provided through a number of tools, reports, and bulk-data downloads. Looking to the future, FlyBase is expanding its focus to serve a broader scientific community. In this update, we describe new features, datasets, reagent collections, and data presentations that address this goal, including enhanced orthology data, Human Disease Model Reports, protein domain search and visualization, concise gene summaries, a portal for external resources, video tutorials and the FlyBase Community Advisory Group. PMID:27799470

  2. Improved Sorting Scheme of Microstructure of Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立刚; 彭苏平

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of the existing sorting for microstructure of flyash, an improved scheme was put forward in this paper. First, fly ash particles are divided into four groups as low-calcium, iron, high calcium and char particle acco rding to the substance components of fly ash. Then fly ash particles are divided into 14 sub-groups, for example: cenospheres, plerospheres, solid spheres, porous char and dense char based on their chemical composition, shape and the chara cteristics of inner-structure of fly ash. It has a distinct difference in granu le configuration, inner-structure and substance components. Some disadvantages of the existing scheme such as unilateralism and imprecision have been overcome in the advanced schemes.

  3. Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and control...

  4. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  5. Fly-ash lobby design to convert the sceptics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bile, P.

    1983-07-14

    New uses for pfa in structural concrete have been pioneered at Didcot power station. Twenty percent cost savings and significant gains in long-term strength are claimed for the new concrete, called high fly-ash content concrete (HFCC).

  6. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  7. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  8. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu [Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  9. Flies selected for longevity retain a young gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    differentially expressed between selected and control flies when measured at the same chronological age. The longevity-selected flies consistently showed expression profiles more similar to control flies one age class younger than control flies of the same age. This finding is in accordance with a younger gene...... the physiological age as the level of cumulative mortality. Eighty-four genes were differentially expressed between the control and longevity-selected lines at the same physiological age, and the overlap between the same chronological and physiological age gene lists included 40 candidate genes for increased...... longevity. Among these candidates were genes with roles in starvation resistance, immune response regulation, and several that have not yet been linked to longevity. Investigating these genes would provide new knowledge of the pathways that affect life span in invertebrates and, potentially, mammals....

  10. From Page to Stage: Lord of the Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Helen; Hiltunen, Tuomas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how drama can used in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language, describing a project at the International School of Helsinki that chose to dramatize William Golding's "Lord of the Flies." (Author/VWL)

  11. Utilization of coal combustion fly ash in terracotta bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, A.; Kurama, S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey); Kurama, H.; Kara, Y. [Osmangazi Univ., Mining Engineering Dept., Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    In this present work, coal combustion fly ash from a power plant in Turkey was used in combination with a traditional raw material in terracotta production with the aim of having a product with improved physico-mechanical properties and lower production cost. Several compositions were prepared by adding different amounts of fly ash (ranging from 0 to 20%) in a yellow firing terracotta formulation and shaped by wet pressing. Following firing at a suitable temperature, some of the physical properties of the resultant tiles were determined as a function of the fly ash content. A combination of XRD, SEM and EDX techniques were also employed to correlate the properties with the phase composition. The results indicated that fly ash could be utilized easily in certain amounts in such an application. (orig.)

  12. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  13. On-the Fly Merging of Attitude Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in autonomous attitude determination instrumentation enable even small satellites flying fully autonomous multi head star trackers providing full accurate and robust attitude information. Each sensor provides the full attitude information but for robustness and optimal usage...

  14. Leaching of nutrient salts from fly ash from biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated....... The first method was a counter current moving bed process in four stages. The ash was kept in filter bags and leached with water that was introduced into the bags at 40-50°C. In the second method, fly ash and water was brought into contact in a partially fluidized bed. The third method was a counter current...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  15. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  16. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and alimentary tract of the non-hematophagous blow fly, Phormia regina, and the hematophagous horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Aaron T; Yin, Chih-Ming; Stoffolano, John G

    2008-01-01

    FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are a diverse and physiologically important class of neuropepeptides in the metazoa. In insects, FaRPs function as brain-gut neuropeptides and have been immunolocalized throughout the nervous system and alimentary tract where they have been shown to affect feeding behavior. The occurrence of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was examined in the central nervous system and alimentary tract of non-hematophagous blow fly, Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and the hematophagous horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera:Tabanidae). Although the central nervous system and alimentary anatomy differ between these two dipteran species, many aspects of FLI remain similar. FLI was observed throughout the central and stomatogastric nervous systems, foregut, and midgut in both flies. In the central nervous system, cells and processes with FLI occurred in the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and ventral nerve cord. FLI was associated with neurohemal areas of the brain and ventral nerve cord. A neurohemal plexus of fibers with FLI was present on the dorsal region of the thoracic central nervous system in both species. In the gut, processes with FLI innervated the crop duct, crop and anterior midgut. Endocrine cells with FLI were present in the posterior midgut. The distribution of FLI in these two flies, in spite of their different feeding habits, further supports the role of FaRPs as important components of the braingut neurochemical axis in these insects and implicates FaRPs as regulators of insect feeding physiology among divergent insect taxa.

  17. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham

    2009-01-01

    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  18. Receptor response in Venus's fly-trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S L

    1965-09-01

    The insect-trapping movement of the plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus's fly-trap) is mediated by the stimulation of mechanosensory hairs located on the surface of the trap. It is known that stimulation of the hairs is followed by action potentials which are propagated over the surface of the trap. It has been reported that action potentials always precede trap closure. The occurrence of non-propagated receptor potentials is reported here. Receptor potentials always precede the action potentials. The receptor potential appears to couple the mechanical stimulation step to the action potential step of the preying sequence. Receptor potentials elicited by mechanical stimulation of a sensory hair were measured by using the hair as an integral part of the current-measuring path. The tip of the hair was cut off exposing the medullary tissue; this provided a natural extension of the measuring electrode into the receptor region at the base of the hair. A measuring pipette electrode was slipped over the cut tip of the hair. Positive and negative receptor potentials were measured. Evidence is presented which supports the hypothesis that the positive and negative receptor potentials originate from independent sources. An analysis is made of (a) the relation of the parameters of mechanical stimuli to the magnitude of the receptor potential, and (b) the relation of the receptor potentials to the action potential. The hypothesis that the positive receptor potential is the generator of the action potential is consistent with these data.

  19. Formation Flying Spacecraft Concept for Heliophysics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Davila, Joseph; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Shah, Neerav; Li, Steven X.

    2016-05-01

    A number of space-based heliophysics instruments would benefit from formation flying spacecraft. An occulter or a focusing optic such as a photon sieve could be mounted on a separate spacecraft rather than at the end of a boom. This would enable science measurements to be made on smaller, less expensive spacecraft. To accomplish this goal, the relative position of the spacecraft must be monitored and controlled to high precision. We describe two separate optical sensing systems that monitor relative position of the spacecraft to the level required for a photon sieve mission concept wherein the photon sieve is mounted on one spacecraft while the imaging detector is mounted on another. The first system employs a novel time of flight measurement of a laser beam that includes imbedded optical data packets. The contents of the returning data packet can be compared to the departing data packet to provide an extremely high resolution distance measurement. Employing three such systems allows measurement of pitch and yaw in addition to longitudinal separation. The second optical system monitors lateral motion. A mildy divergent laser beam is transmitted from one spacecraft to a sensor array on the second spacecraft. Monitoring the position of the brightest portion of the beam on the sensor array provides a direct measurement of lateral relative motion. Employing at least two such systems enables monitoring roll of the spacecraft as well as centration. We will also discuss low force thruster systems required for high precision station keeping.

  20. Networks for Autonomous Formation Flying Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of three communications networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. All systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation arranged in a star topology, with one of the satellites designated as the central or "mother ship." All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/lP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation and the last system uses both of the previous architectures with a constellation of geosynchronous satellites serving as an intermediate point-of-contact between the formation and the terrestrial network. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IF queuing delay, and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as application-level round-trip time for both systems, In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  1. Acoustic cloaking and mirages with flying carpets

    CERN Document Server

    Diatta, Andre; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Carpets under consideration here, in the context of pressure acoustic waves propagating in a compressible fluid, do not touch the ground: they levitate in mid-air (or float in mid-water), which leads to approximate cloaking for an object hidden underneath, or touching either sides of a square cylinder on, or over, the ground. The tentlike carpets attached to the sides of a square cylinder illustrate how the notion of a carpet on a wall naturally generalizes to sides of other small compact objects. We then extend the concept of flying carpets to circular cylinders. However, instead of reducing its scattering cross-section like in acoustic cloaks, we rather mimic that of another obstacle, say a square rigid cylinder. For instance, show that one can hide any type of defects under such circular carpets, and yet they still scatter waves just like a smaller cylinder on its own. Interestingly, all these carpets are described by non-singular acoustic parameters. To exemplify this important aspect, we propose a multi-...

  2. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Anush; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Barba, L A

    2013-01-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, showing that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift appears also in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the ...

  3. Bidirectional swimming in spermatozoa of Tephritid flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B; Gibbons, B H; Gibbons, I R

    1989-10-01

    Our observations show that spermatozoa of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata and of Dacus oleae and Dacus dorsalis are capable of swimming backwards as well as forwards, and that they can change direction abruptly. The preferred direction is backwards, observed in spermatozoa obtained from the male genitalia. Forwards swimming spermatozoa were frequently seen in the spermatheca and close to the eggs. The change in swimming direction appears to be effected solely by a change in the direction of bend propagation, with no significant change in other waveform parameters. In vitro reactivated spermatozoa swim forwards only and require a minimum free Ca++ concentration of about 10(-6) M for movement. A switching of wave propagation from one direction to the other under control of intracellular free Ca++ concentration is suggested. Perhaps the backwards movement allows easier delivery of spermatozoa from the common envelope embedding the heads in the male apparatus, and assures a more efficient movement of the sperm towards the egg, especially given the enormous relative length of the head. The forwards movement is favoured in order to orient the sperm for penetration of the micropile.

  4. Dynamics of a ‘flying chimney’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Runda; Sandali, Yahya; Zhu, Changqing; Coileáin, Cormac Ó.; Shi, Qingfan

    2017-01-01

    The ‘flying chimney’, where a paper cylinder floats when set alight, is an interesting phenomenon that lacks both systematic theoretical and experimental investigation. To investigate the dynamics of liftoff, an appropriate chimney material was first selected from 22 kinds of traditional Chinese Xuan paper. Subsequent experiments with this paper, examining the relationship between the likelihood of liftoff and the height of the air-gap under the cylinder, show the necessity of a gap and the ideal minimum height required to assure successful liftoff. We experimentally investigate the cylinder geometry, determining the optimal parameters for height and diameter, and the boundary conditions for which liftoff can occur. In order to reveal the mechanism of liftoff, a physical model in which the viscous force is reasonably suggested to be a key kinetic parameter is proposed. The viscous force can be obtained by substituting the velocity field of heated air-flow into the constitutive equations of a Newtonian fluid. Numerical calculation for the size effect of liftoff is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Spread Across Liquids Continues to Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fletcher J.

    2001-01-01

    The physics and behavior of a flame spreading across a flammable liquid is an active area of research at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Spills of fuels and other liquids often result in considerable fire hazards, and much remains unknown about the details of how a flame, once ignited, moves across a pool. The depth of the liquid or size of the spill, the temperature, and wind, if any, can all complicate the combustion processes. In addition, with the advent of the International Space Station there may be fire hazards associated with cleaning, laboratory, or other fluids in space, and it is essential to understand the role that gravity plays in such situations. The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment is an experimental and computational effort dedicated to understanding the detailed mechanisms of flame spread across a flammable liquid initially below its flashpoint temperature. The experimental research is being carried out in-house by a team of researchers from Glenn, the National Center for Microgravity Combustion, and Zin Technologies, with computer modeling being provided via a grant with the University of California, Irvine. Glenn's Zero Gravity Facility is used to achieve short microgravity periods, and normal gravity testing is done in the Space Experiments Laboratory. To achieve longer periods of microgravity, the showcase SAL hardware flies aboard a sounding rocket launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, approximately once per year. In addition to extended microgravity, this carrier allows the use of detailed diagnostics that cannot be employed in a drop tower.

  6. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    African governments and the international donor community have started to put substantial emphasis on private sector development and entrepreneurship, but only very few African enterprises manage to grow beyond informal micro-activities. Although there is growing awareness about factors and insti......African governments and the international donor community have started to put substantial emphasis on private sector development and entrepreneurship, but only very few African enterprises manage to grow beyond informal micro-activities. Although there is growing awareness about factors...... to provide insights on how Tanzanian entrepreneurs manage resources during the start-up and development of micro- to small-scale ventures. We find that micro-environmental differences in the resources of the entrepreneur and the institutional complexity of the venture lead to distinct patterns of resource...... management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  7. FLI1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castellucci, L; Jamieson, SE; Miller, EN; de Almeida, LF; J. Oliveira; Magalhães, A.; Guimarães, LH; LESSA, M.; E. Lago; Jesus,AR de; Carvalho, EM; Blackwell, JM

    2011-01-01

    Mapping murine genes controlling cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) identified Fli1 as a candidate influencing resistance to L. major and enhanced wound healing. We examine FLI1 as a gene controlling CL and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) caused by L. braziliensis in humans. Intron 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging promoter and enhancer elements were analysed in 168 nuclear families (250 CL; 87 ML cases) and replicated in 157 families (402 CL; 39 ML cases). Robust case-pseudocontrol logistic reg...

  8. A 10-gram Vision-based Flying Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Klaptocz, Adam; Beyeler, Antoine; Nicoud, Jean-Daniel; Floreano, Dario

    2007-01-01

    We aim at developing ultralight autonomous microflyers capable of freely flying within houses or small built environments while avoiding collisions. Our latest prototype is a fixed-wing aircraft weighing a mere 10 g, flying around 1.5 m/s and carrying the necessary electronics for airspeed regulation and lateral collision avoidance. This microflyer is equipped with two tiny camera modules, two rate gyroscopes, an anemometer, a small microcontroller, and a Bluetooth rad...

  9. Longitudinal control laws design for a flying wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This research is concerned with the flight dynamic, pitch flight control and flying qualities assessment for the reference BWB aircraft. It aims to develop the longitudinal control laws which could satisfy the flying and handing qualities over the whole flight envelope with added consideration of centre of gravity (CG) variation. In order to achieve this goal, both the longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) and autopilot control laws are studied in this thesis. Usi...

  10. Lifespan of a Ceratitis fruit fly increases with higher altitude

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Variation in lifespan may be linked to geographic factors. While latitudinal variation in lifespan has been studied for a number of species, altitude variation has received much less attention, particularly in insects. We measured the lifespan of different populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa along an altitudinal cline. For the different populations we first measured the residual longevity of wild flies by captive cohort approach and compared F1 generation from the same populatio...

  11. Hydraulic transportation of fly ash: a laboratory-scale investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Anna University, Chennai (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Flow behaviour of fly ash slurry is a very complex phenomenon. The present study tries to examine the relation between flow rate and pressure loss of fly ash slurry under laboratory-scale experiment set up in the light of available theoretical background. Pressure loss increases with the increase in flow rate and solid concentration but pressure losses can be saved by the addition of 2200 PPM (parts per million) concentration of polyacrylamide polymer. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Dynamically multilayered visual system of the multifractal fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M S; Grebogi, Celso; Köberle, Roland

    2006-10-27

    We dynamically analyze our experimental results on the motion sensitive spiking H1 neuron of the fly's visual system. We find that the fly uses an alphabet composed of a few letters to encode the information contained in the stimulus. The alphabet dynamics is multifractal both with and without stimulus, though the multifractality increases with the stimulus entropy. This is in sharp contrast to models generating independent spike intervals, whose dynamics is monofractal.

  13. Comparison of creep of the cement pastes included fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padevět Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to comparison of creep of cement pastes containing fly ash admixture. The size of creep in time depends on the amount of components of the cement paste. Attention is paid to the content of classical fly ash in cement paste and its impact on the size of creep. The moisture of cement pastes is distinguished because it significantly affects the rheological properties of the material.

  14. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  15. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  16. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from...... potentiality to be valorized. The main conclusion of this paper regards fly ash’s profound dissimilarity, where each ash should be studied separately....

  17. Longitudinal control laws design for a flying wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This research is concerned with the flight dynamic, pitch flight control and flying qualities assessment for the reference BWB aircraft. It aims to develop the longitudinal control laws which could satisfy the flying and handing qualities over the whole flight envelope with added consideration of centre of gravity (CG) variation. In order to achieve this goal, both the longitudinal stability augmentation system (SAS) and autopilot control laws are studied in this thesis. Usi...

  18. KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

    2000-11-01

    Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Kotova, OB; Shabalin, Igor L; Shushkov, DA; Kocheva, LS

    2015-01-01

    The fly ash, from the combustion of coal to produce energy and heat, is an industrial waste, in which large accumulations represent a serious environmental threat. To reduce the environmental burden and improve the economic benefits of energy production, the science and industry focus on the transformation of coal combustion byproducts into new functional materials. The fly ash was studied by modern analytical methods. As a result of the hydrothermal reaction, several types of zeolites were s...

  20. Evaluation of fly ash as a component of potting substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, N.W.; Aitken, R.L. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Agriculture

    1996-11-01

    A series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments were undertaken to assess the potential for incorporating fly ash in soilless potting substrates. Since fly ash is available at low cost and can be successfully substituted for a considerable portion of the expensive peat component in the peat:sand mix, its use at low application rates in potting substrates may be desirable from an economic viewpoint.

  1. Pure zeolite synthesis from silica extracted from coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Andres, J.M.; Janssen, M.; Nugteren, H. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Earth Science ' Jaume Almera'

    2002-07-01

    Pure zeolites can be synthesised from silica extracted from fly ash by alkaline leaching. If the process is optimised the solid residue arising from this extraction may also contain a relatively high content of zeolitic material mixed with residual fly ash components. Both the pure and the impure zeolitic material have a high potential for application in waste-water and flue gas-cleaning technologies. The silica extraction potential of 23 European coal fly ashes covering most of the possible fly ash types is investigated in this study. Optimisation of leaching processes, by varying temperature, time and alkali/fly ash rates, permitted extraction yields up to 140 g of SiO{sub 2} per kg using a single step process, but the extraction yields may reach up to 210 g kg{sup -1} by applying thermal pre-treatments prior to the extraction. The solid residue arising from the silica extraction experiments shows a high NaP1 zeolite content. A high Si/Al ratio of the glass matrix, the occurrence of easily soluble silica phases in the original fly ash and a high reactive surface area were found to be the major parameters influencing silica extraction. High purity 4A and X zeolitic material was obtained by combining the silica extracts from the Meirama fly ash and a waste solution from the Al-anodising industry. The results allowed conversion of the silica extraction yields to an equivalent 630 g of pure 4A-X zeolite per kg of fly ash with a cation exchange capacity of 4.7 meq g{sup -1}.

  2. Engineering Properties of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experimental research on certain engineering properties of a new (portland cement-free) concrete made with alkali-activated fly ash. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine its (bending and compression) mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, bond strength, and shrinkage. The results show that mortar and concrete made with portland cement-free activated fly ash develop a high mechanical strength in short periods of time, have a moderate modulus of el...

  3. Courtship dances in the flies of the genus Lispe (Diptera: Muscidae): from the fly's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav

    2006-05-01

    Two predatory fly species, Lispe consanguinea Loew, 1858 and L. tentaculata DeGeer, 1776, inhabit the supralittoral zone at the shore of a fresh-water reservoir. Both species look alike and possess similar "badges," reflective concave silvery scales on the face. Flies occupy different lek habitats. Males of the first species patrol the bare wet sand on the beach just above the surf. Males of the second species reside on the more textured heaps of algae and stones. Courtship and aggressive behaviour of males was video-recorded and analysed frame by frame. Visual stimuli provided by the conspecific partner were computed in the body-fixed space of a fly observer. Males of L. consanguinea perform long pedestrian dances of pendulating circular arcs (frequency 2 s(-1), median radius 2.5 cm, linear velocity 0.130 m/s). Right and left side runs are equally probable. Circular runs are interrupted by standby intervals of average duration 0.35 s. The female views the male as a target covering 2 by 2 ommatidia, moving abruptly with the angular velocity over 200 degrees/s in a horizontal direction down the path of about 50 degrees till the next standpoint. Dancing is evenly distributed around the female. On the contrary, the male fixates the image of the female within the narrow front sector (median +/-10 degrees); the target in his view has 6-7 times less angular velocity and angular span of oscillations, and its image in profile overlays 6-8 by 2 ommatidia. If the female walks, the male combines tracking with voluntary circular dances. Rival males circle about one another at a distance shorter than 15 mm, but not in close contact. Males of L. tentaculata are capable of similar circular courting dances, but do so rarely. Usually they try to mount any partner immediately. In the latter species, male combat consists of fierce wrestling. Flies of both species often walk sideward and observe the partner not in front but at the side.

  4. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    Rundquist , J.D , Taylor , R., Wilson , B.L. 4 Andrews,M.R., Barck , J., Hogge , Jr., A.L., Huxsoll , D.L., Hildebrandt, P.K., and Nims , R.M...Harmsen, 1973), it was assumed that lowering the tem- perature would improve the Infection ( Jenni , 1977). ThIs appeared to be the case in test 3 based on... Jenni , L. Comparison of antigenic types of Trypanosoma brucei strains transmitted by Glossina m. morsitans. Acta. Trop . 34: 35-41 , 1977

  5. Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus pa­patasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leish­maniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. kandelakii, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. keshishiani and P. alexandri are considered as probable vectors of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. A literature search was per­formed of the relevant multiple databases from 1966 to 2013 to include studies on sand flies, vector control, leish­maniasis, Phlebotomus. Sand fly control in Iran began in 1966 by Iranian researchers, and long-term evaluation of its effects was completed in the study areas of the country. Herein, a review of vector control strategies in Iran to com­bat leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, application of chemicals in rodent burrows, impregnation of bed nets and curtains with insecticides, the use of insect repellents, impregnation of dog collars and the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to various insecticides has been summarized thus far. The investigation of the behavioral patterns of the adults of different sand fly species, introduction of biological insecticide agents, the use of insecticidal plants and other novel strategies for the control of sand fly populations have received much attention in the areas of studies, hence should be recommended and improved since they provide optimistic results.

  6. FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF LOW-NOx COMBUSTION FLY ASH UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERIC M. SUUBERG; ROBERT H. HURT

    1998-10-19

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  7. Damping properties of fly ash/epoxy composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Gu; Gaohui Wu; Xiao Zhao

    2008-01-01

    An inexpensive fly ash (FA), which is from a waste product, was employed to prepare fly ash/epoxy composites. The purpose of this study is to characterize the contributions of matrix viscoelasticity, hollow structure characteristic (porosity), and filler/matrix interface friction to the high vibration damping capacity of such composites. The damping properties of the composites were investigated in the temperature range of-40 to 150℃C and in the frequency range of 10 to 800 Hz by using a tension-compression mode. The results indicate that the peak value of damping loss factor (tanδ) for the fly ash/epoxy composites can reach 0.70-0.90 in test specification, and the attenuation of damping loss factor is inconspicuous with increasing frequency. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the fly ash as well as its distribution in the matrix, which will help to analyze the effect of fly ash on the damping properties of the fly ash/epoxy composites.

  8. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  9. [Study on mercury re-emissions during fly ash utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Shu-Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The amount of fly ash produced during coal combustion is around 400 million tons per year in China. About 65%-68% of fly ash is used in building material production, road construction, architecture and agriculture. Some of these utilization processes include high temperature procedures, which may lead to mercury re-emissions. In this study, experiments were designed to simulate the key process in cement production and steam-cured brick production. A temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method was used to study the mercury transformation in the major utilization processes. Mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization in China was estimated based on the experimental results. It was found that mercury existed as HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2), HgS and HgO in the fly ash. During the cement production process, more than 98% of the mercury in fly ash was re-emitted. In the steam-curing brick manufacturing process, the average mercury re-emission percentage was about 28%, which was dominated by the percentage of HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2). It is estimated that the mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization have increased from 4.07 t in 2002 to 9.18 t in 2008, of which cement industry contributes about 96.6%.

  10. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  11. Global establishment risk of economically important fruit fly species (Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region.

  12. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-08-01

    Without sensory feedback, flies cannot fly. Exactly how various feedback controls work in insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure to stabilize their flight? How often and how fast must insects adjust their wings to remain stable? To gain insights into algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we develop a simulation tool to study free flight. To stabilize flight, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds on both the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat to stabilize their flight. We further propose a candidate for such a control involving the fly's haltere and first basalar motor neuron. Although we focus on fruit flies as a case study, the framework for our simulation and discrete control algorithms is applicable to studies of both natural and man-made fliers.

  13. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  15. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  16. Insulating brick from fly ash of thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S.N.; Majumdar, A.; Majumdar, S.K.

    1986-04-01

    Disposal of fly ash, a major byproduct of thermal power stations burning high ash pulverized fuel, has posed a serious problem of storage space required on one hand and the cost involved on the other. Fly ash possesses pozzolanic property. R and D work on utilization of fly ash in the form of sand-lime brick or cellular concrete has been already done. Other avenues of utilization are cement and concrete industry. All these are based on pozzolanic property of fly ash which decreases with the increase of unburnt carbon content in the same. The overall present consumption of fly ash is barely 5-7 per cent of the total production. A process has been developed to utilize fly ash with comparatively higher amount of carbonaceous matter in particular, to make insulating/semi-insulating bricks of standard size through use of other normal ingredients like clay (a plastic material), sulphite lye, molasses, etc. as binder along with some propertion of saw dust. The bricks made so far have been tested for their normal properties and these conform to a product of semi-insulating type. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  18. No-fly Zones and China' s Diplomatic Dilemma%No-fly Zones and China' s Diplomatic Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangcheng

    2012-01-01

    The no-fly zone first appeared in August 1992. After being employed in Iraq, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Libya, it has become a model of United Nations-mandated humanitarian intervention. However, we can see that this kind of intervention under the "humanitarian" banner was not for humanitarian purposes but rather used to force regime change under the authority of the United Nations. Indeed, these no-fly zones,

  19. Insights into the sand fly saliva: Blood-feeding and immune interactions between sand flies, hosts, and Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestinova, Tereza; Rohousova, Iva; Sima, Michal; de Oliveira, Camila I; Volf, Petr

    2017-07-01

    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases present worldwide that are transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand fly during a blood feeding. Phlebotomine sand flies inoculate into the mammalian host Leishmania parasites embedded in promastigote secretory gel (PSG) with saliva, which is composed of a diverse group of molecules with pharmacological and immunomodulatory properties. In this review, we focus on 3 main aspects of sand fly salivary molecules: (1) structure and composition of salivary glands, including the properties of salivary molecules related to hemostasis and blood feeding, (2) immunomodulatory properties of salivary molecules and the diverse impacts of these molecules on leishmaniasis, ranging from disease exacerbation to vaccine development, and (3) use of salivary molecules for field applications, including monitoring host exposure to sand flies and the risk of Leishmania transmission. Studies showed interesting differences between salivary proteins of Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species, however, no data were ever published on salivary proteins of Sergentomyia species. In the last 15 years, numerous studies have characterized sand fly salivary proteins and, in parallel, have addressed the impact of such molecules on the biology of the host-sand fly-parasite interaction. The results obtained shall pave the way for the development of field-application tools that could contribute to the management of leishmaniasis in endemic areas.

  20. Insights into the sand fly saliva: Blood-feeding and immune interactions between sand flies, hosts, and Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lestinova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases present worldwide that are transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand fly during a blood feeding. Phlebotomine sand flies inoculate into the mammalian host Leishmania parasites embedded in promastigote secretory gel (PSG with saliva, which is composed of a diverse group of molecules with pharmacological and immunomodulatory properties.In this review, we focus on 3 main aspects of sand fly salivary molecules: (1 structure and composition of salivary glands, including the properties of salivary molecules related to hemostasis and blood feeding, (2 immunomodulatory properties of salivary molecules and the diverse impacts of these molecules on leishmaniasis, ranging from disease exacerbation to vaccine development, and (3 use of salivary molecules for field applications, including monitoring host exposure to sand flies and the risk of Leishmania transmission. Studies showed interesting differences between salivary proteins of Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species, however, no data were ever published on salivary proteins of Sergentomyia species.In the last 15 years, numerous studies have characterized sand fly salivary proteins and, in parallel, have addressed the impact of such molecules on the biology of the host-sand fly-parasite interaction. The results obtained shall pave the way for the development of field-application tools that could contribute to the management of leishmaniasis in endemic areas.

  1. Free-Flying Magnetometer Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, B.; Javadi, H.; Spencer, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) is an autonomous "sensorcraft" developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy sounding rocket mission. This mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University and JPL. The science goal of the mission was the study of current filamentation phenomena in the northern auroral region through multipoint measurements of magnetic field. The technical objective of the mission was the proof of concept of the JPL FFM design and the demonstration of an in-situ multipoint measurement technique employing many free-flying spacecraft. Four FFMs were successfully deployed from a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. These hockey-puck-sized (80 mm diameter, 38 mm. height, 250 gram mass) free flyers each carry a miniature 3-axis flux-gate magnetometer that output +/- 2 V signals corresponding to a +/- 60,000 nT measurement range for each axis. The FFM uses a synchronized four-channel Sigma(Delta) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) having a dynamic range of +/- 2.5V and converting at a rate of 279 samples/second/channel. Three channels are used to digitize the magnetometer signals to 17-bit (1.144 nT/bit) resolution. The fourth ADC channel is multiplexed for system monitoring of four temperature sensors and two battery voltages. The FFM also contains two sun sensors, a laser diode which emits a fan-shaped beam, a miniature S-band transmitter for direct communication to the ground station antennas, an ultra-stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, an integrated data subsystem implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a 4 Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for data storage and Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries for power. Communicating commands to the FFM prior to deployment is achieved with an infrared (IR) link. The FFM IR receiver responds to 9-bit pulse coded signals that are generated by an IR Light Emitting

  2. Selected elements in fly agaric Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Lipka, K; Mazur, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S

    2007-09-01

    Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies, as well as separately in caps and stalks, of fly agaric collected from three geographically distant sites in northern part of Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. For elements such as Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Ga, Mo, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, Tl, and V concentrations were similar in the caps and stalks, respectively, and for K, Zn, Ag, Ca, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg, Rb and Se were greater in the caps, while for Co, Cs and Na in the stalks. For Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Tl and V concentration in the caps showed spatial variations (P<0.05), while for Cu, K, Mg, Na, Se and Zn was independent of the site. The elements such as K with median or mean in the caps between 37,000 and 43,000 microg/g.dm and Mg with 920 and 1,100 microg/g dm were most abundant. Next, within median values range from approximately 100 to 500 microg/g dm were such as Ca, Fe and Al, and in descending order they followed by Rb (100-400 microg/g dm); V, Na, Zn (50-200 microg/g dm); Cu, Mn (10-50 microg/g dm); Cd (10-20 microg/g dm); Se (5 microg/g dm); Ba (<1-3); Cr, Ag, Pb, Sr (<1-2 microg/g dm); Cs, Co, Hg (<1-1 microg/g dm); Ga (<0.5), Sb, Mo and Tl (<0.1 microg/g dm).

  3. Simultaneous tracking of fly movement and gene expression using GFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP is used extensively as a reporter for transgene expression in Drosophila and other organisms. However, GFP has not generally been used as a reporter for circadian patterns of gene expression, and it has not previously been possible to correlate patterns of reporter expression with 3D movement and behavior of transgenic animals. Results We present a video tracking system that allows tissue-specific GFP expression to be quantified and correlated with 3D animal movement in real time. eyeless/Pax6 reporter expression had a 12 hr period that correlated with fly activity levels. hsp70 and hsp22 gene reporters were induced during fly aging in circadian patterns (24 hr and 18 hr periods, respectively, and spiked in the hours preceding and overlapping the death of the animal. The phase of hsp gene reporter expression relative to fly activity levels was different for each fly, and remained the same throughout the life span. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate that GFP can readily be used to assay longitudinally fly movement and tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. The hsp22-GFP and hsp70-GFP expression patterns were found to reflect accurately the endogenous gene expression patterns, including induction during aging and circadian periodicity. The combination of these new tracking methods with the hsp-GFP reporters revealed additional information, including a spike in hsp22 and hsp70 reporter expression preceding death, and an intriguing fly-to-fly variability in the phase of hsp70 and hsp22 reporter expression patterns. These methods allow specific temporal patterns of gene expression to be correlated with temporal patterns of animal activity, behavior and mortality.

  4. Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A; Leal, Walter S

    2010-05-18

    Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the "empty neuron" system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

  5. Size fraction characterization of highly-calcareous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 357-359 Mesogeion Avenue, GR-152 31, Halandri, Athens (Greece); Itskos, Socrates [Department of Chemical Technology and the Environment, Steam Electric Station of Amynteon-Filotas, Public Power Corporation of Greece, GR-532 00, Amynteon (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of lignite fly ash (FA) varies as a function of the prevalent conditions in both the processes of power production and lignite mining. The differentiation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the highly-calcareous lignite fly ash, as a function of its particle size distribution, is verified in this paper. According to the results of the conducted research, a fine-grained fraction of considerable amount presents properties that obstruct the sustainable exploitation of calcareous lignite fly ash in cement industry applications. On the other hand, the same grain fraction (because of its hydraulic properties) can be utilized in other sort of applications, based on different criteria, i.e. in road constructions. The coarse-grained fraction (which reflects a low proportion to the total fly ash output) presents the same undesired characteristics as well. Rather, the intermediate grain fraction (75-150 {mu}m) presents the highly desirable properties when fly ash is utilized as a pozzolanic additive. In addition, the mechanism of the formation of the intermediate grain fraction strongly prevents the factors that cause the variation of fly ash-quality. It is therefore the optimum part of the whole amount of lignite FA, to be utilized as additive in cement manufacturing. The outcomes of this paper will hopefully contribute towards the crucial goal of the expansion of the utilization of calcareous lignite fly ash by proposing a more effective way of using this material, basically by taking advantage of its fundamental chemical and mineralogical properties. (author)

  6. Do climatic and physical factors affect populations of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala and house fly Musca domestica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Irvine, Kim N; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Prangkio, Chira; Somboon, Pradya; Sukontason, Kom

    2011-11-01

    The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and house fly, Musca domestica L., are medically and forensically important flies. The population dynamic of these flies is essential for both control and forensical aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate the climatic and physical factors affecting the population trend of both species in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, using the Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on systematic random sampling, 18 study sites were selected in three districts (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong). Six land use types were involved in the study sites, i.e., disturbed mixed deciduous, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city, and paddy field. Adult flies were sampled every 2 weeks using an in-house prototype reconstructable funnel trap. Two types of bait were used--one with fresh beef viscera for luring M. domestica and the other with 1-day tainted beef viscera for luring C. megacephala. Collections were conducted from May 2009 to May 2010, and analysis of climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) was carried out. Correlation bivariate analysis was performed initially to determine the relationship between climatic factors and the number of flies. Consequently, an ordinary co-kriging approach, in ArcGIS 9.2, was performed to predict the spatial distribution of flies with land use and climatic factors as co-variables. A total of 63,158 flies were captured, with C. megacephala being the most common species collected (68.37%), while only 1.3% were M. domestica, thus proving that C. megacephala was the most abundant species in several land use types. A significantly higher number of females than males was found in both species. Fly populations can be collected throughout most of the year with a peak in late summer, which shows a positive relation to temperature but negative correlation with relative humidity. C. megacephala was predicted to be abundant in every

  7. Reuse of alkali from bio fly ash; Alkaligenanvendelse fra bioflyveaske

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Jensen, Joergen Peter; Simonsen, Peter; Sander, B.

    2006-03-15

    Experiments to leach potassium salts from fly ash from straw combustion were performed. The fly ash was produced in the bio mass boiler at the Avedoere power plant in south western Copenhagen, Denmark. The fly ash contained approximately 90 mass percent water soluble material. When the fly ash was dissolved at low pH, a slightly higher solubility was found. 100 gram fly ash consisted typically of 9 gram insoluble material, 9 gram calcium phosphate, 29 gram potassium sulfate and 53 gram of potassium chloride. In addition, 100 gram of fly ash contained approximately 1 mg of cadmium, corresponding to a concentration of cadmium of 10 ppm in the fly ash. Fly ash from the bio mass boiler at the Avedoere power plant apparently has a significantly larger content of potassium salts than fly ash from other boilers. The Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model was used for calculating relevant phase diagrams and calculations of the necessary amount of water required for dissolving all the KCl and all KCl + K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of the fly ash. This theoretical minimum amount of water was calculated at a range of temperatures between 10 and 100 deg. C. The amount of water required at 100 deg. C was less than half of that required at 10 deg. C. Experiments were performed in order to find a feasible method for separating the potassium salts of the fly ash from the ash residue and especially from the soluble cadmium salts found in the fly ash. Experiments with counter current leaching of fly ash in a fluid bed gave unsatisfactory results. Apparently there was a lack of contact between the wash water and the ash. In addition, sedimentation was very slow resulting in an incomplete separation of wash water and ash residue. Experiments with ion exchange by adding CaCl{sub 2} to the wash water and successive precipitation of gypsum or anhydrite gave unsatisfactory results. Process simulation had shown that by this method the necessary amount of washing water could be decreased. This is due to

  8. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  9. Characteristics of the ultrafine component of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.R. Jones; A. McCarthy; A.P.P.G. Booth [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Concrete Technology Unit, Division of Civil Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Post-production processing of fly ash (FA) is an important issue for its use in concrete. Given (i) the need for environmental protection, (ii) the measures being applied on coal-fired power stations to reduce acidic gas emissions and (iii) the effect these have had on fly ash quality, there is a need to consider efficient post-production processing to enhance fly ash characteristics. This is particularly important for fly ash used as a cement in concrete production, since the additional residual carbon content and decreased fineness significantly affect its quality. This paper details the material characteristics of an ultrafine, low-lime fly ash (UF-FA), produced, in this case, by processing a coarse FA (referred to as parent FA) from a bituminous coal-fired power station via air-cyclonic separation. The UF-FA is shown to have much improved material characteristics compared to the parent FA in terms of morphology, mineralogy and chemical composition. Further results are presented on the effect of UF-FA on the properties of cementitious systems. Improved consistence and compressive strengths of combined Portland cement (PC) and UF-FA mortars were observed, whilst enhanced PC hydration and a high degree of FA reactivity were concluded from heat of hydration measurements and calcium hydroxide contents of pastes. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  11. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  12. The utilisation of fly ash in CO2 mineral carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschik Jolanta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fixation of CO2 in the form of inorganic carbonates, also known as mineral carbonation, is an interesting option for the removal of carbon dioxide from various gas streams. The captured CO2 is reacted with metal-oxide bearing materials, usually naturally occurring minerals. The alkaline industrial waste, such as fly ash can also be considered as a source of calcium or magnesium. In the present study the solubility of fly ash from conventional pulverised hard coal fired boilers, with and without desulphurisation products, and fly ash from lignite fluidised bed combustion, generated by Polish power stations was analysed. The principal objective was to assess the potential of fly ash used as a reactant in the process of mineral carbonation. Experiments were done in a 1 dm3 reactor equipped with a heating jacket and a stirrer. The rate of dissolution in water and in acid solutions was measured at various temperatures (20 - 80ºC, waste-to-solvent ratios (1:100 - 1:4 and stirrer speeds (300 - 1100 min-1. Results clearly show that fluidised lignite fly ash has the highest potential for carbonation due to its high content of free CaO and fast kinetics of dissolution, and can be employed in mineral carbonation of CO2.

  13. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated.

  14. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  15. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  16. Techniques for measuring ammonia in fly ash, mortar, and concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, R.F. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Reseach; Majors, R.K. [Boral Material Technologies, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States). Engineered Materials

    2003-12-01

    The presence of ammonia in fly ash that is to be used in mortar and concrete is of increasing concern in the U.S., mainly due to the installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) DeNOx systems. When the SCR catalyst is new, contamination of the fly ash with ammonia is generally not a concern. However, as the catalyst in the SCR ages and becomes less efficient, the ammonia slip increases and results in a greater amount of ammonium salt being precipitated on the fly ash. The increase in ammonia concentration is compounded by variability that can occur on a day-to-day basis. When marketing ammonia-laden fly ash for use in mortar and concrete it is imperative that the concentration of ammonia is known. However, there currently is no widely accepted or ''standard'' method for ammonia measurement in fly ash. This paper describes two methods that have been developed and used by the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and Boral Material Technologies, Inc. One of the methods uses gas detection tubes and can provide an accurate determination within five to ten minutes. Thus it is suitable as a rapid field technique. The other method employs a gas-sensing electrode and requires a longer period of time to complete the measurement. However, this second method can also be used to determine the quantity of ammonia in fresh mortar and concrete. (orig.)

  17. Sorbents for CO2 capture from high carbon fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Yinzhi; Tang, Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Fly ashes with high-unburned-carbon content, referred to as fly ash carbons, are an increasing problem for the utility industry, since they cannot be marketed as a cement extender and, therefore, have to be disposed. Previous work has explored the potential development of amine-enriched fly ash carbons for CO2 capture. However, their performance was lower than that of commercially available sorbents, probably because the samples investigated were not activated prior to impregnation and, therefore, had a very low surface area. Accordingly, the work described here focuses on the development of activated fly ash derived sorbents for CO2 capture. The samples were steam activated at 850 degrees C, resulting in a significant increase of the surface area (1075 m2/g). The activated samples were impregnated with different amine compounds, and the resultant samples were tested for CO2 capture at different temperatures. The CO2 adsorption of the parent and activated samples is typical of a physical adsorption process. The impregnation process results in a decrease of the surface areas, indicating a blocking of the porosity. The highest adsorption capacity at 30 and 70 degrees C for the amine impregnated activated carbons was probably due to a combination of physical adsorption inherent from the parent sample and chemical adsorption of the loaded amine groups. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the activated amine impregnated samples are higher than those previously published for fly ash carbons without activation (68.6 vs. 45 mg CO2/g sorbent).

  18. Biological meaning of the methyl eugenol to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, S.; Subahar, S

    1998-12-16

    The objective of this research is to test a hypothesis whether methyl eugenol has a benefit in sexual selection of fruit flies and to find at what age the male flies respond to methyl eugenol. This test was conducted using carambola fruit fly (Bractocera carambolae) at Inter University Center for Life Science of ITB. The results of the tests are summarized as follows ; 1. Males started to respond to methyl eugenol at the age of 11 days old and the maximum number of males were recorded on 14 and 15 days old. 2. Most of the carambola fruit fly start to respond to methyl eugenol before they become sexually mature. 3. A very small percentage of newly emerged males (less than 1%) survive to mate with females during treatment with methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol has benefit in sexual selection of carabola fruit fly, i.e., males responded to methyl eugenol before they engage in sexual activities, while females responded to methyl eugenol only when males started their mating activities. (author)

  19. Producing a synthetic zeolite from secondary coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Yan, Chunjie; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Hongquan; Luo, Wenjun

    2016-11-01

    Secondary coal fly ash is known as a by-product produced by the extracting alumina industry from high-alumina fly ash, which is always considered to be solid waste. Zeolitization of secondary coal fly ash offers an opportunity to create value-added products from this industrial solid waste. The influence of synthesis parameters on zeolite NaA such as alkalinity, the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3, crystallization time and temperature was investigated in this paper. It was found that the types of synthetic zeolites produced were to be highly dependent on the conditions of the crystallization process. Calcium ion exchange capacity and whiteness measurements revealed that the synthesized product meets the standard for being used as detergent, indicating a promising use as a builder in detergent, ion-exchangers or selective adsorbents. Yield of up to a maximum of 1.54 g/g of ash was produced for zeolite NaA from the secondary coal fly ash residue. This result presents a potential use of the secondary coal fly ash to obtain a high value-added product by a cheap and alternative zeolitization procedure.

  20. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  1. Biogeographic Patterns of Finnish Crane Flies (Diptera, Tipuloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Salmela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species richness of terrestrial and freshwater biota generally decreases with increasing latitude. Some taxa, however, show an anomalous species richness pattern in a regional or global scale. The aim of this study was to examine (i regional variation in species richness, (ii faunistic composition, (iii occupancy, and (iv proportions of different distribution types of Finnish crane flies. Analyses were based on incidence data pooled into 20 biogeographical provinces. Finnish crane fly fauna consists of 335 species; the provincial richness varies from 91 to 237. The species richness of all species and saproxylic/fungivorous species decreased with increasing latitude; mire-dwelling crane flies displayed a reversed pattern (Spearman's correlations. Thirty-one species occupied a single province and 11 species were present in all provinces. Provincial assemblages showed a strong latitudinal gradient (NMS ordination and faunistic distance increased with increasing geographical distance (Mantel test. Nearly half (48% of the Finnish crane flies are Trans-Palaearctic, roughly one-third (34% are West Palaearctic, and only 16 and 2% are Holarctic and Fennoscandian, respectively. Endemic Fennoscandian species are discussed in detail; most likely there are no true endemic crane flies in this region.

  2. Evaluation and Treatment of Coal Fly Ash for Adsorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    Full Text Available Many researchers had investigated fly ash as an adsorbent for the uptake of organic compounds from petrochemical waste effluents. The availability, inexpensive and its adsorption characteristic had made it an alternative media for the removal of organic compounds from aqueous solution. The physical property of South African Coal Fly Ash (SACFA was investigated to determine its adsorption capability and how it can be improved. Chemical treatment using 1M HCl solution in the ratio of (1 g fly ash to (2 ml of acid was used and compared with untreated heat-treated samples. The chemically treated fly ash has a higher specific surface area of 5.4116 m2/g than the heat-treated fly ash with 2.9969 m2/g. More attention had to be given to the utilization of SACFA for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds through the application of Liquid phase adsorption process that was considered as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly technology.

  3. Synthesis of Zeolites by Alkaline Activation of Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In terms of mineral transformation, and chemical composition of acid-soluble component as a function of reaction time, the effect of alkaline solution on zeolite-like fly ash was studied by employing fly ash and NaOH solution as starting materials. When fly ash and 1€? 0mol/L NaOH solution were processed at 100℃ for 24h with 1:10 W/S rat io in a relatively closed system, powder XRD patterns of resulting pro ducts indicated the formation of various zeolites. Zeolite P crystalli zed early at low alkaline concentration, which was replaced then by ze olites X and A. At high concentration, hydroxy sodalite was the only n ew phase. Quartz, in fly ash and NaOH solution system, gradually disso lved, and mullite, however, remained stable. It was concluded that, wi th Al/Si and Na/Si finally reaching equilibrium in molar ratio, compos ition of starting mixtures affects the crystallization of zeolite from fly ash.

  4. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle. The results indicated that flies can acquire Salmonella from the hide, as assessed by recovery from homogenates of surfacesterilized flies, and that Salmonella persists for at least 5 days in the fly. Fly fecal excreta serves as a bacterial contaminant on the hide, and the overall mean probable estimate of the quantity shed was ≈10(5) most probable number per fly cage area. In 5 days, no transmission of the bacteria to bovine peripheral lymph nodes was evident, prompting an assessment of the effects of prolonged horn fly feeding on transmission. Three groups of animals were infested with flies that had consumed a blood meal containing Salmonella Senftenberg. After 5 days, the study was either terminated or the flies were removed and the cages replenished with unfed flies either once or twice over the course of an 11- or 19-day fly exposure period, respectively. A microlancet-inoculated positive-control animal was included in each group for comparison. The impact of prolonged horn fly feeding was evident, as 8% of lymph nodes cultured were positive from the 5-day exposure, whereas 50 and 42% were positive from 11- and 19-day exposures, respectively. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from fly-infested animals than from the microlancet-inoculated control, likely a result of repeated inoculations over time by flies versus a single introduction. The data described provide new insights into the transmission dynamics of Salmonella in cattle

  5. Flying Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pioneering various Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) technologies and procedures which may enable routine access to the National Airspace System (NAS), with an aim for Next Gen NAS. These tools will aid in the development of technologies and integrated capabilities that will enable high value missions for science, security, and defense, and open the door to low-cost, extreme-duration, stratospheric flight. A century of aviation evolution has resulted in accepted standards and best practices in the design of human-machine interfaces, the displays and controls of which serve to optimize safe and efficient flight operations and situational awareness. The current proliferation of non-standard, aircraft-specific flight crew interfaces in UAS, coupled with the inherent limitations of operating UAS without in-situ sensory input and feedback (aural, visual, and vestibular cues), has increased the risk of mishaps associated with the design of the "cockpit." The examples of current non- or sub- standard design features range from "annoying" and "inefficient", to those that are difficult to manipulate or interpret in a timely manner, as well as to those that are "burdensome" and "unsafe." A concerted effort is required to establish best practices and standards for the human-machine interfaces, for the pilot as well as the air traffic controller. In addition, roles, responsibilities, knowledge, and skill sets are subject to redefining the terms, "pilot" and "air traffic controller", with respect to operating UAS, especially in the Next-Gen NAS. The knowledge, skill sets, training, and qualification standards for UAS operations must be established, and reflect the aircraft-specific human-machine interfaces and control methods. NASA s recent experiences flying its MQ-9 Ikhana in the NAS for extended duration, has enabled both NASA and the FAA to realize the full potential for UAS, as well as understand the implications of

  6. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein.

  7. SRE elements are binding sites for the fusion protein EWS-FLI-1.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnaghi-Jaulin, L; Masutani, H; Robin, P.; Lipinski, M; Harel-Bellan, A

    1996-01-01

    EWS-FLI-1 is a chimeric protein produced in most Ewing's sarcomas. It results from the fusion of the N-terminal-encoding region of the EWS gene to the C-terminal DNA-binding domain (the ETS domain) encoded by the FLI-1 ets family gene. Both EWS-FLI-1 and FLI-1 proteins function as transcription factors that bind specifically to ets sequences (the ets boxes) present in promoter elements. EWS- FLI-1 is a powerful transforming protein, whereas FLI-1 is not. In a search for potential DNA binding ...

  8. Elastic properties of fly ash-stabilized mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Dimter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilized mixes are used in the construction of bearing layers in asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Two nondestructive methods: resonant frequency method and ultrasonic pulse velocity method, were used for estimation of elastic properties of fly ash–stabilized mixes. Stabilized mixes were designed containing sand from the river Drava and binder composed of different share of cement and fly ash. The aim of the research was to analyze the relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity determined by different nondestructive methods. Data showed that average value of elasticity modulus obtained by the ultrasound velocity method is lower than the values of elasticity modulus obtained by resonant frequency method. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of elastic properties of fly ash stabilized mixes, see Dimter et al. [1].

  9. Radiocesium Adsorption By Zeolitic Materials Synthesized From Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remenárová Lucia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown coal fly ash derived from the combustion of brown-coal in power plant ENO Nováky (Slovak Republic was used as raw material for synthesis of zeolitic materials ZM1 and ZM3 by hydrothermal alternation with 1M NaOH and 3M NaOH, respectively. Fly ash and synthesized products were characterized using XRF and SEM-EDX analysis. Subsequently, zeolitic materials were tested as sorbents to remove Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions using radiotracer technique. Sorption of cesium by both types of zeolitic materials obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The maximum sorption capacities Qmax at pH 6.0 calculated from Langmuir isotherm were 1203 ± 65 μmol Cs+/ g for ZM1 and 1341 ± 66 μmol Cs+/ g for ZM3. The results showed that alkali treated fly ash can be used as effective sorbent for radiocesium removal from contaminated solutions

  10. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  11. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  12. Flying qualities - A costly lapse in flight-control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Generic problems in advanced aircraft with advanced control systems which suffer from control sensitivity, sluggish response, and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies are examined, with a view to improving techniques for eliminating the problems in the design phase. Results of two NASA and NASA/AIAA workshops reached a consensus that flying qualities criteria do not match control system development, control system designers are not relying on past experience in their field, ground-based simulation is relied on too heavily, and communications between flying qualities and control systems engineers need improvement. A summation is offered in that hardware and software have outstripped the pilot's capacity to use the capabilities which new aircraft offer. The flying qualities data base is stressed to be dynamic, and continually redefining the man/machine relationships.

  13. Function of grinding fly ash in production of aluminum foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; YAO Guang-chun; LI Bing

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash was added to melt to increase the melt viscosity. The main components are quartz and mullite in the fly ash,therefore it's a kind of hardness ceramic particles. After grinding for 10 h, the spherical particles increase and new surface is produced which will improve their performance. The cell wall was observed by SEM, many fly ash particles are in the wall. These particles tend to increase the molten aluminum surface viscosity, postpone the exhaust course, sustain the liquid within the film and delay the onset of rupture. Finally, the aluminum foam with uniform cell structure can be obtained. The density is about 0.4 g/cm3,porosity is in the range of 85%-90% and the aperture is 4-7 mm.

  14. Practical Results of a Five-level Flying Capacitor Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sivkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the realization of a five-level Flying Capacitor Inverter. After a brief description of general Power Electronic Converters and an introduction to the advantages of Multilevel Inverters over conventional two-level Inverters the main focus is on the five-level Flying Capacitor Inverter. The Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter (FCMI is a Multilevel Inverter (MI where the capacitor voltage can be balanced using only a control strategy for any number of levels. After a general description of five-level FCMI topology, the simulation and experimental results are presented. The capacitor voltage is stabilized here with various output voltage amplitude values. The simulation and experimental results of five-level FCMI show that the voltage is stabilized on capacitors using the control strategy. A single-phase five-level FCMI model is currently being developed and constructed in the laboratory. Some of the experimental results are available.

  15. Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek; Pach, Dorota; Butryn, Beata; Hydzik, Piotr; Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of Toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints.

  16. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; KUANG Jingan; NI Guohua; LIU Wei; JIANG Yiman

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China.At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h,the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300℃.Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent,I-TEQ),well below 0.5 ng TEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent,TEQ),while those in the melted product(slag)were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ.Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals.These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

  17. Illinois basin coal fly ashes. 1. Chemical characterization and solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.; Dickerson, D.R.; Schuller, R.M.; Martin, S.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve precipitator-collected fly ash samples (nine derived from high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals and three from Western U.S. coals) were found to contain a variety of paraffins, aryl esters, phenols, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons including phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene but all at very low concentrations. Less than 1% of the organic carbon in the samples was extractable into benzene. Solubility studies with a short-term (24-h) extraction procedure and a long-term (20-week) procedure indicate that the inorganic chemical composition of some types of fly ash effluent is time dependent and may be most toxic to aquatic ecosystems when initially mixed with water and pumped to disposal ponds. Some acidic, high-Cd fly ashes would be classified as hazardous wastes if coal ash was included in this waste category by future RCRA revisions. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  18. Real-time Desktop Flying Qualities Evaluation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamali C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of model based design for the development of a real-time flying quality evaluation simulator named NALSim, built around Windows platform. NALSim is a novel rapid prototyping system based on MatlabR, SimulinkR and the Real-Time-Windows TargetR, applicable for fighter, transport and unmanned air vehicles/micro air vehicles simulations. The simulator uses state of the art modeling and simulation technologies to validate various design and flying quality concepts. NALSim is developed such that it is scalable and low cost. The paper presents the simulator architecture and its application for flying qualities. A novel non linear Least Squares optimization based methodology is proposed for efficient handling quality studies.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.4961

  19. Capillarity theory for the fly-casting mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizac, Emmanuel; Levy, Yaakov; Wolynes, Peter G

    2010-02-16

    Biomolecular folding and function are often coupled. During molecular recognition events, one of the binding partners may transiently or partially unfold, allowing more rapid access to a binding site. We describe a simple model for this fly-casting mechanism based on the capillarity approximation and polymer chain statistics. The model shows that fly casting is most effective when the protein unfolding barrier is small and the part of the chain which extends toward the target is relatively rigid. These features are often seen in known examples of fly casting in protein-DNA binding. Simulations of protein-DNA binding based on well-funneled native-topology models with electrostatic forces confirm the trends of the analytical theory.

  20. Stability and leaching of cobalt smelter fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vítková, Martina; Hyks, Jiri; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The leaching behaviour of fly ash from a Co smelter situated in the Zambian Copperbelt was studied as a function of pH (5–12) using the pH-static leaching test (CEN/TS 14997). Various experimental time intervals (48h and 168h) were evaluated. The leaching results were combined with the ORCHESTRA...... elements, the released concentrations were very similar after 48h and 168h, indicating near-equilibrium conditions in the system. Calcite, clinopyroxenes, quartz and amorphous phases predominated in the fly ash. Various metallic sulfides, alloys and the presence of Cu, Co and Zn in silicates and glass were...... and Cu. However, there is a high risk of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility in the acidic soils around the smelter facility. Therefore, potential local options for “stabilisation” of the fly ash were evaluated on the basis of the modelling results using the PHREEQC code....

  1. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  2. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete.

  3. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C., E-mail: taylorlanges@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Juenger, Maria C.G. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, 35 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ± 5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. - Highlights: • Fly ash or metakaolin SCMs can neutralize or reduce concrete emanation fractions. • The specific activity of constituents is a poor predictor of the concrete emanation fraction. • Exhalation from fly ash concretes represents a small fraction of the total indoor radon concentration.

  4. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  5. Bacteria of Phlebotominae Sand Flies Collected in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rafatbakhsh-Iran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms particularly bacteria presenting in insects such as Phlebotominae may play an important role in the epidemiology of human infectious disease. Nowadays, because of vector implications, the routine methods of controlling and spraying have no more beneficial effects on vectors and reservoirs. Little knows about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly bacteria. The main objective of this study was to determine the presence of bacteria of phlebotominae sand flies collected in Hamadan, west of Iran. This information is important in order to development of vector control strategies. The microbial flora of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti the main vector of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the old world, were investigated. We characterized 8 bacteria, including 5 Gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Edvardsiela sp. and Proteus mirabilis and Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Micrococcus luteus. Our study provides some data on the microbiota diversity of field-collected sand flies for the first time in Hamadan. Our results indicate that there is a range of variation of aerobic bacteria inhabiting sand fly, which possibly reflect the ecological condition of the habitat where the fly breeds. Microbiota is increasingly regarded as an important factor for modulating vector competence in insect vectors. So, mirobiota can be effects on the biology of phlebotominae and their roles in the sandfly-Leishmania interaction. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial role of sand flies. Because it is probable that in the future, factors such as environmental changes, migration and urbanization can ease the transmission of leishmaniasis in this area.

  6. Detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens from individual filth flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Pearson, Rachel E G; Miller, Amy K; Ziobro, George C

    2015-02-13

    There is unanimous consensus that insects are important vectors of foodborne pathogens. However, linking insects as vectors of the pathogen causing a particular foodborne illness outbreak has been challenging. This is because insects are not being aseptically collected as part of an environmental sampling program during foodborne outbreak investigations and because there is not a standardized method to detect foodborne bacteria from individual insects. To take a step towards solving this problem, we adapted a protocol from a commercially available PCR-based system that detects foodborne pathogens from food and environmental samples, to detect foodborne pathogens from individual flies.Using this standardized protocol, we surveyed 100 wild-caught flies for the presence of Cronobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes and demonstrated that it was possible to detect and further isolate these pathogens from the body surface and the alimentary canal of a single fly. Twenty-two percent of the alimentary canals and 8% of the body surfaces from collected wild flies were positive for at least one of the three foodborne pathogens. The prevalence of Cronobacter spp. on either body part of the flies was statistically higher (19%) than the prevalence of S. enterica (7%) and L.monocytogenes (4%). No false positives were observed when detecting S. enterica and L. monocytogenes using this PCR-based system because pure bacterial cultures were obtained from all PCR-positive results. However, pure Cronobacter colonies were not obtained from about 50% of PCR-positive samples, suggesting that the PCR-based detection system for this pathogen cross-reacts with other Enterobacteriaceae present among the highly complex microbiota carried by wild flies. The standardized protocol presented here will allow laboratories to detect bacterial foodborne pathogens from aseptically collected insects, thereby giving public health officials another line of evidence to find out how

  7. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  8. Flying Drosophila stabilize their vision-based velocity controller by sensing wind with their antennae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sawyer Buckminster; Straw, Andrew D; Peek, Martin Y; Murray, Richard M; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-04-01

    Flies and other insects use vision to regulate their groundspeed in flight, enabling them to fly in varying wind conditions. Compared with mechanosensory modalities, however, vision requires a long processing delay (~100 ms) that might introduce instability if operated at high gain. Flies also sense air motion with their antennae, but how this is used in flight control is unknown. We manipulated the antennal function of fruit flies by ablating their aristae, forcing them to rely on vision alone to regulate groundspeed. Arista-ablated flies in flight exhibited significantly greater groundspeed variability than intact flies. We then subjected them to a series of controlled impulsive wind gusts delivered by an air piston and experimentally manipulated antennae and visual feedback. The results show that an antenna-mediated response alters wing motion to cause flies to accelerate in the same direction as the gust. This response opposes flying into a headwind, but flies regularly fly upwind. To resolve this discrepancy, we obtained a dynamic model of the fly's velocity regulator by fitting parameters of candidate models to our experimental data. The model suggests that the groundspeed variability of arista-ablated flies is the result of unstable feedback oscillations caused by the delay and high gain of visual feedback. The antenna response drives active damping with a shorter delay (~20 ms) to stabilize this regulator, in exchange for increasing the effect of rapid wind disturbances. This provides insight into flies' multimodal sensory feedback architecture and constitutes a previously unknown role for the antennae.

  9. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Yan, Yuanqing; Albert, Nathaniel; Do, Kim-Anh; Kim-Anh, Do; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF) or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil) food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1) normal-weight flies (RF), 2) obese flies (HFD), 3) obese flies fed with RF, 4) flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5) flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6) obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001), compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  10. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1 normal-weight flies (RF, 2 obese flies (HFD, 3 obese flies fed with RF, 4 flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5 flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6 obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003 in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001, compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  11. Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nilssen

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

  12. Laser system for identification, tracking, and control of flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Emma R; Rutschman, Phillip; Pegram, Nathan; Patt, Joseph M; Adamczyk, John J; Johanson, 3ric

    2016-05-30

    Flying insects are common vectors for transmission of pathogens and inflict significant harm to humans and agricultural production in many parts of the world. We present proof of principle for an optical system capable of highly specific vector control. This system utilizes a combination of optical sources, detectors, and sophisticated software to search, detect, and identify flying insects in real-time, with the capability of eradication using a lethal laser pulse. We present data on two insect species to show species distinction; Diaphorina citri, a vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease, and Anopheles stephensi, a malaria vector.

  13. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Shan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HITL simulation approach for multiple spacecraft formation flying. Considering a leader-follower formation flying configuration, a Fuzzy Logic controller is developed first to maintain the desired formation shape under external perturbations and the initial position offsets. Cold-gas on/off thrusters are developed to be introduced to the simulation loop, and the HITL simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed simulation configuration and Fuzzy Logic control.

  14. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  15. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  16. New records of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce Alexander

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The plebotomine sand fly fauna of Ecuador was surveyed in two 3-month collecting trips made in 1988 and 1990. A total of 12 provinces were visited, including three (Bolivar, Loja and Morona Santiago from wich no previous records to phlebotomines existed. Forty-six species were collected, 13 of wich, together with 1 subspecies and 1 genus (Warileya represented new records for the country. This survey increases the known number of species in Ecuador to 60. The distribuition of Ecuadorian sand flies is discussed in the light of these new findings.

  17. New-type of flying control for spinning TVC vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin-jian; YUAN Tian-bao

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of problem for TVC vehicle spinning in the boost stage had been researched.The study of non-linear flying dynamics modeling and dynamic properties of TVC vehicles reveal dominant coupled factors that affect the attitude stability and attitude precision of the pitch channel and yaw channel.The paper emphasizes the inertial delay coupled effects between vehicle's pitch servo svstem and yaw servo system,which have always been neglected.An uncoupled plan and control algorithm are put forward from the standpoint of engineering implementation to provide theoretical guidance and reference for further research on this complicated flying control.

  18. GVE-Based Dynamics and Control for Formation Flying Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, Louis; How, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space missions. This paper presents extensions to the equations of relative motion expressed in Keplerian orbital elements, including new initialization techniques for general formation configurations. A new linear time-varying form of the equations of relative motion is developed from Gauss Variational Equations and used in a model predictive controller. The linearizing assumptions for these equations are shown to be consistent with typical formation flying scenarios. Several linear, convex initialization techniques are presented, as well as a general, decentralized method for coordinating a tetrahedral formation using differential orbital elements. Control methods are validated using a commercial numerical propagator.

  19. Determination of anisotropy and multimorphology in fly ash based geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Irfan; Azizli, Khairun; Sufian, Suriati; Man, Zakaria; Siyal, Ahmer Ali; Ullah, Hafeez

    2015-07-01

    In this study, Malaysian coal fly ash-based geopolymers were investigated for its morphology and chemical composition using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX). Geopolymer was synthesized using sodium hydroxide as activator. SEM studies revealed multiphasous structure of the material, composed of geopolymeric gel, partially reacted fly ashparticles and selectively leached particles. EDX analysis confirmed the chemical composition of different regions. Infra red spectroscopic studies supported the SEM-EDX analysis by confirming presence of unreacted quartzite and mullite in geopolymers. It is concluded that geopolymers possese a non uniform chemistry through out the structure.

  20. Determination of anisotropy and multimorphology in fly ash based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M. Irfan, E-mail: mirfanwazir@gmail.com; Azizli, Khairun, E-mail: khairun-azizli@petronas.com.my; Sufian, Suriati, E-mail: suriati@petronas.com.my; Man, Zakaria, E-mail: zakaman@petronas.com.my; Siyal, Ahmer Ali, E-mail: ahmersiyal@gmail.com; Ullah, Hafeez, E-mail: Hafeez-wazir@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, Malaysian coal fly ash-based geopolymers were investigated for its morphology and chemical composition using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX). Geopolymer was synthesized using sodium hydroxide as activator. SEM studies revealed multiphasous structure of the material, composed of geopolymeric gel, partially reacted fly ashparticles and selectively leached particles. EDX analysis confirmed the chemical composition of different regions. Infra red spectroscopic studies supported the SEM-EDX analysis by confirming presence of unreacted quartzite and mullite in geopolymers. It is concluded that geopolymers possese a non uniform chemistry through out the structure.