WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexural mode tuning

  1. Robust fiber optic flexure sensor exploiting mode coupling in few-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Bryan; Rudek, Florian; Taudt, Christopher; Baselt, Tobias; Hartmann, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Few-mode fiber (FMF) has become very popular for use in multiplexing telecommunications data over fiber optics. The simplicity of producing FMF and the relative robustness of the optical modes, coupled with the simplicity of reading out the information make this fiber a natural choice for communications. However, little work has been done to take advantage of this type of fiber for sensors. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using FMF properties as a mechanism for detecting flexure by exploiting mode coupling between modes when the cylindrical symmetry of the fiber is perturbed. The theoretical calculations shown here are used to understand the coupling between the lowest order linearly polarized mode (LP01) and the next higher mode (LP11x or LP11y) under the action of bending. Twisting is also evaluated as a means to detect flexure and was determined to be the most reliable and effective method when observing the LP21 mode. Experimental results of twisted fiber and observations of the LP21 mode are presented here. These types of fiber flexure sensors are practical in high voltage, high magnetic field, or high temperature medical or industrial environments where typical electronic flexure sensors would normally fail. Other types of flexure measurement systems that utilize fiber, such as Rayleigh back-scattering [1], are complicated and expensive and often provide a higher-than necessary sensitivity for the task at hand.

  2. Localized surface plate modes via flexural Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.; Chen, P. -Y.; Guenneau, S.; Salama, Khaled N.; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are naturally generated upon excitation of metals with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. However, the concept of spoof plasmons has made it possible to generate plasmoniclike effects in microwave electrodynamics, magnetics, and even acoustics. Similarly, in this paper, the concept of localized surface plate modes (SPMs) is introduced. It is demonstrated that SPMs can be generated on a two-dimensional (clamped or stress-free) cylindrical surface with subwavelength corrugations, which resides on a thin elastic plate, under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Numerical characterization of this corrugated rigid structure shows that it is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with dispersive but uniformly negative flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmoniclike elastic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing and elastic imaging and cloaking.

  3. Localized surface plate modes via flexural Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.

    2017-05-11

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are naturally generated upon excitation of metals with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. However, the concept of spoof plasmons has made it possible to generate plasmoniclike effects in microwave electrodynamics, magnetics, and even acoustics. Similarly, in this paper, the concept of localized surface plate modes (SPMs) is introduced. It is demonstrated that SPMs can be generated on a two-dimensional (clamped or stress-free) cylindrical surface with subwavelength corrugations, which resides on a thin elastic plate, under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Numerical characterization of this corrugated rigid structure shows that it is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with dispersive but uniformly negative flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmoniclike elastic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing and elastic imaging and cloaking.

  4. Modeling and analysis of circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    We propose a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer and perform a theoretical analysis of the transformer. An equivalent circuit is derived from the equations of piezoelectricity and the Hamilton's principle. With this equivalent circuit, the voltage gain ratio, input impedance, and the efficiency of the circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer can be determined. The basic behavior of the transformer is shown by numerical results.

  5. Frequency tuning, nonlinearities and mode coupling in circular mechanical graphene resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A M; Midtvedt, D; Croy, A; Isacsson, A

    2013-01-01

    We study circular nanomechanical graphene resonators by means of continuum elasticity theory, treating them as membranes. We derive dynamic equations for the flexural mode amplitudes. Due to the geometrical nonlinearity the mode dynamics can be modeled by coupled Duffing equations. By solving the Airy stress problem we obtain analytic expressions for the eigenfrequencies and nonlinear coefficients as functions of the radius, suspension height, initial tension, back-gate voltage and elastic constants, which we compare with finite element simulations. Using perturbation theory, we show that it is necessary to include the effects of the non-uniform stress distribution for finite deflections. This correctly reproduces the spectrum and frequency tuning of the resonator, including frequency crossings. (paper)

  6. Piezoelectric transduction of flexural modes in pre-stressed microbeam resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, G B; Rottenberg, X; Hoof, C Van; Puers, R; Tilmans, H A C; Janssen, N M A; Zeng, Z; Karabacak, D M; Vandecasteele, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the optimization of the design of piezoelectric transducer elements integrated on doubly-clamped microbeam resonators utilized as (bio)chemical sensors. We report and emphasize the often forgotten influence of membrane stresses on defining the dimensions and optimal position of the piezoelectric transducer elements. The study takes into account stress induced structural changes and provides models for the equivalent motional parameters of resonators with particular shapes of the transducers matching the flexural modes of vibration. The above is analyzed theoretically using numerical models and is confirmed by impedance measurements and optical measurements of fabricated doubly-clamped beam resonators. We propose various transducer designs and highlight the advantages of using higher order vibration modes by implementing specially designed mode matching transducer elements. It is concluded that the paper describes and highlights the importance of accounting for the membrane stresses to optimize the resonator performance and the low power in electronic feedback of resonating sensing systems. (paper)

  7. Piezoelectric transduction of flexural modes in pre-stressed microbeam resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, G. B.; Janssen, N. M. A.; Zeng, Z.; Rottenberg, X.; Karabacak, D. M.; Vandecasteele, M.; Van Hoof, C.; Puers, R.; Tilmans, H. A. C.

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports on the optimization of the design of piezoelectric transducer elements integrated on doubly-clamped microbeam resonators utilized as (bio)chemical sensors. We report and emphasize the often forgotten influence of membrane stresses on defining the dimensions and optimal position of the piezoelectric transducer elements. The study takes into account stress induced structural changes and provides models for the equivalent motional parameters of resonators with particular shapes of the transducers matching the flexural modes of vibration. The above is analyzed theoretically using numerical models and is confirmed by impedance measurements and optical measurements of fabricated doubly-clamped beam resonators. We propose various transducer designs and highlight the advantages of using higher order vibration modes by implementing specially designed mode matching transducer elements. It is concluded that the paper describes and highlights the importance of accounting for the membrane stresses to optimize the resonator performance and the low power in electronic feedback of resonating sensing systems.

  8. Experimental study on slow flexural waves around the defect modes in a phononic crystal beam using fiber Bragg gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih, E-mail: chuangkc@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Hua-Xin

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Slow waves around the defect modes in a phononic crystal beam are validated. • A fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system can measure the defect mode. • The defect mode is analyzed by a transfer matrix method with a supercell technique. - Abstract: This work experimentally studies influences of the point defect modes on the group velocity of flexural waves in a phononic crystal Timoshenko beam. Using the transfer matrix method with a supercell technique, the band structures and the group velocities around the defect modes are theoretically obtained. Particularly, to demonstrate the existence of the localized defect modes inside the band gaps, a high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating sensing system is set up and the displacement transmittance is measured. Slow propagation of flexural waves via defect coupling in the phononic crystal beam is then experimentally demonstrated with Hanning windowed tone burst excitations.

  9. Modeling and experimental study on near-field acoustic levitation by flexural mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pinkuan; Li, Jin; Ding, Han; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-12-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) has been used in noncontact handling and transportation of small objects to avoid contamination. We have performed a theoretical analysis based on nonuniform vibrating surface to quantify the levitation force produced by the air film and also conducted experimental tests to verify our model. Modal analysis was performed using ANSYS on the flexural plate radiator to obtain its natural frequency of desired mode, which is used to design the measurement system. Then, the levitation force was calculated as a function of levitation distance based on squeeze gas film theory using measured amplitude and phase distributions on the vibrator surface. Compared with previous fluid-structural analyses using a uniform piston motion, our model based on the nonuniform radiating surface of the vibrator is more realistic and fits better with experimentally measured levitation force.

  10. A MEMS Resonant Sensor to Measure Fluid Density and Viscosity under Flexural and Torsional Vibrating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods to calculate fluid density and viscosity using a micro-cantilever and based on the resonance principle were put forward. Their measuring mechanisms were analyzed and the theoretical equations to calculate the density and viscosity were deduced. The fluid-solid coupling simulations were completed for the micro-cantilevers with different shapes. The sensing chips with micro-cantilevers were designed based on the simulation results and fabricated using the micro electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Finally, the MEMS resonant sensor was packaged with the sensing chip to measure the densities and viscosities of eight different fluids under the flexural and torsional vibrating modes separately. The relative errors of the measured densities from 600 kg/m3 to 900 kg/m3 and viscosities from 200 μPa·s to 1000 μPa·s were calculated and analyzed with different microcantilevers under various vibrating modes. The experimental results showed that the effects of the shape and vibrating mode of micro-cantilever on the measurement accuracies of fluid density and viscosity were analyzed in detail.

  11. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habruseva, T. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Aston University, Aston Triangle, B4 7ET Birmingham (United Kingdom); Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-01-13

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively.

  12. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habruseva, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively

  13. Analysis of the flexural mode response of a novel trimaran by segmented model test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Akbari Vakilabadi

    Full Text Available A novel ship concept design is significantly an "adhoc" process. In the preliminary design stage of novel vessels, it is very important to be able to develop an initial estimate of the effects of stiffness and mass distribution on the longitudinal flexural natural frequencies due to different general arrangements in still water at zero speed to satisfy design specifications. For new emerging designs, this estimate has to be made based on a model test. The experiments should also be planned so that scales effects and other features that are not present in full scale case, are minimized. A model with a length of 1.5 meter has been selected. The model was cut into four segments longitudinally and connected by a backbone beam with three elastic hinges joining the four segments. Wet vibration tests were conducted on the model, showed significant influences on the flexural natural frequencies through variations in stiffness and different mass distributions. The whipping frequency was calculated with four degrees of freedom theoretical model to compare with the experimental results. The theoretical model shows a good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Research on the equivalent circuit model of a circular flexural-vibration-research on the equivalent circuit model of a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer with moderate thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wenjin; Wang, Qinglei; Su, Xujian

    2013-07-01

    The equivalent circuit model of a piezoelectric transformer is useful in designing and optimizing the related driving circuits. Based on previous work, an equivalent circuit model for a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer with moderate thickness is proposed and validated by finite element analysis. The input impedance, voltage gain, and efficiency of the transformer are determined through computation. The basic behaviors of the transformer are shown by numerical results.

  15. Influence of the tip mass and position on the AFM cantilever dynamics: Coupling between bending, torsion and flexural modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari-Nezhad, F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidi, A.R., E-mail: saidi@mail.uk.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaei-Rad, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of the geometrical asymmetric related to tip position as a concentrated mass, on the sensitivity of all three vibration modes, lateral excitation (LE), torsional resonance (TR) and vertical excitation (VE), of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilever have been analyzed. The effects of the tip mass and its position are studied to report the novel results to estimating the vibration behavior of AFM such as resonance frequency and amplitude of the microcantilever. In this way, to achieve more accurate results, the coupled motion in all three modes is considered. In particular, it is investigated that performing the coupled motion in analysis of AFM microcantilever is almost necessary. It is shown that the tip mass and its position have significant effects on vibrational responses. The results show that considering the tip mass decreases the resonance frequencies particularly on high-order modes. However, dislocating of tip position has an inverse effect that causes an increase in the resonance frequencies. In addition, it has been shown that the amplitude of the AFM microcantilever is affected by the influences of tip and its position. These effects are caused by the interaction between flexural and torsional motion due to the moment of inertia of the tip mass.

  16. Influence of the tip mass and position on the AFM cantilever dynamics: Coupling between bending, torsion and flexural modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari-Nezhad, F.; Saidi, A.R.; Ziaei-Rad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the geometrical asymmetric related to tip position as a concentrated mass, on the sensitivity of all three vibration modes, lateral excitation (LE), torsional resonance (TR) and vertical excitation (VE), of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilever have been analyzed. The effects of the tip mass and its position are studied to report the novel results to estimating the vibration behavior of AFM such as resonance frequency and amplitude of the microcantilever. In this way, to achieve more accurate results, the coupled motion in all three modes is considered. In particular, it is investigated that performing the coupled motion in analysis of AFM microcantilever is almost necessary. It is shown that the tip mass and its position have significant effects on vibrational responses. The results show that considering the tip mass decreases the resonance frequencies particularly on high-order modes. However, dislocating of tip position has an inverse effect that causes an increase in the resonance frequencies. In addition, it has been shown that the amplitude of the AFM microcantilever is affected by the influences of tip and its position. These effects are caused by the interaction between flexural and torsional motion due to the moment of inertia of the tip mass.

  17. Power enhancing by reversing mode sequence in tuned mass-spring unit attached vibration energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a vibration energy harvester consisting of an auxiliary frequency-tuned mass unit and a piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting unit for enhancing output power. The proposed integrated system is so configured that its out-of-phase mode can appear at the lowest eigenfrequency unlike in the conventional system using a tuned unit. Such an arrangement makes the resulting system distinctive: enhanced output power at or near the target operating frequency and very little eigenfrequency separation, not observed in conventional eigenfrequency-tuned vibration energy harvesters. The power enhancement of the proposed system is theoretically examined with and without tip mass normalization or footprint area normalization.

  18. Deep learning and model predictive control for self-tuning mode-locked lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Thomas; Brunton, Steven L.; Nathan Kutz, J.

    2018-03-01

    Self-tuning optical systems are of growing importance in technological applications such as mode-locked fiber lasers. Such self-tuning paradigms require {\\em intelligent} algorithms capable of inferring approximate models of the underlying physics and discovering appropriate control laws in order to maintain robust performance for a given objective. In this work, we demonstrate the first integration of a {\\em deep learning} (DL) architecture with {\\em model predictive control} (MPC) in order to self-tune a mode-locked fiber laser. Not only can our DL-MPC algorithmic architecture approximate the unknown fiber birefringence, it also builds a dynamical model of the laser and appropriate control law for maintaining robust, high-energy pulses despite a stochastically drifting birefringence. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method on a fiber laser which is mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation. The method advocated can be broadly applied to a variety of optical systems that require robust controllers.

  19. Superconductivity induced by flexural modes in non-σh-symmetric Dirac-like two-dimensional materials: A theoretical study for silicene and germanene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Massimo V.; Polley, Arup

    2018-04-01

    In two-dimensional crystals that lack symmetry under reflections on the horizontal plane of the lattice (non-σh-symmetric), electrons can couple to flexural modes (ZA phonons) at first order. We show that in materials of this type that also exhibit a Dirac-like electron dispersion, the strong coupling can result in electron pairing mediated by these phonons, as long as the flexural modes are not damped or suppressed by additional interactions with a supporting substrate or gate insulator. We consider several models: The weak-coupling limit, which is applicable only in the case of gapped and parabolic materials, like stanene and HfSe2, thanks to the weak coupling; the full gap-equation, solved using the constant-gap approximation and considering statically screened interactions; its extensions to energy-dependent gap and to dynamic screening. We argue that in the case of silicene and germanene superconductivity mediated by this process can exhibit a critical temperature of a few degrees K, or even a few tens of degrees K when accounting for the effect of a high-dielectric-constant environment. We conclude that the electron/flexural-modes coupling should be included in studies of possible superconductivity in non-σh-symmetric two-dimensional crystals, even if alternative forms of coupling are considered.

  20. Tuning the transmission lineshape of a photonic crystal slab guided-resonance mode by polarization control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We demonstrate a system consisting of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab and two polarizers which has a tunable transmission lineshape. The lineshape can be tuned from a symmetric Lorentzian to a highly asymmetric Fano lineshape by rotating the output polarizer. We use temporal coupled mode theory to explain the measurement results. The theory also predicts tunable phase shift and group delay.

  1. Dynamic Mode Tuning of Ultrasonic Guided Wave Using an Array Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung J.; Park, Joon S.; Kim, Jae H.; Eom, Heung S.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. There are numerous modes with different wave velocities, and the appropriate mode selection is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, phase tuning by an array transducer was applied to generate ultrasonic guided waves. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. Eight transducers were fabricated in order to generate guided waves by using an array transducer. The selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the interval between elements of an array transducer

  2. Low-emittance tuning of storage rings using normal mode beam position monitor calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wolski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new technique for low-emittance tuning of electron and positron storage rings. This technique is based on calibration of the beam position monitors (BPMs using excitation of the normal modes of the beam motion, and has benefits over conventional methods. It is relatively fast and straightforward to apply, it can be as easily applied to a large ring as to a small ring, and the tuning for low emittance becomes completely insensitive to BPM gain and alignment errors that can be difficult to determine accurately. We discuss the theory behind the technique, present some simulation results illustrating that it is highly effective and robust for low-emittance tuning, and describe the results of some initial experimental tests on the CesrTA storage ring.

  3. Low-emittance tuning of storage rings using normal mode beam position monitor calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, A.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Shanks, J.

    2011-07-01

    We describe a new technique for low-emittance tuning of electron and positron storage rings. This technique is based on calibration of the beam position monitors (BPMs) using excitation of the normal modes of the beam motion, and has benefits over conventional methods. It is relatively fast and straightforward to apply, it can be as easily applied to a large ring as to a small ring, and the tuning for low emittance becomes completely insensitive to BPM gain and alignment errors that can be difficult to determine accurately. We discuss the theory behind the technique, present some simulation results illustrating that it is highly effective and robust for low-emittance tuning, and describe the results of some initial experimental tests on the CesrTA storage ring.

  4. Damping and tuning of the fibre violin modes in monolithic silica suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler, S; Cagnoli, G; Crooks, D R M; Lueck, H; Rowan, S; Smith, J R; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    High Q mirror suspensions are a key element of the advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In December 2002 the last of the final interferometer optics of GEO 600 were monolithically suspended, using fused silica fibres. The violin modes of the suspension fibres can have Q greater than 10 8 and can therefore interfere with the interferometer length control servo. Hence, the violin modes need to be damped, without degrading the pendulum Q itself. Furthermore, the frequency spread of the fibres used has to be small to allow for high Q notch filtering in the length control servo. The requirements for the violin modes of the two GEO 600 inboard suspensions are Q 6 for the fundamental and Q 6 for the first harmonic mode, respectively. The frequency spread should not exceed 10% within one mode. To accomplish that, two sections of the fibres were coated with amorphous Teflon. By applying the coating, the Q of the relevant modes can be degraded to the desired values and furthermore, the frequencies of these modes can be tuned almost independently with a good accuracy over a wide range. After welding the fibres in the monolithic suspension, a corrective coating was applied to some fibres, to compensate for the frequency spread due to the tension spread of the four fibres within a suspension. We present the method and the results achieved

  5. Damping and tuning of the fibre violin modes in monolithic silica suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossler, S [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute) and University of Hannover, Callinstr 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Cagnoli, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Crooks, D R M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Lueck, H [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute) and University of Hannover, Callinstr 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Rowan, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, J R [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute) and University of Hannover, Callinstr 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Strain, K A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Hough, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute) and University of Hannover, Callinstr 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2004-03-07

    High Q mirror suspensions are a key element of the advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In December 2002 the last of the final interferometer optics of GEO 600 were monolithically suspended, using fused silica fibres. The violin modes of the suspension fibres can have Q greater than 10{sup 8} and can therefore interfere with the interferometer length control servo. Hence, the violin modes need to be damped, without degrading the pendulum Q itself. Furthermore, the frequency spread of the fibres used has to be small to allow for high Q notch filtering in the length control servo. The requirements for the violin modes of the two GEO 600 inboard suspensions are Q < 3 x 10{sup 6} for the fundamental and Q < 2 x 10{sup 6} for the first harmonic mode, respectively. The frequency spread should not exceed 10% within one mode. To accomplish that, two sections of the fibres were coated with amorphous Teflon. By applying the coating, the Q of the relevant modes can be degraded to the desired values and furthermore, the frequencies of these modes can be tuned almost independently with a good accuracy over a wide range. After welding the fibres in the monolithic suspension, a corrective coating was applied to some fibres, to compensate for the frequency spread due to the tension spread of the four fibres within a suspension. We present the method and the results achieved.

  6. Adaptive proportional–integral–derivative tuning sliding mode control for a shape memory alloy actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Nguyen Trong; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive sliding mode control with a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) tuning method is proposed to control a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The goal of the controller is to achieve system robustness against the SMA hysteresis phenomenon, system uncertainties and external disturbances. In the controller, the PID controller is employed to approximate the sliding mode equivalent control along the direction that makes the sliding mode asymptotically stable. Due to the system nonlinearity, the PID control gain parameters are systematically computed online according to the adaptive law. To improve the transient performance, the initial PID gain parameters are optimized by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the controller performs well for the desired trajectory tracking, and the hysteresis phenomenon is compensated for completely. The control results are also compared with the optimized PID controller

  7. Tuning the dispersion and single/multi-modeness of a hole-assisted fiber by the hole's geometrical parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2008-01-01

    Using a vectorial finite element mode solver developed earlier, we studied a hole-assisted multi-ring fiber. We report the role of the hole’s geometrical parameters in tuning the waveguide dispersion and the single/multi-modeness of the particular fiber. By correctly selecting the hole’s size and

  8. Acousto-optic mode coupling excited by flexural waves in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Minghui; Wu, Zhifang; Dong, Hongguang; Liu, Bo; Miao, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated the formation of an acoustic grating in a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which consists of a hollow hexagonal core and six crown-like air holes, by applying flexural acoustic waves along the fiber axis. The dependence of the resonance wavelength on the applied acoustic frequency has been acquired on the basis of the theoretical calculation of the phase matching curve; it is in good agreement with our experimental observation of the transmission spectral evolution as the applied acoustic frequency varies. Experimental results show that the acoustic grating resonance peak possesses acoustic frequency and strain dependences of 728 nm MHz −1 and −6.98 pm με −1 , respectively, based on which high-performance acousto-optic tunable filters and fiber-optic strain sensors with high sensitivity could be achieved. And furthermore, the research work presented in this paper indicates that microbending rather than physical deformation is the main physical mechanism that leads to the formation of equivalent long-period gratings, which would be of significance for developing related grating devices based on simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. (paper)

  9. Tuning of optical mode magnetic resonance in CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers by oblique sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Fenglong; Cao, Cuimei; Li, Pingping; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-04-01

    CoZr/Ru/CoZr synthetic antiferromagnetic trilayers with strong antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling were fabricated by an oblique sputtering method that induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. A microstrip method using a vector network analyzer was applied to investigate the magnetic resonance modes of the trilayers, including the acoustic modes (AMs) and the optical modes (OMs). At zero magnetic field, the CoZr/Ru/CoZr trilayers showed OMs with resonance frequencies of up to 7.1 GHz. By increasing the applied external magnetic field, the magnetic resonance mode can be tuned to various OMs, mixed modes, and AMs. Additionally, the magnetic resonance mode showed an angular dependence between the magnetization and the microwave field, which showed similar switching of the magnetic modes with variation of the angle. Our results provide important information that will be helpful in the design of multifunctional microwave devices.

  10. Frequency tuning of single photons from a whispering-gallery mode resonator to MHz-wide transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, G.; Vogl, U.; Sedlmeir, F.

    2016-01-01

    photons, which is based on parametric down-conversion in a triply resonant whispering-gallery mode resonator, with alkaline transitions [Schunk et al., Optica 2015, 2, 773]. In this paper, we analyse our source in terms of phase matching, available wavelength-tuning mechanisms and applications...

  11. Effects of core-to-dentin thickness ratio on the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of bilayered materials of zirconia core (Y-TZP) and veneer indirect composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Naichuan; Liao, Yunmao; Zhang, Hai; Yue, Li; Lu, Xiaowen; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Indirect composite resins (ICR) are promising alternatives as veneering materials for zirconia frameworks. The effects of core-to-dentin thickness ratio (C/Dtr) on the mechanical property of bilayered veneer ICR/yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) core disks have not been previously studied. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effects of C/Dtr on the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of bilayered veneer ICR/ Y-TZP core disks. A total of 180 bilayered 0.6-mm-thick composite resin disks in core material and C/Dtr of 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 were tested with either core material placed up or placed down for piston-on-3-ball biaxial flexural strength. The mean biaxial flexural strength, Weibull modulus, and fracture mode were measured to evaluate the variation trend of the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of the bilayered disks with various C/Dtr. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the variation tendency of fracture mode with the C/Dtr or material placed down during testing (α=.05). Light microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode. The mean biaxial flexural strength and reliability improved with the increase in C/Dtr when specimens were tested with the core material either up and down, and depended on the materials that were placed down during testing. The rates of delamination, Hertzian cone cracks, subcritical radial cracks, and number of fracture fragments partially depended on the C/Dtr and the materials that were placed down during testing. The biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode in bilayered structures of Y-TZP core and veneer ICR depend on both the C/Dtr and the material that was placed down during testing. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fractional order sliding-mode control based on parameters auto-tuning for velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, BiTao; Pi, YouGuo; Luo, Ying

    2012-09-01

    A fractional order sliding mode control (FROSMC) scheme based on parameters auto-tuning for the velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed in this paper. The control law of the proposed F(R)OSMC scheme is designed according to Lyapunov stability theorem. Based on the property of transferring energy with adjustable type in F(R)OSMC, this paper analyzes the chattering phenomenon in classic sliding mode control (SMC) is attenuated with F(R)OSMC system. A fuzzy logic inference scheme (FLIS) is utilized to obtain the gain of switching control. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed FROSMC not only achieve better control performance with smaller chatting than that with integer order sliding mode control, but also is robust to external load disturbance and parameter variations. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Note on beam--beam tune shift in single ring multi bunch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1978-01-01

    If many identical counter-rotating bunches of protons and antiprotons are stored in a single ring, they will have identical orbits. The question is: Is this total tune shift relevant to the problem of beam stability. The answer is: not in general. The nonlinear force is described by its ''strength'', Δν/sub I/, for each bunch interaction individually. It is not at all clear that the sum of the individual Δν/sub I/ is the significant quantity

  14. New tuning method of the low-mode asymmetry for ignition capsule implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Zou, Shiyang; Song, Peng; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun

    2015-01-01

    In the deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility, the hot spot and the surrounding main fuel layer show obvious P2 asymmetries. This may be caused by the large positive P2 radiation flux asymmetry during the peak pulse resulting form the poor propagation of the inner laser beam in the gas-filled hohlraum. The symmetry evolution of ignition capsule implosions is investigated by applying P2 radiation flux asymmetries during different time intervals. A series of two-dimensional simulation results show that a positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak pulse results in a positive P2 shell ρR asymmetry; while an early time positive P2 flux asymmetry causes a negative P2 in the fuel ρR shape. The opposite evolution behavior of shell ρR asymmetry is used to develop a new tuning method to correct the radiation flux asymmetry during the peak pulse by adding a compensating same-phased P2 drive asymmetry during the early time. The significant improvements of the shell ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and neutron yield indicate that the tuning method is quite effective. The similar tuning method can also be used to control the early time drive asymmetries

  15. Rotation flexure with temperature controlled modal frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Theodore E.; Barney, Patrick S.; Ison, Aaron M.; Akau, Ronald L; Weir, Nathan

    2017-09-12

    A flexure bearing includes an inner race, an outer race, and a plurality of substantially planar radially extending blades coupled between the inner and outer race. The blades have a thickness that is thinner than a thickness of the inner and outer races. The inner race, outer race, and blades have substantially the same height. At least one heating element is coupled to the inner race and/or the outer race. The heating element is configured to apply heat to the race that it is coupled to in order to tune the flexure bearing.

  16. Flexural pivot device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, Robert.

    1986-01-01

    A flexural pivot device or rotational actuator comprises first and sceond tubular members connected by flexural members of shape-memory-alloy. These are curved in the austenitic phase at a first temperature and after cooling to the martensitic phase are flattened. On heating one of the flexural members, it bends causing relative rotation of the tubular members. Heating of another member can produce opposite rotation. Heating is electrical or by hot gas. The device may be used in a nuclear reactor. (author)

  17. Tuning the Slide-Roll Motion Mode of Carbon Nanotubes via Hydroxyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Shiwei; Peng, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Controlling the motion of carbon nanotubes is critical in manipulating nanodevices, including nanorobots. Herein, we investigate the motion behavior of SWCNT (10,10) on Si substrate utilizing molecular dynamics simulations. We show that hydroxyl groups have sensitive effect on the carbon nanotube's motion mode. When the hydroxyl groups' ratio on carbon nanotube and silicon substrate surfaces is larger than 10 and 20%, respectively, the motion of carbon nanotube transforms from sliding to rolling. When the hydroxyl groups' ratio is smaller, the slide or roll mode can be controlled by the speed of carbon nanotube, which is ultimately determined by the competition between the interface potential energy and kinetic energy. The change of motion mode holds true for different carbon nanotubes with hydroxyl groups. The chirality has little effect on the motion behavior, as opposed to the diameter, attributed to the hydroxyl groups' ratio. Our study suggests a new route to control the motion behavior of carbon nanotube via hydroxyl groups.

  18. Spectral tuning of optical coupling between air-mode nanobeam cavities and individual carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiya, Hidenori; Uda, Takushi; Ishii, Akihiro; Kato, Yuichiro K.

    Air-mode nanobeam cavities allow for high efficiency coupling to air-suspended carbon nanotubes due to their unique mode profile that has large electric fields in air. Here we utilize heating-induced energy shift of carbon nanotube emission to investigate the cavity quantum electrodynamics effects. In particular, we use laser-induced heating which causes a large blue-shift of the nanotube photoluminescence as the excitation power is increased. Combined with a slight red-shift of the cavity mode at high powers, detuning of nanotube emission from the cavity can be controlled. We estimate the spontaneous emission coupling factor β at different spectral overlaps and find an increase of β factor at small detunings, which is consistent with Purcell enhancement of nanotube emission. Work supported by JSPS (KAKENHI JP26610080, JP16K13613), Asahi Glass Foundation, Canon Foundation, and MEXT (Photon Frontier Network Program, Nanotechnology Platform).

  19. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping

    2016-01-01

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  20. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping

    2016-08-01

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  1. Asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design to tune the low-mode asymmetry during the peak drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jianfa, E-mail: gu-jianfa@iapcm.ac.cn; Dai, Zhensheng, E-mail: dai-zhensheng@iapcm.ac.cn; Song, Peng; Zou, Shiyang; Ye, Wenhua; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Peijun; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Shaoping [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The low-mode radiation flux asymmetry in the hohlraum is a main source of performance degradation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments. To counteract the deleterious effects of the large positive P2 flux asymmetry during the peak drive, this paper develops a new tuning method called asymmetric-shell ignition capsule design which adopts the intentionally asymmetric CH ablator layer or deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. A series of two-dimensional implosion simulations have been performed, and the results show that the intentionally asymmetric DT ice layer can significantly improve the fuel ρR symmetry, hot spot shape, hot spot internal energy, and the final neutron yield compared to the spherical capsule. This indicates that the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design is an effective tuning method, while the CH ablator asymmetric-shell capsule could not correct the fuel ρR asymmetry, and it is not as effective as the DT asymmetric-shell capsule design.

  2. High quality-factor quartz tuning fork glass probe used in tapping mode atomic force microscopy for surface profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Xu, Yanhao; Shimizu, Yuki; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a high quality-factor (Q-factor) quartz tuning fork (QTF) with a glass probe attached, used in frequency modulation tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the surface profile metrology of micro and nanostructures. Unlike conventionally used QTFs, which have tungsten or platinum probes for tapping mode AFM, and suffer from a low Q-factor influenced by the relatively large mass of the probe, the glass probe, which has a lower density, increases the Q-factor of the QTF probe unit allowing it to obtain better measurement sensitivity. In addition, the process of attaching the probe to the QTF with epoxy resin, which is necessary for tapping mode AFM, is also optimized to further improve the Q-factor of the QTF glass probe. The Q-factor of the optimized QTF glass probe unit is demonstrated to be very close to that of a bare QTF without a probe attached. To verify the effectiveness and the advantages of the optimized QTF glass probe unit, the probe unit is integrated into a home-built tapping mode AFM for conducting surface profile measurements of micro and nanostructures. A blazed grating with fine tool marks of 100 nm, a microprism sheet with a vertical amplitude of 25 µm and a Fresnel lens with a steep slope of 90 degrees are used as measurement specimens. From the measurement results, it is demonstrated that the optimized QTF glass probe unit can achieve higher sensitivity as well as better stability than conventional probes in the measurement of micro and nanostructures.

  3. Magnetic domain wall gratings for magnetization reversal tuning and confined dynamic mode localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trützschler, Julia; Sentosun, Kadir; Mozooni, Babak; Mattheis, Roland; McCord, Jeffrey

    2016-08-04

    High density magnetic domain wall gratings are imprinted in ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic thin films by local ion irradiation by which alternating head-to-tail-to-head-to-tail and head-to-head-to-tail-to-tail spatially overlapping domain wall networks are formed. Unique magnetic domain processes result from the interaction of anchored domain walls. Non-linear magnetization response is introduced by the laterally distributed magnetic anisotropy phases. The locally varying magnetic charge distribution gives rise to localized and guided magnetization spin-wave modes directly constrained by the narrow domain wall cores. The exchange coupled multiphase material structure leads to unprecedented static and locally modified dynamic magnetic material properties.

  4. Folded fabric tunes rock deformation and failure mode in the upper crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F; Dobbs, M R; Zanchetta, S; Vinciguerra, S

    2017-11-10

    The micro-mechanisms of brittle failure affect the bulk mechanical behaviour and permeability of crustal rocks. In low-porosity crystalline rocks, these mechanisms are related to mineralogy and fabric anisotropy, while confining pressure, temperature and strain rates regulate the transition from brittle to ductile behaviour. However, the effects of folded anisotropic fabrics, widespread in orogenic settings, on the mechanical behaviour of crustal rocks are largely unknown. Here we explore the deformation and failure behaviour of a representative folded gneiss, by combining the results of triaxial deformation experiments carried out while monitoring microseismicity with microstructural and damage proxies analyses. We show that folded crystalline rocks in upper crustal conditions exhibit dramatic strength heterogeneity and contrasting failure modes at identical confining pressure and room temperature, depending on the geometrical relationships between stress and two different anisotropies associated to the folded rock fabric. These anisotropies modulate the competition among quartz- and mica-dominated microscopic damage processes, resulting in transitional brittle to semi-brittle modes under P and T much lower than expected. This has significant implications on scales relevant to seismicity, energy resources, engineering applications and geohazards.

  5. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeev, T., E-mail: tagir@mailbox.tu-berlin.de; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H. [Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-19

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning.

  6. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeev, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning

  7. Insights into Dynamic Tuning of Magnetic-Resonant Wireless Power Transfer Receivers Based on Switch-Mode Gyrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic-resonant wireless power transfer (WPT has become a reliable contactless source of power for a wide range of applications. WPT spans different power levels ranging from low-power implantable devices up to high-power electric vehicles (EV battery charging. The transmission range and efficiency of WPT have been reasonably enhanced by resonating the transmitter and receiver coils at a common frequency. Nevertheless, matching between resonance in the transmitter and receiver is quite cumbersome, particularly in single-transmitter multi-receiver systems. The resonance frequency in transmitter and receiver tank circuits has to be perfectly matched, otherwise power transfer capability is greatly degraded. This paper discusses the mistuning effect of parallel-compensated receivers, and thereof a novel dynamic frequency tuning method and related circuit topology and control is proposed and characterized in the system application. The proposed method is based on the concept of switch-mode gyrator emulating variable lossless inductors oriented to enable self-tunability in WPT receivers.

  8. Flexural phonon limited phonon drag thermopower in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz; Ashraf, SSZ

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the phonon drag thermopower from flexural phonons as a function of electron temperature and carrier concentration in the Bloch-Gruneisen regime in non-strained bilayer graphene using Boltzmann transport equation approach. The flexural phonons are expected to be the major source of intrinsic scattering mechanism in unstrained bilayer graphene due to their large density. The flexural phonon modes dispersion relation is quadratic so these low energy flexural phonons abound at room temperature and as a result deform the bilayer graphene sheet in the out of plane direction and affects the transport properties. We also produce analytical result for phonon-drag thermopower from flexural phonons and find that phonon-drag thermopower depicts T2 dependence on temperature and n-1 on carrier concentration.

  9. Micro-Fluidic Dye Ring Laser - Experimental Tuning of the Wavelength and Numerical Simulation of the Cavity Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view.......We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view....

  10. Theoretical model and optimization of a novel temperature sensor based on quartz tuning fork resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; You Bo; Li Xin; Cui Juan

    2007-01-01

    To accurately measure temperatures, a novel temperature sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator has been designed. The principle of the quartz tuning fork temperature sensor is that the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator changes with the variation in temperature. This type of tuning fork resonator has been designed with a new doubly rotated cut work at flexural vibration mode as temperature sensor. The characteristics of the temperature sensor were evaluated and the results sufficiently met the target of development for temperature sensor. The theoretical model for temperature sensing has been developed and built. The sensor structure was analysed by finite element method (FEM) and optimized, including tuning fork geometry, tine electrode pattern and the sensor's elements size. The performance curve of output versus measured temperature is given. The results from theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that the sensor's sensitivity can reach 60 ppm 0 C -1 with the measured temperature range varying from 0 to 100 0 C

  11. Electrical tuning of the oscillator strength in type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells for active region of passively mode-locked interband cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyksik, Mateusz; Motyka, Marcin; Kurka, Marcin; Ryczko, Krzysztof; Misiewicz, Jan; Schade, Anne; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Sęk, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Two designs of active region for an interband cascade laser, based on double or triple GaInSb/InAs type II quantum wells (QWs), were compared with respect to passive mode-locked operation in the mid-infrared range around 4 µm. The layer structure and electron and hole wavefunctions under external electric field were engineered to allow controlling the optical transition oscillator strength and the resulting lifetimes. As a result, the investigated structures can mimic absorber-like and gain-like sections of a mode-locked device when properly polarized with opposite bias. A significantly larger oscillator strength tuning range for triple QWs was experimentally verified by Fourier-transform photoreflectance.

  12. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  13. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  14. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal [FEMTO-ST Institute UMR 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, CNRS, ENSMM, UTBM, 15B Avenue des Montboucons, F-25030 Besançon (France)

    2016-06-15

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  15. Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a rotational capacity model for flexural reinforced concrete elements is presented. The model is based on the general assumption, that any other failure mode than bending is prevented by proper design. This includes failure due to shear, anchorage, concentrated loads etc. Likewise...... are not necessarily so. An example shows the applicability of the model and a parametric study shows the advantages of the model compared with code provisions. Finally, improvements of the compression zone modelling is performed in order to include a better performance when concrete crushing is the failure criterion...

  16. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...

  17. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  18. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed...... opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor...... atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis...

  19. Multi-flexural band gaps in an Euler–Bernoulli beam with lateral local resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting, E-mail: WT323@mail.nwpu.edu.cn [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi, 710072 (China); College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, ACT, 2600 (Australia); Sheng, Mei-Ping [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi, 710072 (China); Qin, Qing-Hua [College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, ACT, 2600 (Australia)

    2016-02-05

    Flexural vibration suppression in an Euler–Bernoulli beam with attached lateral local resonators (LLR) is studied theoretically and numerically. Hamilton's principle and Bloch's theorem are employed to derive the dispersion relation which reveals that two band gaps are generated. Within both band gaps, the flexural waves are partially transformed into longitudinal waves through a four-link-mechanism and totally blocked. The band gaps can be flexibly tuned by changing the geometry parameter of the four-link-mechanism and the spring constants of the resonators. Frequency response function (FRF) from finite element analysis via commercial software of ANSYS shows large flexural wave attenuation within the band gaps and the effect of damping from the LLR substructures which helps smooth and lower the response peaks at the sacrifice of the band gap effect. The existence of the multi-flexural band gaps can be exploited for the design of flexural vibration control of beams. - Highlights: • A metamaterial beam with lateral local resonance is proposed. • The metamaterial beam can generate multi-band gaps for flexural wave suppression. • The substructure can transform the flexural wave into longitudinal wave and absorb the waves. • Damping from different part has different influence on the band gaps. • The design of the metamaterial beam can be used for multi-flexural vibration control.

  20. Resonant metalenses for flexural waves in plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The dispersion curves of a cluster of closely spaced rods supported by a thin plate are characterised by subwavelength bandgaps and slow group velocities induced by local resonance effects. A recent analytical study [Williams, Roux, Rupin, and Kuperman (2015). Phys. Rev. B 91, 104307], has shown how the slow velocity branch depends, amongst other parameters, on the height of the rods that make up the cluster. Such metamaterial, offering easy-to-tune spatial velocity gradients, is a perfect candidate for building gradient index lenses such as Luneburg, Maxwell, and 90° rotating. Here theoretical results are combined with numerical simulations to design and test metalenses for flexural waves. The lenses are obtained by tuning the height of the cluster of rods such that they provide the required refractive index profile. Snapshots and videos from three-dimensional numerical simulations in a narrow band centered at ∼4 kHz are used to analyse the performances of three types of gradient index metalens (Luneburg, Maxwell, and 90° rotating).

  1. Basalt woven fiber reinforced vinylester composites: Flexural and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmisciano, Salvatore; Rosa, Igor Maria De; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tamburrano, Alessio; Valente, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study of basalt and E-glass woven fabric reinforced composites was performed. The fabrics were characterized by the same weave pattern and the laminates tested by the same fiber volume fraction. Results of the flexural and interlaminar characterization are reported. Basalt fiber composites showed higher flexural modulus and apparent interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) in comparison with E-glass ones but also a lower flexural strength and similar electrical properties. With this fiber volume fraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured surfaces enabled a better understanding both of the failure modes involved and of points of concern. Nevertheless, the results of this study seem promising in view of a full exploitation of basalt fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites (PMCs).

  2. Tune-Based Halo Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Tune-based halo diagnostics can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics for halo prevention, and diagnostics for halo measurement. Diagnostics for halo prevention are standard fare in accumulators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, and again can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics to measure the tune distribution (primarily to avoid resonances), and diagnostics to identify instabilities (which will not be discussed here). These diagnostic systems include kicked (coherent) tune measurement, phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement, Schottky tune measurement, beam transfer function (BTF) measurements, and measurement of transverse quadrupole mode envelope oscillations. We refer briefly to tune diagnostics used at RHIC and intended for the SNS, and then present experimental results. Tune-based diagnostics for halo measurement (as opposed to prevention) are considerably more difficult. We present one brief example of tune-based halo measurement

  3. Tuning magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  4. Flexural Behavior of Corroded Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoping Ye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling concrete not only reduces the use of virgin aggregate but also decreases the pressure on landfills. As a result, recycled coarse aggregate (RCA is extensively recommended for new construction projects. However, the flexural behavior of corroded reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC beams is uncertain. The experimental research presented in this paper was performed to investigate the flexural behavior of corroded reinforced RAC beams compared to that of corroded reinforced natural aggregate concrete (NAC beams and consequently explore the possibility of using RAC beams in corrosive environments. Four different percentages of RCA in total mass of coarse aggregate in concrete mixtures (0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% and two different concrete strengths (C30, C60 were the governing parameters. The electrochemical method was adopted to accelerate steel corrosion. Full-scale tests were performed on eight simply supported beams until the failure load was reached. Comparison of load-deflection behavior, crack patterns, failure modes, ductility, and ultimate flexural capacity of corroded reinforced NAC and RAC beams was made based on the experimental results obtained. The comparison results show that the flexural behavior of corroded reinforced RAC beams with an appropriate percentage of RCA is satisfactory compared to the behavior of NAC beams.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias J. R. Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ≃ 15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart.

  6. Re-tuning tuned mass dampers using ambient vibration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, B; Sadhu, A; Narasimhan, S; Lourenco, R

    2010-01-01

    Deterioration, accidental changes in the operating conditions, or incorrect estimates of the structure modal properties lead to de-tuning in tuned mass dampers (TMDs). To restore optimal performance, it is necessary to estimate the modal properties of the system, and re-tune the TMD to its optimal state. The presence of closely spaced modes and a relatively large amount of damping in the dominant modes renders the process of identification difficult. Furthermore, the process of estimating the modal properties of the bare structure using ambient vibration measurements of the structure with the TMD is challenging. In order to overcome these challenges, a novel identification and re-tuning algorithm is proposed. The process of identification consists of empirical mode decomposition to separate the closely spaced modes, followed by the blind identification of the remaining modes. Algorithms for estimating the fundamental frequency and the mode shape of the primary structure necessary for re-tuning the TMD are proposed. Experimental results from the application of the proposed algorithms to identify and re-tune a laboratory structure TMD system are presented

  7. Flexural-torsional buckling analysis of angle-bar stiffened plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rahbar Ranji [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The interaction of flexural-torsional buckling modes is critical for stiffened plates with asymmetric stiffeners. However, this interaction is ignored in all design rules because it is complex to characterize. In the literature, the presence of an attached plate is ignored, and stiffened plate is treated as an ordinary asymmetric beam. In the flexural buckling mode, stiffener and the attached plate buckle together; in the torsional buckling mode, the attached plate cannot freely rotate with stiffener. Basic equations of the flexural-torsional buckling modes are deduced based on hybrid beam concept and a new strain distribution assumption for sideway bending of stiffeners. Elastic buckling stresses of different angle-bar stiffened plates are calculated and compared with those generated by the Finite element method (FEM) and those available in the literature. The present method has better agreements with FEM.

  8. Flexural Behavior of GFRP Tubes Filled with Magnetically Driven Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Ju; Dong, Xinlong; Feng, Bing

    2018-01-08

    Experimental investigation of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer) tubes that were filled with magnetically driven concrete was carried out to study the flexural behavior of specimens under bending. Specimens having different cross section and lengths were tested. The test specimens were fabricated by filling magnetically driven concrete into the GFRP tubes and the concrete was vibrated using magnetic force. Specimens vibrated using vibrating tube were also tested for comparison. In addition, specimens having steel reinforcing bars and GFRP bars were both tested to study the effect of reinforcing bars on the magnetically driven concrete. The load-displacement curves, load-strain curves, failure mode, and ultimate strengths of test specimens were obtained. Design methods for the flexural stiffness of test specimens were also discussed in this study.

  9. Analysis of flexural wave cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Climente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive study of the cloak for bending waves theoretically proposed by Farhat et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009] and later on experimentally realized by Stenger et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 014301 (2012]. This study uses a semi-analytical approach, the multilayer scattering method, which is based in the Kirchoff-Love wave equation for flexural waves in thin plates. Our approach was unable to reproduce the predicted behavior of the theoretically proposed cloak. This disagreement is here explained in terms of the simplified wave equation employed in the cloak design, which employed unusual boundary conditions for the cloaking shell. However, our approach reproduces fairly well the measured displacement maps for the fabricated cloak, indicating the validity of our approach. Also, the cloak quality has been here analyzed using the so called averaged visibility and the scattering cross section. The results obtained from both analysis let us to conclude that there is room for further improvements of this type of flexural wave cloak by using better design procedures.

  10. Flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuhui [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, 411105 Xiangtan (China); School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: leiwlei@hotmail.com [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Zhang, Jianren; Ma, Yafei [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Liu, Yongming [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 85281 Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Flexural behavior of bonded PT beams with strand corrosion is experimental tested. • Cracking, stiffness, ultimate strength, failure & ductility of beams are clarified. • A coefficient is proposed to measure incompatible strain between strand & concrete. - Abstract: An experimental test is performed to investigate the flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion. Eight beams are designed and subjected to accelerated method to different corrosion levels. The initial stiffness of beams is observed by cyclic loading-unloading test during the corrosion procedure. Corrosion effects on concrete cracking, post-cracking stiffness, ultimate strength, failure mode and ductility are then clarified by the flexural test. And, a coefficient is introduced to quantify the incompatible strain between corroded strand and concrete. Results show that the prestress force loss of strand has almost the linear relation with corrosion loss. Strand corrosion affects slightly the initial stiffness of beam before flexural cracking, but degrades significantly the post-cracking stiffness of beam as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%. Slight corrosion of strand has little effects on beams flexural behavior. The severe corrosion, however, decreases the number of crack, changes the failure mode form the concrete crushing to strand rupture, degrades the ductility and the ultimate strength of beams, and leads to the incompatible strain between strand and concrete. In the present test, the incompatible strain decreases about 20% of the flexural strength as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%.

  11. Flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuhui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Ma, Yafei; Liu, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexural behavior of bonded PT beams with strand corrosion is experimental tested. • Cracking, stiffness, ultimate strength, failure & ductility of beams are clarified. • A coefficient is proposed to measure incompatible strain between strand & concrete. - Abstract: An experimental test is performed to investigate the flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion. Eight beams are designed and subjected to accelerated method to different corrosion levels. The initial stiffness of beams is observed by cyclic loading-unloading test during the corrosion procedure. Corrosion effects on concrete cracking, post-cracking stiffness, ultimate strength, failure mode and ductility are then clarified by the flexural test. And, a coefficient is introduced to quantify the incompatible strain between corroded strand and concrete. Results show that the prestress force loss of strand has almost the linear relation with corrosion loss. Strand corrosion affects slightly the initial stiffness of beam before flexural cracking, but degrades significantly the post-cracking stiffness of beam as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%. Slight corrosion of strand has little effects on beams flexural behavior. The severe corrosion, however, decreases the number of crack, changes the failure mode form the concrete crushing to strand rupture, degrades the ductility and the ultimate strength of beams, and leads to the incompatible strain between strand and concrete. In the present test, the incompatible strain decreases about 20% of the flexural strength as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%.

  12. The Dynamic Performance of Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Feeney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural ultrasonic transducers are principally used as proximity sensors and for industrial metrology. Their operation relies on a piezoelectric ceramic to generate a flexing of a metallic membrane, which delivers the ultrasound signal. The performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers has been largely limited to excitation through a short voltage burst signal at a designated mechanical resonance frequency. However, a steady-state amplitude response is not generated instantaneously in a flexural ultrasonic transducer from a drive excitation signal, and differences in the drive characteristics between transmitting and receiving transducers can affect the measured response. This research investigates the dynamic performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers using acoustic microphone measurements and laser Doppler vibrometry, supported by a detailed mechanical analog model, in a process which has not before been applied to the flexural ultrasonic transducer. These techniques are employed to gain insights into the physics of their vibration behaviour, vital for the optimisation of industrial ultrasound systems.

  13. [The effect of core veneer thickness ratio on the flexural strength of diatomite-based dental ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Mei-qin; Zhang, Fei-min; Lu, Xiao-li

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of different core veneer thickness ratios on the flexural strength and failure mode of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Diatomite-based dental ceramics blocks (16 mm×5.4 mm×1 mm) were sintered with different thickness of veneer porcelains: 0 mm (group A), 0.6 mm (group B), 0.8 mm (group C) and 1.0 mm (group D). Flexural strength was detected and scanning electron microscope was used to observe the interface microstructure. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. With the increase of the thickness of the veneer porcelain, flexural strength of group C showed highest flexural strength up to (277.24±5.47) MPa. Different core veneer thickness ratios can significantly influence the flexural strength of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Supported by Science and Technology Projects of Nantong City (HS2013010).

  14. SQL Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Tow, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A poorly performing database application not only costs users time, but also has an impact on other applications running on the same computer or the same network. SQL Tuning provides an essential next step for SQL developers and database administrators who want to extend their SQL tuning expertise and get the most from their database applications.There are two basic issues to focus on when tuning SQL: how to find and interpret the execution plan of an SQL statement and how to change SQL to get a specific alternate execution plan. SQL Tuning provides answers to these questions and addresses a third issue that's even more important: how to find the optimal execution plan for the query to use.Author Dan Tow outlines a timesaving method he's developed for finding the optimum execution plan--rapidly and systematically--regardless of the complexity of the SQL or the database platform being used. You'll learn how to understand and control SQL execution plans and how to diagram SQL queries to deduce the best executio...

  15. An experimental study on flexural strength enhancement of concrete by means of small steel fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost effective improvement of the mechanical performances of structural materials is an important goal in construction industry. To improve the flexural strength of plain concrete so as to reduce construction costs, the addition of fibers to the concrete mixture can be adopted. The addition of small steel fibers with different lengths and proportion have experimentally been analyzed in terms of concrete flexural strength enhancement. The main objectives of the present study are related to the evaluation of the influence of steel fibers design on the increase of concrete flexural characteristics and on the mode of failure. Two types of beams have been investigated. The force level, deflection and time to failure of beams have been measured. The shear crack, flexural crack and intermediate shear-flexural crack have been studied. The steel fiber content controlled crack morphology. Flexural strength and time to failure of fiber reinforce concrete could be further enhanced if, instead of smooth steel fibers, corrugated fibers were used.

  16. Servo Reduces Friction In Flexure Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Proposed servocontrol device reduces such resistive torques as stiction, friction, ripple, and cogging in flexure bearing described in LAR-14348, "Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction". Reduces frictional "bump" torque encountered when bearing ball runs into buildup of grease on bearing race. Also used as cable follower to reduce torque caused by cable and hoses when they bend because of motion of bearing. New device includes torquer across ball race. Torquer controlled by servo striving to keep flexure at null, removing torque to outer ring. In effect, device is inner control loop reducing friction, but does not control platforms or any outer-control-loop functions.

  17. Cracking in Flexural Reinforced Concrete Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    The system of cracks developing in reinforced concrete is in many aspects essential when modelling structures in both serviceability- and ultimate limit state. This paper discusses the behavior concerning crack development in flexural members observed from tests and associates it with two different...... existing models. From the investigations an approach is proposed on how to predict the crack pattern in flexural members involving two different crack systems; primary flexural cracks and local secondary cracks. The results of the approach is in overall good agreement with the observed tests and captures...... the pronounced size effect associated with flexural cracking in which the crack spacing and crack widths are approximately proportional to the depth of the member....

  18. FLEXURAL, TORSIONAL AND DISTORTIONAL BUCKLING OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Instability is an important branch of structural mechanics which examines alternate ... equations in V and V representing flexural buckling about the two axis of symmetry; a fully. 4 ..... of Thin-Walled Space Systems, First. Edition ...

  19. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Hiebert, W. K., E-mail: wayne.hiebert@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bachman, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, 153 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, and 112 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm{sup −1} mW{sup −1}, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  20. The role of ion irradiation in activating silent Raman modes via tuning in plasmonic behaviour and surface disorder of Au/ZnO/Pt NFG system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Udai B.; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Ojha, Sunil; Ghosh, Santanu; Singh, Fouran

    2017-09-01

    The perceptible progression of Raman modes of zinc oxide (ZnO) is studied in nanostructures film gap (Au (10 nm)/ZnO (70 nm)/Pt (50 nm)) system with 1.2 MeV Xe ion irradiation. Unattainable silent Raman modes of ZnO turn out to be strongly visible after ion irradiation. The creation of ion-beam-induced lattice disorder, defects, and impurities in a ZnO layer leads to breakdown the translational crystal symmetry that results in the origin of silent modes. The formation of hot-spots in the ZnO layer of the NFG system also supports the enhancement of the intensity of Raman modes. Overall results are attributed to combined effects of lattice disorder, defects, and impurities along with plasmonic effect and explained in the framework of elastic-thermal-spike formation.

  1. Estimating flexural rigidity and load magnitude required for formation of Ross Island flexure moat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Harry, D. L.; Wenman, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Lithospheric flexural subsidence around Ross Island in West Antarctica led to formation of the Ross Island flexure moat. This subsidence was caused by two major volcanic phases on Ross Island. The first phase saw the first surficial expression of Ross Island and volcanism at Mt. Bird to the north of Ross Island, which lasted from 5.2 - 2.9 Ma. The second phase lasted from 1.78 Ma to present and is comprised of eruptions from Mt. Terror to the east, Mt. Erebus to the west and Hut Point Peninsula (HPP) to the south of Ross Island. Flexural subsidence of the lithosphere due to volcanism on Ross Island led to formation of a sedimentary moat around the island, which is preserved in stratigraphy imaged on seismic reflection profiles. We identified 5 unconformities (from deepest upward Ri, RMU1, RMU2, RMU3, RMU4) in the seismic surveys which correspond to flexural subsidence episodes around Ross Island since early Pliocene. Ri (4.4 Ma) lies near the bottom of the flexural moat and RMU4 near the seafloor and top of the moat fill. These unconformities were used to make isopach maps to constrain flexure modeling of the area. Isopach maps show circular or semi-circular flexure basins around Ross Island which is approximated using a continuous plate, point load flexure model. We used Ri - sea floor isopach to constrain flexure models for 5 profiles centered on 4 volcanic centers and trending radially out of Ross Island. Flexure models along two profiles beginning on Mt. Bird and one profile off HPP show a flexural rigidity range of 1.47 - 6.44 x 1018 Nm with load center of mass on Mt. Bird and on HPP, respectively. A similar model along a profile initiating on Mt. Terror, passing through Mt Erebus and extending west of Ross Island across the moat, yielded a higher flexural rigidity estimate of 2.03 x 1019 Nm with load centered at Mt. Erebus. A flexure model to the north east of Ross Island along a profile beginning at Mt Terror and trending north, provide the highest flexural

  2. Physical and theoretical modeling of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Block-flexure is the most common mode of toppling failure in natural and excavated rock slopes. In such failure, some rock blocks break due to tensile stresses and some overturn under their own weights and then all of them topple together. In this paper, first, a brief review of previous studies on toppling failures is presented. Then, the physical and mechanical properties of experimental modeling materials are summarized. Next, the physical modeling results of rock slopes with the potential of block-flexural toppling failures are explained and a new analytical solution is proposed for the stability analysis of such slopes. The results of this method are compared with the outcomes of the experiments. The comparative studies show that the proposed analytical approach is appropriate for the stability analysis of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure. Finally, a real case study is used for the practical verification of the suggested method.

  3. Enhanced control of a flexure-jointed micromanipulation system using a vision-based servoing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthai, T.; Cole, M. O. T.; Wongratanaphisan, T.; Puangmali, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a high-precision motion control implementation for a flexure-jointed micromanipulator. A desktop experimental motion platform has been created based on a 3RUU parallel kinematic mechanism, driven by rotary voice coil actuators. The three arms supporting the platform have rigid links with compact flexure joints as integrated parts and are made by single-process 3D printing. The mechanism overall size is approximately 250x250x100 mm. The workspace is relatively large for a flexure-jointed mechanism, being approximately 20x20x6 mm. A servo-control implementation based on pseudo-rigid-body models (PRBM) of kinematic behavior combined with nonlinear-PID control has been developed. This is shown to achieve fast response with good noise-rejection and platform stability. However, large errors in absolute positioning occur due to deficiencies in the PRBM kinematics, which cannot accurately capture flexure compliance behavior. To overcome this problem, visual servoing is employed, where a digital microscopy system is used to directly measure the platform position by image processing. By adopting nonlinear PID feedback of measured angles for the actuated joints as inner control loops, combined with auxiliary feedback of vision-based measurements, the absolute positioning error can be eliminated. With controller gain tuning, fast dynamic response and low residual vibration of the end platform can be achieved with absolute positioning accuracy within ±1 micron.

  4. Embodied Tuning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian Hviid; Vestergaard, Vitus

    2014-01-01

    and explore the physical gallery space. We implemented a simple low-cost prototype system called Exaudimus allowing users to search for the audio streams using their own bodies as a metaphorical radio tuning dial. We tested the concept in a public exhibition at the Media Museum in Denmark. A small qualitative......Most museum exhibitions favor vision, not hearing. When there is audio in exhibitions it tends to take on a secondary role as soundtrack or commentary. In some cases however audio should be the primary object of interest. Radio heritage is such a case. The traditional way of showcasing audio...... is through web accessible archives or through listening kiosks in the exhibition. Neither one takes advantage of the unique affordances of the spatiality and physicality of an exhibition. We therefore propose an alternative way of exhibiting radio heritage in a listening exhibition where users move around...

  5. Flexural behaviour and punching shear of selfcompacting concrete ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hazrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of steel fibres as a replacement to the conventional reinforcement under flexural behaviour and punching shear in self-compacting (SCC ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres. Four ribbed slabs with similar dimensions of 2.8 m length × 1.2 m width and 0.2m thickness were constructed. Two of the samples were considered as control samples (conventionally reinforced with reinforcement bars and welded mesh while another two samples were fully reinforced with 1% (80 kg/m3 volume of steel fibres incorporated to the SCC mix. For the flexural behaviour study, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to two line loads under four point bending. Meanwhile, for the punching shear analysis, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to a point load to simulate loading from the column. The analysis of the experimental results displayed that steel fibres incorporation had been found to effectively delay the first crack occurrence under both flexural and punching shear. The steel fibre replacement has been proven to be able to sustain up to 80% and 73% of the ultimate load resistance for flexural and punching shear, respectively, in comparison to conventionally reinforced ribbed slab structure. The visual observation carried out during the experiment exhibited similar failure mode for both steel fibre reinforced and control samples. This was observed for both flexural and punching shear samples. Overall, it can be concluded that the steel fibres had displayed a promising potential to effectively replace the conventional reinforcements.

  6. Investigation on the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams using phyllite aggregates from mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Afrifa, Russell Owusu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Most parts of the world's geology is underlain by phyllite rocks. → Crack widths not well predicted so may not be used in water retaining structures. → Shear failure mode and low displacement ductility often observed in beams. → Concrete shear capacity observed lower than code values. -- Abstract: This paper investigated the flexural behaviour of 12 reinforced concrete (RC) beams made of phyllite coarse aggregates produced as by-product of underground gold mining activity. The beams were tested to failure under four point test. Collapse of the beams which were adequately designed against shear failure occurred mostly through either flexural-shear failure and/or diagonal tension failure. The experimental failure loads averaged approximately 115% of the theoretical failure loads. It was observed that the beams developed early shear cracks and higher flexural crack widths than allowable at service loads. Deflections compared reasonably well with the design code requirement but displacement ductility was low. It is recommended that British Standard (BS) 8110 design concrete shear stress values be multiplied by 0.8 to assure that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite concrete would be low and reasonable as compared to flexural capacity. In that case, BS 8110 can be used to provide adequate load factor against flexural failure for under-reinforced RC beams made of phyllite coarse aggregates.

  7. Characterization of mechanical properties of pericardium tissue using planar biaxial tension and flexural deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle; Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Flexure is an important mode of deformation for native and bioprosthetic heart valves. However, mechanical characterization of bioprosthetic leaflet materials has been done primarily through planar tensile testing. In this study, an integrated experimental and computational cantilever beam bending test was performed to characterize the flexural properties of glutaraldehyde-treated bovine and porcine pericardium of different thicknesses. A strain-invariant based structural constitutive model was used to model the pericardial mechanical behavior quantified through the bending tests of this study and the planar biaxial tests previously performed. The model parameters were optimized through an inverse finite element (FE) procedure in order to describe both sets of experimental data. The optimized material properties were implemented in FE simulations of transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) deformation. It was observed that porcine pericardium TAV leaflets experienced significantly more flexure than bovine when subjected to opening pressurization, and that the flexure may be overestimated using a constitutive model derived from purely planar tensile experimental data. Thus, modeling of a combination of flexural and biaxial tensile testing data may be necessary to more accurately describe the mechanical properties of pericardium, and to computationally investigate bioprosthetic leaflet function and design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flexure Based Linear and Rotary Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flexure based linear bearing includes top and bottom parallel rigid plates; first and second flexures connecting the top and bottom plates and constraining exactly four degrees of freedom of relative motion of the plates, the four degrees of freedom being X and Y axis translation and rotation about the X and Y axes; and a strut connecting the top and bottom plates and further constraining exactly one degree of freedom of the plates, the one degree of freedom being one of Z axis translation and rotation about the Z axis.

  9. An Aerial Robot for Rice Farm Quality Inspection With Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks Tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization-Sliding Mode Control Hybrid Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camci, Efe; Kripalan, Devesh Raju; Ma, Linlu

    2017-01-01

    , an autonomous quality inspection over rice farms is proposed by employing quadcopters. Real-time control of these vehicles, however, is still challenging as they exhibit highly nonlinear behavior especially for agile maneuvers. What is more, these vehicles have to operate under uncertain working conditions...... particle swarm optimization-sliding mode control (PSO-SMC) theory-based hybrid algorithm is proposed for the training of T2-FNNs. In particular, continuous version of PSO is adopted for the identification of the antecedent part of T2-FNNs while SMCbased update rules are utilized for online learning...

  10. Flexures for large stroke electrostatic actuation in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krijnen, B; Brouwer, D M

    2014-01-01

    The stroke of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) stage suspended by a flexure mechanism and actuated by electrostatic comb-drives is limited by pull-in. A method to analyze the electrostatic stability of a flexure mechanism and to optimize the stroke with respect to the footprint of flexure mechanisms is presented. Four flexure mechanisms for large stroke are investigated; the standard folded flexure, the slaved folded flexure, the tilted folded flexure and the Watt flexure. Given a certain stroke and load force, the flexures are optimized to have a minimum wafer footprint. From these optimizations it is concluded that the standard folded flexure mechanism is the best flexure mechanism for relatively small strokes (up to ±40 μm) and for larger strokes it is better to use the tilted folded flexure. Several optimized flexure mechanisms have been fabricated and experimentally tested to reach a stroke of ±100 μm. The displacement of the fabricated stages as a function of the actuation voltage could be predicted with 82% accuracy, limited by the fairly large tolerances of our fabrication process. (paper)

  11. mathematical model for mathematical model for prediction of flexural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The paper examined the optimization of flexural strength of a five-component ... flexural strength of concrete was increased by ..... High Performance Concrete”, Fire Safety Journal, Vol. ... Storage, PhD Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka,.

  12. Reactor vessel supported by flexure member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.D.; Pankow, B.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a reactor pressure vessel which is provided with vertical support means in the form of circumferentially spaced columns upon which the vessel is mounted. The columns are adapted to undergo flexure in order to accommodate the thermally induced displacements experienced by the vessel during operational transients

  13. Psoriasis of the face and flexures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Murphy, G.M.; Austad, J.; Ljungberg, A.; Cambazard, F.; Duvold, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    Facial and flexural psoriasis may impair the quality of life of psoriatic patients considerably. For the adequate management of psoriasis it is important to pay attention to lesions at these sensitive sites, which require an approach different to that for lesions on other sites in several respects.

  14. Flexural fatigue failures and lives of Eco-Core sandwich beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul; Shivakumar, Kunigal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Eco-Core sandwich beam is flexural fatigue tested to study its fatigue response. • The core showed three failure types: damage onset, progression and final failure. • These failures were found to be represented by 1%, 5% and 7% change in compliance. • The fatigue stress-life (S–N) relationship follows a power low, σ max /σ ct = A o N α . • The fatigue failure was by multiple vertical cracks followed by 45° shear failure. - Abstract: Eco-Core is a class of syntactic foam made from small volume of high char yield binder and large volume of a class of flyash for fire resistance application. Very little or no flexural fatigue data of this class of core material is reported in the open literature. This paper presents a flexural fatigue response of Eco-Core in a glass/vinyl ester composite face sheet sandwich beam. A four-point loaded flexural test specimen was designed and tested in static and fatigue loadings to cause tension failure in the core. The fatigue test was conducted at maximum cyclic stress (σ max ) ranged from 0.7σ ct to 0.9σ ct , where σ ct is the static flexural strength of the core. The sinusoidal loading frequency of 2 Hz with the stress ratio of 0.1 was used. Flexural fatigue failure modes of Eco-Core sandwich beam were classified: damage onset (single tension crack), damage progression (multiple tension cracks) and ultimate failure (a combination of tension and shear). These failures were characterized by 1%, 5% and 7% changes in compliance that corresponds to N 1% , N 5% and N 7% lives. The fatigue stress-life (S–N) relationship was found to follow the well-known power law equation, σ max /σ ct = A o N α . The constants A o and α were established for all three types of failures. The endurance limit was established based on 1 million cycles limit and it was found to be 0.65σ ct , 0.70σ ct and 0.71σ ct , respectively for the three modes of failure. Flexural fatigue and static failure modes of Eco-Core sandwich

  15. Lymph node metastasis of carcinomas of transverse colon including flexures. Consideration of the extramesocolic lymph node stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrakis, Aristotelis; Weber, Klaus; Merkel, Susanne; Matzel, Klaus; Agaimy, Abbas; Gebbert, Carol; Hohenberger, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Complete mesocolic excision (CME) is nowadays state of the art in the treatment of colon cancer. In cases of carcinoma of transverse colon and of both flexures an extramesocolic lymph node metastasis can be found in the infrapancreatic lymph node region (ILR) and across the gastroepiploic arcade (GLR). These direct metastatic routes were not previously systematically considered. In order to validate our hypothesis of these direct metastatic pathways and to obtain evidence of our approach of including dissection of these areas as part of CME, we initiated a prospective study evaluating these lymph node regions during surgery. Forty-five consecutive patients with primary tumour manifestation in transverse colon and both flexures between May 2010 and January 2013 were prospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Mode of surgery, histopathology, morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Twenty-six patients had a carcinoma of transverse colon, 16 patients one of hepatic flexure and four patients one of splenic flexure. The median lymph node yield was 40. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in ILR was registered in five patients and in GLR in four patients. The mean lymph node ratio was 0.085. Postoperative complications occurred in nine patients, and postoperative mortality was 2 %. We were able to demonstrate this novel metastatic route of carcinomas of the transverse colon and of both flexures in ILR and GLR. These could be considered as regional lymph node regions and have to be included into surgery for cancer of the transverse colon including both flexures.

  16. Mode I and Mode II Interlaminar Crack Growth Resistances of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Ambient Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Sung R; Kowalik, Robert W; Alexander, Donald J

    2007-01-01

    ...) including three gas-turbine grade melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites. Modes I and II crack growth resistances, GI and GII, were evaluated at ambient temperature using double cantilever beam and end notched flexure methods, respectively...

  17. Flexural creep behaviour of jute polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandekar, Harichandra; Chaudhari, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Present study is about the flexural creep behaviour of jute fabric reinforced polypropylene (Jute-PP) composites. The PP sheet and alkali treated jute fabric is stacked alternately and hot pressed in compression molding machine to get Jute-PP composite laminate. The flexural creep study is carried out on dynamic mechanical analyzer. The creep behaviour of the composite is modeled using four-parameter Burgers model. Short-term accelerated creep testing is conducted which is later used to predict long term creep behaviour. The feasibility of the construction of a master curve using the time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle to predict long term creep behavior of unreinforced PP and Jute-PP composite is investigated.

  18. Splenic flexure volvulus presenting with gangrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Norman O; Chopra, Pradeep J; Subramanian, Sureshkannan K

    2009-01-01

    Volvulus of the splenic flexure is very rare cause of colonic obstruction constituting 2% of cases of colonic segmental volvulus. Primary splenic flexure volvulus (SFV) is due to congenital absence or laxity of the phrenocolic, gastro colic, and splenocolic ligaments while secondary volvulus is due to other causes including some prior surgery releasing these ligaments. A preoperative diagnosis can be established based on the characteristic radiological findings on plain x-ray abdomen and CT scan. We present a case of SFV in a young man who presented with acute abdominal pain, and distension, and illustrate the usefulness of CT scan, and plain x-ray of the abdomen in making a preoperative diagnosis. Laparotomy revealed a gangrenous SFV, which was resected and primary anastomosis was carried out. Literature is reviewed with regards to predisposing factors, presentation, investigation, and management among the more than 32 cases reported so far. (author)

  19. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Putzolu, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  20. Acousto-optic interaction in polyimide coated optical fibers with flexural waves

    OpenAIRE

    ALCUSA-SÁEZ, E. P.; Díez, A.; Rivera-Pérez, E.; Margulis, W.; Norin, L.; Andrés, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Acousto-optic coupling in polyimide-coated single-mode optical fibers using flexural elastic waves is demonstrated. The effect of the polyimide coating on the acousto-optic interaction process is analyzed in detailed. Theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement. Although the elastic attenuation is significant, we show that acousto-optic coupling can be produced with a reasonably good efficiency. To our knowledge, it is the first experimental demonstration of acousto-optic coupl...

  1. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonea, I.M.; Wilson, D.V.; Bowker, R.M.; Robinson, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype

  2. Flexural Free Vibrations of Multistep Nonuniform Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojin Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exact approach to investigate the flexural free vibrations of multistep nonuniform beams. Firstly, one-step beam with moment of inertia and mass per unit length varying as I(x=α11+βxr+4 and m(x=α21+βxr was studied. By using appropriate transformations, the differential equation for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section is reduced to a four-order differential equation with constant coefficients. According to different types of roots for the characteristic equation of four-order differential equation with constant coefficients, two kinds of modal shape functions are obtained, and the general solutions for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section are presented. An exact approach to solve the natural frequencies and modal shapes of multistep beam with variable cross section is presented by using transfer matrix method, the exact general solutions of one-step beam, and iterative method. Numerical examples reveal that the calculated frequencies and modal shapes are in good agreement with the finite element method (FEM, which demonstrates the solutions of present method are exact ones.

  3. A novel vibration assisted polishing device based on the flexural mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration assisted polishing has widely application fields because of higher machining frequency and better polishing quality, especially the polishing with the non-resonant mode that is regarded as a kind of promising polishing method. This paper reports a novel vibration assisted polishing device, consisting of the flexible hinge mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators, which is suitable for polishing planes or curve surfaces with slow curvature. Firstly, the generation methods of vibration trajectory are investigated for the same frequency and different frequency signals’ inputs, respectively, and then the types of elliptic and Lissajous’s vibration trajectories are generated respectively. Secondly, a flexural mechanism consisting of the right circular flexible hinges and the leaf springs is developed to produce two-dimensional vibration trajectory. Statics and dynamics investigating of this flexible mechanism are finished in detail. The analytical models about input and output compliances of the flexural mechanism are established according to the matrix-based compliance modeling, and the dynamic model of the flexural mechanism based on the Euler-Lagrange equation is also presented. The finite element model of the flexural mechanism was established to carry out the numerical simulation in order to testify the rationality of device design. Finally, the polishing experiment is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the vibration device. The experimental results show that this novel vibration assisted polishing device developed in this study can remove more effectively the cutting marks left by last process and obviously reduce the workpiece surface roughness.

  4. Flexural strengthening of reinforced lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete beams with near-surface mounted GFRP bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W.C.; Balendran, R.V.; Nadeem, A.; Leung, H.Y. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

    2006-10-15

    Application of near-surface mounted (NSM) fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bars is emerging as a promising technology for increasing flexural and shear strength of deficient reinforced concrete (RC) members. In order for this technique to perform effectively, the structural behaviour of RC elements strengthened with NSM FRP bars needs to be fully characterized. This paper focuses on the characterization of flexural behaviour of RC members strengthened with NSM glass-FRP bars. Totally, 10 beams were tested using symmetrical two-point loads test. The parameters examined under the beam tests were type of concretes (lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete and normal concrete), type of reinforcing bars (GFRP and steel), and type of adhesives. Flexural performance of the tested beams including modes of failure, moment-deflection response and ultimate moment capacity are presented and discussed in this paper. Results of this investigation showed that beams with NSM GFRP bars showed a reduction in ultimate deflection and an improvement in flexural stiffness and bending capacity, depending on the PA content of the beams. In general, beams strengthened with NSM GFRP bars overall showed a significant increase in ultimate moment ranging from 23% to 53% over the corresponding beams without NSM GFRP bars. The influence of epoxy type was found conspicuously dominated the moment-deflection response up to the peak moment. Besides, the ultimate moment of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars could be predicted satisfactorily using the equation provided in ACI 318-95 Building Code. (author)

  5. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2017-11-01

    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flexural Behavior of RC Slabs Strengthened in Flexure with Basalt Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugyu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both experimental and analytical research results for predicting the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with basalt fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM. A total of 13 specimens were fabricated to evaluate the flexural behavior of RC slabs strengthened with basalt FRCM composite and were tested under four-point loading. The fiber type, tensile reinforcement ratio, and the number of fabric layers were chosen as experimental variables. The maximum load of FRCM-strengthened specimens increased from 11.2% to 98.2% relative to the reference specimens. The energy ratio and ductility of the FRCM-strengthened specimens decreased with the higher amount of fabric and tensile reinforcement. The effective stress level of FRCM fabric can be accurately predicted by a bond strength of ACI 549 and Jung’s model.

  7. Sol-gel derived bioactive coating on zirconia: Effect on flexural strength and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahramian, Khalil; Leminen, Heidi; Meretoja, Ville; Linderbäck, Paula; Kangasniemi, Ilkka; Lassila, Lippo; Abdulmajeed, Aous; Närhi, Timo

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sol-gel derived bioactive coatings on the biaxial flexural strength and fibroblast proliferation of zirconia, aimed to be used as an implant abutment material. Yttrium stabilized zirconia disc-shaped specimens were cut, ground, sintered, and finally cleansed ultrasonically in each of acetone and ethanol for 5 minutes. Three experimental groups (n = 15) were fabricated, zirconia with sol-gel derived titania (TiO 2 ) coating, zirconia with sol-gel derived zirconia (ZrO 2 ) coating, and non-coated zirconia as a control. The surfaces of the specimens were analyzed through images taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a non-contact tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to record the surface topography and roughness of the coated specimens. Biaxial flexural strength values were determined using the piston-on-three ball technique. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation on the surface of the specimens was evaluated using AlamarBlue assay™. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Additionally, the biaxial flexural strength data was also statistically analyzed with the Weibull distribution. The biaxial flexural strength of zirconia specimens was unaffected (p > 0.05). Weibull modulus of TiO 2 coated and ZrO 2 coated groups (5.7 and 5.4, respectively) were lower than the control (8.0). Specimens coated with ZrO 2 showed significantly lower fibroblast proliferation compared to other groups (p sol-gel derived coatings have no influence on the flexural strength of zirconia. ZrO 2 coated specimens showed significantly lower cell proliferation after 12 days than TiO 2 coated or non-coated control. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2401-2407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Non-axisymmetric flexural vibrations of free-edge circular silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, A.V., E-mail: dmitriev@hbar.phys.msu.ru; Gritsenko, D.S.; Mitrofanov, V.P., E-mail: mitr@hbar.phys.msu.ru

    2014-02-07

    Non-axisymmetric flexural vibrations of circular silicon (111) wafers are investigated. The modes with azimuthal index 2⩽k⩽30 are electrostatically excited and monitored by a capacitive sensor. The splitting of the mode frequencies associated with imperfection of the wafer is observed. The measured loss factors for the modes with 6≲k≲26 are close to those calculated according to the thermoelastic damping theory, while clamping losses likely dominate for k≲6, and surface losses at the level of inverse Q-factor Q{sup −1}≈4×10{sup −6} prevail for the modes with large k. The modes demonstrate nonlinear behavior of mainly geometrical origin at large amplitudes.

  9. A novel constrained H2 optimization algorithm for mechatronics design in flexure-linked biaxial gantry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Chen, Si-Lu; Kamaldin, Nazir; Teo, Chek Sing; Tay, Arthur; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2017-11-01

    The biaxial gantry is widely used in many industrial processes that require high precision Cartesian motion. The conventional rigid-link version suffers from breaking down of joints if any de-synchronization between the two carriages occurs. To prevent above potential risk, a flexure-linked biaxial gantry is designed to allow a small rotation angle of the cross-arm. Nevertheless, the chattering of control signals and inappropriate design of the flexure joint will possibly induce resonant modes of the end-effector. Thus, in this work, the design requirements in terms of tracking accuracy, biaxial synchronization, and resonant mode suppression are achieved by integrated optimization of the stiffness of flexures and PID controller parameters for a class of point-to-point reference trajectories with same dynamics but different steps. From here, an H 2 optimization problem with defined constraints is formulated, and an efficient iterative solver is proposed by hybridizing direct computation of constrained projection gradient and line search of optimal step. Comparative experimental results obtained on the testbed are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ceramic strengthening by tuning the elastic moduli of resin-based luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spazzin, Aloísio O; Bacchi, Ataís; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Santos, Mateus B; Basso, Gabriela R; Griggs, Jason; Moraes, Rafael R

    2017-03-01

    Resin-based luting agents (RBLAs) with tuned elastic moduli (E) were prepared and their influence on the strengthening, reliability, and mode of failure of luted feldspar ceramic was investigated. RBLAs with low E (2.6GPa), intermediate E (6.6GPa), and high E (13.3GPa) were prepared and used to coat acid-etched ceramic disks. Positive (untreated ceramic) and negative (acid-etched ceramic) control groups were tested. The response variables (n=30) were biaxial flexural strength (σ bf , MPa), characteristic strength (σ 0 , MPa), and Weibull modulus at the ceramic surface (z=0) and luting agent surface (z=-t 2 ). A 3D finite element analysis simulated the biaxial flexural test. Fractographic analysis and morphology of the bonded interfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The RBLAs improved σ bf and σ 0 at z=0, particularly those with intermediate and high E, whereas the mechanical reliability was only affected in the negative control. At z=-t 2 , differences between all RBLAs were observed but the structural reliability was independent of the RBLA tested. Increasing E of the RBLA was associated with increased stress concentration at the RBLA and reduced stresses reaching the ceramic. Failures originated on the ceramic surface at the ceramic-cement interface. In the high E group, failure sometimes originated from the RBLA free surface. All RBLAs completely filled the ceramic irregularities. Increased E of the RBLA reduced the variability of strength, the stress reaching the ceramic structure, and sometimes altered the origin of failure. The use of high E RBLAs seems beneficial for luting feldspar ceramics. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Laparoscopy of a splenic flexure volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Sesumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Splenic flexure volvulus (SFV is a very rare condition that is unlikely to be suspected even when a patient has repeated episodes of abdominal pain and dyschezia. We describe the case of SFV diagnosed and treated laparoscopically in the non-volvulus condition. A 14-year-old boy with no medical history had severe left upper abdominal pain and dyschezia for approximately 1 year. Although contrast enema examination revealed no characteristic findings of volvulus, such as a bird-beak sign, a redundant part of the colon was found to be the site of abdominal pain. We suspected that this part of the colon was the cause of the left upper abdominal pain and performed laparoscopic exploration. The colon at the splenic flexure formed a long loop and was predisposed to twisting; therefore, we performed resection and functional anastomosis of this redundant colon. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the left upper abdominal pain and dyschezia did not recur. Laparoscopic exploration can play a role in patients who are suspected to have recurrent colonic volvulus with radiographic evidence of a redundant portion of the colon, as indicated in our case.

  12. FLEXURAL TOUGHNESS OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi ÇİVİCİ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber concrete is a composite material which has mechanical and physical characteristics unlike plain concrete. One of the important mechanical characteristics of fiber concrete is its energy absorbing capability. This characteristics which is also called toughness, is defined as the total area under the load-deflection curve. A number of composite characteristics such as crack resistance, ductility and impact resistance are related to the energy absorbtion capacity. According to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 the calculation of toughness is determined by uniaxial flexural testing. Fiber concrete is often used in plates such as bridge decks, airport pavements, parking areas, subjected to cavitation and erosion. In this paper, toughness has been determined according to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 methods by testing beam specimens. Energy absorbing capacities of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete has been compared by evaluating the results of two methods. Also plain and steel fiber reinforced plate specimens behaviors subjected to biaxial flexure are compared by the loaddeflection curves of each specimen.

  13. Practical tuning for Oracle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sun Yong

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with tuning for oracle application, which consists of twenty two chapters. These are the contents of this book : what is tuning?, procedure of tuning, collection of performance data using stats pack, collection of performance data in real time, disk IO dispersion, architecture on Index, partition and IOT, optimization of cluster Factor, optimizer, analysis on plan of operation, selection of Index, tuning of Index, parallel processing architecture, DML, analytic function join method, join type, analysis of application, Lock architecture, SGA architecture and wait event and segment tuning.

  14. Performance evaluation of HSC beams with low flexural reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elrakib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current research is to establish experimental data for minimum flexural reinforcement, ρmin, of high strength concrete (HSC rectangular beams. Nine full-scale singly reinforced beams with flexural reinforcement ratios varying from 50% to 100% of the minimum limit specified by the ACI 363R-35were tested in flexure. Concrete compressive strengths of 52, 73 and 96.5 MPa were used. The test results including crack patterns, deflections and strains in the tensile flexural steel bars show that a 25% reduction of the ACI 363R-35 limit for the ρmin would result in a satisfactory flexural beam behavior with a reserve flexural parameter (Py,/Pcr ⩾ 1.29 and a displacement ductility index λΔ > 5 for all concrete grades which may lead to good savings in the amount of the flexural reinforcement. Also, it was noted that the displacement ductility index λΔ increased as the concrete compressive strength increased for the same ratio (ρ/ρmin up to 75 MPa and then decreases as fcu increases. For the same concrete compressive strength with low values of flexural reinforcement ratio, ρ, the displacement ductility index λΔ increased as ρ increased. The experimental results of this study were compared with the limits specified by available codes and researches.

  15. Processing, structure and flexural strength of CNT and carbon fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vignan Institute of Technology and Science, Deshmukhi, ... perties include primarily the tensile stress, flexural stress and fracture parameters. However ... The present work is an attempt to bring out the flexural strength ..... lating Materials Annual Book of ASTM Standards American.

  16. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine flexure. 572.85 Section 572.85... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.85 Lumbar spine flexure. (a) When subjected to continuously applied force in accordance with paragraph (b...

  17. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... introduces the modern notation used in textbooks and in research today. It further gives an introduction to three-dimensional continuum mechanics of elastic bodies and the related principles of virtual work. The ideas to give the students a basic understanding of the stresses and strains, the equilibrium...

  18. PERI auto-tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D H; Williams, S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chame, J; Chen, C; Hall, M [USC/ISI, Marina del Rey, CA 90292 (United States); Dongarra, J; Moore, S; Seymour, K; You, H [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hollingsworth, J K; Tiwari, A [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hovland, P; Shin, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: mhall@isi.edu

    2008-07-15

    The enormous and growing complexity of today's high-end systems has increased the already significant challenges of obtaining high performance on equally complex scientific applications. Application scientists are faced with a daunting challenge in tuning their codes to exploit performance-enhancing architectural features. The Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) is working toward the goal of automating portions of the performance tuning process. This paper describes PERI's overall strategy for auto-tuning tools and recent progress in both building auto-tuning tools and demonstrating their success on kernels, some taken from large-scale applications.

  19. Flexural and Thermal Properties of Novel Energy Conservation Slotted Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional solid reinforced concrete (RC beams were modified to slotted beams for consideration as thermal insulation structural components. The slotted beam consisted of an outer and an inner beam, respectively, with a slot located near the middle of the beam along its width direction for filling thermal insulation material. Flexural and thermal behavior of the slotted beams were investigated. Three RC reference solid beams and six slotted beams were fabricated and tested under four-point bending tests. The test results indicated that the failure mode of both slotted beams and the solid beams was flexural failure. However, the damage process of the slotted beams was different from that of the solid beams at the final loading stage. The moment curvature analysis indicated that the tensile reinforcement ratio of the outer and inner beams had an important effect on the flexural behavior, especially the ductility of the slotted beams. Thermal study indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of the slotted beam was greatly reduced and the thermal inertia factor increased a lot, compared with the solid beam. In addition, FE simulation results showed that a new frame structure using slotted beams exhibited obvious and attractive thermal insulation property.

  20. Flexural and Shear Behavior of FRP Strengthened AASHTO Type Concrete Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP are being increasingly used for the repair and strengthening of deteriorated or unsafe concrete structures, including structurally deficient concrete highway bridges. The behavior of FRP strengthened concrete bridge girders, including failure modes, failure loads, and deflections, can be determined using an analytical finite element modeling approach, as outlined in this paper. The differences in flexural versus shear FRP strengthening and comparison with available design guidelines are also beneficial to design professionals. In this paper, a common AASHTO type prestressed concrete bridge girder with FRP wrapping was analyzed using the ANSYS FEM software and the ACI analytical approach. Both flexural and shear FRP applications, including vertical and inclined shear strengthening, were examined. Results showed that FRP wrapping can significantly benefit concrete bridge girders in terms of flexure/shear capacity increase, deflection reduction, and crack control. The FRP strength was underutilized in the section selected herein, which could be addressed through decrease of the amount of FRP and prestressing steel used, thereby increasing the section ductility. The ACI approach produced comparable results to the FEM and can be effectively and conveniently used in design.

  1. The fractography analysis of IN718 alloy after three-point flexure fatigue test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belan Juraj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the high cycle fatigue (HCF properties of IN718 superalloy with given chemical composition were investigated at three-point flexure fatigue test at room temperature. INCONEL alloy 718 is nickel-chromium-iron hardenable alloy and due to its unique combination of mechanical properties (high-strength; corrosion-resistant and so on used for production of heat resistant parts of aero jet engine mostly. Mechanical properties of this alloy are strongly dependent on microstructure and on presence of structural features such are principal strengthening phase gamma double prime, gamma prime and due to its morphology less desired delta phases. The mentioned phases precipitate at various temperature ranges and Nb content as well. The three-point flexure fatigue test was performed on ZWICK/ROELL Amsler 150 HFP 5100 test equipment with approximate loading frequency f=150 Hz. The S – N (Stress – Number of cycles curve was obtained after testing. With the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM, fractography analyses were performed to disclose the fracture features of specimens in different life ranges. The brief comparison of three-point flexure and push-pull fatigue loading modes and its influence on fatigue life is discussed as well.

  2. Control of the long period grating spectrum through low frequency flexural acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Roberson A; Possetti, Gustavo R C; Kamikawachi, Ricardo C; Fabris, José L; Muller, Marcia; Pohl, Alexandre A P; Marques, Carlos A F; Nogueira, Rogério N; Neves, Paulo T Jr; Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Bavastri, C

    2011-01-01

    We have shown experimental results of the excitation of long period fiber gratings by means of flexural acoustic waves with a wavelength larger than the grating period, validated by numerical simulations. The effect of the acoustic wave on the grating is modeled with the method of assumed modes, which delivers the strain field inside the grating, then used as the input to the transfer matrix method, needed for calculating the grating spectrum. The experimental and numerical results are found to be in good agreement, even though only the strain-optic effects are taken into account

  3. Flexural wave attenuation in a sandwich beam with viscoelastic periodic cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Pan, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The flexural-wave attenuation performance of traditional constraint-layer damping in a sandwich beam is improved by using periodic constrained-layer damping (PCLD), where the monolithic viscoelastic core is replaced with two periodically alternating viscoelastic cores. Closed-form solutions of the wave propagation constants of the infinite periodic sandwich beam and the forced response of the corresponding finite sandwich structure are theoretically derived, providing computational support on the analysis of attenuation characteristics. In a sandwich beam with PCLD, the flexural waves can be attenuated by both Bragg scattering effect and damping effect, where the attenuation level is mainly dominated by Bragg scattering in the band-gaps and by damping in the pass-bands. Affected by these two effects, when the parameters of periodic cores are properly selected, a sandwich beam with PCLD can effectively reduce vibrations of much lower frequencies than that with traditional constrained-layer damping. The effects of the parameters of viscoelastic periodic cores on band-gap properties are also discussed, showing that the average attenuation in the desired frequency band can be maximized by tuning the length ratio and core thickness to proper values. The research in this paper could possibly provide useful information for the researches and engineers to design damping structures.

  4. The Structure and Flexural Properties of Typha Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Typha leaf has a structure of lightweight cantilever beam, exhibiting excellent mechanical properties with low density. Especially, the leaf blade evolved high strength and low density with high porosity. In this paper, the structure of Typha leaf was characterized by microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the relationship with flexural properties was analyzed. The three-point bending test was performed on leaves to examine flexural properties, which indicated that the flexural properties vary from the base to the apex in gradient. The cross-sectional geometry shape of the leaf blade presented a strong influence on the optimized flexural stiffness. The load carrying capacity of the leaf depended on the development level of the epidermal tissue, the vascular bundle, the mechanical tissue, and the geometric properties. The investigation can be the basis for lightweight structure design and the application in the bionic engineering field.

  5. Role of flexural stiffness of leukocyte microvilli in adhesion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Hsien; Qi, Dewei

    2018-03-01

    Previous work reported that microvillus deformation has an important influence on dynamics of cell adhesion. However, the existing studies were limited to the extensional deformation of microvilli and did not consider the effects of their bending deformation on cell adhesion. This Rapid Communication investigates the effects of flexural stiffness of microvilli on the rolling process related to adhesion of leukocytes by using a lattice-Boltzmann lattice-spring method (LLM) combined with adhesive dynamics (AD) simulations. The simulation results reveal that the flexural stiffness of microvilli and their bending deformation have a profound effect on rolling velocity and adhesive forces. As the flexural stiffness of the microvilli decreases, their bending angles increase, resulting in an increase in the number of receptor-ligand bonds and adhesive bonding force and a decrease in the rolling velocity of leukocytes. The effects of flexural stiffness on deformation and adhesion represent crucial factors involved in cell adhesion.

  6. the response prediction of the flexural strength of concrete made

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Using these aggregates, sixty concrete beams of dimensions 600 mm X 150mm X 150 mm were made, .... The sieving was performed by a sieve shaker. .... Table 3a: Regression Analysis of the Flexural Strength Tests Results.

  7. Flexural testing of weld site and HVOF coating characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Sahin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This book provides fundamental understanding and practical application of characteristics of flexural motion in the assessment of the weld size and coating thickness. Some formulations of heat transfer and flexural motion are introduced while displacement and load correlation are used to estimate elastic modules and the size of the heat affected zone as well as the coating thickness. The case studies presented give a practical understanding of weld size and coating thickness characterizations.

  8. Pretreatment of Woven Jute FRP Composite and Its Use in Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams in Flexure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness motivates researchers worldwide to perform studies of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites, as they come with many advantages and are primarily sustainable. The present study aims at evaluating the mechanical characteristics of natural woven jute fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composite subjected to three different pretreatments, alkali, benzyl chloride, and lastly heat treatment. It was concluded that heat treatment is one of the most suitable treatment methods for enhancing mechanical properties of jute FRP. Durability studies on Jute FRP pertaining to some common environmental conditions were also carried out such as effect of normal water and thermal aging on the tensile strength of jute FRP followed by fire flow test. The heat treated woven jute FRP composites were subsequently used for flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams in full and strip wrapping configurations. The study includes the effect of flexural strengthening provided by woven jute FRP, study of different failure modes, load deflection behavior, effect on the first crack load, and ultimate flexural strength of concrete beams strengthened using woven jute FRP subjected to bending loads. The study concludes that woven jute FRP is a suitable material which can be used for flexural upgradation of reinforced concrete beams.

  9. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  10. Java performance tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Performance has been an important issue for Java developers ever since the first version hit the streets. Over the years, Java performance has improved dramatically, but tuning is essential to get the best results, especially for J2EE applications. You can never have code that runs too fast. Java Peformance Tuning, 2nd edition provides a comprehensive and indispensable guide to eliminating all types of performance problems. Using many real-life examples to work through the tuning process in detail, JPT shows how tricks such as minimizing object creation and replacing strings with arrays can

  11. iTunes music

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Apple's exciting new Mastered for iTunes (MFiT) initiative, introduced in early 2012, introduces new possibilities for delivering high-quality audio. For the first time, record labels and program producers are encouraged to deliver audio materials to iTunes in a high resolution format, which can produce better-sounding masters. In iTunes Music, author and world-class mastering engineer Bob Katz starts out with the basics, surveys the recent past, and brings you quickly up to the present-where the current state of digital audio is bleak. Katz explains the evolution of

  12. Transverse betatron tune measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serio, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of the betatron tune and the techniques to measure it are discussed. The smooth approximation is introduced along with the terminology of betatron oscillations, phase advance and tune. Single particle and beam spectra in the presence of synchro-betatron oscillations are treated with emphasis on the consequences of sampling the beam position. After a general presentation of various kinds of beam position monitors and transverse kickers, the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the beam response to a transverse excitation are discussed and several methods and applications of the tune measurements are listed

  13. Betatron tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative review of the methods for the betatron tune measurement in cyclic accelerators of synchrotrons type, the research of these methods is carried out from the point of view of their applicability to Nuclotron. Both methods using measurement of the statistical fluctuations of the beam current (Schottky noise) and methods using coherent beam excitation have been discussed. The emphasis is on the final results of importance for the tune measurement practice. Signal processing is briefly discussed too

  14. High strength fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellouard, Yves; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Bado, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Flexures are mechanical elements used in micro- and precision-engineering to precisely guide the motion of micro-parts. They consist of slender bodies that deform elastically upon the application of a force. Although counter-intuitive at first, fused silica is an attractive material for flexure. Pending that the machining process does not introduce surface flaws that would lead to catastrophic failure, the material has a theoretically high ultimate tensile strength of several GPa. We report on high-aspect ratio fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser combined with chemical etching. Notch-hinges with thickness as small as twenty microns and aspect ratios comparable to aspect ratios obtained by Deep- Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) were fabricated and tested under different loading conditions. Multiple fracture tests were performed for various loading conditions and the cracks morphologies were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The manufactured elements show outstanding mechanical properties with flexural strengths largely exceeding those obtained with other technologies and materials. Fused silica flexures offer a mean to combine integrated optics with micro-mechanics in a single monolithic substrate. Waveguides and mechanical elements can be combined in a monolithic devices opening new opportunities for integrated opto-mechatronics devices.

  15. Flexural strength of structural concrete repaired with HBPMM cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, G.H.; Khaskheli, G.B.; Kumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    To repair damaged concrete structures, Dadabhoy Cement Factory in Sindh has launched a product known as HBPMM (Hi-Bond Polymer Modified Mortar) cement. HBPMM is used to repair various concrete structures in Pakistan but the experimental back up regarding the real performance of the product, as far as flexural strength of concrete is concerned, is not well known yet. This study is thus aimed to investigate the flexural strength of structural concrete repaired with HBPMM compared to that repaired with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). In total 32 concrete beams (6x6x18) having compressive strength of 3000 and 5000 psi were manufactured. To obtain flexural strength of the beams, these were splitted by using a UTM (Universal Testing Machine). Beams were then repaired with different applications of HBPMM and OPC. After 28 days of curing, the repaired beams were re-splitted to determine the flexural strength of repaired beams. Results show that both HBPMM and OPC are not very effective. However, the performance of HBPMM remained slightly better than that of OPC. Both OPC and HBPMM remained more efficient in case of 5000 psi concrete than that of 3000 psi concrete. Flexural strength of repaired beams could be increased by increasing application of the repairing material. (author)

  16. Probabilistic Flexural Fatigue in Plain and Fiber-Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, José D; Cifuentes, Héctor; Yu, Rena C; Ruiz, Gonzalo

    2017-07-07

    The objective of this work is two-fold. First, we attempt to fit the experimental data on the flexural fatigue of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete with a probabilistic model (Saucedo, Yu, Medeiros, Zhang and Ruiz, Int. J. Fatigue, 2013, 48, 308-318). This model was validated for compressive fatigue at various loading frequencies, but not for flexural fatigue. Since the model is probabilistic, it is not necessarily related to the specific mechanism of fatigue damage, but rather generically explains the fatigue distribution in concrete (plain or reinforced with fibers) for damage under compression, tension or flexion. In this work, more than 100 series of flexural fatigue tests in the literature are fit with excellent results. Since the distribution of monotonic tests was not available in the majority of cases, a two-step procedure is established to estimate the model parameters based solely on fatigue tests. The coefficient of regression was more than 0.90 except for particular cases where not all tests were strictly performed under the same loading conditions, which confirms the applicability of the model to flexural fatigue data analysis. Moreover, the model parameters are closely related to fatigue performance, which demonstrates the predictive capacity of the model. For instance, the scale parameter is related to flexural strength, which improves with the addition of fibers. Similarly, fiber increases the scattering of fatigue life, which is reflected by the decreasing shape parameter.

  17. Flexural behaviour of RCC beams with externally bonded FRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, S. Arun; Sumathi, A.; Saravana Raja Mohan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The increasing use of carbon and glass fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets for strengthening existing reinforced concrete beams has generated considerable interest in understanding the behavior of the FRP sheets when subjected to bending. The study on flexure includes various parameters like percentage of increase in strength of the member due to the externally bonded Fiber reinforced polymer, examining the crack patterns, reasons of debonding of the fibre from the structure, scaling, convenience of using the fibres, cost effectiveness etc. The present work aims to study experimentally about the reasons behind the failure due to flexure of an EB-FRP concrete beam by studying the various parameters. Deflection control may become as important as flexural strength for the design of FRPreinforced concrete structures. A numerical model is created using FEM software and the results are compared with that of the experiment.

  18. Flexural-Phonon Scattering Induced by Electrostatic Gating in Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Graphene has an extremely high carrier mobility partly due to its planar mirror symmetry inhibiting scattering by the highly occupied acoustic flexural phonons. Electrostatic gating of a graphene device can break the planar mirror symmetry, yielding a coupling mechanism to the flexural phonons......-limiting factor, and show how the carrier density and temperature scaling of the mobility depends on the electrostatic environment. Our findings may explain the high deformation potential for in-plane acoustic phonons extracted from experiments and, furthermore, suggest a direct relation between device symmetry...

  19. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinot Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1 an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2 a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3 a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  20. Frequency Tuning of Vibration Absorber Using Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Swapnil Subhash

    A tuned mass absorber is a system for reducing the amplitude in one oscillator by coupling it to a second oscillator. If tuned correctly, the maximum amplitude of the first oscillator in response to a periodic driver will be lowered, and much of the vibration will be 'transferred' to the second oscillator. The tuned vibration absorber (TVA) has been utilized for vibration control purposes in many sectors of Civil/Automotive/Aerospace Engineering for many decades since its inception. Time and again we come across a situation in which a vibratory system is required to run near resonance. In the past, approaches have been made to design such auxiliary spring mass tuned absorbers for the safety of the structures. This research focuses on the development and optimization of continuously tuned mass absorbers as a substitute to the discretely tuned mass absorbers (spring- mass system). After conducting the study of structural behavior, the boundary condition and frequency to which the absorber is to be tuned are determined. The Modal analysis approach is used to determine mode shapes and frequencies. The absorber is designed and optimized using the topology optimization tool, which simultaneously designs, optimizes and tunes the absorber to the desired frequency. The tuned, optimized absorber, after post processing, is attached to the target structure. The number of the absorbers are increased to amplify bandwidth and thereby upgrade the safety of structure for a wide range of frequency. The frequency response analysis is carried out using various combinations of structure and number of absorber cell.

  1. Tune splitting in the presence of linear coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of random skew quadrupole field errors will couple the x and y motions. The x and y motions are then each given by the sum of 2 normal modes with the tunes v 1 and v 2 , which may differ appreciably from v x and v y , the unperturbed tunes. This is often called tune splitting since |v 1 - v 2 | is usually larger than |v x - v y |. This tune splitting may be large in proton accelerators using superconducting magnets, because of the relatively large random skew quadrupole field errors that are expected in these magnets. This effect is also increased by the required insertions in proton colliders which generate large β-functions in the insertion region. This tune splitting has been studied in the RHIC accelerator. For RHIC, a tune splitting as large as 0.2 was found in one worse case. A correction system has been developed for correcting this large tune splitting which uses two families of skew quadrupole correctors. It has been found that this correction system corrects most of the large tune splitting, but a residual tune splitting remains that is still appreciable. This paper discusses the corrections to this residual time

  2. SC tuning fork

    CERN Document Server

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  3. Unified model to predict flexural shear behavior of externally bonded RC beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colotti, V.; Spadea, G.; Swamy, R.N.

    2006-01-01

    Structural strengthening with externally bonded reinforcement is now recognized as a cost-effective, structurally sound and practically efficient method of rehabilitating deteriorating and damaged reinforced concrete beams. There is now an urgent need to develop a sound engineering basis which can predict the failure loads of all such strengthened beams in a reliable and consistent manner. Existing models to predict the behavior at ultimate of strengthened beams suffer from many limitations and weaknesses. This paper presents a unified global model, based on the Strut-and-Tie approach, to predict the failure loads of reinforced concrete beams strengthened for flexure and/or shear. This structural model is based on rational engineering principles, considers all the possible failure modes, and incorporates the load transfer mechanism bond to reflect the debonding phenomena which has a dominant influence on the failure process of plated beams. The model is validated against about 200 strengthened beam test reported in the literature and failing in flexure and/or shear, involving a large number of structural variables and steel, carbon and glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates as reinforcing medium. (author)

  4. Flexural resonance mechanism of thermal transport across graphene-SiO2 interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Qiu, Bo; Xu, Shanglong; Ruan, Xiulin; Pop, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the microscopic mechanism of heat dissipation at the dimensionally mismatched interface between a two-dimensional (2D) crystal and its substrate is crucial for the thermal management of devices based on 2D materials. Here, we study the lattice contribution to thermal (Kapitza) transport at graphene-SiO2 interfaces using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). We find that 78 percent of the Kapitza conductance is due to sub-20 THz flexural acoustic modes, and that a resonance mechanism dominates the interfacial phonon transport. MD and NEGF estimate the classical Kapitza conductance to be hK ≈ 10 to 16 MW K-1 m-2 at 300 K, respectively, consistent with existing experimental observations. Taking into account quantum mechanical corrections, this value is approximately 28% lower at 300 K. Our calculations also suggest that hK scales as T2 at low temperatures (T < 100 K) due to the linear frequency dependence of phonon transmission across the graphene-SiO2 interface at low frequencies. Our study sheds light on the role of flexural acoustic phonons in heat dissipation from graphene to its substrate.

  5. Flexural Behavior of RC Members Using Externally Bonded Aluminum-Glass Fiber Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns improvement of flexural stiffness/strength of concrete members reinforced with externally bonded, aluminum-glass fiber composite (AGC beams. An experimental program, consisting of seven reinforced concrete slabs and seven reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with AGC beams, was initiated under four-point bending in order to evaluate three parameters: the cross-sectional shape of the AGC beam, the glass fiber fabric array, and the installation of fasteners. The load-deflection response, strain distribution along the longitudinal axis of the beam, and associated failure modes of the tested specimens were recorded. It was observed that the AGC beam led to an increase of the initial cracking load, yielding load of the tension steels and peak load. On the other hand, the ductility of some specimens strengthened was reduced by more than 50%. The A-type AGC beam was more efficient in slab specimens than in beam specimens and the B-type was more suitable for beam specimens than for slabs.

  6. Compressive and flexural strength of cement mortar stabilized with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortar is a material with wide range of applications in the construction industry. However, plain mortar matrices are usually brittle and often cracks and fails more suddenly than reinforced mortars. In this study, the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar stabilized with Raffia Palm Fruit Peel (RPFP) as fibre were ...

  7. Flexure of the Indian plate and intraplate earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The imposition of this stress field on the northward moving Indian plate appears fundamental to explaining the current distribution of intraplate earthquakes and their mechanisms. The current study highlights an outer trough south of the flexural bulge in central India where surface stresses are double the contiguous ...

  8. Adjustable bipod flexures for mounting mirrors in a space telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Hagyong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Moon, Il Kweon; Yeon, Jeong-Heum; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2012-11-10

    A new mirror mounting technique applicable to the primary mirror in a space telescope is presented. This mounting technique replaces conventional bipod flexures with flexures having mechanical shims so that adjustments can be made to counter the effects of gravitational distortion of the mirror surface while being tested in the horizontal position. Astigmatic aberration due to the gravitational changes is effectively reduced by adjusting the shim thickness, and the relation between the astigmatism and the shim thickness is investigated. We tested the mirror interferometrically at the center of curvature using a null lens. Then we repeated the test after rotating the mirror about its optical axis by 180° in the horizontal setup, and searched for the minimum system error. With the proposed flexure mount, the gravitational stress at the adhesive coupling between the mirror and the mount is reduced by half that of a conventional bipod flexure for better mechanical safety under launch loads. Analytical results using finite element methods are compared with experimental results from the optical interferometer. Vibration tests verified the mechanical safety and optical stability, and qualified their use in space applications.

  9. Effect of surface treatment on flexural strength of zirconia bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Statement of problem Clinical and laboratory processing techniques induce damage to the surface of zirconia frameworks, which significantly lessens their strength. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 surface restoration methods on the flexural strength of zirconia

  10. Fatigue Strength of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members | Kuryllo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that reinforced concrete flexural members subjected to cyclic loads behave differently compared with static bending and can collapse due to the fatigue of concrete, reinforcement or both when maximum fatigue stresses of concrete and steel are well below the corresponding static strengths. But up till now ...

  11. Predicting Flexural Strength of Concretes Incorporating River Gravel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most of these cases the cause of the collapse could be traced to the strength of the construction materials which is usually concrete. Secondly, experimental ... The flexural strength predictions were compared with predictions from an alternative model based on regression analysis. The results of the study show that for the ...

  12. Fatigue life prediction of fiber reinforced concrete under flexural load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jun; Stang, Henrik; Li, Victor

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method to predict fatigue behavior in flexure of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) based on the equilibrium of force in the critical cracked section. The model relies on the cyclic bridging law, the so-called stress-crack width relationship under cyclic tensile...

  13. prediction of flexural strength of chikoko pozzolana blended cement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    optimize the flexural strength of chikoko pozzolana blended cement concrete using Osadebe's regression function. The ... such as cement [1-3]. Nigeria is blessed with abundance of local building and construction materials such as stones, sand, laterite and timber. However ...... Soil Stabilization”, International Journal of.

  14. Weak-axis flexural buckling of cellular and castellated columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, D.; Belis, J.L.I.F.

    Cellular and castellated members are usually produced by performing cutting and rewelding operations on a hot-rolled I-section member. As illustrated in previous work, these operations will influence the residual stresses present in the members in a manner which is detrimental for the flexural

  15. comparative evaluation of the flexural strength of concrete and colcrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concrete and polymer concrete, from continuous researches being carried out on. 13 ... COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AND COLCRETE advantage of being able to use larger sizes of ... and low permeability, colcrete has found applications in tunnel linings, dams, bridges.

  16. Strengthening of Steel Columns under Load: Torsional-Flexural Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical research into the strengthening of steel columns under load using welded plates. So far, the experimental research in this field has been limited mostly to flexural buckling of columns and the preload had low effect on the column load resistance. This paper focuses on the local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling of columns. Three sets of three columns each were tested. Two sets corresponding to the base section (D and strengthened section (E were tested without preloading and were used for comparison. Columns from set (F were first preloaded to the load corresponding to the half of the load resistance of the base section (D. Then the columns were strengthened and after they cooled, they were loaded to failure. The columns strengthened under load (F had similar average resistance as the columns welded without preloading (E, meaning the preload affects even members susceptible to local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling only slightly. This is the same behaviour as of the tested columns from previous research into flexural buckling. The study includes results gained from finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results obtained from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  17. Flexural properties of treated and untreated kenaf/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, B.F.; Shalwan, A.; Chin, C.W.; Ming, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Untreated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Treated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Highlights: ► Treatment of kenaf fibres with 6% NaOH has improved the flexural properties of epoxy composites. ► Interfacial adhesion of the natural fibres is controlled by the microstructure of the fibres. ► Kenaf fibres have a potential to replace glass fibres for flexural applications. -- Abstract: In the current work, flexural properties of unidirectional long kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composites are studied. The kenaf fibres were prepared into two types as untreated and treated (with 6% NaOH). The failure mechanism and damage features of the materials were categorized with the surface observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that reinforcement of epoxy with treated kenaf fibres increased the flexural strength of the composite by about 36%, while, untreated fibres introduced 20% improvement. This was mainly due to the high improvement of the chemical treatment (NaOH) on the interfacial adhesion of the fibres and the porosity of the composites which prevented the debonding, detachments or pull out of fibres. For untreated KFRE, the fracture mechanisms were debonding, tearing, detachments and pull out of fibres. The developed composite exhibited superior properties compared to the previous composites based on natural and synthetic fibres.

  18. Environmental effect of water absorption and flexural strength of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation is aimed at processing a composite using jute fiber and epoxy resin as matrix and red mud as a filler material. The degradation of the composite mechanical properties such as flexural strength has been studied when it is subjected to different environmental conditions. To increase the adhesion ...

  19. Mechanical design of deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for linear nanopositioning stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kearney, Steven P.; Preissner, Curt A.

    2015-02-17

    A method and deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for precision linear nanopositioning stages are provided. A deformation-compensated flexural linear guiding mechanism includes a basic parallel mechanism including a U-shaped member and a pair of parallel bars linked to respective pairs of I-link bars and each of the I-bars coupled by a respective pair of flexural pivots. The basic parallel mechanism includes substantially evenly distributed flexural pivots minimizing center shift dynamic errors.

  20. Improvement of the cooldown time of LSF 9599 flexure bearing SADA cooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullié, J.; Groep, van der W.; Bruins, P.; Benschop, T.; Koning, de A.; Dam, J.A.M.; Andresen, B.F.; Fulop, G.F.; Norton, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    Thales Cryogenics has presented the LSF 9599 SADA II flexure cooler in 2005. Based on Thales' well-known moving magnet flexure technology, the LSF 9599 complies with the SADA II specification with respect to performance, envelope and mass. Being the first manufacturer offering a full flexure-bearing

  1. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  2. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  3. An experimental study on the flexural and shear behavior of steel plate concrete—reinforced concrete connected structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K.M.; Lee, K.J.; Yang, H.J.; Kim, W.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper confirmed the structural behavior of the connection plane between a RC and a SC member. ► Out-of-plane flexural load tests verified the appropriateness of the ductile non-contact splice length. ► The test results for the in-plane shear load showed the needlessness of horizontal bars in the SC member. ► In order to consider dynamic loads such as earthquakes, cyclic loading tests were carried out. ► Numerical analysis was carried out to verify test results and its results was compared with them. -- Abstract: This paper describes an experimental study on the structural behavior of the joint plane between a RC (reinforced concrete) wall and a SC (steel plate concrete) wall under out-of-plane flexural loads and in-plane shear loads. L- and I-shaped test specimens were produced to efficiently assess the flexural and shear behavior of the structures. In order to consider dynamic loads such as earthquakes, cyclic loading tests were carried out. The out-of-plane flexural test conducted on the short development length L-shaped specimen with a non-contact splice length exhibited a ductile failure mode that surpassed the nominal strength, verifying the validity of the splice length used in its design. The in-plane shear test was conducted on two I-shaped specimens varying the compositional presence of horizontal bars in the SC member. The test results showed that the capacity of the specimens was more than their nominal strength regardless of the compositional presence of horizontal bars. The shear friction tests of the RC–SC member connection conducted on the other L-shaped specimen caused the failure of the SC member and verified a shear resistance of at least 85.5% compared to the theoretical value

  4. 110 GHz rapid, continous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, I.D.; Adhimoolam, B.; Gross, P.; Klein, M.E.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2005-01-01

    A singly-resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser is described. Tuning of the pump source allowed the OPO output to be tuned continuously, without mode-hops, over 110 GHz in 29 ms. Discontinuous pump tuning over 20 nm in the region of

  5. Flexural Performance of Transparent Plastic Bar Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungil Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, experiments were conducted to derive a mix design for improving the flexural performance of light transparent concrete, which is attracting much attention and interest as an interior and exterior material for buildings, so that it could be easily applied in the field as a non-structural element by securing a lightweight, workability, and economic efficiency through the improvement of the concrete mix design and the use of economical materials for promoting its practical use. It was found that the mixing of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fiber was effective in improving the consistency by preventing the aggregate from floating due to the mixing of lightweight aggregate with a low specific gravity. The flexural performance test results showed that the load transfer factor (LTF from the concrete matrix to the fiber was highest in the test specimens without plastic bars, followed by those with 5 and 10 mm plastic bars, respectively.

  6. Reinforced flexural elements for TEMP-STRESS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Kennedy, J.M.; Pfeiffer, P.A.

    1987-06-01

    The implementation of reinforced flexural elements into the thermal-mechanical finite element program TEMP-STRESS is described. With explicit temporal integration and dynamic relaxation capabilities in the program, the flexural elements provide an efficient method for the treatment of reinforced structures subjected to transient and static loads. The capability of the computer program is illustrated by the solution of several examples: the simulation of a reinforced concrete beam; simulations of a reinforced concrete containment shell which is subjected to internal pressurization, thermal gradients through the walls, and transient pressure loads. The results of this analysis are relevant in the structural design/safety evaluations of typical reactor containment structures. 22 refs., 13 figs

  7. Experimental Study on Flexural Strength of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Khoa Tan Nguyen; Tuan Anh Le; Kihak Lee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the flexural response of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete (RGPC) beams. A commercial finite element (FE) software ABAQUS has been used to perform a structural behavior of RGPC beams. Using parameters such: stress, strain, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio obtained from experimental results, a beam model has been simulated in ABAQUS. The results from experimental tests and ABAQUS simulation were compared. Due to friction forces at the supports and loading rollers; slip occ...

  8. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  9. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  10. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  11. Flexural Cracking Behavior Of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abdalkader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel fibers are added to concrete due to its ability to improve the tensile strength and control propagation of cracks in reinforced concrete members. Steel fiber reinforced concrete is made of cement fine water and coarse aggregate in addition to steel fibers. In this experimental work flexural cracking behavior of reinforced concrete beams contains different percentage of hooked-end steel fibers with length of 50 mm and equivalent diameter of 0.5 mm was studied. The beams were tested under third-point loading test at 28 days. First cracking load maximum crack width cracks number and load-deflection relations were investigated to evaluate the flexural cracking behavior of concrete beams with 34 MPa target mean strength. Workability wet density compressive and splitting tensile strength were also investigated. The results showed that the flexural crack width is significantly reduced with the addition of steel fibers. Fiber contents of 1.0 resulted in 81 reduction in maximum crack width compared to control concrete without fiber. The results also showed that the first cracking load and maximum load are increased with the addition of steel fibers.

  12. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  13. [Effect of core: dentin thickness ratio on the flexure strength of IPS Empress II heat-pressed all-ceramic restorative material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-hong; Feng, Hai-lan; Bao, Yi-wang; Qiu, Yan

    2007-02-18

    To evaluate the effect of core:dentin thickness ratio on the flexure strength, fracture mode and origin of bilayered IPS Empress II ceramic composite specimens. IPS Empress II core ceramic, dentin porcelain and bilayered composite specimens with core:dentin thickness ratio of 2:1 and 1:1 were tested in three-point flexure strength. Mean strengths and standard deviations were determined. The optical microscopy was employed for identification of the fracture mode and origin. The flexure strength of dentin porcelain was the smallest(62.7 MPa), and the strength of bilayered composite specimens was smaller than single-layered core ceramic(190.2 MPa). The core: dentin ratio did not influence the strength of bilayered composite specimens. The frequency of occurrence of bilayered specimen delaminations was higher in the group of core: dentin thickness ratio of 1:1 than in the group of 2:1. IPS Empress II core ceramic was significantly stronger than veneering dentin porcelain. Core:dentin thickness ratio could significantly influence the fracture mode and origin, and bilayered IPS Empress II ceramic composite specimens showed little influence in the fracture strength.

  14. System tuning and measurement error detection testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, Petr; Machek, Jindrich

    2008-09-01

    The project includes the use of the PEANO (Process Evaluation and Analysis by Neural Operators) system to verify the monitoring of the status of dependent measurements with a view to early measurement fault detection and estimation of selected signal levels. At the present stage, the system's capabilities of detecting measurement errors was assessed and the quality of the estimates was evaluated for various system configurations and the formation of empiric models, and rules were sought for system training at chosen process data recording parameters and operating modes. The aim was to find a suitable system configuration and to document the quality of the tuned system on artificial failures

  15. Application of Evolutionary Computation in Automotive Powertrain Mount Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anab Akanda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine mount tuning is a multi-disciplinary exercise since it affects Idle-shake, Road-shake and power-train noise response. Engine inertia is often used as a tuned absorber for controlling suspension resonance related road-shake issues. Last but not least, vehicle ride and handling may also be affected by mount tuning. In this work, Torque-Roll-Axis (TRA decoupling of the rigid powertrain was used as a starting point for mount tuning. Nodal point of flexible powertrain bending was used to define the envelop for transmission mount locations. The frequency corresponding to the decoupled roll mode of the rigid powertrain was then adjusted for idle-shake and road-shake response management.

  16. Investigation of the Processing Parameters Impact on the Flexural Tool Vibrations While Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach to analyze a dynamic stability of the drilling process in terms of tool flexibility. The proposed technique takes into consideration a regenerative effect leading to time delay in the dynamic system. This regenerative delay is the main source of arising dynamically unstable machining conditions. The paper describes a principle of emerging self-vibrations while cutting. It mentions the undesirable nature of transverse bending selfvibrations of tool, which cause a decreasing quality of the processed hole surface.The suggested approach consists in building a diagram of the drilling process stability for a tool model allowing only its flexural vibrations. The feature of the study is to describe tool dynamics using a finite element model based on the quadratic approximation of displacements for tool dynamics modeling. The assumption of an axial symmetry of drill geometry was discarded. The reduced model of tool was built taking into account two eigenvectors corresponding to tool bending. This model contains 2 degrees of freedom (DOF, which are, essentially, rotations of a drill tip. The technology of rigid multi-point constraints was used to connect those DOFs with solid finite element nodes. The system of delayed differential equations describing the reduced tool model dynamics was derived to estimate a dynamic stability of the drilling process. The Floquet theory is applied to build a stability diagram as a maximum multiplicator value versus a drill rotation rate. The presented diagram allows us to draw a conclusion that in the wide range of rotation frequencies transverse bending self- vibrations can be excited. The results obtained and the calculation technique may be used to choose the operation modes free from undesirable flexural self-vibrations of tool.The reported study was supported by RFBR within the framework of the research project ” mol_a”№ 14-08-31603 “Development of methods and algorithms for

  17. Thermal tuning On narrow linewidth fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peiqi; Liu, Tianshan; Gao, Xincun; Ren, Shiwei

    2010-10-01

    At present, people have been dedicated to high-speed and large-capacity optical fiber communication system. Studies have been shown that optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology is an effective means of communication to increase the channel capacity. Tunable lasers have very important applications in high-speed, largecapacity optical communications, and distributed sensing, it can provide narrow linewidth and tunable laser for highspeed optical communication. As the erbium-doped fiber amplifier has a large gain bandwidth, the erbium-doped fiber laser can be achieved lasing wavelength tunable by adding a tunable filter components, so tunable filter device is the key components in tunable fiber laser.At present, fiber laser wavelength is tuned by PZT, if thermal wavelength tuning is combined with PZT, a broader range of wavelength tuning is appearance . Erbium-doped fiber laser is used in the experiments,the main research is the physical characteristics of fiber grating temperature-dependent relationship and the fiber grating laser wavelength effects. It is found that the fiber laser wavelength changes continuously with temperature, tracking several temperature points observed the self-heterodyne spectrum and found that the changes in spectra of the 3dB bandwidth of less than 1kHz, and therefore the fiber laser with election-mode fiber Bragg grating shows excellent spectral properties and wavelength stability.

  18. Thermically tuned nematic guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella-Madueño, Adalberto; Reyes, Juan Adrián

    2006-06-01

    We consider a cylindrical fiber with a liquid crystal core satisfying homeotropic weak anchoring boundary conditions. We find the different textures of the nematic inside the cylinder obtained by changing the temperature. We calculate exactly the spatial distribution of the transverse magnetic modes in the guide as a function of temperature of the system by using a numerical scheme.

  19. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  20. Effect of flexural crack on plain concrete beam failure mechanism A numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The flexural failure of plain concrete beam occurs along with development of flexural crack on beam. In this paper by using ABAQUS, mechanism failure of plain concrete beam under three steps have been simulated. The cracking moment has been analytically calculated and applied on the both sides of the fixed beam, and flexural crack has been simulated on beam. Displacement, von Mises, load reaction, displacementcrack length, von Mises-crack length and von Mises-displacement of beams have been graphical depicted. Results indicated that, the flexural crack governs beam mechanism failure and its effects on beam resistance failure. It has been found that the flexural crack in initial stage it developed slowly and changes to be fast at the final stage of collapsing beam due to reduction of the flexural resistance of beam. Increasing mechanical properties of concrete, collapse displacement is reduced.

  1. Varactor-tuned Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Acar, Öncel; Dong, Yunfeng

    Evanescent mode waveguides allow for more compact microwave component design in comparison to the traditional fundamental mode waveguide technology. Evanescent waveguides can be integrated into a dielectric substrate in order to further reduce the mass and volume. Unfortunately, traditional...... realization methods used in the standard evanescent waveguides are often not directly applicable to substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology due to dielectric filling and small height of the waveguide. In this work, one of the realization methods of evanescent waveguides using lumped elements...... is considered. In contrast to other methods described in the literature, it avoids etching split ring resonators in the metal layer of the SIW. The filters presented here use varactors as tuning elements. The varactors (as well as DC decoupling circuits) are mounted on the surface of PCB bringing the lower...

  2. Tensile and Flexural Test on Kenaf Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Z.; Yunus, S.; Masdek, N. R. N. M.; Taib, Y. M.; Azhar, I. I. S.; Hyie, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The widely use of synthetic materials like carbon and fiberglass in various industries such as automotive and aircraft has lead to human health and environment problems. Therefore, the use of natural fibres such as kenaf has received higher attention as reinforcement. Kenaf or the scientific name is Hibiscus Cannabinus. L is one of the group of Malvecea plant which in the early days, the application of kenaf served only rope and canvas. However, it has more advantages than synthetic materials such as; widely availaible, renewable, lightweight, non-abbrasiveness during processing, high specific strength, free from health hazard and biodegradeable. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different arrangement of kenaf and fiberglass composites on Young’s Modulus. The material composite was hardened with polyester resin and their properties was characterized. The tensile and the flexural properties is determined using an Instron universal tensile testing machine and carried out by following ASTM D3039 for tensile and ASTM D790 for a flexural test. The experimental program was designed to correlate the flexural and tensile Young’s Modulus of kenaf and fiberglass composite under the same load condition but different arrangement of kenaf and fiberglass on the mold . The resistance to change in shape was described by the behavior and characteristic of the composite materials. The stiffness or the elastic modulus of the composite material was determined at the end of the experiment. The results obtained show that the [±90FG/0/90/90/0/±90FG] kenaf/fiberglass composite arrangement has the highest elastic value.

  3. Intrinsic Embedded Sensors for Polymeric Mechatronics: Flexure and Force Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif P. Jentoft

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While polymeric fabrication processes, including recent advances in additive manufacturing, have revolutionized manufacturing, little work has been done on effective sensing elements compatible with and embedded within polymeric structures. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of two important sensing modalities for embedding in polymeric mechatronic and robotic mechanisms: multi-axis flexure joint angle sensing utilizing IR phototransistors, and a small (12 mm, three-axis force sensing via embedded silicon strain gages with similar performance characteristics as an equally sized metal element based sensor.

  4. Intrinsic embedded sensors for polymeric mechatronics: flexure and force sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentoft, Leif P; Dollar, Aaron M; Wagner, Christopher R; Howe, Robert D

    2014-02-25

    While polymeric fabrication processes, including recent advances in additive manufacturing, have revolutionized manufacturing, little work has been done on effective sensing elements compatible with and embedded within polymeric structures. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of two important sensing modalities for embedding in polymeric mechatronic and robotic mechanisms: multi-axis flexure joint angle sensing utilizing IR phototransistors, and a small (12 mm), three-axis force sensing via embedded silicon strain gages with similar performance characteristics as an equally sized metal element based sensor.

  5. Source Illusion Devices for Flexural Lamb Waves Using Elastic Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongquan; Liang, Zixian; Liu, Fu; Diba, Owen; Lamb, Alistair; Li, Jensen

    2017-07-21

    Inspired by recent demonstrations of metasurfaces in achieving reduced versions of electromagnetic cloaks, we propose and experimentally demonstrate source illusion devices to manipulate flexural waves using metasurfaces. The approach is particularly useful for elastic waves due to the lack of form invariance in usual transformation methods. We demonstrate compact and simple-to-implement metasurfaces for shifting, transforming, and splitting a point source. The effects are measured to be broadband and robust against a change of source positions, with agreement from numerical simulations and the Huygens-Fresnel theory. The proposed method is potentially useful for applications such as nondestructive testing, high-resolution ultrasonography, and advanced signal modulation.

  6. Flexural Behavior of Aluminum Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Vidyasagar; Kumar, J. Suresh; Venkataraviteja, Duddu; Reddy, Guggulla Bharath Kumar

    2017-05-01

    This project is concerned with the fabrication and flexural testing of aluminium honey comb sandwich structure which is a special case of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a light weight but thick core. The core material is normally low density material but its high thickness provide the sandwich composite with high bonding stiffness. Honeycomb core are classified into two types based on the materials and structures. Hexagonal shape has a unique properties i.e has more bonding strength and less formation time based on the cell size and sheet thickness. Sandwich structure exhibit different properties such as high load bearing capacity at low weight and has excellent thermal insulation. By considering the above properties it has tendency to minimize the structural problem. So honey comb sandwich structure is choosed. The core structure has a different applications such as aircraft, ship interiors, construction industries. As there is no proper research on strength characteristics of sandwich structure. So, we use light weight material to desire the strength. There are different parameters involved in this structure i.e cell size, sheet thickness and core height. In this project we considered 3 level of comparison among the 3 different parameters cell size of 4, 6 and 8 mm, sheet thickness of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm, and core height of 20,25 and 30 mm. In order to reduce the number of experiment we use taguchi design of experiment, and we select the L8 orthogonal array is the best array for this type of situation, which clearly identifies the parameters by independent of material weight to support this we add the minitab software, to identify the main effective plots and regression equation which involves the individual response and corresponding parameters. Aluminium material is used for the fabrication of Honeycomb sandwich structure among the various grades of aluminium we consider the AL6061 which is light weight material

  7. Three-Dimensional Glass Monolithic Micro-Flexure Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Exposure and Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Tielen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexures are components of micro-mechanisms efficiently replacing classical multi-part joints found at the macroscale. So far, flexures have been limited to two-dimensional planar designs due to the lack of a suitable three-dimensional micromanufacturing process. Here we demonstrate and characterize a high-strength transparent monolithic three-dimensional flexural component fabricated out of fused silica using non-ablative femtosecond laser processing combined with chemical etching. As an illustration of the potential use of this flexure, we propose a design of a Hoecken linkage entirely made with three-dimensional cross-spring pivot hinges.

  8. Confinement Effect on Material Properties of RC Beams Under Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sumant; Shiyekar, Mukund Ramchandra; Shiyekar, Sandip Mukund

    2017-12-01

    In structural analysis, especially in indeterminate structures, it becomes essential to know the material and geometrical properties of members. The codal provisions recommend elastic properties of concrete and steel and these are fairly accurate enough. The stress-strain curve for concrete cylinder or a cube specimen is plotted. The slope of this curve is modulus of elasticity of plain concrete. Another method of determining modulus of elasticity of concrete is by flexural test of a beam specimen. The modulus of elasticity most commonly used for concrete is secant modulus. The modulus of elasticity of steel is obtained by performing a tension test of steel bar. While performing analysis by any software for high rise building, cross area of plain concrete is taken into consideration whereas effects of reinforcement bars and concrete confined by stirrups are neglected. Present aim of study is to determine elastic properties of reinforced cement concrete beam. Two important stiffness properties such as AE and EI play important role in analysis of high rise RCC building idealized as plane frame. The experimental program consists of testing of beams (model size 150 × 150 × 700 mm) with percentage of reinforcement varying from 0.54 to 1.63% which commensurate with existing Codal provisions of IS:456-2000 for flexural member. The effect of confinement is considered in this study. The experimental results are verified by using 3D finite element techniques.

  9. Fracture toughness of ultra high performance concrete by flexural performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolova Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fracture toughness of the innovative structural material - Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC, evaluated by flexural performance. For determination the material behaviour by static loading are used adapted standard test methods for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (ASTM C 1609 and ASTM C 1018. Fracture toughness is estimated by various deformation parameters derived from the load-deflection curve, obtained by testing simple supported beam under third-point loading, using servo-controlled testing system. This method is used to be estimated the contribution of the embedded fiber-reinforcement into improvement of the fractural behaviour of UHPC by changing the crack-resistant capacity, fracture toughness and energy absorption capacity with various mechanisms. The position of the first crack has been formulated based on P-δ (load- deflection response and P-ε (load - longitudinal deformation in the tensile zone response, which are used for calculation of the two toughness indices I5 and I10. The combination of steel fibres with different dimensions leads to a composite, having at the same time increased crack resistance, first crack formation, ductility and post-peak residual strength.

  10. Progress in Developing Finite Element Models Replicating Flexural Graphite Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratton, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the status of flexural strength evaluations from current ASTM procedures and of developing finite element models predicting the probability of failure. This work is covered under QLD REC-00030. Flexural testing procedures of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) assume a linear elastic material that has the same moduli for tension and compression. Contrary to this assumption, graphite is known to have different moduli for tension and compression. A finite element model was developed and demonstrated that accounts for the difference in moduli tension and compression. Brittle materials such as graphite exhibit significant scatter in tensile strength, so probabilistic design approaches must be used when designing components fabricated from brittle materials. ASTM procedures predicting probability of failure in ceramics were compared to methods from the current version of the ASME graphite core components rules predicting probability of failure. Using the ASTM procedures yields failure curves at lower applied forces than the ASME rules. A journal paper was published in the Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design exploring the statistical models of fracture in graphite.

  11. A Method for Recognizing State of Finger Flexure and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terado, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Osamu

    In our country, the handicapped and the elderly people in bed increase rapidly. In the bedridden person’s daily life, there may be limitations in the physical movement and the means of mutual communication. For the support of their comfortable daily lives, therefore, the development of human interface equipment becomes an important task. The equipment of this kind is being already developed by means of laser beam, eye-tracking, breathing motion and myo-electric signals, while the attachment and handling are normally not so easy. In this study, paying attention to finger motion, we have developed human interface equipment easily attached to the body, which enables one to measure the finger flexure and extension for mutual communication. The state of finger flexure and extension is identified by a threshold level analysis from the 3D-locus data for the finger movement, which can be measured through the infrared rays from the LED markers attached to a glove with the previously developed prototype system. We then have confirmed from an experiment that nearly 100% recognition for the finger movement can be achieved.

  12. Distribution of flexural deflection in the worldwide outer rise area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Jun; Lin, Jing-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Chen, Yen-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The outer rise on the fringe of a subduction system is caused by an accreted load on the flexed oceanic lithosphere. The magnitude of the deflection is usually linked to the stress state beard by the oceanic plate. In a coupled subduction zone, the stress is abundantly accumulated across the plate boundary which should affect the flexural properties of the subducted plate. Thus, the variation of the outer rise in shape may reflect the seismogenic characteristics of the subduction system. In this study, we intent to find the correlation between the flexure deflection (Wb) of the outer rise and the subduction zone properties by comparing several slab parameters and the Wb distribution. The estimation of Wb is performed based on the available bathymetry data and the statistic analysis of earthquakes is from the global ISC earthquake catalog for the period of 1900-2015. Our result shows a progressive change of Wb in space, suggesting a robust calculation. The average Wb of worldwise subduction system spreads from 348 to 682 m. No visible distinction in the ranging of Wb was observed for different subduction zones. However, in a weak coupling subduction system, the standard variation of Wb has generally larger value. Relatively large Wb generally occurs in the center of the trench system, whereas small Wb for the two ends of trench. The comparison of Wb and several slab parameters shows that the Wb may be correlated with the maximal magnitude and the number of earthquakes. Otherwise, no clear relationship with other parameters can be obtained.

  13. The nonlinear flexural response of a whole teleost fish: Contribution of scales and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, Lawrence; Zhu, Deju; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-12-01

    The scaled skin of fish is an intricate system that provides mechanical protection against hard and sharp puncture, while maintaining the high flexural compliance required for unhindered locomotion. This unusual combination of local hardness and global compliance makes fish skin an interesting model for bioinspired protective systems. In this work we investigate the flexural response of whole teleost fish, and how scales may affect global flexural stiffness. A bending moment is imposed on the entire body of a striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Imaging is used to measure local curvature, to generate moment-curvature curves as function of position along the entire axis of the fish. We find that the flexural stiffness is the highest in the thick middle portion of the fish, and lowest in the caudal and rostral ends. The flexural response is nonlinear, with an initial soft response followed by significant stiffening at larger flexural deformations. Low flexural stiffness at low curvatures promotes efficient swimming, while higher stiffness at high curvatures enables a possible tendon effect, where the mechanical energy at the end of a stroke is stored in the form of strain energy in the fish skin. To assess the contribution of the scales to stiffening we performed flexural tests with and without scales, following a careful protocol to take in account tissue degradation and the effects of temperature. Our findings suggest that scales do not substantially increase the whole body flexural stiffness of teleost fish over ranges of deformations which are typical of swimming and maneuvering. Teleost scales are thin and relatively flexible, so they can accommodate large flexural deformations. This finding is in contrast to the bulkier ganoid scales which were shown in previous reports to have a profound impact of global flexural deformations and swimming in fish like gar or Polypterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of Fermilab Booster tunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P; Meisner, K.; Sandberg, B.

    1977-01-01

    Control of the radial and vertical tunes of the booster is implemented using ramped correction quadrupoles. Minor modifications to the power supply cards for the 48 (previously) dc correction quadrupoles allow ''the tunes'' to be continuously programmed or held constant throughout the 33 ms acceleration cycle. This capability is in addition to the usual use of these quadrupoles to be independently varied to correct for harmonic distortions in the lattice. An automatic computer program measures and displays the tunes vs. time in the cycle to monitor performance and to allow the ramps to be adjusted by the machine operator

  15. Piezoelectric transduction of flexural modes in pre-stressed microbeam resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torri, G.B.; Janssen, N.M.A.; Zeng, Z.; Rottenberg, X.; Karabacak, D.M.; Vandecasteele, M.; Hoof, C.V.; Puers, R.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the optimization of the design of piezoelectric transducer elements integrated on doubly-clamped microbeam resonators utilized as (bio)chemical sensors. We report and emphasize the often forgotten influence of membrane stresses on defining the dimensions and optimal position of

  16. RESONANT BPM FOR CONTINUOUS TUNE MEASUREMENT IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KESSELMAN, M.; CAMERON, P.; CUPOLO, J.

    2001-01-01

    A movable Beam Position Monitor (BPM) using shorted stripline Pick-Up Electrode (NE) elements has been resonated using matching stub techniques to achieve a relatively high Q resonance at about 230MHz. This PUE has been used in a feasibility study of phase-locked-loop tune measurement [1], using a lock-in amplifier and variable frequency generator to continuously track betatron tune in RHIC, as well as to observe Schottky signals of the Gold beam. The approach to providing a high Q PUE for difference mode signals, simulation studies, and the results of initial tests will be presented

  17. Experimental investigation of span length for flexural test of fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Mehndiratta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing and evaluation of mechanical properties for FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite parts play a significant role to qualify it for the end use. Among the mechanical properties, the flexural strength is significant and vital as it may vary with specimen depth, temperature and the test span length. The flexural strength varies for different materials with varying the test span length hence the current work aims to find an optimum span length to test flexural strength for the specimens made of Glass (7781, EC9756 and Carbon (HTA7, G801 prepreg materials. Experiments are conducted as per the ASTM Standard D 790 for flexural test by varying the span lengths to understand the behavior of the flexural strength and flexural modulus. The experimental data were compared with those obtained from the finite element program software Altair Hyper works 14.0. The results indicate that flexural modulus increases with the span length to a point and then it decreases. Thereby, an optimum span length can be obtained for testing flexural strength, which will be useful to the designers and the composite manufacturers to accomplish better standard testing procedures.

  18. Effects of various surface treatments on the biaxial flexural properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerthesh Jain

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Air particle abrasion with CoJet Sand, LTD, and CTs had no negative impact on biaxial flexural strength indeed it increased the biaxial flexural strength. Hence, these surface treatments can be done in routine clinical practice to improve the performance of ceramic restorations.

  19. The use of modal derivatives in determining stroke-dependent frequencies of large stroke flexure hinges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt, Mieke; Schilder, Jurnan; Valasek, Michael; Sika, Zbynek; Vampola, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, a lot of use is made of large stroke flexure hinges in precision engineering. However, these large stroke flexure hinges typically lose stiffness in supporting direction during deflection. The lowest natural frequency is a commonly used measure for this property. Therefore, in shape and

  20. Effect of flexure beam geometry and material on the displacement of piezo actuated diaphragm for micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa, R.; Navin Karanth, P.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a COMSOL analysis of flexure diaphragm for piezo actuated valveless micropump. Diaphragms play an important role in micropumps, till now plane diaphragms are commonly used in micropumps. Use of compliant flexure hinges in diaphragm and other MEMS application is one of the new approach to achieving high deflection in diaphragm at low operating voltage. Flexures hinges in diaphragm acts as simply supported beam. Out-off plane compliance value and stiffness is considered for the selection of proper flexure for diaphragm. Diaphragm material also plays an important role in the diaphragm central deflection. Factor considered for diaphragm material selection is resilience; it is the ratio of yield stress to static modulus. Higher is the resilience will leads to higher deflection generated, it also imparts good compliance. Based on the resilience beryllium copper, stainless steel and brass materials are selected for diaphragm analysis. Simulations have been performed using COMSOL multiphysics. This study reports the effect of flexure hinge geometry and diaphragm material on the central deflection of diaphragms and compared with existing plane diaphragm. Simulation results illustrates that the deflection of three flexure diaphragm with 2mm width and 2mm length flexure is 6.75µm for stainless steel, 10.89 for beryllium copper and 12.10µm for brass, at 140V which is approximately twice that of plane diaphragm deflection. The maximum in both plane and three flexure diaphragm deflection is obtained for brass diaphragm compared to stainless steel and beryllium copper.

  1. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  2. Oracle SQL Tuning pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Gurry, Mark

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important challenges faced by Oracle database administrators and Oracle developers is the need to tune SQL statements so that they execute efficiently. Poorly tuned SQL statements are one of the leading causes of substandard database performance and poor response time. SQL statements that perform poorly result in frustration for users, and can even prevent a company from serving its customers in a timely manner

  3. Adaptive Self-Tuning Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, H. A.; Draelos, T.; Young, C. J.; Lawry, B.; Chael, E. P.; Faust, A.; Peterson, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of automatic detections from seismic sensor networks depends on a large number of data processing parameters that interact in complex ways. The largely manual process of identifying effective parameters is painstaking and does not guarantee that the resulting controls are the optimal configuration settings. Yet, achieving superior automatic detection of seismic events is closely related to these parameters. We present an automated sensor tuning (AST) system that learns near-optimal parameter settings for each event type using neuro-dynamic programming (reinforcement learning) trained with historic data. AST learns to test the raw signal against all event-settings and automatically self-tunes to an emerging event in real-time. The overall goal is to reduce the number of missed legitimate event detections and the number of false event detections. Reducing false alarms early in the seismic pipeline processing will have a significant impact on this goal. Applicable both for existing sensor performance boosting and new sensor deployment, this system provides an important new method to automatically tune complex remote sensing systems. Systems tuned in this way will achieve better performance than is currently possible by manual tuning, and with much less time and effort devoted to the tuning process. With ground truth on detections in seismic waveforms from a network of stations, we show that AST increases the probability of detection while decreasing false alarms.

  4. EFFECT OF FILLER LOADING ON PHYSICAL AND FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED STEM/PP COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Zabihzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new filler for the production of natural filler thermoplastic composites using the waste rapeseed stalks. The long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behaviors and flexural properties of rapeseed filled polypropylene (PP composites were investigated. Three different contents of filler were tested: 30, 45, and 60 wt%. Results of long-term hygroscopic tests indicated that by the increase in filler content from 30% to 60%, water diffusion absorption and thickness swelling rate parameter increased. A swelling model developed by Shi and Gardner can be used to quantify the swelling rate. The increasing of filler content reduced the flexural strength of the rapeseed/PP composites significantly. In contrast to the flexural strength, the flexural modulus improved with increasing the filler content. The flexural properties of these composites were decreased after the water uptake, due to the effect of the water molecules.

  5. In vitro/in silico investigation of failure criteria to predict flexural strength of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Mehdawi, Idris Mohamed; Sakai, Takahiko; Abe, Tomohiro; Inoue, Sayuri; Imazato, Satoshi

    2018-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate a failure criterion to predict flexural strengths of composite resins (CR) by three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Models of flexural strength for test specimens of CR and rods comprising a three-point loading were designed. Calculation of Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of CR were conducted using a modified McGee-McCullough model. Using the experimental CR, flexural strengths were measured by three-point bending tests with crosshead speed 1.0 mm/min and compared with the values determined by in silico analysis. The flexural strengths of experimental CR calculated using the maximum principal strain significantly correlated with those obtained in silico amongst the four types of failure criteria applied. The in silico analytical model established in this study was found to be effective to predict the flexural strengths of CR incorporating various silica filler contents by maximum principal strain.

  6. Multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexure hinges made of superelastic materials is a promising candidate to enhance the movability of compliant mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on the multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge. The objective is to determine a set of optimal geometric parameters that maximizes the motion range and the relative compliance of the flexure hinge and minimizes the relative rotation error during the deformation as well. Firstly, the paper presents a new type of ellipse-parabola shaped flexure hinge which is constructed by an ellipse arc and a parabola curve. Then, the static responses of superelastic flexure hinges are solved via non-prismatic beam elements derived by the co-rotational approach. Finite element analysis (FEA and experiment tests are performed to verify the modeling method. Finally, a multi-objective optimization is performed and the Pareto frontier is found via the NSGA-II algorithm.

  7. Experimental and theoretical assessment of flexural properties of hybrid natural fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2014-01-01

    The concept of hybridization of natural fibre composites with synthetic fibres is attracting increasing scientific attention. The present study addresses the flexural properties of hybrid flax/glass/epoxy composites to demonstrate the potential benefits of hybridization. The study covers both...... experimental and theoretical assessments. Composite laminates with different hybrid fibre mixing ratios and different layer configurations were manufactured, and their volumetric composition and flexural properties were measured. The relationship between volume fractions in the composites is shown to be well...... predicted as a function of the hybrid fibre mixing ratio. The flexural modulus of the composites is theoretically assessed by using micromechanical models and laminate theory. The model predictions are compared with the experimentally determined flexural properties. Both approaches show that the flexural...

  8. Comparison of Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM PMMA-Based Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Gülce; Murat, Sema; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-01-28

    To compare the flexural strength of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) poly(methyl methacrylate)-based (PMMA) polymers and conventional interim resin materials after thermocycling. Rectangular-shaped specimens (n = 15, for each material) (25 × 2 × 2 mm 3 ) were fabricated from 3 CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymers (Telio CAD [T]; M-PM-Disc [M]; Polident-PMMA [P]), 1 bis-acrylate composite resin (Protemp 4 [PT]), and 1 conventional PMMA (ArtConcept Artegral Dentine [C]) according to ISO 10477:2004 Standards (Dentistry-Polymer-Based Crown and Bridge Materials). The specimens were subjected to 10,000 thermocycles (5 to 55°C). Three-point flexural strength of the specimens was tested in a universal testing machine at a 1.0 mm/min crosshead speed, and the flexural strength data (σ) were calculated (MPa). The flexural strength values were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD post-hoc test for multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). Flexural strength values ranged between 66.1 ± 13.1 and 131.9 ± 19.8 MPa. There were significant differences among the flexural strengths of tested materials, except for between T and P CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymers (p > 0.05). CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymer M had the highest flexural strength and conventional PMMA had the lowest (p CAD/CAM PMMA-based T and P polymers had significantly higher flexural strength than the bis-acrylate composite resin (p CAD/CAM PMMA-based M (p CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymers was greater than the flexural strength of bis-acrylate composite resin, which had a greater flexural strength compared to conventional PMMA resin. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Tension stiffening in partially prestressed concrete flexural members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukaili, K. N.

    2000-01-01

    Concrete tensile strength is not being zero, cracking does not extend to the neutral axis as assumed in standard cracked section analysis. In addition, un cracked concrete, which exists above the crack tip in the tension zone, contributes to the stiffness of the member. This paper discusses the influence of concrete tensile stress below the neut ural axis position at the cracked section on the tension stiffening phenomenon and deflection of progressively cracking partially prestressed concrete flexural members. The computation of the neutral axis location, which takes into consideration the effect of concrete in tension, can be achieved by solving iteratively tow simultaneous equation derived from forces and moments equilibrium, strain compatibility and linear stress - strain relationship in concrete across the section depth. Once the section depth after cracking is known, it can be used to calculate the effective moment of inertia for deflection analysis. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 table

  10. Ice-Shelf Tidal Flexure and Subglacial Pressure Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Riverman, Kiya L.; Christianson, Knut

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of an ice shelf-ice stream system as a viscoelastic beam partially supported by an elastic foundation. When bed rock near the grounding line acts as a fulcrum, leverage from the ice shelf dropping at low tide can cause significant (approx 1 cm) uplift in the first few kilometers of grounded ice.This uplift and the corresponding depression at high tide lead to basal pressure variations of sufficient magnitude to influence subglacial hydrology.Tidal flexure may thus affect basal lubrication, sediment flow, and till strength, all of which are significant factors in ice-stream dynamics and grounding-line stability. Under certain circumstances, our results suggest the possibility of seawater being drawn into the subglacial water system. The presence of sea water beneath grounded ice would significantly change the radar reflectivity of the grounding zone and complicate the interpretation of grounded versus floating ice based on ice-penetrating radar observations.

  11. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Tuito, A.

    2017-02-01

    Forthcoming low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocoolers may rely on electro-dynamically driven single-piston compressors and pneumatically driven expanders interconnected by the configurable transfer line. For compactness, compressor and expander units may be placed in a side-by-side manner, thus producing tonal vibration export comprising force and moment components. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber (MTDA), having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. The dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a MTDA are simultaneously counterbalancing force and moment vibration export produced by the cryocooler. The authors reveal the design details, the method of fine modal tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  12. Tune measurement at GSI SIS-18. Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul

    2014-05-15

    Two parallel tune measurement systems are installed at GSI SIS-18 based on different principles. The first is called the Tune, Orbit and POSition measurement system TOPOS. Its working principle involves direct digitization of BPM signals at 125 MSa/s, which is used for online bunch-by-bunch position calculation in FPGAs. In the course of this work, position calculation algorithms were developed and studied for real time implementation in the TOPOS FPGAs. The regression fit algorithm is found to be more efficient and robust in comparison to previously used weighted mean algorithm with the baseline restoration procedure. The second system is the Baseband Tune measurement system referred to as BBQ system. The operational principle of this system was conceived at the CERN Beam Instrumentation group and is based on direct diode detection. In the framework of this work, this system was optimized and brought into operation at GSI SIS-18. Front-end data from both systems are used to calculate the tune spectrum every 250-5000 beam revolutions or turns within SIS-18 based on the resolution requirement and the mode of operation. Advanced non-parametric spectrum estimation method like amplitude Capon estimator is compared to the conventional DFT based methods in terms of resolving power and computational requirements for the calculated spectrum. Further the TOPOS and BBQ systems are compared and characterized in terms of sensitivity, reliability and operational usage. The results from both systems are found to be consistent with each other and have their favoured regimes of operation. The effects on tune spectra obtained from both systems were studied with different types of excitations with excitation power levels up to 6 mW/Hz. These systems in association with other beam diagnostic devices at SIS-18 were used to conduct extensive experiments to understand the effect of high intensity beams on the tune spectrum. These careful measurements recorded all the relevant beam

  13. Hysteretic Models Considering Axial-Shear-Flexure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresa, Paola; Negrisoli, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Most of the existing numerical models implemented in finite element (FE) software, at the current state of the art, are not capable to describe, with enough reliability, the interaction between axial, shear and flexural actions under cyclic loading (e.g. seismic actions), neglecting crucial effects for predicting the nature of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements. Just a few existing 3D volume models or fibre beam models can lead to a quite accurate response, but they are still computationally inefficient for typical applications in earthquake engineering and also characterized by very complex formulation. Thus, discrete models with lumped plasticity hinges may be the preferred choice for modelling the hysteretic behaviour due to cyclic loading conditions, in particular with reference to its implementation in a commercial software package. These considerations lead to this research work focused on the development of a model for RC beam-column elements able to consider degradation effects and interaction between the actions under cyclic loading conditions. In order to develop a model for a general 3D discrete hinge element able to take into account the axial-shear-flexural interaction, it is necessary to provide an implementation which involves a corrector-predictor iterative scheme. Furthermore, a reliable constitutive model based on damage plasticity theory is formulated and implemented for its numerical validation. Aim of this research work is to provide the formulation of a numerical model, which will allow implementation within a FE software package for nonlinear cyclic analysis of RC structural members. The developed model accounts for stiffness degradation effect and stiffness recovery for loading reversal.

  14. Wavelength tuning of porous silicon microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, J.; Reece, P.; Zheng, W.H.; Lerondel, G.; Sun, B.; Gal, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade much attention has been given to porous silicon (PS) for optoelectronic applications, which include efficient room temperature light emission as well as microcavity formation. Due to the large specific surface area, the use of porous silicon microcavities (PSMs) has been proposed for chemical sensing. Large wavelength shifts have indicated that the optical properties of PSMs are indeed strongly dependent on the environment. In this paper, we report the shifting of the resonance frequency of high quality PSMs, with the aim of tuning a future PS device to a certain required wavelength. The PSM samples were prepared by anodically etching p + -doped (5mΩcm) bulk silicon wafer in a solution (25%) of aqueous HF and ethanol. The device structure consisted of a PS layer sandwiched between 2 stacks of thin PS layers with alternating high and low effective refractive indices (RI), i.e. distributed Bragg mirrors (DBM). The layer thickness depends on the etch time while the porosity and hence refractive index is determined by the current density as the Si is etched. The position and the width of the stop-band can be fully controlled by the design of the DBMs, with the microcavity resonance mode sitting within the stop-band. We achieved tuning of the microcavity resonance by a number of methods, including temperature dependent tuning. The temperature induced wavelength shift was found to be of the order of 10 -15 nm. Computer modeling of these changes in the reflectivity spectra allowed us to quantify the changes of the effective refractive index and the respective layer thicknesses

  15. Evolving lithospheric flexure and paleotopography of the Pyrenean Orogen from 3D flexural modeling and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, M. E.; van der Beek, P.; Huismans, R. S.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Pyrenees are an asymmetric, doubly-vergent orogen with retro- and pro- foreland basins that preserve a record of deformation since the Mesozoic. The extensive research and exploration efforts on the mountain belt and flanking foreland basins provide an exceptional dataset for investigating geodynamics and surface processes over large spatial and temporal scales in western Europe. We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the spatio-temporal variation in lithospheric flexure in response to the developing orogen. We employ a finite element method to model the 3D flexural deformation of the lithosphere beneath the Pyrenean orogen since the onset of convergence in the late Cretaceous. Using subsurface, geophysical, and structural data, we describe the evolving geometry of both the French Aquitaine and Spanish Ebro foreland basins at the present (post-orogenic), the mid-Eocene (peak orogenic), the Paleocene (early orogenic), and the end of the Cretaceous (pre- to early orogenic). The flexural modeling provides insight into how both the rigidity of the lithosphere and the paleotopographic load have varied over the course of orogenesis to shape the basin geometry. We find that the overriding European plate has higher rigidity than the subducting Iberian plate, with modern Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) values of 20 ± 2 and 12 ± 2 km, respectively. Modeling indicates that the modern rigidity of both plates decreases westward towards the Bay of Biscay. The lithospheric rigidity has increased by 50% since the Mesozoic with early Cenozoic EET values of 13 ± 2 and 8 ± 1 km for the European and Iberian plates, respectively. The topographic load began increasing with convergence in the late Cretaceous, reaching modern levels in the central and eastern Pyrenees by the Eocene. In contrast, the topographic load in the western Pyrenees was 70% of the modern value in the Eocene, and experienced topographic growth through the Oligo-Miocene. The

  16. Irregular Winding of Pre-preg Fibres Aimed at the Local Improvement of Flexural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kulhavy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main undisputed benefit of using long fibre composite materials, whose properties could be targeted for a particular application, lies in the efficient utilisation of material. Using a method of pre-impregnated fibre winding, a rod with a reinforced middle part was created through the local adjustment of the winding angle in order to increase the local bending stiffness. The aim of our work was to describe, experimentally and subsequently using appropriate numerical models, the behaviour of two composite rods, one with a locally variable winding angle and the other with a constant winding angle. The difference in the mechanical behaviour of both structures was clearly evident during the experiment. By using a suitable composite pre-processor and by choosing some multiple element sets, it was also possible to accurately simulate the real behaviour of such components, which actually have several regions, each with different mechanical parameters. Together with the expected different flexural strength, a traditional three-point bending test also explored the different shape of the resulting deformation in the two compared parts. Differences in the maximum strength and the mode of fi nal deformations were also identified.

  17. Analysis of syntactic foam – GFRP sandwich composites for flexural loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Daniel; Velmurugan, R.; Jayaganthan, R.; Gupta, N. K.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of glass microballoon (GMB) — epoxy syntactic foams as a sandwich core material is studied. The skins and foam core are fabricated and joined instantaneously unlike the procedures followed in the previous studies. Each successive layer of the sandwich is fabricated when the previous layer is in a semi-gelled state. These sandwich samples are characterized for their properties under flexural loading. The failure modes and mechanical properties are carefully investigated. The change in fabrication technique results in a significant increase in the load bearing pattern of the sandwich. In earlier studies, debonding was found to occur prematurely since the bonding between the skins and core is the weakest plane. Using the current technique, core cracking occurs first, followed by skin fiber breaking and debonding happens at the end. This ensures that the load carrying phase of the structure is extended considerably. The sandwich is also analytically studied using Reddy’s higher order shear deformation theory. A higher order theory is selected as the sandwich can no longer be considered as a thin beam and thus shear effects also need to be considered in addition to bending effects.

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Flexural Vibrations in Hard Disk Drive Spindle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, SEUNGCHUL

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the flexural vibration analysis of the hard disk drive (HDD) spindle system by means of the finite element method. In contrast to previous research, every system component is here analytically modelled taking into account its structural flexibility and also the centrifugal effect particularly on the disk. To prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the formulated models, commercial HDD systems with two and three identical disks are selected as examples. Then their major natural modes are computed with only a small number of element meshes as the shaft rotational speed is varied, and subsequently compared with the existing numerical results obtained using other methods and newly acquired experimental ones. Based on such a series of studies, the proposed method can be concluded as a very promising tool for the design of HDDs and various other high-performance computer disk drives such as floppy disk drives, CD ROM drives, and their variations having spindle mechanisms similar to those of HDDs.

  19. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-12-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen's size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics.

  20. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  1. Flexural Progressive Failure of Carbon/Glass Interlayer and Intralayer Hybrid Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingtao; Wu, Weili; Gong, Zhili; Li, Wei

    2018-04-17

    The flexural progressive failure modes of carbon fiber and glass fiber (C/G) interlayer and intralayer hybrid composites were investigated in this work. Results showed that the bending failure modes for interlayer hybrid composites are determined by the layup structure. Besides, the bending failure is characterized by the compression failure of the upper layer, when carbon fiber tends to distribute in the upper layer, the interlayer hybrid composite fails early, the failure force is characterized by a multi-stage slightly fluctuating decline and the fracture area exhibits a diamond shape. While carbon fiber distributes in the middle or bottom layer, the failure time starts late, and the failure process exhibits one stage sharp force/stress drop, the fracture zone of glass fiber above the carbon layers presents an inverted trapezoid shape, while the fracture of glass fiber below the carbon layers exhibits an inverted triangular shape. With regards to the intralayer hybrid composites, the C/G hybrid ratio plays a dominating role in the bending failure which could be considered as the mixed failures of four structures. The bending failure of intralayer hybrid composites occurs in advance since carbon fiber are located in each layer; the failure process shows a multi-stage fluctuating decline, and the decline slows down as carbon fiber content increases, and the fracture sound release has the characteristics of a low intensity and high frequency for a long time. By contrast, as glass fiber content increases, the bending failure of intralayer composites is featured with a multi-stage cliff decline with a high amplitude and low frequency for a short-time fracture sound release.

  2. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B., E-mail: l.ma@ifw-dresden.de; Jorgensen, M. R. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Miao, S. D. [Anhui Key Lab of Controllable Chemical Reaction and Material Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Tunxi Road. 193, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2016-04-25

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  3. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B.; Jorgensen, M. R.; Miao, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  4. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2017-10-03

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, from the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.

  5. Introduction to TAFI - A Matlab® toolbox for analysis of flexural isostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Harry, D. L.; Schutt, D.

    2016-12-01

    The isostatic response of vertical tectonic loads emplaced on thin elastic plates overlying inviscid substrate and the corresponding gravity anomalies are commonly modeled using well established theories and methodologies of flexural analysis. However, such analysis requires some mathematical and coding expertise on part of users. With that in mind, we designed a new interactive Matlab® toolbox called Toolbox for Analysis of Flexural Isostasy (TAFI). TAFI allows users to create forward models (2-D and 3-D) of flexural deformation of the lithosphere and resulting gravity anomaly. TAFI computes Green's Functions for flexure of the elastic plate subjected to point or line loads, and analytical solution for harmonic loads. Flexure due to non-impulsive, distributed 2-D or 3-D loads are computed by convolving the appropriate Green's function with a user-supplied spatially discretized load function. The gravity anomaly associated with each density interface is calculated by using the Fourier Transform of flexural deflection of these interfaces and estimating the gravity in the wavenumber domain. All models created in TAFI are based on Matlab's intrinsic functions and do not require any specialized toolbox, function or library except those distributed with TAFI. Modeling functions within TAFI can be called from Matlab workspace, from within user written programs or from the TAFI's graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI enables the user to model the flexural deflection of lithosphere interactively, enabling real time comparison of model fit with observed data constraining the flexural deformation and gravity, facilitating rapid search for best fitting flexural model. TAFI is a very useful teaching and research tool and have been tested rigorously in graduate level teaching and basic research environment.

  6. Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...

  7. Tuned sources of submillimetre radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnyj, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The main present directions of development of sources of frequency coherent tuned radiation of electromagnetic waves in the submillimeter range: nonlinear mixing of different frequencies; semiconductor lasers; molecular lasers with optical pumping; relativistic electron beams in a magnetic field as submillimeter radiation sources; submillimeter radiation sources on the basis of SHF classical electrovacuum devices - are considered. The designs of generator systems and their specifications are presented. The main parameters of electromagnetic radiation of different sources, such as: power, stability, frequency, tuning range - are presented. The methods of improving sources and electromagnetic radiation parameters are proposed. The examples of possible applications of submillimeter radiation in different spheres of science and technology are given [ru

  8. Remote tuning of NMR probe circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodibagkar, V D; Conradi, M S

    2000-05-01

    There are many circumstances in which the probe tuning adjustments cannot be located near the rf NMR coil. These may occur in high-temperature NMR, low-temperature NMR, and in the use of magnets with small diameter access bores. We address here circuitry for connecting a fixed-tuned probe circuit by a transmission line to a remotely located tuning network. In particular, the bandwidth over which the probe may be remotely tuned while keeping the losses in the transmission line acceptably low is considered. The results show that for all resonant circuit geometries (series, parallel, series-parallel), overcoupling of the line to the tuned circuit is key to obtaining a large tuning bandwidth. At equivalent extents of overcoupling, all resonant circuit geometries have nearly equal remote tuning bandwidths. Particularly for the case of low-loss transmission line, the tuning bandwidth can be many times the tuned circuit's bandwidth, f(o)/Q. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Tuning History in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Albo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-Latin America Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal…

  10. Political Tunings of the Piano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.

    According to Timothy Morton the creation of ambient art posses an inherent critical potential similar to the ambiguity of the dialectical image found in the writings of Walter Benjamin. Subscribing to an object-oriented ontological understanding of how objects are riven between essence and appear......) as unfolding the ambiguity of various political tunings of the piano....

  11. Flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam with polymer coated pumice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Christin Remayanti; Wijatmiko, Indradi; Wibowo, Ari

    2017-09-01

    Sustainable development has become an important issue due to the increasing consideration of preserving the nature. Many alternative for coarse aggregate replacement have been investigated ranging from natural and fabricated aggregates. In this study, natural aggregate pumice was investigated since it offers lower density that give paramount benefit in reducing total building weight and hence reducing the earthquake excitation effect and optimizing the structural dimension. However, the characteristic of porous surfaces of pumice causes excessive water absorption during concrete mixing process. Therefore, to reduce the additional water, the pumice aggregates were coated with polymer. The tested specimens consisted of normal concrete beams (NCB), uncoated pumice aggregate concrete beam (UPA) and polymer coated pumice aggregate concrete beam (PCP). The objective of the research was to obtain the effect of coating on the pumice aggregate to the flexural behavior of concrete beams. The lateral load-displacement behavior, ductility and collapse mechanism were studied. The results showed that there were only marginal drop on the load-carrying capacity of the pumice aggregate beam compared to those of normal beam. Additionally, the ductility coefficient of specimens UPA and PCP decreased of 11,97% and 14,03% respectively compared to NCB, and the ultimate load capacity decreased less than 1%. Overall, the pumice aggregate showed good characteristic for replacing normal coarse aggregate.

  12. Aeroelastic performance evaluation of a flexure box morphing airfoil concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankonien, Alexander M.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2014-04-01

    The flexure-box morphing aileron concept utilizes Macro-Fiber Composites (MFCs) and a compliant box to create a conformal morphing aileron. This work evaluates the impact of the number of MFCs on the performance, power and mass of the aileron by experimentally investigating two different actuator configurations: unimorph and bimorph. Implemented in a NACA 0012 airfoil with 304.8 mm chord, the unimorph and bimorph configurations are experimentally tested over a range of flow speeds from 5 to 20 m/s and angles of attack from -20 to 20 degrees under aerodynamic loads in a wind tunnel. An embedded flexible sensor is installed in the aileron to evaluate the effect of aerodynamic loading on tip position. For both design choices, the effect of actuation on lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients are measured. Finally, the impact on aileron mass and average power consumption due to the added MFCs is considered. The results showed the unimorph exhibiting superior ability to influence flow up to 15 m/s, with equivalent power consumption and lower overall mass. At 20 m/s, the bimorph exhibited superior control over aerodynamic forces and the unimorph experienced significant deformation due to aerodynamic loading.

  13. The ATLAS Monte Carlo tuning system

    CERN Document Server

    Wahrmund, S

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment moved the tuning of the underlying event and minimum bias event shape modeling, previously done in a manual fashion, to the automated Professor tuning tool, employed in connection with the Rivet analysis framework, when the first corresponding experimental analysis from LHC became available. The tuning effort for the Pythia 8 generator, which includes improved models for diffraction, has been started in this automated way in ATLAS, with the aim of getting a good description of the pile-up generated by multiple minimum bias interactions. The first results for these Pythia 8 tunes, as well as Pythia 6 shower tunes are presented, including a study of tunes for various PDFs.

  14. A colonic splenic flexure tumour presenting as an empyema thoracis: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, K

    2009-01-01

    The case report describes the rare presentation of a 79-year-old patient with a locally perforated splenic flexure tumour of the colon presenting with an apparent empyema thoracis in the absence of abdominal signs or symptoms.

  15. Prediction on flexural strength of encased composite beam with cold-formed steel section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadavi, Tahir, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    A flexural strength of composite beam designed as boxed shaped section comprised of lipped C-channel of cold-formed steel (CFS) facing each other with reinforcement bars is proposed in this paper. The boxed shaped is kept restrained in position by a profiled metal decking installed on top of the beam to form a slab system. This profiled decking slab is cast by using self-compacting concrete where the concrete is in compression when load is applied to the beam. Reinforcement bars are used as shear connector between slab and CFS as beam. A numerical analysis method proposed by EC4 is used to predict the flexural strength of the proposed composite beam. It was assumed that elasto-plastic behaviour is developed in the cross -sectional of the proposed beam. The calculated predicted flexural strength of the proposed beam shows reasonable flexural strength for cold-formed composite beam.

  16. Study on Flexural Creep Parameters of Overlayed Particleboard by Natural and Melaminated Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Najafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of natural and artificial veneer on flexural creep behavior of particleboard was investigated. Particleboard panels were prepared from Pars Neopan industries with 660 kg/m3 density and then overlaid by natural and melamine veneers. Their creep behavior was compared to control particleboard. For evaluating maximum bending load in static flexural test, specimens were cut from panels according to ASTM D 1037 with dimensions of 370×50×16 mm. Then, The flexural creep tests at 20% and 40% of failure bending load was applied to test specimens. Results of flexural tests indicated that the MOR and MOE values of veneered particleboard were highest. Results of creep showed that levels of stresses are effective on all creep parameters, but showed less effect on relative creep. Also, creep parameters less effective on specimens overlaid by natural veneer.

  17. Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin Denture Bases Processed by Two Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gharechahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of theconventional method (P=0.006. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the mold-ing technique.

  18. [Chronic recurrent volvulus of the colonic splenic flexure associated with the eventration of left diaphragm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Yoo, Jeong Seon; Han, Seok Joo; Park, Hyojin

    2007-01-01

    The eventration of diaphragm is usually found incidentally on chest X-ray or sometimes presented as acute gastric volvulus. However, colonic volvulus on splenic flexure area complicated by diaphragmatic eventration is extremely rare. A 25 year old man complained of upper abdominal pain for three days. He had a history of brain injury during infant period, and had epilepsy and mental retardation. Plain chest X-ray showed left diaphragmatic eventration and marked dilatation of colon on splenic flexure area which had not been changed for last three years. Barium enema showed bird beak appearance on distal colon near the splenic flexure. Colonoscopic reduction failed. After decompression with rectal and nasogastric tubes, colonic volvulus was relieved. To prevent the recurrence of volvulus, we performed segmental resection of left colon including splenic flexure area and repaired the left diaphragmatic eventration. After the operation, the patient had no further recurrent episode of volvulus although ileus persisted.

  19. Influence of Fretting on Flexural Fatigue of 304 Stainless Steel and Mild Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bill, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Fretting fatigue experiments conducted on 304 stainless steel using a flexural-fatigue test arrangement with bolted-on fretting pads have demonstrated that fatigue life is reduced by at least a factor...

  20. Tuning the Stiffness Balance Using Characteristic Frequencies as a Criterion for a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xikai; Ma, Dong; Chen, Liang; Liu, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    Tuning the stiffness balance is crucial to full-band common-mode rejection for a superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG). A reliable method to do so has been proposed and experimentally tested. In the tuning scheme, the frequency response functions of the displacement of individual test mass upon common-mode accelerations were measured and thus determined a characteristic frequency for each test mass. A reduced difference in characteristic frequencies between the two test masses was utilized as the criterion for an effective tuning. Since the measurement of the characteristic frequencies does not depend on the scale factors of displacement detection, stiffness tuning can be done independently. We have tested this new method on a single-component SGG and obtained a reduction of two orders of magnitude in stiffness mismatch. PMID:29419796

  1. Flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber manufactured from ultrasonically rated red maple veneer : a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Steven A. Verhey; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2003-01-01

    The study described in this report was conducted to examine the flexural properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) manufactured from red maple veneer. Ultrasonically rated veneer, which was peeled from low value red maple saw-logs, was fabricated into 1/2-in.-(1.3-cm-) and 2-in.-(5-cm-) thick LVL billets. The flexural properties of the billets and of corresponding...

  2. Prediction of Mean and Design Fatigue Lives of Self Compacting Concrete Beams in Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, S.; Singh, S. P.; Singh, P.; Kaushik, S. K.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, result of an investigation conducted to study the flexural fatigue characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC) beams in flexure are presented. An experimental programme was planned in which approximately 60 SCC beam specimens of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm were tested under flexural fatigue loading. Approximately 45 static flexural tests were also conducted to facilitate fatigue testing. The flexural fatigue and static flexural strength tests were conducted on a 100 kN servo-controlled actuator. The fatigue life data thus obtained have been used to establish the probability distributions of fatigue life of SCC using two-parameter Weibull distribution. The parameters of the Weibull distribution have been obtained by different methods of analysis. Using the distribution parameters, the mean and design fatigue lives of SCC have been estimated and compared with Normally vibrated concrete (NVC), the data for which have been taken from literature. It has been observed that SCC exhibits higher mean and design fatigue lives compared to NVC.

  3. Flexural behavior of the fibrous cementitious composites (FCC) containing hybrid fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Mahyuddin; Ban, Cheah Chee; Samsudin, Muhamad Fadli

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the flexural behavior of the fibrous cementitious composites containing hybrid fibers was investigated. Waste materials or by product materials such as pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) was used as supplementary cement replacement. In addition, barchip and kenaf fiber will be used as additional materials for enhance the flexural behavior of cementitious composites. A seven mix design of fibrous cementitious composites containing hybrid fiber mortar were fabricated with PFA-GGBS as cement replacement at 50% with hybridization of barchip and kenaf fiber between 0.5% and 2.0% by total volume weight. The FCC with hybrid fibers mortar will be fabricated by using 50 × 50 × 50 mm, 40 × 40 × 160 mm and 350 × 125 × 30 mm steel mold for assessment of mechanical performances and flexural behavior characteristics. The flexural behavior and mechanical performance of the PFA-GGBS with hybrid fiber mortar block was assessed in terms of load deflection response, stress-strain response, crack development, compressive and flexural strength after water curing for 28 days. Moreover, the specimen HBK 1 and HBK 2 was observed equivalent or better in mechanical performance and flexural behavior as compared to control mortar.

  4. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer

  5. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main St., Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  6. Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon cancer at splenic flexure: technical aspects and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Junji; Yamamoto, Masashi; Tanaka, Keitaro; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon cancer at splenic flexure is technical demanding and its efficacy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate its technical aspects such as pitfalls and overcoming them, and to demonstrate the short-term and oncologic long-term outcomes. To overcome the difficulty in laparoscopic resection of transverse colon cancer at splenic flexure, we recognized the following technical tips as essential. First of all, we have to precisely identify major vessels variations feeding tumor. Secondary, anatomical dissection of mesocolon through medial approach is indispensible. Third, safe takedown of splenic flexure to fully mobilization of left hemicolon is mandatory. This cohort study analyzed 95 patients with stage II (43) and III (52) underwent resection of transverse colon cancer at splenic flexure. 61 laparoscopic surgeries (LAC) and 34 conventional open surgeries (OC) from December 1996 to December 2009 were evaluated. Short-term and oncologic long-term outcomes were recorded. Operative time was longer in LAC. However, blood loss was less, recovery of bowel function and hospital stay were shorter in LAC. There was no conversion in LAC and no significant difference in the postoperative complications. Regarding oncologic long-term outcomes, there were no significant differences between OC and LAC. Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon cancer at splenic flexure resulted in acceptable short-term and oncologic long-term outcomes. Once technical tips acquired, laparoscopic resection of transverse colon cancer at splenic flexure could be feasible as minimally invasive surgery.

  7. MODELLING AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF FLEXURE SPRINGS FOR A STIRLING CRYOCOOLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJESH V. R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the range of milliwatt to a few watts cooling capacity, Stirling cycle and pulse tube coolers are most suitable for producing cryogenic temperatures owing to their eco-friendliness, high efficiency, cooling capacity to mass ratio etc. The compressor of a Stirling cooler is powered by a linear motor. The power piston of the cooler is held in position and moves to and fro with the support of so called flexure springs or flexure bearings. Flexures avoid direct contact between moving parts of the compressor of the cooler. Thus, if designed adequately to withstand fatigue, flexure bearings can easily outlast rolling element bearings and slider bearings. In this work, a computational analysis is used to study the performance of flexure spring by varying the geometrical parameters. Three of the most common spring materials namely, SS304, beryllium copper and spring steel are considered for analysis. The analysis was made by varying the parameters like spiral sweep angle, slot width, number of spirals and disc thickness. The influence of each of these parameters on the fatigue life of the spring has been investigated. The results suggest that flexure springs of three spiral arms would be the ideal choice for the selected cryocooler. The variation of stress developed with respect to different design parameters and fatigue damage factor are presented graphically.

  8. Flexural properties of polyethylene, glass and carbon fiber-reinforced resin composites for prosthetic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Irie, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    High flexural properties are needed for fixed partial denture or implant prosthesis to resist susceptibility to failures caused by occlusal overload. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the effects of four different kinds of fibers on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composites. Polyethylene fiber, glass fiber and two types of carbon fibers were used for reinforcement. Seven groups of specimens, 2 × 2 × 25 mm, were prepared (n = 10 per group). Four groups of resin composite specimens were reinforced with polyethylene, glass or one type of carbon fiber. The remaining three groups served as controls, with each group comprising one brand of resin composite without any fiber. After 24-h water storage in 37°C distilled water, the flexural properties of each specimen were examined with static three-point flexural test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Compared to the control without any fiber, glass and carbon fibers significantly increased the flexural strength (p glass fiber (p glass fibers (p > 0.05). Fibers could, therefore, improve the flexural properties of resin composite and carbon fibers in longitudinal form yielded the better effects for reinforcement.

  9. Effect of silver nano particles on flexural strength of acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodagar, Ahmad; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Akhavan, Azam; Javadi, Negar; Arab, Sepideh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2012-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, is widely used for fabrication of removable orthodontic appliances. Silver nano particles (AgNps) have been added to PMMA because of their antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of AgNps on the flexural strength of PMMA. Acrylic liquid containing 0.05% and 0.2% AgNps was prepared for two kinds of acrylic resins: Rapid Repair &Selecta Plus. Two groups without AgNps were used as control groups. For each one, flexural strength was investigated via Three Point Bending method for the 15 acrylic blocks. Two-way ANOVA, one way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. Rapid Repair without AgNps showed the highest flexural strength. Addition of 0.05% AgNps to Rapid Repair, significantly decreased its flexural strength while, continuing the addition up to 0.2% increased it nearly up to its primary level. In contrast, addition of AgNps to Selecta Plus increased its flexural strength but addition of 0.05% nano particles was more effective than 0.2%. The effect of AgNps on flexural strength of PMMA depends on several factors including the type of acrylics and the concentrations of nano particles. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary of ATLAS Pythia 8 tunes

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the latest ATLAS Pythia 8 minimum bias and underlying event tunes. The Pythia 8 MPI tunes in this note have been constructed for nine different PDFs, making use of a new x-dependent hadronic matter distribution model.

  11. Data Driven Tuning of Inventory Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Santacoloma, Paloma Andrade; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method for criterion based tuning of inventory controllers based on data-driven iterative feedback tuning is presented. This tuning method circumvent problems with modeling bias. The process model used for the design of the inventory control is utilized in the tuning...... as an approximation to reduce time required on experiments. The method is illustrated in an application with a multivariable inventory control implementation on a four tank system....

  12. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  13. Tuning Properties in Silver Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Chakra Prasad

    2015-07-09

    The properties of Ag nanoclusters are not as well understood as those of their more precious Au cousins. However, a recent surge in the exploration of strategies to tune the physicochemical characteristics of Ag clusters addresses this imbalance, leading to new insights into their optical, luminescence, crystal habit, metal-core, ligand-shell and environmental properties. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of the latest strategies along with a brief introduction of the theoretical framework necessary to understand the properties of silver nanoclusters and the basis for their tuning. The advances in cluster research and the future prospects presented in this Perspective will eventually guide the next large systematic study of nanoclusters, resulting in a single collection of data similar to the periodic table of elements.

  14. Shallow Water Tuned Liquid Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Jørgen

    that for realistic roughness parameters the bottom friction has very limited effect on the liquid sloshing behavior and can be neglected. Herby the postulate is verified. Based on the mathematical model three dimensionless parameters are derived showing that the response of the damper depends solely on ratio......The use of sloshing liquid as a passive means of suppressing the rolling motion of ships was proposed already in the late 19th century. Some hundred years later the use of liquid sloshing devices, often termed Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLD), began to find use in the civil engineering community....... The TLDs studied in this thesis essentially consist of a rectangular container partially filled with liquid in the form of plain tap water. The frequency of the liquid sloshing motion, which is adjusted by varying the length of the tank and the depth of the wa- ter, is tuned to the structural frequency...

  15. Tuning Properties in Silver Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Chakra Prasad; Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The properties of Ag nanoclusters are not as well understood as those of their more precious Au cousins. However, a recent surge in the exploration of strategies to tune the physicochemical characteristics of Ag clusters addresses this imbalance, leading to new insights into their optical, luminescence, crystal habit, metal-core, ligand-shell and environmental properties. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of the latest strategies along with a brief introduction of the theoretical framework necessary to understand the properties of silver nanoclusters and the basis for their tuning. The advances in cluster research and the future prospects presented in this Perspective will eventually guide the next large systematic study of nanoclusters, resulting in a single collection of data similar to the periodic table of elements.

  16. Flexural and diametral tensile strength of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Della Bona

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the flexural strength (sf and the diametral tensile strength (st of light-cured composite resins, testing the hypothesis that there is a positive relation between these properties. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each material (Filtek Z250- 3M-Espe; AM- Amelogen, Ultradent; VE- Vit-l-escence, Ultradent; EX- Esthet-X, Dentsply/Caulk, following ISO 4049 and ANSI/ADA 27 specifications and the manufacturers’ instructions. For the st test, cylindrical shaped (4 mm x 6 mm specimens (n = 10 were placed with their long axes perpendicular to the applied compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The sf was measured using the 3-point bending test, in which bar shaped specimens (n = 10 were tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Both tests were performed in a universal testing machine (EMIC 2000 recording the fracture load (N. Strength values (MPa were calculated and statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (a = 0.05. The mean and standard deviation values (MPa were Z250-45.06 ± 5.7; AM-35.61 ± 5.4; VE-34.45 ± 7.8; and EX-42.87 ± 6.6 for st; and Z250-126.52 ± 3.3; AM-87.75 ± 3.8; VE-104.66 ± 4.4; and EX-119.48 ± 2.1 for sf. EX and Z250 showed higher st and sf values than the other materials evaluated (p < 0.05, which followed a decreasing trend of mean values. The results confirmed the study hypothesis, showing a positive relation between the material properties examined.

  17. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  18. Comparison of the Efficiency of Tuned Mass and Tuned Liquid Dampers at High-Rise Structures under Near and Far Fault Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahman Shokrgozar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tuned mass and tuned liquid dampers are most common passive control systems that used for decrease of seismic responses of buildings. In this study, the performance of high-rise buildings with TM and TL dampers are evaluated under seven near-fault and seven far-fault earthquakes. For this purpose, a twenty-four stories steel moment frame building has been considered and the time history dynamic analyses are performed for both of controlled and uncontrolled states. Moreover, this building has been also modelled with five various mass, stiffness and damping ratios.The results have been shown that decreasing the structural responses at tall buildings against near-fault earthquakes are more than far-fault earthquakes due to the effect of higher modes. Furthermore, the tuned mass damper has better performance at decreasing of the responses in comparison of tuned liquid dampers.

  19. The ATLAS Monte Carlo tuning system

    CERN Document Server

    Wahrmund, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment moved the tuning of the underlying event and minimum bias event shape modeling, previously done in a manual fashion, to the automated Professor tuning tool, employed in connection with the Rivet analysis framework, when the first corresponding experimental analysis from LHC became available. The tuning effort for the Pythia 8 generator, which includes improved models for diffraction, has been started in this automated way in ATLAS, with the aim of getting a good description of the pile-up generated by multiple minimum bias interactions. The first results for these Pythia 8 tunes are presented, including a study of tunes for various PDFs.

  20. Oracle SQL tuning with Oracle SQLTXPLAIN

    CERN Document Server

    Charalambides, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    Oracle SQL Tuning with SQLTXPLAIN is a practical guide to SQL tuning the way Oracle's own experts do it, using a freely downloadable tool called SQLTXPLAIN. Using this simple tool you'll learn how to tune even the most complex SQL, and you'll learn to do it quickly, without the huge learning curve usually associated with tuning as a whole.  Firmly based in real world problems, this book helps you reclaim system resources and avoid the most common bottleneck in overall performance, badly tuned SQL.  You'll learn how the optimizer works, how to take advantage of its latest features, and when it'

  1. Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Lu, Q. Y.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    In this report, the sampled grating distributed feedback laser architecture is modified with digital concatenated gratings to partially compensate for the wavelength dependence of optical gain in a standard high efficiency quantum cascade laser core. This allows equalization of laser threshold over a wide wavelength range and demonstration of wide electrical tuning. With only two control currents, a full tuning range of 500 nm (236 cm{sup −1}) has been demonstrated. Emission is single mode, with a side mode suppression of >20 dB.

  2. Time-variant flexural reliability of RC beams with externally bonded CFRP under combined fatigue-corrosion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaud, David; Ali, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Time-variant reliability analysis of RC highway bridges strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer CFRP laminates under four possible competing damage modes (concrete crushing, steel rupture after yielding, CFRP rupture and FRP plate debonding) and three degradation factors is analyzed in terms of reliability index β using FORM. The first degradation factor is chloride-attack corrosion which induces reduction in steel area and concrete cover cracking at characteristic key times (corrosion initiation, severe surface cover cracking). The second degradation factor considered is fatigue which leads to damage in concrete and steel rebar. Interaction between corrosion and fatigue crack growth in steel reinforcing bars is implemented. The third degradation phenomenon is the CFRP properties deterioration due to aging. Considering these three degradation factors, the time-dependent flexural reliability profile of a typical simple 15 m-span intermediate girder of a RC highway bridge is constructed under various traffic volumes and under different corrosion environments. The bridge design options follow AASHTO-LRFD specifications. Results of the study have shown that the reliability is very sensitive to factors governing the corrosion. Concrete damage due to fatigue slightly affects reliability profile of non-strengthened section, while service life after strengthening is strongly related to fatigue damage in concrete. - Highlights: • We propose a method to follow the time-variant reliability of strengthened RC beams. • We consider multiple competing failure modes of CFRP strengthened RC beams. • We consider combined degradation mechanisms (corrosion, fatigue, ageing of CFRP)

  3. Lateral variations in foreland flexure of a rifted continental margin: The Aquitaine Basin (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, P.; Ford, M.; Watts, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of the inherited Aptian to Cenomanian rift on crustal rheology and evolution of the Late Cretaceous to Neogene flexural Aquitaine foreland basin, northern Pyrenees. We use surface and subsurface geological data to define the crustal geometry and the post-rift thermal subsidence, and Bouguer gravity anomalies and flexural modeling to study the lateral variation of the elastic thickness, flexure of the European plate and controlling loads. The Aquitaine foreland can be divided along-strike into three sectors. The eastern foreland is un-rifted and is associated with a simple flexural subsidence. The central sector is affected by crustal stretching and the observed foreland base is modeled by combining topographic and buried loads, with post-rift thermal subsidence. In the western sector the foreland basin geometry is mainly controlled by post-rift thermal subsidence. These three sectors are separated by major lineaments, which affect both crustal and foreland geometry. These lineaments seem to be part of a larger structural pattern that includes the Toulouse and Pamplona Faults. The European foreland shows lateral variations in flexural behavior: the relative role of surface and sub-surface (i.e., buried) loading varies along-strike and the elastic thickness values decrease from the north-east to the south-west where the plate is the most stretched. We suggest that foreland basins are influenced by the thermal state of the underlying lithosphere if it was initiated soon after rifting and that thermal cooling can contribute significantly to subsidence.

  4. Behaviour of glued fibre composite sandwich structure in flexure: Experiment and Fibre Model Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manalo, Allan; Aravinthan, Thiru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibre Model Analysis is used to examine the flexural behaviour of sandwich beams. ► Theoretical prediction using FMA is in good agreement with the experiment. ► Using the constituent materials in FMA predicted accurately the beam’s behaviour. ► FMA can be used for analysing sandwich beams with high-strength core in flexure. -- Abstract: The behaviour of glued composite sandwich beams in flexure was investigated with a view of using this material for structural and civil engineering applications. The building block of this glue-laminated beam is a new generation composite sandwich structure made up of glass fibre reinforced polymer skins and a high strength phenolic core material. A simplified Fibre Model Analysis (FMA) usually used to analyse a concrete beam section is adopted to theoretically describe the flexural behaviour of the innovative sandwich beam structure. The analysis included the flexural behaviour of the glued sandwich beams in the flatwise and the edgewise positions. The FMA accounted for the non-linear behaviour of the phenolic core in compression, the cracking of the core in tension and the linear elastic behaviour of the fibre composite skin. The results of the FMA showed a good agreement with the experimental data showing the efficiency and practical applications of the simplified FMA in analysing and designing sandwich structures with high strength core material.

  5. Evaluation of cyclic flexural fatigue of M-wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadlaq, Solaiman M S; Aljarbou, Fahad A; AlThumairy, Riyadh I

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate cyclic flexural fatigue resistance of GT series X rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire nickel-titanium alloy compared with GT and Profile nickel-titanium files made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Fifteen files, size 30/0.04, of each type were used to evaluate the cyclic flexural fatigue resistance. A simple device was specifically constructed to measure the time each file type required to fail under cyclic flexural fatigue testing. The results of this experiment indicated that the GT series X files had superior cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than the other 2 file types made from a conventional nickel-titanium alloy (P = .004). On the other hand, the difference between the Profile and the GT files was not statistically significant. The findings of this study suggest that size 30/0.04 nickel-titanium rotary files made from the newly developed M-wire alloy have better cyclic flexural fatigue resistance than files of similar design and size made from the conventional nickel-titanium alloy. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elastic thickness determination based on Vening Meinesz-Moritz and flexural theories of isostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshagh, Mehdi

    2018-06-01

    Elastic thickness (Te) is one of mechanical properties of the Earth's lithosphere. The lithosphere is assumed to be a thin elastic shell, which is bended under the topographic, bathymetric and sediment loads on. The flexure of this elastic shell depends on its thickness or Te. Those shells having larger Te flex less. In this paper, a forward computational method is presented based on the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) and flexural theories of isostasy. Two Moho flexure models are determined using these theories, considering effects of surface and subsurface loads. Different values are selected for Te in the flexural method to see by which one, the closest Moho flexure to that of the VMM is achieved. The effects of topographic/bathymetric, sediments and crustal crystalline masses, and laterally variable upper mantle density, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are considered in whole computational process. Our mathematical derivations are based on spherical harmonics, which can be used to estimate Te at any single point, meaning that there is no edge effect in the method. However, the Te map needs to be filtered to remove noise at some points. A median filter with a window size of 5° × 5° and overlap of 4° works well for this purpose. The method is applied to estimate Te over South America using the data of CRUST1.0 and a global gravity model.

  7. Geometric controls of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Long-period ocean waves, formed locally or at distant sources, can reach sub-ice-shelf cavities and excite coupled motion in the cavity and the ice shelf - flexural gravity waves. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf show that propagation of these waves is strongly controlled by the geometry of the system - the cavity shape, its water-column thickness and the ice-shelf thickness. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that propagation of the waves is spatially organized in beams, whose orientation is determined by the direction of the of the open ocean waves incident on the ice-shelf front. As a result, depending on the beams orientation, parts of the Ross Ice Shelf experience significantly larger flexural stresses compared to other parts where the flexural gravity beams do not propagate. Very long-period waves can propagate farther away from the ice-shelf front exciting flexural stresses in the vicinity of the grounding line.

  8. Impurity modes in the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J.M.; Leite, R.V.; Landim, R.R.; Costa Filho, R.N.

    2014-01-01

    A Green's function formalism is used to calculate the energy of impurity modes associated with one and/or two magnetic impurities in the one-dimensional Heisenberg XXZ magnetic chain. The system can be tuned from the Heisenberg to the Ising model varying a parameter λ. A numerical study is performed showing two types of localized modes (s and p). The modes depend on λ and the degeneracy of the acoustic modes is broken.

  9. Longitudinal tune control in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Dual rf systems that use fundamental and higher-harmonic cavities can be used to control the longitudinal tune in synchrotrons. The equations of motion and the Hamiltonian are defined for particle motion using dual rf systems. An example is considered using a second-harmonic system - it is shown, that as phi/sub s/ is increased, a substantial gain in bucket area over a single rf system can be realized by proper relative phasing of the first- and second-harmonic voltages

  10. ICESat-derived lithospheric flexure as caused by an endorheic lake's expansion on the Tibetan Plateau and the comparison to modeled flexural responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Austin; Sheng, Yongwei; Song, Chunqiao

    2017-10-01

    A substantial and rapid expansion beginning in the late 1990s of Siling Co, the largest endorheic lake on the central Tibetan Plateau (TP), has caused a measurable lithospheric deflection in the region adjacent to the lake. Current broad-scale measuring of this flexural response is mainly derived from InSAR processing techniques or time-consuming field campaigns. The rheological constraints of the lithosphere from the underlying lithospheric response to large lake loads in this region are not well understood. This paper highlights a more efficient spaceborne LiDAR remote sensing technique to measure the deflection in the vicinity of Siling Co and to investigate the mechanisms of the observed lithospheric response in order to garner a better understanding of the local rheology. A lake-adjacent deflection rate and Siling Co water load variations are calculated utilizing the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the joint NASA/USGS Landsat series of Earth observing satellites. A downward deflection rate of ∼5.6 mm/yr for the first 4 km of lake-adjacent land is calculated from the GLAS instrument, and this response is compared to the flexural outputs from a spherically symmetric, non-rotating, elastic, and isotropic (SNREI) Earth model in order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the lithospheric response to the rapid increase of Siling Co loads. The modeled elastic response is ∼6.9 times lower than the GLAS derived flexure, thereby providing further evidence that a purely elastic lithospheric response cannot explain the deflection in this region. The relationship between the modeled elastic response and the GLAS derived flexure is applied to a long-term lake load change dataset to create the longest-running flexural response curve as caused by the last ∼40 years of Siling Co load variations, and these results show an accumulated lake-adjacent flexure of ∼12.6 cm from an

  11. Embodiment as First Affordance: Tinkering, Tuning, Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Spatz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins from a discussion of philosophical realism and the turn towards close analysis of skilled material practices that characterizes many recent critical interventions. I examine the roots of this turn and suggest that skilled practice is a privileged site for the enactment and testing of realist ontologies. However, I question the extent to which realist thinkers have emphasized practices in which materials outside the human body are central over those in which embodiment itself is the primary medium of practice. Thinkers of realist ontology, I argue, have neglected embodiment as the primary site of an engagement with the fine-grained detail of the world. In contrast, I propose that realist ontologies developed through reference to technological engagements not only apply equally well to embodied practices but actually find their original and primary manifestation there. The body itself is the ‘first affordance’ and the site at which questions of realism and objectivity are first encountered and resolved in practice. I illustrate this point by considering how three modes of material engagement — tinkering, tuning, and tracking — manifest in embodied practices ranging from dance and sport to those of everyday life. I conclude by emphasizing the continuing political importance of embodiment as first affordance and its crucial place as a ‘fragile junction’ between ecology and technology.

  12. Nonlinear effects in varactor-tuned resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Jeremy; Zhou, Liang

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the effects of RF power level on the performance of varactor-tuned resonator circuits. A variety of topologies are considered, including series and parallel resonators operating in both unbalanced and balanced modes. As these resonators were designed to produce oscillators with minimum phase noise, the initial small signal insertion loss was set to 6 dB and, hence, QL/Q0 = 1/2. To enable accurate analysis and simulation, S parameter and PSPICE models for the varactors were optimized and developed. It is shown that these resonators start to demonstrate nonlinear operation at very low power levels demonstrating saturation and lowering of the resonant frequency. On occasion squegging is observed for modified bias conditions. The nonlinear effects are dependent on the unloaded Q (Q0), the ratio of loaded to unloaded Q (QL/Q0), the bias voltage, and circuit configurations with typical nonlinear effects occurring at -8 dBm in a circuit with a loaded Q of 63 and a varactor bias voltage of 3 V. Analysis, simulation, and measurements that show close correlation are presented.

  13. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  14. Effects of Core Softness and Bimodularity of Fibreglass Layers on Flexural Stiffness of Polymer Sandwich Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuba Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the flexural stiffness of the sandwich structures based on fibreglass and polymeric foams. The influence of geometrical and material parameters on the resulting effective flexural stiffness of the sandwich structure is being studied experimentally, analytically and by using FEM models. The effective modulus of elasticity of the sandwich-structured element is being studied and its theoretical and model dependencies on the flexibility of the foam core and bimodularity of the fibreglass layers are being investigated. The achieved results are compared with the experimentally observed values. This study shows that it is necessary to pay special attention to the issue of flexural stiffness of the walls when designing sandwich shell products in order to prevent possible failures in the practical applications of these types of structures.

  15. The Statistical Analysis of Relation between Compressive and Tensile/Flexural Strength of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępniak M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete. The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 [1], Eurocode 2 [2] and the Model Code 2010 [3] are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.

  16. Adaptive Kalman Filter of Transfer Alignment with Un-modeled Wing Flexure of Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The alignment accuracy of the strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) of airborne weapon is greatly degraded by the dynamic wing flexure of the aircraft. An adaptive Kalman filter uses innovation sequences based on the maximum likelihood estimated criterion to adapt the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix on line, which is used to estimate the misalignment if the model of wing flexure of the aircraft is unknown. From a number of simulations, it is shown that the accuracy of the adaptive Kalman filter is better than the conventional Kalman filter, and the erroneous misalignment models of the wing flexure of aircraft will cause bad estimation results of Kalman filter using attitude match method.

  17. Synchronic volvulus of splenic flexure and caecum: a very rare cause of large bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shariful; Hosein, Devin; Harnarayan, Patrick; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2016-01-18

    Colonic volvulus involving the caecum and splenic flexure of the colon is an extremely rare surgical entity and, as a result, it is rarely entertained as a differential diagnosis for large bowel obstruction. The most common site of volvulus is located at the sigmoid colon (75%) followed by caecum (22%). Rare sites of colonic volvulus include the transverse colon (about 2%) and splenic flexure (1-2%). Synchronous double colonic volvulus is very rare. The presentation of this condition can be similar to the signs and symptoms of large bowel obstruction. CT imaging of the abdomen can be diagnostic; however, the diagnosis is often missed due to the rarity of this condition--in such cases, it can only be made at laparotomy. Management of this condition should be expedited to prevent a fatal outcome. We present the case of a 56-year-old woman with synchronous volvulus of the caecum and splenic flexure of the colon. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALINE TREATED SUGAR PALM FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bachtiar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of alkaline treatment on the flexural properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The composites were reinforced with 10% weight fraction of the fibres. The fibres were treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH with 0.25 M and 0.5 M concentration solution for 1 hour, 4 hours and 8 hours soaking time. The purpose of treating fibres with alkali was to enhance the interfacial bonding between matrix and fibre surfaces. The maximum flexural strength occurred at 0.25 M NaOH solution with 1 hour of soaking time, i.e 96.71 MPa, improving by 24.41% from untreated fibre composite. But, the maximum flexural modulus took place at 0.5 M NaOH solution with 4 hours soaking time, i.e. 6948 MPa, improving by 148% from untreated composite.

  19. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

  20. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx² (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods were applied: either dry polishing before sintering or wet polishing after sintering. Each subgroup included 40 specimens. The surface roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer whereas monoclinic phase transformation was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with respect to the three factors: zirconia, specimen preparation, and test method. One-way ANOVA was conducted for the test method and zirconia factors within the combination of two other factors. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution assumption was applied to analyze the reliability under different testing conditions. In general, values measured using the 4-point test method presented the lowest flexural strength values. The flexural strength findings can be grouped in the following order: 4-point strength values than prepared before sintering. The Weibull moduli ranged from 5.1 to 16.5. Specimens polished before sintering showed higher surface roughness values than specimens polished after sintering. In contrast, no strong impact of the polishing procedures on the monoclinic surface layer was observed. No impact of zirconia material on flexural strength was found. The test method and the preparation method significantly influenced the flexural strength values.

  1. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Mohammed Abdullah Al-Makramani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995 were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8±87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4±28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7±12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001. There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05. Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

  2. Effect of gas release in hot molding on flexural strength of composite friction brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdja, Andy Permana; Surojo, Eko; Muhayat, Nurul; Raharjo, Wijang Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    Composite friction brake is a vital part of braking system which serves to reduce the speed of vehicle. To fulfill the requirement of brake performance, composite friction brake must have friction and mechanical characteristic as required. The characteristics of composite friction brake are affected by brake material formulation and manufacturing parameter. In the beginning of hot molding, intermittent hot pressing was carried out to release the gases that consist of ammonia gas and water vapor. In composite friction brake, phenolic resin containing hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) is often used as a binder. During hot molding, the reaction of phenolic resin and HMTA forms ammonia gas. Hot molding also generates water vapor because raw materials absorb moisture from environment when they are placed in storage. The gas release in hot molding is supposed affecting mechanical properties because it avoid entrapped gas in composite, so that this research investigated effect of gas release on flexural strength. Manufacturing of composite specimen was carried out as follow: mixing of raw materials, cold molding, and hot molding. In this research, duration of intermittent hot pressing and number of gas release were varied. The flexural strength of specimen was measured using three point bending test. The results showed that flexural strength specimens that were manufactured without gas release, using 4 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 5 and 10 seconds were not remarkably different. Conversely, hot molding using 4 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 15 seconds decreased flexural strength of composite. Hot molding using 2, 4, and 8 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 10 seconds also had no effect on increasing flexural strength. Increasing of flexural strength of composite was obtained only by using 6 times gas release with intermittent hot pressing for 10 seconds.

  3. Effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strengths of acrylic resin repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELHADIRY, Safa Salim; YUNUS, Norsiah; ARIFFIN, Yusnidar Tajul

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strength of heat-curing denture resin when repaired with an auto-curing resin. Material and methods Ninety-six rectangular specimens (64x10x2.5 mm) prepared from heat-curing denture base resin (Meliodent) were randomly divided into four groups before repair. One group was left intact as control. Each repair specimen was sectioned into two; one group was repaired using the conventional repair method (Group 1). Two groups had an additional transverse cavity (2x3.5x21.5 mm) prepared prior to the repair; one repaired with (Group 2) and one without glass-fiber reinforcement (Group 3). A three-point flexural bending test according to the ISO 1567:1999 specification8 for denture base polymers was carried out on all groups after 1, 7 and 30 days of water immersion. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and post-hoc Mann Whitney tests. Results The highest flexural strength was observed in the control group. Control and conventional repairs group (Group 1) showed reduction in the flexural strength 30 days after water immersion. No significant change in the strength was observed for Groups 2 and 3 where the repair joints were similarly prepared with additional transverse cavity. Conclusion Repaired specimens showed lower flexural strength values than intact heat-curing resin. Cavity preparation had no significant effect on the flexural strength of repair with water immersion. PMID:21308283

  4. Effect of tooth whitening strips on fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Tam

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of whitening strips on bovine dentin fatigue resistance and flexural strength in vitro.A total of eighty bovine dentin specimens (2x2x17mm were treated with either: control glycerine gel on plastic film wrap or whitening strips containing 9.5% hydrogen peroxide. Treatment was applied for 30 minutes, twice a day, for 1- or 4-weeks. After the last treatment, ten specimens per group were randomly selected to undergo fatigue testing (106 cycles, 3Hz, 20N while the other ten were subjected to flexural strength testing after ten days of storage in artificial saliva. Kaplan-Meier method with a log rank test, Wilcoxon test and Cox regression were used to assess fatigue test results (p<0.05. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used to compare the flexural strength results (p<0.05.There were significant differences in survival during the fatigue test among the groups (p<0.001. Treatment (control or bleach was a significant factor for specimen survival (p<0.001, Exp(B = 33.45. There were significant differences in mean flexural strength (p<0.001. No significant difference was found between "1-wk control" and "4-wk control". The mean flexural strength and fatigue resistance of the "4-wk bleach" were significantly lower than all the other groups.The use of whitening strips reduced the fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro. Until the effect of whitening strips on mechanical properties of human dentin is fully elucidated, it remains prudent to advise patients to avoid excessive direct use of whitening strips on dentin.

  5. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter. After that, the wires were submitted to flexural test in an universal testing machine. Each wire was deflected up to 2 mm at a speed of 1 mm/min. After flexural test, the roughness of the wires was evaluted on the same surface as that used for the initial evaluation. The data of roughness and flexural strength were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Student t-test compared roughness before and after deflection (a =0.05). The roughness of S and ANT (epoxy resin and PTFE-coated wires, respectively), before and after deflection, was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). Wire deflection significantly increased the roughness of the wires S and STC (p<0.05). The flexural strength of groups FSE and NS (PTFE and uncoated) was higher compared with that of the other groups (p<0.05). We concluded that the roughness and flexural strength of the orthodontic wires does not depend on the type of the esthetic coating, but it is influenced by the method of application of this coating. The deflection can increase the roughness of the esthetic orthodontic wires.

  6. Effect of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the flexural strength of polymethylmethacrylate: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, P; Mohamed, Kasim; Padmanabhan, T V

    2014-01-01

    To improve the flexural strength of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). To evaluate whether the incorporation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) increases the flexural strength and to compare the different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and its relation to flexural strength. Study was conducted in Sri Ramachandra University utilizing 40 specimens manufactured from clear heat polymerizing acrylic resin. Forty specimens of clear heat polymerizing acrylic resin of dimensions 65 Χ 10 Χ 3 mm as per ISO 1,567 standardization were fabricated and were grouped into A (CONTROL) with no titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, B with 0.5 gms of TiO 2 nanoparticles, C with 1 gm of TiO 2 nanoparticles and D with 2.5 gms of TiO 2 nanoparticles added.The concentrations of titanium dioxide in each group were 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 5 wt%. Universal testing machine INSTRON was used to load at the center of the specimen with a cross head speed of 1.50 mm/min and a span length of 40.00 mm. ANOVA and multiple comparisons are carried out using the independent t-test. The ANOVA result shows that there is a significant difference between the groups with respect to the mean flexural strength. Highest mean flexural strength is observed in Group D, while the lowest is seen in Group A. Independent t-test revealed that there was a statistical significance between Group A and Group D (0.041) and between Group B and Group D (0.028). The results concluded that polymethylmethacrylate reinforced with different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed superior flexural strength than those of normal PMMA.

  7. Complete flexural vibration band gaps in membrane-like lattice structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dianlong; Liu Yaozong; Qiu Jing; Wang Gang; Zhao Honggang

    2006-01-01

    The propagation of flexural vibration in the periodical membrane-like lattice structure is studied. The band structure calculated with the plane wave expansion method indicates the existence of complete gaps. The frequency response function of a finite periodic structure is simulated with finite element method. Frequency ranges with vibration attenuation are in good agreement with the gaps found in the band structure. Much larger attenuations are found in the complete gaps comparing to those directional ones. The existence of complete flexural vibration gaps in such a lattice structure provides a new idea for vibration control of thin plates

  8. Late Cenozoic flexural deformation of the middle U.S. Atlantic passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Gardner, Thomas, W.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the century-long recognition of regional epeirogeny along the middle Atlantic passive margin, relatively few studies have focused on understanding postrift uplift mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that epeirogenic uplift of the central Appalachian Piedmont and subsidence of the Salisbury Embayment represent first-order, flexural isostatic processes driven by continental denudation and offshore deposition. Our results show that regional epeirogenic processes, present on all Atlantic-type passive margins, are best resolved by specific stratigraphic and geomorphic relationships, rather than topography. A simple one-dimensional geodynamic model, constrained by well-dated Baltimore Canyon trough, Coastal Plain, and lower Susquehanna River (piedmont) stratigraphy, simulates flexural deforamtion of the U.S. Atlantic margin. The model represents the passive margin lithosphree as a uniformly thick elastic plate, without horizontal compressive stresses, that deforms flexurally under the stress of strike-averaged, vertically applied line loads. Model results illustrate a complex interaction among margin stratigraphy and geomorphology, the isostatic repsonse to denudational and depositional processes, and the modulating influence of exogenic forces such as eustasy. The current elevation, with respect to modern sea level, of fluvial terraces and correlateive Coastal Plain deposits or unconformities is successfully predicted through the synthesis of paleotopography, eustatic change, and margin flexure. Results suggest that the middle U.S. Atlantic margin landward of East Coast Magnetic Anomaly is underlain by lithoshpere with an average elastic thickness of 40 km (flexural rigidity, D = 4 X 10(exp 23) N m), the margin experience an average, long-term denudation rate of approximately 10m/m.y., and the Piedmont has been flexurally upwaped between 35 and 130 meters in the last 15 m.y. Long term isostatic continental uplift resulting rom denudation and basin subsidence

  9. Invited review article: high-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Y K; Moheimani, S O R; Kenton, B J; Leang, K K

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in high-speed scanning probe microscopy for high-throughput applications including video-rate atomic force microscopy and probe-based nanofabrication has sparked attention on the development of high-bandwidth flexure-guided nanopositioning systems (nanopositioners). Such nanopositioners are designed to move samples with sub-nanometer resolution with positioning bandwidth in the kilohertz range. State-of-the-art designs incorporate uniquely designed flexure mechanisms driven by compact and stiff piezoelectric actuators. This paper surveys key advances in mechanical design and control of dynamic effects and nonlinearities, in the context of high-speed nanopositioning. Future challenges and research topics are also discussed.

  10. Omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves based on graded phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.torrent@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram [Institut d' Electronique, de Microléctronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2014-12-14

    Different omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves in thin plates are proposed and numerically analyzed. Their realization is explained by means phononic crystal plates, where a previously developed homogenization theory is employed for the design of graded index refractive devices. These devices consist of a circular cluster of inclusions with a properly designed gradient in their radius. With this approach, the Luneburg and Maxwell lenses and a family of beam splitters for flexural waves are proposed and analyzed. Results show that these devices work properly in a broadband frequency region, being therefore an efficient approach for the design of refractive devices specially interesting for nano-scale applications.

  11. A new two-step tuning procedure for a photocathode gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K.K.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of the development of multi-cell RF accelerating structures is tuning the resonant frequency f of the operating mode, field balance e b , and waveguide to cavity coupling coefficient β to the desired values. Earlier theoretical analyses have not been able to predict all three parameters simultaneously for a coupled-cavity system. We have developed a generalized circuit analysis to predict f, e b , and β of a coupled structure, based on the RF properties of the individual, uncoupled, cells. This has been used to develop a simplified two-step tuning procedure to tune a BNL/SLAC/UCLA type 1.6 cell S-band photocathode gun by varying RF properties of individual half and full cells, which are easily measurable. This procedure has been validated by tuning two true-to-scale prototypes made of aluminum and ETP copper to the desired values of the RF parameters

  12. In-plane inertial coupling in tuned and severely mistuned bladed disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    A model has been developed and verified for blade-disk-shaft coupling in rotors due to the in-plane rigid body modes of the disk. An analytic model has been developed which couples the in-plane rigid body modes of the disk on an elastic shaft with the blade bending modes. Bench resonance test were carried out on the M.I.T. Compressor Rotor, typical of research rotors with flexible blades and a thick rigid disk. When the rotor was carefully tuned, the structural coupling of the blades by the disks was confined to zero and one nodal diameter modes, whose modal frequencies were greater than the blade cantilever frequency. In the case of the tuned rotor, and in two cases where severe mistuning was intentionally introduced, agreement between the predicted and observed natural frequencies is excellent. The analytic model was then extended to include the effects of constant angular rotation of the disk.

  13. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  14. The minimally tuned minimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, Rouven; Fortin, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    The regions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with the minimal amount of fine-tuning of electroweak symmetry breaking are presented for general messenger scale. No a priori relations among the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters are assumed and fine-tuning is minimized with respect to all the important parameters which affect electroweak symmetry breaking. The superpartner spectra in the minimally tuned region of parameter space are quite distinctive with large stop mixing at the low scale and negative squark soft masses at the high scale. The minimal amount of tuning increases enormously for a Higgs mass beyond roughly 120 GeV

  15. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  16. Flexural toughness of steel fiber reinforced high performance concrete containing nano-SiO2 and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Li, Qing-Fu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tian-Hang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the effect of steel fiber on the flexural toughness of the high performance concrete containing fly ash and nano-SiO2. The flexural toughness was evaluated by two methods, which are based on ASTM C1018 and DBV-1998, respectively. By means of three-point bending method, the flexural toughness indices, variation coefficients of bearing capacity, deformation energy, and equivalent flexural strength of the specimen were measured, respectively, and the relational curves between the vertical load and the midspan deflection (P(V)-δ) were obtained. The results indicate that steel fiber has great effect on the flexural toughness parameters and relational curves (P(V)-δ) of the three-point bending beam specimen. When the content of steel fiber increases from 0.5% to 2%, the flexural toughness parameters increase gradually and the curves are becoming plumper and plumper with the increase of steel fiber content, respectively. However these flexural toughness parameters begin to decrease and the curves become thinner and thinner after the steel fiber content exceeds 2%. It seems that the contribution of steel fiber to the improvement of flexural toughness of the high performance concrete containing fly ash and nano-SiO2 is well performed only when the steel fiber content is less than 2%.

  17. Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidaux, Yves, E-mail: yves.bidaux@alpeslasers.ch [Alpes Lasers SA, 1-3 Passsage Max Meuron, CH-2001 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bismuto, Alfredo, E-mail: alfredo.bismuto@alpeslasers.ch; Tardy, Camille; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Blaser, Stéphane; Muller, Antoine [Alpes Lasers SA, 1-3 Passsage Max Meuron, CH-2001 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Faist, Jerome [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-30

    In this work, we demonstrate broad electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers at 9.25 μm, 8.5 μm, and 4.4 μm in continuous wave operation using Vernier-effect distributed Bragg reflectors based on superstructure gratings. Integrated micro-heaters allow to switch from one Vernier channel to the other, while predictable and mode-hop free tuning can be obtained in each channel modulating the laser current with a side mode suppression ratio as high as 30 dB. The resulting device behaves effectively as a switchable multicolour tunable source. Tuning up to 6.5% of the central wavelength is observed. To prove the importance of the developed devices for high resolution molecular spectroscopy, a N{sub 2}O absorption spectrum has been measured.

  18. Tuning the LEDA RFQ 6.7 MeV accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.M.; Rybarcyk, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of tuning the 8 meter long Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) built for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA). This 350-MHz RFQ is split into four 2-meter-long-RFQs. Then they are joined with resonant coupling to form an 8-meter-long RFQ. This improves both the longitudinal stability and the transverse stability of this long RFQ. The frequencies of the modes near the RFQ mode are measured. The authors show the effect on the RF fields of an error in the temperature of each one of the 2-meter-long-RFQs. Slug tuners distributed along the outer walls tune the RFQ. The program RFQTUNE is used to determine the length of the tuners. The tuners are machined to length when the final tuning is complete

  19. Achieving increased bandwidth for 4 degree of freedom self-tuning energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, L. G. H.; Smith, A. D.; Köhler, E.; Lundgren, P.; Folkow, P. D.; Enoksson, P.

    2018-04-01

    The frequency response of a self-tuning energy harvester composed of two piezoelectric cantilevers connected by a middle beam with a sliding mass is investigated. Measurements show that incorporation of a free-sliding mass increases the bandwidth. Using an analytical model, the system is explained through close investigation of the resonance modes. Resonance mode behavior further suggests that, by breaking the symmetry of the system, even broader bandwidths are achievable.

  20. Influence of nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards on flexural properties and fracture behavior of polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yanhong; Shen Zhigang; Cai Chujiang; Ma Shulin; Xing Yushan

    2009-01-01

    Flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites can be successfully improved by filling nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) into polypropylene (PP). By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the influence of nonmetals on fracture behavior of PP composites is investigated by in situ flexural test. Observation results show that the particles can effectively lead to mass micro cracks instead of the breaking crack. The process of the crack initiation, propagation and fiber breakage dissipate a great amount of energy. As a result, the flexural properties of the composites can be reinforced significantly. Results of the in situ SEM observation and analysis to the dynamic flexural process supply effective test evidence for the reinforcing mechanism of the nonmetals/PP composites on the basis of the energy dissipation theory

  1. Lightweight linear alternators with and without capacitive tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1993-06-01

    Permanent magnet excited linear alternators rated tens of kW and coupled to free-piston Stirling engines are presently viewed as promising candidates for long term generation of electric power in both space and terrestrial applications. Series capacitive cancellation of the internal inductive reactance of such alternators was considered a viable way to both increase power extraction and to suppress unstable modes of the thermodynamic oscillation. Idealized toroidal and cylindrical alternator geometries are used for a comparative study of the issues of specific mass and capacitive tuning, subject to stability criteria. The analysis shows that the stator mass of an alternator designed to be capacitively tuned is always greater than the minimum achievable stator mass of an alternator designed with no capacitors, assuming equal utilization of materials ratings and the same frequency and power to a resistive load. This conclusion is not substantially altered when the usually lesser masses of the magnets and of any capacitors are added. Within the reported stability requirements and under circumstances of normal materials ratings, this study finds no clear advantage to capacitive tuning. Comparative plots of the various constituent masses are presented versus the internal power factor taken as a design degree of freedom. The explicit formulas developed for stator core, coil, capacitor, and magnet masses and for the degree of magnet utilization provide useful estimates of scaling effects.

  2. Large static tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongzhao Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new tuning mechanism is demonstrated for single-mode metal-clad plasmonic lasers, in which the refractive-index of the laser’s surrounding medium affects the resonant-cavity mode in the same vein as the refractive-index of gain medium inside the cavity. Reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of ∼57 GHz is realized for single-mode narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs, which is demonstrated at a much more practical temperature of 78 K. The tuning is based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric (silicon-dioxide on a QCL chip that has already been soldered and wire-bonded onto a copper mount. This is a considerably larger tuning range compared to previously reported results for terahertz QCLs with directional far-field radiation patterns. The key enabling mechanism for tuning is a recently developed antenna-feedback scheme for plasmonic lasers, which leads to the generation of hybrid surface-plasmon-polaritons propagating outside the cavity of the laser with a large spatial extent. The effect of dielectric deposition on QCL’s characteristics is investigated in detail including that on maximum operating temperature, peak output power, and far-field radiation patterns. Single-lobed beam with low divergence (<7° is maintained through the tuning range. The antenna-feedback scheme is ideally suited for modulation of plasmonic lasers and their sensing applications due to the sensitive dependence of spectral and radiative properties of the laser on its surrounding medium.

  3. Research on differences and correlation between tensile, compression and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the differences and conversion relations between the tensile, compressive and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam, in this paper, we develop a new test method for measuring three moduli simultaneously. By using the materials testing system, we test three moduli of the cement stabilized macadam under different loading rates, propose a flexural modulus calculation formula which considers the shearing effect, reveal the change rules of the tensile, compression and flexural moduli with the loading rate and establish the conversion relationships between the three moduli. The results indicate that: three moduli become larger with the increase of the loading rate, showing a power function pattern; with the shear effect considered, the flexural modulus is increased by 47% approximately over that in the current test method; the tensile and compression moduli of cement stabilized macadam are significantly different. Therefore, if only the compression modulus is used as the structural design parameter of asphalt pavement, there will be a great deviation in the analysis of the load response. In order to achieve scientific design and calculation, the appropriate design parameters should be chosen based on the actual stress state at each point inside the pavement structure.

  4. Evaluation of tension stiffening effect on the crack width calculation of flexural RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. Allam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Building codes consider the tension stiffening when calculating the crack width of the flexural members. A simple analytical procedure is proposed for the determination of forces, stresses and strains acting on a reinforced concrete section subjected to flexure considering the concrete contribution in tension up to tensile concrete strain corresponding to the cracking strength of concrete. This analytical method gives the minimum value (lower bound of tension stiffening. Also, a commercial Finite Element Program (ABAQUS 2007 was used to perform non-linear analysis in order to evaluate the total contribution of the tensioned concrete in carrying loads which may be considered as the upper bound of tension stiffening. In addition, a comparison is carried out among the different codes using four reinforced concrete rectangular models to compare and evaluate the tension stiffening with proposed analytical lower bound tension stiffening and upper bound as obtained by ABAQUS. The models include different percentages of flexural steel ratio. The comparison revealed that the codes’ equations always consider tension stiffening lying between lower and upper bound of tension stiffening proposed in this study. Also, the study showed that the tension stiffening decreases with the increase of the percentage of the flexural reinforcement ratio.

  5. Flexural properties and impact strength of denture base resins reinforced with micronized glass flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak H Choksi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Flexural strength of unmodified PMMA denture base resin decreases with increase in the concentration of glass flakes. Impact strength does not show any significant change at 5% concentration of glass flakes and impact strength significantly reduces with the addition of glass flakes in 10% and 20%.

  6. Long-term deflection and flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with recycled aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term deformation of recycled aggregate concrete beams was examined. • Three beams were monitored for over 380 days. • Influence of recycled aggregate on the long-term performance. • Comparison of that between normal and recycled aggregate concrete beams. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the long-term deformations of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams for over 1 year (380 days) and flexural behavior of RAC beams after exposure to sustained loading. Three reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens were fabricated with replacement percentage of aggregate (100% natural aggregate, 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and 50% recycled fine aggregate) and subjected to sustained loading that is 50% of the nominal flexural capacity. During the sustained loading period (380 days), the long-term deflection due to creep and shrinkage was recorded and compared with predicted behavior that was determined based on current specifications (ACI 318 Code). After measuring the long-term deflection for 380 days, four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the flexural behavior of RC beams after exposure to sustained loading and determine any reduction in flexural capacity. A modified equation to predict the long-term deflection values for RC beams with recycled aggregate is proposed, and the experimental results are compared with the predictions calculated using the ACI 318 Code provisions

  7. Flexure Behavior of Hybrid Continuous Deep Beam Strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M.K.Al-Mutairee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study present an experimental investigation for overall flexure behavior of reinforced concrete continuous deep beams (RCCDB made of hybrid concrete, normal strength concrete (NSC and high strength concrete (HSC at different location and percentage. The experimental work includes testing of sixteen specimens of RCCDB under two points loads. The effects of HSC layer thickness and CFRP on strength of RCCDB had been studied. The experimental results showed that the strengthening of RCCDB by HSC layer from top is better than from bottom, where the increment in the ultimate flexural strength increased by (14,21,27% for top strengthening and (12,15,13% for bottom strengthening for (25,50,75% thickness of total depth of beam respectively. The optimal strengthening of RCCDB by HSC layer at top was of 25%. The results also proved that the strengthening of hybrid RCCDB by (10,15cm CFRP strip at the bottom for flexure gave increment in the ultimate strength by (32, 29% respectively, and the strengthening by CFRP strip for flexure at the bottom is better than at top for hybrid RCCDB. The shear strengthening of hybrid RCCDB increases the ultimate strength by 23.4% and 13.8% if the strengthening has O and U shape respectively

  8. Flexural Stiffness of Myosin Va Subdomains as Measured from Tethered Particle Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Arthur J.; Kennedy, Guy G.; Warshaw, David M.; Ali, M. Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Myosin Va (MyoVa) is a processive molecular motor involved in intracellular cargo transport on the actin cytoskeleton. The motor's processivity and ability to navigate actin intersections are believed to be governed by the stiffness of various parts of the motor's structure. Specifically, changes in calcium may regulate motor processivity by altering the motor's lever arm stiffness and thus its interhead communication. In order to measure the flexural stiffness of MyoVa subdomains, we use tethered particle microscopy, which relates the Brownian motion of fluorescent quantum dots, which are attached to various single- and double-headed MyoVa constructs bound to actin in rigor, to the motor's flexural stiffness. Based on these measurements, the MyoVa lever arm and coiled-coil rod domain have comparable flexural stiffness (0.034 pN/nm). Upon addition of calcium, the lever arm stiffness is reduced 40% as a result of calmodulins potentially dissociating from the lever arm. In addition, the flexural stiffness of the full-length MyoVa construct is an order of magnitude less stiff than both a single lever arm and the coiled-coil rod. This suggests that the MyoVa lever arm-rod junction provides a flexible hinge that would allow the motor to maneuver cargo through the complex intracellular actin network. PMID:26770194

  9. An experimental study of crack development in flexural reinforced concrete members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Hagsten, Lars German; Würst Sørensen, Bjarke

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program of eight reinforced concrete beams carried out in order to investigate the development of cracks related to flexure. To be able to investigate possible size effects with respect to cracking, beams of two different depths were tested...

  10. Lower crustal seismic activity in the Adana Basin (Eastern Mediterranean): Possible connection to gravitational flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Mehmet; Aktar, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    High quality broadband data, together with the application of the double difference relocation technique, has been used to study the characteristics of the lower crustal seismicity in the Adana Basin, in southwestern Turkey. Deep events are clearly seen to be restricted only to the Adana Basin and never extend outside its boundaries. Furthermore, the seismogenic zone is observed to align roughly with the main axis of the basin and plunges steadily in the SSW-direction, following the basement trend of the Adana Basin. Similarities between geometries of the basin evolution and the deep seismic production suggest that both processes are closely related. A flexure process is proposed related to the subsidence of the Adana Basin. The seismogenic zone, originally at a shallow depth, is assumed to have been displaced vertically into the lower crust, by flexure. The temperature evolution of the crust during the flexure has been studied in detail using finite difference modeling, with amplitude and duration parameters taken from earlier studies. It has been concluded that the physical conditions for brittle fracturing remained unchanged for an extended period of time after the flexure. The brittle layers originally at shallow depths, preserved their original thermal properties after the subsidence and will continue to produce earthquakes at considerable depths. Numerical tests using inferred parameters imply a total vertical shift of 7-8 km for the seismogenic zone. Discussions for additional processes, which may further contribute to the cooling of the crust, are also included.

  11. Mechanical and thermal cycling effects on the flexural strength of glass ceramics fused to titanium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasquez, Vanessa; Ozcan, Mutlu; Nishioka, Renato; Souza, Rodrigo; Mesquita, Alfredo; Pavanelli, Carlos

    This study evaluated the effects of mechanical and thermal cycling on the flexural strength (ISO 9693) of three brands of ceramics fused to commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Metallic frameworks of 25 x 3 x 0.5 mm dimensions (N = 84) were cast in cpTi, followed by 150-mu m aluminum oxide airborne

  12. Flexure and impact properties of glass fiber reinforced nylon 6-polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaseh, N. M.; Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Ismail, N. M.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.; Iqbal, A. K. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, polymer composites are rapidly developing and replacing the metals or alloys in numerous engineering applications. These polymer composites are the topic of interests in industrial applications such as automotive and aerospace industries. In the present research study, glass fiber (GF) reinforced nylon 6 (PA6)-polypropylene (PP) composite specimens were prepared successfully using injection molding process. Test specimens of five different compositions such as, 70%PA6+30%PP, 65%PA6+30%PP+5%GF, 60%PA6+30%PP+10%GF, 55%PA6+30%PP+15%GF and 50%PA6+30%PP+20%GF were prepared. In the experiments, flexure and impact tests were carried out. The obtained results revealed that flexure and impact properties of the polymer composites were significantly influenced by the glass fiber content. Results showed that flexural strength is low for pure polymer blend and flexural strength of GF reinforced composite increases gradually with the increase in glass fiber content. Test results also revealed that the impact strength of 70%PA6+30%PP is the highest and 55%PA6+30%PP+15%GF composite shows moderate impact strength. On the other hand, 50%PA6+30%PP+20%GF composite shows low toughness or reduced impact strength.

  13. Segmental resection with primary anastomosis is not always safe in splenic flexure perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weledji, Elroy P; Mokake, Martin D; Sinju, Motaze

    2016-01-16

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by a rare mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on Chromosome 5q. The risk of colorectal cancer in patients with FAP is nearly 100% and intensive endoscopic surveillance or prophylactic colectomy are mandatory. If extensive endoscopic surveillance is chosen, there is a cumulative risk of perforation and bleeding especially after polypectomy. We discussed the problems and options in the management of the late diagnosis of an iatrogenic perforation of the splenic flexure complicating endoscopic surveillance in FAP. We present a 35-year-old black African man with FAP who sustained a splenic flexure perforation following a colonoscopic polypectomy of a suspicious lesion. He underwent a splenic flexure resection and primary anastomosis that dehisced and the patient benefited from an emergency definitive colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis. Resection with primary anastomosis following iatrogenic perforation of the splenic flexure is not safe because of a high chance of anastomotic dehiscence. Following a late diagnosis in an unstable patient exteriorization of the perforation as a stoma is a better option prior to a definitive prophylactic colectomy.

  14. Numerical modelling study on the flexural uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamasaki, T.; Miura, H.; Nogi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, based on a 2-D thermomechanical finite element model, the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) is discussed in relation to the flexural uplift of a rheologically layered lithosphere, which is described by Vening-Meinesz's cantilever kinematics. The general model behaviour

  15. Fluoride release, recharge and flexural properties of polymethylmethacrylate containing fluoridated glass fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, I A; Swain, M V; Naoum, S J; Al-Omari, W M; Martin, E; Ellakwa, A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated glass fillers on fluoride release, recharge and the flexural properties of modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Specimens of PMMA denture base material with various loading of fluoridated glass fillers (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% by weight) were prepared. Flexural properties were evaluated on rectangular specimens (n = 10) aged in deionized water after 24 hours, 1 and 3 months. Disc specimens (n = 10) were aged for 43 days in deionized water and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and fluoride release was measured at numerous intervals. After ageing, specimens were recharged and fluoride re-release was recorded at 1, 3 and 7 days after recharge. Samples containing 2.5%, 5% and 10% glass fillers showed significantly (p glass fillers specimens. All experimental specimens exhibited fluoride release in both media. The flexural strength of specimens decreased in proportion to the percentage filler inclusion with the modulus of elasticity values remaining within ISO Standard 1567. The modified PMMA with fluoridated glass fillers has the ability to release and re-release fluoride ion. Flexural strength decreased as glass filler uploading increased. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Empirical studies of flexural strength for dry-stack Interlocking masonry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tests were carried out to establish the flexural strength of dry-stack masonry under vertical and horizontal bending. Two formats of wallettes were tested. Format 1 made of specimens constructed span normal to bed joints, which were tested under vertical bending and Format 2 specimens constructed span parallel to bed ...

  17. Compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption of concrete containing palm oil kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Xiang-ONG, Jun; Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Hamid, Noor Azlina Abdul; Kuzaiman, Salsabila; Ali, Adiwijaya

    2017-11-01

    Effect of inclusion of palm oil kernel shell (PKS) and palm oil fibre (POF) in concrete was investigated on the compressive strength and flexural strength. In addition, investigation of palm oil kernel shell on concrete water absorption was also conducted. Total of 48 concrete cubes and 24 concrete prisms with the size of 100mm × 100mm × 100mm and 100mm × 100mm × 500mm were prepared, respectively. Four (4) series of concrete mix consists of coarse aggregate was replaced by 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% palm kernel shell and each series were divided into two (2) main group. The first group is without POF, while the second group was mixed with the 5cm length of 0.25% of the POF volume fraction. All specimen were tested after 7 and 28 days of water curing for a compression test, and flexural test at 28 days of curing period. Water absorption test was conducted on concrete cube age 28 days. The results showed that the replacement of PKS achieves lower compressive and flexural strength in comparison with conventional concrete. However, the 25% replacement of PKS concrete showed acceptable compressive strength which within the range of requirement for structural concrete. Meanwhile, the POF which should act as matrix reinforcement showed no enhancement in flexural strength due to the balling effect in concrete. As expected, water absorption was increasing with the increasing of PKS in the concrete cause by the porous characteristics of PKS

  18. Determination of Bond Capacity in Reinforced Concrete Beam and Its Influence on the Flexural Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of actual performance of the reinforced concrete beam in bond under flexure, when reinforced with tension steel is going to consider. In this experiment four specimens of beam and a bar in the middle of the width of the beam has been used and 2.5 cm of concrete cover has been considered from the center of the bar. In addition, transverse bars have been used to reassure lack of shear yield at the two ends of the beam. Flexural bar has been put in the middle of the beam symmetrically and the length of the flexural bar in each of the samples shall be: 15, 20, 30 and 40 cm. Three cylindrical samples were made in order to determine f’c and were examined at 28 days and the compressive strength of concrete used in this study was about 35 MPa. The beam samples were examined after 28 days via two-point loading system. Based on the results, increasing the length of bar causes increase of flexural strength. The presence of longitudinal rebar resulted in the ultimate momentum to be more than the crack momentum of the cross-section in parts which have broken at the point of longitudinal bar cut.

  19. Multiple scattering and stop band characteristics of flexural waves on a thin plate with circular holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuowei; Biwa, Shiro

    2018-03-01

    A numerical procedure is proposed for the multiple scattering analysis of flexural waves on a thin plate with circular holes based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. The numerical procedure utilizes the wave function expansion of the exciting as well as scattered fields, and the boundary conditions at the periphery of holes are incorporated as the relations between the expansion coefficients of exciting and scattered fields. A set of linear algebraic equations with respect to the wave expansion coefficients of the exciting field alone is established by the numerical collocation method. To demonstrate the applicability of the procedure, the stop band characteristics of flexural waves are analyzed for different arrangements and concentrations of circular holes on a steel plate. The energy transmission spectra of flexural waves are shown to capture the detailed features of the stop band formation of regular and random arrangements of holes. The increase of the concentration of holes is found to shift the dips of the energy transmission spectra toward higher frequencies as well as deepen them. The hexagonal hole arrangement can form a much broader stop band than the square hole arrangement for flexural wave transmission. It is also demonstrated that random arrangements of holes make the transmission spectrum more complicated.

  20. Enhanced Flexural Strength of Tellurium Nanowires/epoxy Composites with the Reinforcement Effect of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balguri, Praveen Kumar; Harris Samuel, D. G.; Aditya, D. B.; Vijaya Bhaskar, S.; Thumu, Udayabhaskararao

    2018-02-01

    Investigating the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposite materials has been greatly increased in the last decade. In particular, flexural strength plays a major role in resisting bending and shear loads of a composite material. Here, one dimensional (1D) tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) reinforced epoxy composites have been prepared and the flexural properties of resulted TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are studied. The diameter and length of the TeNWs used to make TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are 21±2.5 nm and 697±87 nm, respectively. Plain and TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Furthermore, significant enhancement in the flexural strength of TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposite is observed in comparison to plain epoxy composite, i.e. flexural strength is increased by 65% with the addition of very little amount of TeNWs content (0.05 wt.%) to epoxy polymer. Structural details of plain and TeNWs/epoxy at micrometer scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We believe that our results provide a new type of semiconductor nanowires based high strength epoxy polymer nanocomposites.

  1. Evaluating the fracture toughness and flexural strength of pressable dental ceramics: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Ravi; Krishna, C H Vamsi; Reddy, K Mahendranadh; Reddy, G V K Mohan; Shastry, Y Mahadev

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength, biaxial flexural strength after etching with 9 % HF acid and fracture toughness of three commonly used pressable all ceramic core materials. Ninety glass ceramic specimens were fabricated from three commercially available leucite based core ceramic material (1) Esthetic Empress, (2) Cergo, and (3) Performance Plus. Thirty discs of each material were divided into three groups of 10 discs each. Biaxial flexural strength (30 discs,) Biaxial flexural strength for samples treated with 9 % HF acid (30 discs) and fracture toughness (30 discs) were evaluated. Core material Performance Plus had the lowest biaxial strength of 124.89 MPa, Cergo had strength of 152.22 MPa and the highest value of 163.95 was reported for Esthetic Empress. For samples treated 9 % HF, Performance Plus had the lowest biaxial strength of 98.37 MPa, Cergo had strength of 117.42 MPa and the highest value of 143.74 was reported for Esthetic Empress. Core material Performance Plus had the lowest fracture toughness of 1.063 MPa, Cergo had strength of 1.112 MPa and the highest value of 1.225 was reported for Esthetic Empress. The results shows that Esthetic Empress had better mechanical properties compared to Cergo had Performance Plus in relation to the parameters tested.

  2. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  3. Compressive and flexural strength of expanded perlite aggregate mortar subjected to high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifeli, Muhamad Faqrul Hisham bin Mohd; Saman@Hj Mohamed, Hamidah binti Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Work on thermal resistant of outer structures of buildings is one of the solution to reduce death, damages and properties loss in fire cases. Structures protected with thermal resistant materials can delay or avoid failure and collapse during fire. Hence, establishment of skin cladding with advance materials to protect the structure of buildings is a necessary action. Expanded perlite is a good insulation material which can be used as aggregate replacement in mortar. This study is to study on mortar mechanical properties of flexural and compressive strength subjected to elevated temperatures using expanded perlite aggregate (EPA). This study involved experimental work which was developing mortar with sand replacement by volume of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of EPA and cured for 56 days. The mortars then exposed to 200°C, 400 °C, 700 °C and 1000 °C. Flexural and compressive strength of the mortar were tested. The tests showed that there were increased of flexural and compressive strength at 200°C, and constantly decreased when subjected to 400°C, 700°C and 1000 °C. There were also variation of strengths at different percentages of EPA replacement. Highest compressive strength and flexural strength recorded were both at 200 °C with 65.52 MPa and 21.34 MPa respectively. The study conclude that by using EPA as aggregate replacement was ineffective below elevated temperatures but increased the performance of the mortar at elevated temperatures.

  4. Flexural Properties of PLA Components Under Various Test Condition Manufactured by 3D Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2018-06-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components in the resent past. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as an additive layer manufacturing technology is a powerful method of RP technique that can fabricate 3 dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital data is converted into real product. In the present investigation, Polylactic Acid (PLA) was considered as a starting material. Flexural strength of PLA material was evaluated using 3-point bend test, as per ASTM D790 standard. Specimens with flat (0°) and vertical (90°) orientation were considered. Moreover, layer thicknesses of 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3 mm were considered. To fabricate these specimens, printing speed of 38 and 52 mm/s was maintained. Nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm with 40 % of infill density were used. Based on the experimental results, it was observed that 0° orientation, 38 mm/s printing speed, and 0.2 mm layer thickness resulted maximum flexural strength, as compared to all other specimens. The improved flexural strength was due to the lower layer thickness (0.2 mm) specimens, as compared with other specimens made of 0.25 and 0.30 mm layer thicknesses. It was concluded that flexural strength properties were greatly influenced by lower the layer thickness, printing speed, and orientation.

  5. Apple iTunes music store

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzi, R.; Schmucker, M.; Spadoni, F.

    2003-01-01

    This technical report analyses the Apple iTunes Music Store and its success factors. Besides the technical aspects, user and customer aspects as well as content aspects are considered. Furthermore, iTunes Music Store's impact to online music distribution services is analysed and a short outlook to future music online distribution is given.

  6. Efficient tuning in supervised machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The tuning of learning algorithm parameters has become more and more important during the last years. With the fast growth of computational power and available memory databases have grown dramatically. This is very challenging for the tuning of parameters arising in machine learning, since the

  7. Tuning and History: A Personal Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ann Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The text places Tuning History in the context of the rapidly developing international collaboration among historians which began in Europe in 1989, with the ECTS Pilot project, and continued, from 2000 on, with the European History Networks (for research and for curriculum development) working in parallel and in collaboration with Tuning, in…

  8. A frequency domain approach for MPC tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özkan, L.; Meijs, J.B.; Backx, A.C.P.M.; Karimi, I.A.; Srinivasan, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a frequency domain based approach to tune the penalty weights in the model predictive control (MPC) formulation. The two-step tuning method involves the design of a favourite controller taking into account the model-plant mismatch followed by the controller matching. We implement

  9. Holocene Flexural Deformation over the Nile Delta: Evidence from Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Isostatic adjustment and subsequent subsidence and uplift due to sediment and water loading and unloading mechanisms is one of the major factors that produce regional deformational patterns across river deltas. Using 84 Envisat ASAR scenes that were acquired (2004 - 2010) along three tracks and applying Persistent scatterer (PS) radar interferometric techniques, we documented flexural deformational patterns over the entire Nile Delta (length: 186 km; width: 240 km) of Egypt. The passive continental margin of Africa subsided from Jurassic time onwards due to isostatic loading creating an accommodation space and consequently, the deposition of relatively younger sediments on the oceanic crust. In river deltas, the flexural isostasy model dictates that a subsidence in the oceanic crust side should be balanced by a bulge (uplift) in the flanking regions. Using radar interferometry, we were able to identify the flexural deformation pattern and map its spatial extent over the northern and central Nile Delta region. Findings include: (1) the northern Nile Delta region (block) is separated from the southern delta region by an east-west trending, extensively faulted, hinge line that signifies the boundary between two deformational patterns (subsidence and uplift). It separates the highly subsiding (up to 9.8 mm/yr) northern delta block (up to 85 km long) from the nearly stable (0.4 mm/yr; averaged) southern delta block (up to 91 km long). The hinge line marks the end of the passive continental margin of Africa and the beginning of the oceanic crust of the Mediterranean. (2) We mapped the extent of a 20-40 km wide flexural uplift zone to the south of the hinge line. Within the flexural uplift zone (2.5 mm/yr; averaged), there is a gradual increase in uplift rate reaching peak value (up to 7 mm/yr) near the midpoint of the zone. (3) The uplift rate gradually decreases south of the flexure boundary reaching 0.3 mm/yr at the southern periphery of the delta. (4) The flexural

  10. Design of fast tuning elements for the ITER ICH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, D.W.; Goulding, R.H.

    1996-05-01

    The coupling between the ion cyclotron (IC) antenna and the ITER plasma (as expressed by the load resistance the antenna sees) will experience relatively fast variations due to plasma edge profile modifications. If uncompensated, these will cause an increase in the amount of power reflected back to the transmitter and ultimately a decrease in the amount of radio frequency (rf) power to the plasma caused by protective suppression of the amount of rf power generated by the transmitter. The goals of this task were to study several alternate designs for a tuning and matching (T ampersand M) system and to recommend some research and development (R ampersand D) tasks that could be carried out to test some of the most promising concepts. Analyses of five different T ampersand M configurations are presented in this report. They each have different advantages and disadvantages, and the choice among them must be made depending on the requirements for the IC system. Several general conclusions emerge from our study: The use of a hybrid splitter as a passive reflected-power dump [''edge localized mode (ELM)-dump''] appears very promising; this configuration will protect the rf power sources from reflected power during changes in plasma loading due to plasma motion or profile changes (e.g., ELM- induced changes in the plasma scrape-off region) and requires no active control of the rf system. Trade-offs between simplicity of design and capability of the system must be made. Simple system designs with few components near the antenna either have high voltages over considerable distances of transmission lines, or they are not easily tuned to operate at different frequencies. Designs using frequency shifts and/or fast tuning elements can provide fast matching over a wide range of plasma loading; however, the designs studied here require components near the antenna, complicating assembly and maintenance. Capacitor-tuned resonant systems may offer a good compromise

  11. ATLAS Run 1 Pythia8 tunes

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We present tunes of the Pythia8 Monte~Carlo event generator's parton shower and multiple parton interaction parameters to a range of data observables from ATLAS Run 1. Four new tunes have been constructed, corresponding to the four leading-order parton density functions, CTEQ6L1, MSTW2008LO, NNPDF23LO, and HERAPDF15LO, each simultaneously tuning ten generator parameters. A set of systematic variations is provided for the NNPDF tune, based on the eigentune method. These tunes improve the modeling of observables that can be described by leading-order + parton shower simulation, and are primarily intended for use in situations where next-to-leading-order and/or multileg parton-showered simulations are unavailable or impractical.

  12. Automatic tuning of free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, Ilya; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL, Schenefeld (Germany); Tomin, Sergey [European XFEL, Schenefeld (Germany); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-07

    Existing FEL facilities often suffer from stability issues: so electron orbit, transverse electron optics, electron bunch compression and other parameters have to be readjusted often to account for drifts in performance of various components. The tuning procedures typically employed in operation are often manual and lengthy. We have been developing a combination of model-free and model-based automatic tuning methods to meet the needs of present and upcoming XFEL facilities. Our approach has been implemented at FLASH to achieve automatic SASE tuning using empirical control of orbit, electron optics and bunch compression. In this paper we describe our approach to empirical tuning, the software which implements it, and the results of using it at FLASH.We also discuss the potential of using machine learning and model-based techniques in tuning methods.

  13. Automatic tuning of free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapov, Ilya; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca; Tomin, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Existing FEL facilities often suffer from stability issues: so electron orbit, transverse electron optics, electron bunch compression and other parameters have to be readjusted often to account for drifts in performance of various components. The tuning procedures typically employed in operation are often manual and lengthy. We have been developing a combination of model-free and model-based automatic tuning methods to meet the needs of present and upcoming XFEL facilities. Our approach has been implemented at FLASH to achieve automatic SASE tuning using empirical control of orbit, electron optics and bunch compression. In this paper we describe our approach to empirical tuning, the software which implements it, and the results of using it at FLASH.We also discuss the potential of using machine learning and model-based techniques in tuning methods.

  14. Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beam Strengthened by Near-Surface Mounted CFRP Reinforcement Using Equivalent Section Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-tai Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available FRP (fiber reinforced polymer has found wide applications as an alternative to steel rebar not only for the repair and strengthening of existing structures but also for the erection of new structures. Near-surface mounted (NSM strengthening was introduced as an alternative of externally bonded reinforcement (EBR but this method also experiences early bond failure, which stresses the importance of predicting accurately the bond failure behavior in order to evaluate precisely the performance of NSM reinforcement. This study proposes the equivalent section model assuming monolithic behavior of the filler and CFRP reinforcement. This equivalent section model enables establishing a bond failure model applicable independently of the sectional shape of the CFRP reinforcement. This so-derived bond failure model is then validated experimentally by means of beams flexure-strengthened by NSM CFRP reinforcements with various cross-sections. Finally, analytical analysis applying the bond failure model considering the equivalent section and defined failure criteria is performed. The results show the accuracy of the prediction of the failure mode as well as the accurate prediction of the experimental results regardless of the sectional shape of the CFRP reinforcement.

  15. Influence of steel fibers on the shear and flexural performance of high-strength concrete beams tested under blast loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algassem, O.; Li, Y.; Aoude, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study examining the effect of steel fibres on the blast behaviour of high-strength concrete beams. As part of the study, a series of three large-scale beams built with high-strength concrete and steel fibres are tested under simulated blast loading using the shock-tube testing facility at the University of Ottawa. The specimens include two beams built with conventional high-strength concrete (HSC) and one beam built with high-strength concrete and steel fibres (HSFRC). The effect of steel fibres on the blast behaviour is examined by comparing the failure mode, mid-span displacements and, overall blast resistance of the specimens. The results show that the addition of steel fibres in high-strength concrete beams can prevent shear failure and substitute for shear reinforcement if added in sufficient quantity. Moreover, the use of steel fibres improves flexural response under blast loading by reducing displacements and increasing blast capacity. Finally, the provision of steel fibres is found to improve the fragmentation resistance of high-strength concrete under blast loads.

  16. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  17. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  18. Influence of thermal cycling on flexural properties of composites reinforced with unidirectional silica-glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Gökçe; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2008-08-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of water storage and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of differently sized unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) containing different quantities of fibers. The effect of fiber orientation on the thermal expansion of FRCs as well as how the stresses in the composites can be affected was considered. An experimental polymeric base material was reinforced with silica-glass fibers. The cleaned and silanized fibers were sized with either linear PBMA-size or crosslinked PMMA-size. For the determination of flexural properties and water uptake, specimens were processed with various quantities of differently sized unidirectional fibers. Water uptake of FRC was measured. Water immersed specimens were thermally cycled for 500 and 12,000 cycles (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). Flexural properties of "dry" and wet specimens with and without thermal cycling were determined by a three-point bending test. The linear coefficients of thermal expansion (LCTE) for FRC samples with different fiber orientations were determined using a thermomechanical analyzer. Water uptake of the FRC specimens increased with a decrease in fiber content of the FRC. Flexural properties of FRCs improved with increasing fiber content, whereas the flexural properties were not influenced significantly by water and thermal cycling. Fiber orientation had different effects on LCTE of FRCs. Unidirectional FRCs had two different LCTE in longitudinal and transverse directions whereas bidirectional FRCs had similar LCTE in two directions and a higher one in the third direction. The results of the study suggest that the surface-treated unidirectional silica-glass FRC can be used for long-term clinical applications in the oral cavity.

  19. Cuspal Flexure and Extent of Cure of a Bulk-fill Flowable Base Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, A V; Braxton, A D; Ahmad, W; Tantbirojn, D; Simon, J F; Versluis, A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate a bulk-fill flowable base composite (Surefil SDR Flow) in terms of cuspal flexure and cure when used in incremental or bulk techniques. Mesio-occluso-distal cavities (4 mm deep, 4 mm wide) were prepared in 24 extracted molars. The slot-shaped cavities were etched, bonded, and restored in 1) two 2-mm increments Esthet-X HD (control), 2) two 2-mm increments Surefil SDR Flow, or 3) 4-mm bulk Surefil SDR Flow (N=8). The teeth were digitized after preparation (baseline) and restoration and were precisely aligned to calculate cuspal flexure. Restored teeth were placed in fuchsin dye for 16 hours to determine occlusal bond integrity from dye penetration. Extent of cure was assessed by hardness at 0.5-mm increments through the restoration depth. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (α=0.05). Surefil SDR Flow, either incrementally or bulk filled, demonstrated significantly less cuspal flexure than Esthet-X HD. Dye penetration was less than 3% of cavity wall height and was not statistically different among groups. The hardness of Surefil SDR Flow did not change throughout the depth for both incrementally and bulk filled restorations; the hardness of Esthet-X HD was statistically significantly lower at the bottom of each increment than at the top. Filling in bulk or increments made no significant difference in marginal bond quality or cuspal flexure for the bulk-fill composite. However, the bulk-fill composite caused less cuspal flexure than the incrementally placed conventional composite. The bulk-fill composite cured all the way through (4 mm), whereas the conventional composite had lower cure at the bottom of each increment.

  20. Flexural strength and the probability of failure of cold isostatic pressed zirconia core ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarampi, Eleni; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Zorba, Triantafillia; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2012-08-01

    The flexural strength of zirconia core ceramics must predictably withstand the high stresses developed during oral function. The in-depth interpretation of strength parameters and the probability of failure during clinical performance could assist the clinician in selecting the optimum materials while planning treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength based on survival probability and Weibull statistical analysis of 2 zirconia cores for ceramic restorations. Twenty bar-shaped specimens were milled from 2 core ceramics, IPS e.max ZirCAD and Wieland ZENO Zr, and were loaded until fracture according to ISO 6872 (3-point bending test). An independent samples t test was used to assess significant differences of fracture strength (α=.05). Weibull statistical analysis of the flexural strength data provided 2 parameter estimates: Weibull modulus (m) and characteristic strength (σ(0)). The fractured surfaces of the specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The investigation of the crystallographic state of the materials was performed with x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Higher mean flexural strength (Plines zones). Both groups primarily sustained the tetragonal phase of zirconia and a negligible amount of the monoclinic phase. Although both zirconia ceramics presented similar fractographic and crystallographic properties, the higher flexural strength of WZ ceramics was associated with a lower m and more voids in their microstructure. These findings suggest a greater scattering of strength values and a flaw distribution that are expected to increase failure probability. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of different grinding procedures on the flexural strength of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işeri, Ufuk; Ozkurt, Zeynep; Yalnız, Ayşe; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2012-05-01

    The surface of zirconia ceramic is damaged during grinding, which may affect the mechanical properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of zirconia after different grinding procedures and to measure the temperature rise from grinding. Forty disk-shaped zirconia specimens (15 × 1.2 mm) with a smaller disk in the center of each disk (1 × 3 mm) were divided into 4 groups (n=10). The specimens were ground with a high-speed handpiece and micromotor with 2 different grinding protocols, continual grinding and periodic grinding (10 seconds grinding with 10 seconds duration), until the smaller disk was removed. Control specimens without the center disk (n=10) were analyzed without grinding. The biaxial flexural strengths of the disks were determined in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fracture strength (MPa) was recorded, and the results were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test, Student's t test, and Pearson correlation test (α=05). All grinding procedures significantly decreased flexural strength (Pmicromotor groups (718 MPa). The temperature values obtained from micromotor grinding (127°C) were significantly higher than those from high-speed handpiece grinding (63°C) (P<.01). Grinding zirconia decreased flexural strength. Zirconia material ground with a high-speed handpiece run continually caused the least reduction in flexural strength. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Flexural behavior and design of steel-plate composite (SC) walls for accident thermal loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Peter N., E-mail: boothpn@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R. [Bechtel Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Modular steel-plate composite (SC) safety-related nuclear power plant structures must be designed to resist accident thermal and mechanical loads. The design accident thermal load represents the condition where high pressure and temperature steam is released as result of a mechanical failure and applied against the surfaces of power plant structural walls. The effect of heating and pressure can have both short and long term effects on the mechanical integrity of SC structures including degradation and cracking of concrete infill, residual stresses, and out-of-plane deformations. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of thermal and mechanical loads on the out-of-plane flexural response of SC walls and to develop simplified equations that can be used to predict behavior. Four experimental beam tests are reported that represent full-scale cross-sections of SC walls subjected to combinations of mechanical and thermal loads. The study determined that thermal loads reduce the out-of-plane flexural stiffness of SC walls. For the ambient condition, the flexural stiffness closely matches a conventional elastic cracked-transformed model, and at elevated temperatures, the stiffness is reduced to a fully-cracked flexural stiffness that only takes into account the stiffness of the steel faceplates. A method is presented for estimating the thermal curvature, ϕ{sub th}, and thermal moment, M{sub th}, resulting from unequal heating of opposing faces of an SC wall. Based on the tests in this study, the application of accident thermal loads did not result in a reduction of the flexural strength of the SC section.

  3. The effect of veneering and heat treatment on the flexural strength of Empress 2 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, M J; Palumbo, R P; Knowles, J C; Clarke, R L; Samarawickrama, D Y D

    2002-05-01

    The aims of the study were to test and compare the biaxial flexural strength and reliability of Empress 2 ceramics after heat treatment and the addition of the veneering material and to characterise their microstructures. Forty disc specimens (2 x 14 mm) and forty disc specimens (1 x 14 mm) were produced by heat pressing in the EP 500 press furnace. Group 1 (2 x 14 mm Empress 2 core) was as heat pressed and group 2 (2 x 14 mm Empress 2 core) was subjected to the recommended firing cycles. Groups 3 and 4 (1 x 14 mm Empress 2 core) were veneered with the dentine material and heat-treated as per group 2. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were lapped to 800 grit silicon carbide paper on the compressive surface only and group 4 on both the compressive and tensile test surfaces. Twenty disc specimens per group were tested using the biaxial flexure test at a crosshead speed of 0.15 mm/min. Specimens were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary electron imaging (SEM). Mean biaxial flexural strengths (MPa+/-SD) were group 1: 265.5+/-25.7; group 2: 251.3+/-30.2; group 3: 258.6+/-21.4 and group 4: 308.6+/-37.7. There was no statistical difference between groups 1, 2 and 3 (p>0.05), but differences for group 4 (pEmpress 2 core material and an amorphous glass and some evidence of a crystalline phase in the dentine material. CONCLUSIONS; Veneering or heat treatment of Empress 2 ceramics did not significantly affect the mean biaxial flexural strength (p>0.05) or reliability. Surface modification of the Empress 2 core material increased the mean biaxial flexural strength (p<0.05).

  4. Edge chipping resistance and flexural strength of polymer infiltrated ceramic network and resin nanoceramic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrou, Renos; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Cho, Seok-Hwan; Berzins, David W

    2016-09-01

    Two novel restorative materials, a polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) and a resin nanoceramic (RNC), for computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) applications have recently become commercially available. Little independent evidence regarding their mechanical properties exists to facilitate material selection. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the edge chipping resistance and flexural strength of the PICN and RNC materials and compare them with 2 commonly used feldspathic ceramic (FC) and leucite reinforced glass-ceramic (LRGC) CAD-CAM materials that share the same clinical indications. PICN, RNC, FC, and LRGC material specimens were obtained by sectioning commercially available CAD-CAM blocks. Edge chipping test specimens (n=20/material) were adhesively attached to a resin substrate before testing. Edge chips were produced using a 120-degree, sharp, conical diamond indenter mounted on a universal testing machine and positioned 0.1 to 0.7 mm horizontally from the specimen's edge. The chipping force was plotted against distance to the edge, and the data were fitted to linear and quadratic equations. One-way ANOVA determined intergroup differences (α=.05) in edge chipping toughness. Beam specimens (n=22/material) were tested for determining flexural strength using a 3-point bend test. Weibull statistics determined intergroup differences (α=.05). Flexural modulus and work of fracture were also calculated, and 1-way ANOVA determined intergroup differences (α=.05) RESULTS: Significant (Pmaterials for the 4 mechanical properties. Specifically, the material rankings were edge chipping toughness: RNC>LRGC=FC>PICN; flexural strength: RNC=LRGC>PICN>FC; flexural modulus: RNCLRGC=PICN>FC. The RNC material demonstrated superior performance for the mechanical properties tested compared with the other 3 materials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. A New Tuning Module for Resonant Coupling Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Vittorio G; De Martinis, Carlo; Giove, Dario; Masullo, Maria R; Mauri, Marco; Rainò, Antonio; Variale, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    In order to have efficient particle acceleration it is fundamental that the particles experience, in the accelerating gap, field amplitudes as uniform and as high as possible from gap to gap. Because of the unavoidable fabrication errors, an accelerating structure, when assembled, exhibits field values lower than the nominal ones and/or not uniform. All the usual procedures developed in order to adjust the parameter deviations responsible of the malfunction of these structures, are based on field amplitude measurements, by using the bead pull technique, which is a very invasive technique. In this paper the philosophy is reversed: it is assumed that all the information can be got by Sounding the Modes of the whole System (SMS) and correct the deviation of each frequency mode from its nominal value by means of an appropriate tuning of the cavities: resorting to a perturbative technique applied to a circuit model representing this kind of structures, it is possible to calculate the amount of tuning to give to th...

  6. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  8. [Laser Tuning Performance Testing and Optimization in TDLAS Oxygen Measuring Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-feng; Hu, Jun; Kan, Rui-feng; Xu, Zhen-yu; Wang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) technology, with its unmatched advantages such as high selectivity molecular spectra, fast response, high sensitivity, non-contact measuring, become the preferred scheme for combustion process diagnosis, and can be effectively used for oxygen measuring. DFB (distributed feedback) laser diode with its small size, low power consumption, long service life, narrow linewidth, tunable wavelength has become the main choice of the TDLAS system. Performance of laser tuning characteristics is a key factor restricting TDLAS's measuring performance. According to TDLAS oxygen measuring system's working requirements, a simple experimental method was used to test and analyze tuning characteristics such as wavelength current, power current and wavelength temperature of a 764 nm DFB laser diode in the system. Nonlinear distortion of tuning curves was obvious, which affects oxygen measuring accuracy. The laser spectra's characteristics such as narrow linewidth, high side mode suppression ratio and wide wavelength tuning range are obvious, while its wavelength-current tuning curve with a tuning rate of about 0.023 nm x mA(-1) is not strictly linear. The higher the temperature the greater the threshold current, the PI curve is not strictly linear either. Temperature tuning curve is of good linearity, temperature-wave-length tuning rate keeps constant of about 0.056 nm/DEG C. Temperature tuning nonlinearity can be improved by high temperature control accuracy, and current power nonlinearity can be improved by setting the reference light path. In order to solve the wavelength current tuning nonlinear problems, the method of DA controlling injection current was considered to compensate for non-linear wavelength current tuning according to DFB laser diode tuning mechanism and polynomial fitting of test results. In view of different type of lasers, this method needs only one polynomial fitting process before the system's initial work. The

  9. Upgrades to PEP-II Tune Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan S.

    2002-07-30

    The tune monitors for the two-ring PEP-II collider convert signals from one set of four BPM-type pickup buttons per ring into horizontal and vertical differences, which are then downconverted from 952 MHz (twice the RF) to baseband. Two-channel 10-MHz FFT spectrum analyzers show spectra in X-window displays in the Control Room, to assist PEP operators. When operating with the original system near the beam-beam limit, collisions broadened and flattened the tune peaks, often bringing them near the noise floor. We recently installed new downconverters that increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about 5 dB. In addition, we went from one to two sets of pickups per ring, near focusing and defocusing quadrupoles, so that signals for both planes originate at locations with large amplitudes. We also have just installed a tune tracker, based on a digital lock-in amplifier (one per tune plane) that is controlled by an EPICS software feedback loop. The tracker monitors the phase of the beam's response to a sinusoidal excitation, and adjusts the drive frequency to track the middle of the 1 go-degree phase transition across the tune resonance. We plan next to test an outer loop controlling the tune quadrupoles based on this tune measurement.

  10. Upgrades to PEP-II Tune Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan S.

    2002-07-30

    The tune monitors for the two-ring PEP-II collider convert signals from one set of four BPM-type pickup buttons per ring into horizontal and vertical differences, which are then downconverted from 952 MHz (twice the RF) to baseband. Two-channel l0-MHz FFT spectrum analyzers show spectra in X-window displays in the Control Room, to assist PEP operators. When operating with the original system near the beam-beam limit, collisions broadened and flattened the tune peaks, often bringing them near the noise floor. We recently installed new downconverters that increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about 5 dB. In addition, we went from one to two sets of pickups per ring, near focusing and defocusing quadrupoles, so that signals for both planes originate at locations with large amplitudes. We also have just installed a tune tracker, based on a digital lock-in amplifier (one per tune plane) that is controlled by an EPICS software feedback loop. The tracker monitors the phase of the beam's response to a sinusoidal excitation, and adjusts the drive frequency to track the middle of the 180-degree phase transition across the tune resonance. We plan next to test an outer loop controlling the tune quadrupoles based on this tune measurement.

  11. Upgrades to PEP-II tune measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Alan S.; Petree, Mark; Wienands, Uli; Allison, Stephanie; Laznovsky, Michael; Seeman, Michael; Robin, Jolene

    2002-01-01

    The tune monitors for the two-ring PEP-II collider convert signals from one set of four BPM-type pickup buttons per ring into horizontal and vertical differences, which are then downconverted from 952 MHz (twice the RF) to baseband. Two-channel 10-MHz FFT spectrum analyzers show spectra in X-window displays in the Control Room, to assist PEP operators. When operating with the original system near the beam-beam limit, collisions broadened and flattened the tune peaks, often bringing them near the noise floor. We recently installed new downconverters that increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about 5 dB. In addition, we went from one to two sets of pickups per ring, near focusing and defocusing quadrupoles, so that signals for both planes originate at locations with large amplitudes. We also have just installed a tune tracker, based on a digital lock-in amplifier (one per tune plane) that is controlled by an EPICS software feedback loop. The tracker monitors the phase of the beam's response to a sinusoidal excitation, and adjusts the drive frequency to track the middle of the 180-degree phase transition across the tune resonance. We plan next to test an outer loop controlling the tune quadrupoles based on this tune measurement

  12. Selective enhancement of orientation tuning before saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Sven; Kuper, Clara; Rolfs, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Saccadic eye movements cause a rapid sweep of the visual image across the retina and bring the saccade's target into high-acuity foveal vision. Even before saccade onset, visual processing is selectively prioritized at the saccade target. To determine how this presaccadic attention shift exerts its influence on visual selection, we compare the dynamics of perceptual tuning curves before movement onset at the saccade target and in the opposite hemifield. Participants monitored a 30-Hz sequence of randomly oriented gratings for a target orientation. Combining a reverse correlation technique previously used to study orientation tuning in neurons and general additive mixed modeling, we found that perceptual reports were tuned to the target orientation. The gain of orientation tuning increased markedly within the last 100 ms before saccade onset. In addition, we observed finer orientation tuning right before saccade onset. This increase in gain and tuning occurred at the saccade target location and was not observed at the incongruent location in the opposite hemifield. The present findings suggest, therefore, that presaccadic attention exerts its influence on vision in a spatially and feature-selective manner, enhancing performance and sharpening feature tuning at the future gaze location before the eyes start moving.

  13. Electronically Tunable Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillator Using Single MCDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified current differencing transconductance amlpifier (MCDTA and the MCDTA based quadrature oscillator. The oscillator is current-mode and provides current output from high output impedance terminals. The circuit uses only one MCDTA and two grounded capacitors, and is easy to be integrated. Its oscillation frequency can be tuned electronically by tuning bias currents of MCDTA. Finally, frequency error is analyzed. The results of circuit simulations are in agreement with theory.

  14. Influence of fiber length on flexural and impact properties of Zalacca Midrib fiber/HDPE by compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Agil Fitri; Ariawan, Dody; Surojo, Eko; Triyono, Joko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate the effect of fiber length on the flexural and impact properties of the composite of Zalacca Midrib Fiber (ZMF)/HDPE. The process of making composite was using compression molding method. The variation of fiber length were 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm and 9 mm, at 30% fiber volume fraction. The flexural and impact test according to ASTM D790 and ASTM D5941, respectively. Observing fracture surface was examained by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the flexural and impact strengths would be increase with the increase of fiber length.

  15. Final module tuning of the 805 MHz side-coupled cavities for the Fermilab linac group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Z.; Champion, M.; Miller, H.W.; Moretti, A.; Padilla, R.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Fermilab Tevatron collider upgrade program the last four linac drift-tube tanks are to be replaced with seven side-coupled cavity modules that will operate at an accelerating gradient of 8 MV/V. Each module is composed of four accelerating sections connected by three bridge couplers and is driven by a 12 MW 805 MHz klystron rf power supply. Sixteen accelerating cells and fifteen coupling cells are brazed into an accelerating section. The modules were tuned such that the π/2 mode of each section and the TM 010 mode of the individual bridge coupler agreed within 2 KHz of the module accelerating mode, the accelerating cell frequency was tuned within ± % KHz and the section stopbands were 50-100 KHz under vacuum. The main cell rms field deviation was in general <1% within any section and the section average rms field deviation was in all but one case <1%. The phase shift from section to section was tuned to <1 degree. The coupling between waveguide and cavity was tuned to match the 30 ma beam loading. 3 tabs., 4 figs., 6 refs

  16. Tuning Fractures With Dynamic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengbi; Chang, Haibin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2018-02-01

    Flow in fractured porous media is crucial for production of oil/gas reservoirs and exploitation of geothermal energy. Flow behaviors in such media are mainly dictated by the distribution of fractures. Measuring and inferring the distribution of fractures is subject to large uncertainty, which, in turn, leads to great uncertainty in the prediction of flow behaviors. Inverse modeling with dynamic data may assist to constrain fracture distributions, thus reducing the uncertainty of flow prediction. However, inverse modeling for flow in fractured reservoirs is challenging, owing to the discrete and non-Gaussian distribution of fractures, as well as strong nonlinearity in the relationship between flow responses and model parameters. In this work, building upon a series of recent advances, an inverse modeling approach is proposed to efficiently update the flow model to match the dynamic data while retaining geological realism in the distribution of fractures. In the approach, the Hough-transform method is employed to parameterize non-Gaussian fracture fields with continuous parameter fields, thus rendering desirable properties required by many inverse modeling methods. In addition, a recently developed forward simulation method, the embedded discrete fracture method (EDFM), is utilized to model the fractures. The EDFM maintains computational efficiency while preserving the ability to capture the geometrical details of fractures because the matrix is discretized as structured grid, while the fractures being handled as planes are inserted into the matrix grids. The combination of Hough representation of fractures with the EDFM makes it possible to tune the fractures (through updating their existence, location, orientation, length, and other properties) without requiring either unstructured grids or regridding during updating. Such a treatment is amenable to numerous inverse modeling approaches, such as the iterative inverse modeling method employed in this study, which is

  17. Functions of fish skin: flexural stiffness and steady swimming of longnose gar, Lepisosteus osseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long; Hale; Mchenry; Westneat

    1996-01-01

    The functions of fish skin during swimming remain enigmatic. Does skin stiffen the body and alter the propagation of the axial undulatory wave? To address this question, we measured the skin's in situ flexural stiffness and in vivo mechanical role in the longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus. To measure flexural stiffness, dead gar were gripped and bent in a device that measured applied bending moment (N m) and the resulting midline curvature (m-1). From these values, the flexural stiffness of the body (EI in N m2) was calculated before and after sequential alterations of skin structure. Cutting of the dermis between two caudal scale rows significantly reduced the flexural stiffness of the body and increased the neutral zone of curvature, a region of bending without detectable stiffness. Neither bending property was significantly altered by the removal of a caudal scale row. These alterations in skin structure were also made in live gar and the kinematics of steady swimming was measured before and after each treatment. Cutting of the dermis between two caudal scale rows, performed under anesthesia, changed the swimming kinematics of the fish: tailbeat frequency (Hz) and propulsive wave speed (body lengths per second, L s-1) decreased, while the depth (in L) of the trailing edge of the tail increased. The decreases in tailbeat frequency and wave speed are consistent with predictions of the theory of forced, harmonic vibrations; wave speed, if equated with resonance frequency, is proportional to the square root of a structure's stiffness. While it did not significantly reduce the body's flexural stiffness, surgical removal of a caudal scale row resulted in increased tailbeat amplitude and the relative total hydrodynamic power. In an attempt to understand the specific function of the scale row, we propose a model in which a scale row resists medio-lateral force applied by a single myomere, thus functioning to enhance mechanical advantage for bending. Finally, surgical

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Provisional Crown and Bridge Materials-An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankita; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-08-01

    Provisional restorations serve a key role as a functional and esthetic try-in for the design of the final prosthesis. During selection of materials for this restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, ease of handling, cost and patient satisfaction and approval. To evaluate and compare the flexural strength of provisional crown and bridge materials available commercially. This in-vitro study was done to compare the flexural strength of six temporary crown and bridge materials available commercially at 24 hours, 8 days and after repair. Three poly methyl methacrylate based materials (DPI, SC10 and Trulon) and three bis-acrylic based composite resins (Protemp, Cooltemp and Luxatemp) were selected. A total of 72 specimens of dimensions 64mm×10mm×2.5mm were prepared from these materials (12 from each material) and divided into two groups (n=36). Specimens were stored in artificial saliva and were fractured after 24 hours and 8 days using Universal Testing Machine. The fractured samples from the 8 days study were then subjected to repair. A uniform space of 2mm and a 450 bevel was maintained for all the repaired samples for better distribution of forces. Flexural strength of these repaired samples was recorded using the same machine. RESULTs were recorded and statistically analysed by one-way Anova and Post hoc tests. RESULTs revealed that there was decrease in flexural strength for all the materials tested from 24 hours to 8 days, though flexural strength between poly methyl methacrylate and bis-acrylic resins was similar at 24 hours and 8 days time interval. A substantial decrease was noticed in the strength of bis-acrylic composite resins after repair. From the current study it can be suggested that though there is decrease in flexural strength for all the materials from 24 hours to 8 days, both can be used to fabricate the provisional restorations. However, in the event of a fracture of a bis-acrylic provisional restoration, it may be more

  19. Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Martin, E-mail: hempel@pdi-berlin.de; Röben, Benjamin; Schrottke, Lutz; Grahn, Holger T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-09

    GaAs-based terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are continuously tuned in their emission frequency by illuminating the rear facet with a near-infrared, high-power diode laser. For QCLs emitting around 3.1 THz, the maximum tuning range amounts to 2.8 GHz for continuous-wave operation at a heat sink temperature of 55 K, while in pulsed mode 9.1 and 8.0 GHz are achieved at 35 and 55 K, respectively.

  20. Dynamic Performance Tuning Supported by Program Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance analysis and tuning of parallel/distributed applications are very difficult tasks for non-expert programmers. It is necessary to provide tools that automatically carry out these tasks. These can be static tools that carry out the analysis on a post-mortem phase or can tune the application on the fly. Both kind of tools have their target applications. Static automatic analysis tools are suitable for stable application while dynamic tuning tools are more appropriate to applications with dynamic behaviour. In this paper, we describe KappaPi as an example of a static automatic performance analysis tool, and also a general environment based on parallel patterns for developing and dynamically tuning parallel/distributed applications.

  1. Betatron tune correction schemes in nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepunov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms of the betatron tune corrections in Nuclotron with sextupolar and octupolar magnets are considered. Second order effects caused by chromaticity correctors are taken into account and sextupolar compensation schemes are proposed to suppress them. 6 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lu

    Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  3. Reverberation chambers a la carte: an overview of the different mode-stirring techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Marvin, A.C.; Moglie, F.; Mariani Primiani, V.; Cozza, A.; Arnaut, L.R.; Huang, Y.; Hatfield, M.O.; Klingler, M.; Leferink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC), a name inspired in room acoustics, are also known in literature as reverberating, reverb, mode-stirred or mode-tuned chambers. In their basic form, they consist of a shielded metallic enclosure, forming a cavity resonator, together with some mode-stirring mechanism. The

  4. Reverberation Chambers à La Carte : An Overview of the Different Mode-Stirring Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Marvin, Andy C.; Moglie, Franco; Mariani Primiani, Valter; Cozza, Andrea; Arnaut, Luk R.; Huang, Yi; Hatfield, Michael O.; Klingler, Marco; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC), a name inspired in room acoustics, are also known in literature as reverberating, reverb, mode-stirred or mode-tuned chambers. In their basic form, they consist of a shielded metallic enclosure, forming a cavity resonator, together with some mode-stirring mechanism. The

  5. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  6. FLEXURAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF RIGID PAVEMENTS USING AXI-SYMMETRIC AND PLANE STRAIN FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sawant

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of pavement involves a study of soils and paving materials, their response under load for different climatic conditions. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare stresses predicted using two finite element analyses. First analysis is based on the twodimensional plane strain assumption where as in second approach axi-symmetric condition is assumed to consider three-dimensional behavior of rigid pavement. The results are compared with flexural stresses obtained from conventional Portland Cement Association method. The computed flexural stresses obtained from axi-symmetric condition are found to be in close agreement with PCA method. Results of plane strain analysis show a fair agreement after application of an appropriate multiplication factor

  7. The flexural strength and microhardness of YBa2Cu3O6+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihm, M.K.; Powell, B.R.; Bloink, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The flexural strengths of rectangular YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ bars, prepared from mixed oxides and carbonates, or spray dried precursors have been measured at room temperature and at 77K. Strengths ranged from 17.8 to 57.6 MPa at room temperature, depending on processing history, and were twenty percent greater when measured at 77K. Corrosion of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ in humid air at 38 0 C created two layers of corrosion products, but did not weaken the uncorroded core when failure loads were corrected for the decreased sample dimensions. The Knoop hardness of polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ ranged from 436 to 447 KHN while the hardness of individual grains of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ was 498 KHN. Variations in flexural strength with microstructure were observed and are discussed

  8. Studying of Compressive, Tensile and Flexural Strength of Concrete by Using Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Abdul-Ameer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the effect of adding steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete. Steel fiber has a very significant effect on concrete because it delays the propagation of micro cracks that generate due to loading on concrete members such as beams and slabs, therefore ,it increases the strength of concrete. The steel fiber was used in this study as a percentage of the volume of concrete. Mix proportion was 1: 2:4 (cement: sand: gravel by volume for all mixes and using 0% as (control mix,0.1 %,0.2%,0.5 % and 1.0% of steel fibers, these ratios leads to increase the compressive, tensile ,and flexural strength of concrete, where the improvement in flexural strength was significant

  9. THE COMPRESSIVE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTHS OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE USING RAW RICE HUSK ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD NOR ATAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the compressive and flexural strengths of self-compacting concrete incorporating raw rice husk ash, individually and in combination with other types of mineral additives, as partial cement replacement. The additives paired with raw rice husk ash were fine limestone powder, pulverized fuel ash and silica fumes. The mix design was based on the rational method where solid constituents were fixed while water and superplasticizer contents were adjusted to produce optimum viscosity and flowability. All mixes were designed to achieve SF1 class slump-flow with conformity criteria ≥ 520 mm and ≤ 700 mm. Test results show that 15% replacement of cement using raw rice husk ash produced grade 40 concrete. It was also revealed that 30% and 45% cement replacements using raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and silica fume respectively, produced comparable compressive strength to normal concrete and improved flexural strengths.

  10. Acoustically Generated Flows in Flexural Plate Wave Sensors: a Multifield Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2011-11-01

    Acoustically excited flows in a microchannel flexural plate wave device are explored numerically with a coupled solid-fluid mechanics model. The device can be exploited to integrate micropumps with microfluidic chips. A comprehensive understanding of the device requires the development of coupled two or three-dimensional fluid structure interactive (FSI) models. The channel walls are composed of layers of ZnO, Si3N4 and Al. An isothermal equation of state for the fluid (water) is employed. The flexural motions of the channel walls and the resulting flowfields are solved simultaneously. A parametric analysis is performed by varying the values of the driving frequency, voltage of the electrical signal and the channel height. The time averaged axial velocity is found to be proportional to the square of the wave amplitude. The present approach is superior to the method of successive approximations where the solid-liquid coupling is weak.

  11. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Flax Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Claramunt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a process to produce high-performance cement-based composites reinforced with flax nonwoven fabrics, analyzing the influence of the fabric structure—thickness and entanglement—on mechanical behavior under flexural and tensile loadings. For this purpose, composite with flax nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses were first prepared and their cement infiltration was evaluated with backscattered electron (BSE images. The nonwoven fabrics with the optimized thickness were then subjected to a water treatment to improve their stability to humid environments and the fiber-matrix adhesion. For a fixed thickness, the effect of the nonwoven entanglement on the mechanical behavior was evaluated under flexural and direct tension tests. The obtained results indicate that the flax nonwoven fabric reinforcement leads to cement composites with substantial enhancement of ductility.

  12. Plate-shaped non-contact ultrasonic transporter using flexural vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takahiko; Mizuno, Yosuke; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Harada, Kana; Uchida, Yukiyoshi

    2014-02-01

    We developed a plate-shaped non-contact transporter based on ultrasonic vibration, exploiting a phenomenon that a plate can be statically levitated at the place where its gravity and the acoustic radiation force are balanced. In the experiment, four piezoelectric zirconate titanate elements were attached to aluminum plates, on which lattice flexural vibration was excited at 22.3 kHz. The vibrating plates were connected to a loading plate via flexible posts that can minimize the influence of the flexure induced by heavy loads. The distribution of the vibration displacement on the plate was predicted through finite-element analysis to find the appropriate positions of the posts. The maximum levitation height of this transporter was 256 μm with no load. When two vibrating plates were connected to a loading plate, the maximum transportable load was 4.0 kgf. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ice-Shelf Flexure and Tidal Forcing of Bindschadler Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Bryron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic models of ice-shelf flexure and ice-stream velocity perturbations are combined into a single efficient flowline model to study tidal forcing of grounded ice. The magnitude and timing of icestream response to tidally driven changes in hydrostatic pressure and/or basal drag are found to depend significantly on bed rheology, with only a perfectly plastic bed allowing instantaneous velocity response at the grounding line. The model can reasonably reproduce GPS observations near the grounding zone of Bindschadler Ice Stream (formerly Ice Stream D) on semidiurnal time scales; however, other forcings such as tidally driven ice-shelf slope transverse to the flowline and flexurally driven till deformation must also be considered if diurnal motion is to be matched

  14. TWO-DIMENSIONAL APPROXIMATION OF EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS IN SHELL THEORY: FLEXURAL SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The eigenvalue problem for a thin linearly elastic shell, of thickness 2e, clamped along its lateral surface is considered. Under the geometric assumption on the middle surface of the shell that the space of inextensional displacements is non-trivial, the authors obtain, as ε→0,the eigenvalue problem for the two-dimensional"flexural shell"model if the dimension of the space is infinite. If the space is finite dimensional, the limits of the eigenvalues could belong to the spectra of both flexural and membrane shells. The method consists of rescaling the variables and studying the problem over a fixed domain. The principal difficulty lies in obtaining suitable a priori estimates for the scaled eigenvalues.

  15. Flexural Behaviour of Precast Aerated Concrete Panel (PACP with Added Fibrous Material: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Noor Hazlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of precast aerated concrete panel as an IBS system has become the main alternative to conventional construction system. The usage of this panel system contributes to a sustainable and environmental friendly construction. This paper presents an overview of the precast aerated concrete panel with added fibrous material (PACP. PACP is fabricated from aerated foamed concrete with added Polypropylene fibers (PP. The influence of PP on the mechanical properties of PACP are studied and reviewed from previous research. The structural behaviour of precast concrete panel subjected to flexure load is also reviewed. It is found that PP has significant affects on the concrete mixture’s compressive stregth, tensile strength and flexural strength. It is also found that PP manage to control the crack propagation in the concrete panel.

  16. Flexural behaviour of post-cured composites at oral-simulating temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C T; Vijayaraghavan, T V; Lee, S Y; Tsai, A; Huang, H M; Pan, L C

    2001-07-01

    Post-curing treatments have been known to improve the mechanical stability of visible light-cured composites. After individual post-curing treatment, the flexural strength (FS) of four commercial direct/indirect placement composite materials which differ greatly in composition [oligocarbonate dimethacrylate (OCDMA)-based Conquest C & B (CQT), Bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA)-based Charisma, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)-based Concept (CCT), and BisGMA/UDMA-based Dentacolor] was evaluated under water in the temperature range of 12-50 degrees C. A control series was tested in air at room temperature (25 +/- 1 degrees C). Data were analysed using ANOVA and Duncan's test. Flexural strengths overall decreased (20-40%, P OCDMA-based materials. Post-cured composites can be significantly affected by exposure to oral environments. Different composition determines the degree of influence.

  17. Bonding techniques for flexural strengthening of R.C. beams using CFRP laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Morsy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an alternative method of attaching FRP laminates to reinforced concrete beams by the way of fasting steel rivets through the FRP laminate and concrete substrate. Five full scale R.C. beams were casted and strengthened in flexural using FRP laminate bonded with conventional epoxy and compared with other beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded with fastener “steel rivets” of 50 mm length and 10 mm diameter. Based on experimental evidence the beam strengthened with conventional bonding methods failed due to de-bonding with about 13% increase over the un-strengthened beam. On the other hand, the beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded by four steel fastener rivets only failed by de-bonding also but at higher flexural capacity with increase 19% over the un-strengthened beam.

  18. Photogrammetric Assessment of Flexure Induced Cracking of Reinforced Concrete Beams under Service Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are known to crack due to restrained shrinkage, temperature gradients, application of load, and expansive reactions. Cracks provide paths for rapid ingress of moisture, chlorides, and other aggressive substances, which may affect the long-term durability...... of the structure. For example, concrete cracks located at the reinforcing steel may contribute to a rapid corrosion initiation and propagation. Previous research has shown that cracked reinforced concrete under static flexural loading may have an increased ingress of chloride ions along the reinforcement....../concrete interface. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the development of cracks in reinforced concrete under flexural load. Cracking at both realistic service load levels (1.0-1.8 times estimated cracking load) and unrealistically high service load levels (> 0.5 times beam capacity) has...

  19. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  20. Mechanical properties and flexure behaviour of lightweight foamed concrete incorporating coir fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Noridah; Afif Iman, Muhamad; Othuman Mydin, M. A.; Samad, A. A. A.; Rosli, J. A.; Noorwirdawati, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the mechanical properties and flexural behaviour of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) with added coir fibre as filler. The compressive strength (Pt), tensile strength (Ft), modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate load and crack pattern of the foamed concrete were determined. The coir fibre was added to the foamed concrete mixture at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% of the total weight of cement. Effects of various percentage of coir fibre used on foam concrete’s mechanical and properties and flexural behaviour were studied and analysed. It was found that the increase percentage of fibre resulted in increase in compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of LFC mixture. LFC with added coir of 0.3% experienced the smallest crack propagation.

  1. Modeling and design of a two-axis elliptical notch flexure hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Zhang, Yin; Lu, Yunfeng; Wen, Zhongpu; Bin, Deer; Tan, Jiubin

    2018-04-01

    As an important part of the joule balance system, the two-axis elliptical notch flexure hinge (TENFH) which typically consists of two single-axis elliptical notch flexure hinges was studied. First, a 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) compliance model was established based on the coordinate transformation method. In addition, the maximum stress of the TENFH was derived. The compliance and maximum stress model was verified using finite element analysis simulation. To decouple the attitude of the suspended coil system and reduce the offset between the centroid of the suspended coil mechanism and the mass comparator in the joule balance system, a new mechanical structure of TENFH was designed based on the compliance model and stress model proposed in this paper. The maximum rotation range is up to 10°, and the axial load is more than 5 kg, which meets the requirements of the system. The compliance model was also verified by deformation experimentation with the designed TENFH.

  2. Determining the optimum topology of composites by the flexural stiffness criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MOGA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in designing of pieces made of composite materials consists of establishing the composite topology in such a way that it has certain properties needed in exploitation. The paper presents the mathematical apparatus and the calculation programme for establishing the optimum thickness of the composite groups so that it should have certain imposed (given flexural stiffness. The method is applicable to all types of laminate composites, no matter of the cladding or matrix nature. The direct problem consists in determining the thickness of the groups and composite, minimising the bar mass, for an imposed (given flexural stiffness, knowing the densities and elasticity modules of the groups. The indirect problem consists in determining the maximum stiffness, the thickness of the groups and composite for a given (imposed mass, knowing the densities and elasticity modules of the groups. The presented programmes offer to the producer of this kind of materials the possibility to quickly establish the optimum topology.

  3. Fluctuation Reduction in a Si Micromechanical Resonator Tuned to Nonlinear Internal Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, B. Scott; Czaplewski, David; Chen, Changyao; Dykman, Mark; Lopez, Daniel; Shaw, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical results on an unusual behavior of fluctuations when the system exhibits internal resonance. We study the fundamental flexural mode (FFM) of a Si microbeam. The FFM is electrically actuated and detected. It is resonantly nonlinearly coupled to another mode, which is not directly accessible and has a frequency nearly three times the FFM frequency. Both the FFM and the passive mode have long lifetimes. We find that the passive mode can be a ``sink'' for fluctuations of the FFM. This explains the recently observed dramatic decrease of these fluctuations at nonlinear resonance. The re-distribution of the vibration amplitudes and the fluctuations is reminiscent of what happens at level anti-crossing in quantum mechanics. However, here it is different because of interplay of the dependence of the vibration frequency of the FFM on its amplitude due to internal nonlinearity and the nonlinear resonance with the passive mode. We study both the response of the system to external resonant driving and also the behavior of the system in the presence of a feedback loop. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  4. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2017-03-06

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∼20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  5. An optimal tuning strategy for tidal turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Tuning wind and tidal turbines is critical to maximizing their power output. Adopting a wind turbine tuning strategy of maximizing the output at any given time is shown to be an extremely poor strategy for large arrays of tidal turbines in channels. This ‘impatient-tuning strategy’ results in far lower power output, much higher structural loads and greater environmental impacts due to flow reduction than an existing ‘patient-tuning strategy’ which maximizes the power output averaged over the tidal cycle. This paper presents a ‘smart patient tuning strategy’, which can increase array output by up to 35% over the existing strategy. This smart strategy forgoes some power generation early in the half tidal cycle in order to allow stronger flows to develop later in the cycle. It extracts enough power from these stronger flows to produce more power from the cycle as a whole than the existing strategy. Surprisingly, the smart strategy can often extract more power without increasing maximum structural loads on the turbines, while also maintaining stronger flows along the channel. This paper also shows that, counterintuitively, for some tuning strategies imposing a cap on turbine power output to limit loads can increase a turbine’s average power output. PMID:27956870

  6. An optimal tuning strategy for tidal turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennell, Ross

    2016-11-01

    Tuning wind and tidal turbines is critical to maximizing their power output. Adopting a wind turbine tuning strategy of maximizing the output at any given time is shown to be an extremely poor strategy for large arrays of tidal turbines in channels. This 'impatient-tuning strategy' results in far lower power output, much higher structural loads and greater environmental impacts due to flow reduction than an existing 'patient-tuning strategy' which maximizes the power output averaged over the tidal cycle. This paper presents a 'smart patient tuning strategy', which can increase array output by up to 35% over the existing strategy. This smart strategy forgoes some power generation early in the half tidal cycle in order to allow stronger flows to develop later in the cycle. It extracts enough power from these stronger flows to produce more power from the cycle as a whole than the existing strategy. Surprisingly, the smart strategy can often extract more power without increasing maximum structural loads on the turbines, while also maintaining stronger flows along the channel. This paper also shows that, counterintuitively, for some tuning strategies imposing a cap on turbine power output to limit loads can increase a turbine's average power output.

  7. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik

    2017-03-15

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∝20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  8. Compressive and flexural strength of concrete containing palm oil biomass clinker and polypropylene fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Mangi, Sajjad Ali; Burhanudin, M. K.; Ridzuan, M. B.; Jamaluddin, N.; Shahidan, S.; Wong, YH; Faisal, SK; Fadzil, M. A.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Ayop, S. S.; Othman, N. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the effects of using palm oil biomass (POB) clinker with polypropylene (PP) fibres in concrete on its compressive and flexural strength performances. Due to infrastructural development works, the use of concrete in the construction industry has been increased. Simultaneously, it raises the demand natural sand, which causes depletion of natural resources. While considering the environmental and economic benefits, the utilization of industrial waste by-products in concrete will be the alternative solution of the problem. Among the waste products, one of such waste by-product is the palm oil biomass clinker, which is a waste product from burning processes of palm oil fibres. Therefore, it is important to utilize palm oil biomass clinker as partial replacement of fine aggregates in concrete. Considering the facts, an experimental study was conducted to find out the potential usage of palm oil fibres in concrete. In this study, total 48 number of specimens were cast to evaluate the compressive and flexural strength performances. Polypropylene fibre was added in concrete at the rate of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%, and sand was replaced at a constant rate of 10% with palm oil biomass clinker. The flexural strength of concrete was noticed in the range of 2.25 MPa and 2.29 MPa, whereas, the higher value of flexural strength was recorded with 0.4% polypropylene fibre addition. Hence, these results show that the strength performances of concrete containing POB clinker could be improved with the addition of polypropylene fibre.

  9. Analysis on Flexural Strength of A36 Mild Steel by Design of Experiment (DOE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulhuda, A.; Hafizzal, Y.; Izzuddin, MZM; Sulawati, MRN; Rafidah, A.; Suhaila, Y.; Fauziah, AR

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays demand for high quality and reliable components and materials are increasing so flexural tests have become vital test method in both the research and manufacturing process and development to explain in details about the material’s ability to withstand deformation under load. Recently, there are lack research studies on the effect of thickness, welding type and joint design on the flexural condition by DOE approach method. Therefore, this research will come out with the flexural strength of mild steel since it is not well documented. By using Design of Experiment (DOE), a full factorial design with two replications has been used to study the effects of important parameters which are welding type, thickness and joint design. The measurement of output response is identified as flexural strength value. Randomize experiments was conducted based on table generated via Minitab software. A normal probability test was carried out using Anderson Darling Test and show that the P-value is <0.005. Thus, the data is not normal since there is significance different between the actual data with the ideal data. Referring to the ANOVA, only factor joint design is significant since the P-value is less than 0.05. From the main plot and interaction plot, the recommended setting for each of parameters were suggested as high level for welding type, high level for thickness and low level for joint design. The prediction model was developed thru regression in order to measure effect of output response for any changes on parameters setting. In the future, the experiments can be enhanced using Taguchi methods in order to do verification of result.

  10. Flexural fatigue life prediction of closed hat-section using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Zia

    1989-01-01

    Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.

  11. Evaluation of machinability and flexural strength of a novel dental machinable glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Zheng, Shucan; Luo, Zufeng; Li, Yong; Guo, Ling; Zhao, Yunfeng; Fu, Qiang

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the machinability and flexural strength of a novel dental machinable glass-ceramic (named PMC), and to compare the machinability property with that of Vita Mark II and human enamel. The raw batch materials were selected and mixed. Four groups of novel glass-ceramics were formed at different nucleation temperatures, and were assigned to Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4. The machinability of the four groups of novel glass-ceramics, Vita Mark II ceramic and freshly extracted human premolars were compared by means of drilling depth measurement. A three-point bending test was used to measure the flexural strength of the novel glass-ceramics. The crystalline phases of the group with the best machinability were identified by X-ray diffraction. In terms of the drilling depth, Group 2 of the novel glass-ceramics proves to have the largest drilling depth. There was no statistical difference among Group 1, Group 4 and the natural teeth. The drilling depth of Vita MK II was statistically less than that of Group 1, Group 4 and the natural teeth. Group 3 had the least drilling depth. In respect of the flexural strength, Group 2 exhibited the maximum flexural strength; Group 1 was statistically weaker than Group 2; there was no statistical difference between Group 3 and Group 4, and they were the weakest materials. XRD of Group 2 ceramic showed that a new type of dental machinable glass-ceramic containing calcium-mica had been developed by the present study and was named PMC. PMC is promising for application as a dental machinable ceramic due to its good machinability and relatively high strength.

  12. Determining the Compressive, Flexural and Splitting Tensile Strength of Silica Fume Reinforced Lightweight Foamed Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Mydin M.A.O.; Sani N. Md.; Mohd Yusoff M.A.; Ganesan S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of the properties of foamed concrete in replacing volumes of cement of 10%, 15% and 20% by weight. A control unit of foamed concrete mixture made with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 10%, 15% and 20% silica fume was prepared. Three mechanical property parameters were studied such as compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile of foamed concrete with different percentages of silica fume. Silica fume is commonly used to increase the m...

  13. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete. ► Behavior of coconut shell concrete under flexure. ► SEM images of cement, sand, coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete. ► Coconut shell hollow blocks and precast slabs are used in practice. - Abstract: Coconut shell has been used as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. The flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Twelve beams, six with coconut shell concrete and six with normal control concrete, were fabricated and tested. This study includes the moment capacity, deflection, cracking, ductility, corresponding strains in both compression and tension, and end rotation. It was found that the flexural behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under flexural loadings. Under serviceability condition, deflection and cracking characteristics of coconut shell concrete are comparable with control concrete. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. The end rotations of the coconut shell concrete beams just prior to failure values are comparable to other lightweight concretes. Coconut shell concrete was used to produce hollow blocks and precast slab in 2007 and they are being subjected to some practical loading till today without any problems such as deflection, bending, cracks, and damages for the past five years

  14. Minimum bar size for flexure testing of irradiated SiC/SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers material presented at the IEA/Jupiter Joint International Workshop on SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion structural Applications held in conjunction with ICFRM-8, Sendai, Japan, Oct. 23-24, 1997. The minimum bar size for 4-point flexure testing of SiC/SiC composite recommended by PNNL for irradiation effects studies is 30 x 6 x 2 mm 3 with a span-to-depth ratio of 10/1

  15. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria Jr, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Ni...

  16. Flexural Strength Of Prestressed Concrete Beams With Openings And Strengthened With CFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustafa B. Dawood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation of flexural strength of pretensioned prestressed concrete beams with openings and strengthened with CFRP sheets tested as simply supported span subjected under two-point loading. The experimental work includes testing of nine prestressed concrete beams specimens with dimensions effective length 1800mm depth 300mm width 130mm two of which were without openings as a control beams one without and the other with strengthening by CFRP three were with openings and the remaining four with openings and strengthened with CFRP sheets. The opening was made at square shape 100100 mm in flexure zone at mid span of beam. Several design parameters were varied such as opening width opening depth and strengthening of openings of beams by CFRP sheets at compression and tension zone. Experimental results showed that the presence of square opening with ratio hH 0.333 and rectangular opening with ratio hH from 0.333-0.5 at mid span of beams decreased the ultimate load about 5.5 and 5.5-33.1 respectively when compared with beam without openings control beam. The externally strengthened prestressed concrete beams with bonded CFRP sheets showed a significant increase at the ultimate load this increase was about 10.9-28.8 for flexure beams when compared with the unstrengthened beams. Moreover the load-deflection curves for flexure beams strengthened with CFRP sheets were stiffer than the unstrengthened beams. Therefore this results gave a good indication about using CFRP sheets in improvement of deflection.

  17. Signatures of Lithospheric Flexure and Elevated Heat Flow in Stereo Topography at Coronae on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2018-02-01

    Signatures of lithospheric flexure were previously identified at a dozen or more large coronae on Venus. Thin plate models fit to topographic profiles return elastic parameters, allowing derivation of mechanical thickness and surface heat flows given an assumed yield strength envelope. However, the low resolution of altimetry data from the NASA Magellan mission has hindered studying the vast majority of coronae, particularly those less than a few hundred kilometers in diameter. Here we search for flexural signatures around 99 coronae over ˜20% of the surface in Magellan altimetry data and stereo-derived topography that was recently assembled from synthetic aperture radar images. We derive elastic thicknesses of ˜2 to 30 km (mostly ˜5 to 15 km) with Cartesian and axisymmetric models at 19 coronae. We discuss the implications of low values that were also noted in earlier gravity studies. Most mechanical thicknesses are estimated as 24 K km-1. Implied surface heat flows >95 mW m-2—twice the global average in many thermal evolution models—imply that coronae are major contributors to the total heat budget or Venus is cooling faster than expected. Binomial statistics show that "Type 2" coronae with incomplete fracture annuli are significantly less likely to host flexural signatures than "Type 1" coronae with largely complete annuli. Stress calculations predict extensional faulting where nearly all profiles intersect concentric fractures. We failed to identify systematic variations in flexural parameters based on type, geologic setting, or morphologic class. Obtaining quality, high-resolution topography from a planetwide survey is vital to verifying our conclusions.

  18. Heat treatment of a direct composite resin: influence on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lumi Miyazaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of a direct composite, for indirect application, that received heat treatment, with or without investment. One indirect composite was used for comparison. For determination of the heat treatment temperature, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were performed, considering the initial weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg. Then, after photoactivation (600 mW/cm² - 40 s, the specimens (10 x 2 x 2 mm were heat-treated following these conditions: 170ºC for 5, 10 or 15 min, embedded or not embedded in investment. Flexural strength was assessed as a means to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment periods and investment embedding on mechanical properties. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. TGA showed an initial weight loss temperature of 180ºC and DSC showed a Tg value of 157°C. Heat treatment was conducted in an oven (Flli Manfredi, Italy, after 37°C storage for 48 h. Flexural strength was evaluated after 120 h at 37°C storage. The results showed that different periods and investment embedding presented similar statistical values. Nevertheless, the direct composite resin with treatments presented higher values (178.7 MPa compared to the indirect composite resin (146.0 MPa and the same direct composite submitted to photoactivation only (151.7 MPa. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the heat treatment increased the flexural strength of the direct composite studied, leading to higher mechanical strength compared to the indirect composite.

  19. FLEXURAL CAPACITY OF THE PRECAST RC BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION USING CFRP SHEET

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Rudy; Rante, Harmonis; Irmawaty, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Precast concrete have advantages in quality and shorter construction time. The connection of a precast concrete structures is important for the successful construction. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the flexural capacity of the portal system beam-column connection of precast concrete using CFRP sheet. The study was conducted to develop a connection system using CFRP sheet on a precast concrete frame of a highway bridges. A series of specimens with parameter of CFRP shee...

  20. Feasibility of Reducing the Fiber Content in Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete under Flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Jun; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Park, Gi-Joon; Kim, Sung-Wook

    2017-01-28

    In this study, the flexural behavior of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is examined as a function of fiber length and volume fraction. Straight steel fiber with three different lengths ( l f ) of 13, 19.5, and 30 mm and four different volume fractions ( v f ) of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% are considered. Test results show that post-cracking flexural properties of UHPFRC, such as flexural strength, deflection capacity, toughness, and cracking behavior, improve with increasing fiber length and volume fraction, while first-cracking properties are not significantly influenced by fiber length and volume fraction. A 0.5 vol % reduction of steel fiber content relative to commercial UHPFRC can be achieved without deterioration of flexural performance by replacing short fibers ( l f of 13 mm) with longer fibers ( l f of 19.5 mm and 30 mm).

  1. Effect of Web Holes and Bearing Stiffeners on Flexural-Shear Interaction Strength of Steel Cold-Formed C-Channel Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an investigation on interaction equation between the required flexural strength, M, and the required shear strength, V, of cold-formed C-channels with web holes and bearing stiffeners. The primarily shear condition test was employed to study total 8 back to back lipped C channel sections of 95 and 100 mm depth when bearing stiffeners and circular holes were placed at center and both ends of specimens. The interaction equation were evaluated via Direct Strength Method, DSM, in accordance with the American Iron and Steel Institute for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, AISI 2007. A nonlinear finite element model was developed and verified against the test results in terms of failure buckling modes. It was concluded that the M-V interaction equation for specimens with web stiffeners was conservative where these specimens experienced plastic failure mode rather than local (Msl or distortional (Msd buckling mode. Moreover, the results indicated that proposed M-V interaction equation calculated by local buckling strength (Msl adequately predicted the behavior of specimens with circular web holes.

  2. Effect of metal chloride solutions on coloration and biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lee, Kwangmin; Lee, Doh-Jae; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Fisher, John G.; Park, Sang-Won

    2012-10-01

    The effect of three kinds of transition metal dopants on the color and biaxial flexural strength of zirconia ceramics for dental applications was evaluated. Presintered zirconia discs were colored through immersion in aqueous chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions and then sintered at 1450 °C. The color of the doped specimens was measured using a digital spectrophotometer. For biaxial flexural strength measurements, specimens infiltrated with 0.3 wt% of each aqueous chloride solution were used. Uncolored discs were used as a control. Zirconia specimens infiltrated with chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions were dark brown, light yellow and dark yellow, respectively. CIE L*, a*, and b* values of all the chromium-doped specimens and the specimens infiltrated with 0.1 wt% molybdenum chloride solution were in the range of values for natural teeth. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three kinds of metal chloride groups were similar to the uncolored group. These results suggest that chromium and molybdenum dopants can be used as colorants to fabricate tooth colored zirconia ceramic restorations.

  3. Fresh Properties and Flexural Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete Integrating Coal Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Norwati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of using coal bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregates in self-compacting concrete (SCC on its fresh properties and flexural strength. A comparison between SCC with various replacements of fine aggregates with coal bottom ash showed that SCC obtained flexural strength decrease on increase of water cement ratio from 0.35 to 0.45. The natural sand was replaced with coal bottom ash up to 30% volumetrically. The fresh properties were investigated by slump flow, T500 spread time, L-box test and sieve segregation resistance in order to evaluate its self-compatibility by compared to control samples embed with natural sand. The results revealed that the flowability and passing ability of SCC mixtures are decreased with higher content of coal bottom ash replacement. The results also showed that the flexural strength is affected by the presence of coal bottom ash in the concrete. In addition, the water cement ratios are influence significantly with higher binder content in concrete.

  4. Flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with discrete steel – polypropylene fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amizah Wan Jusoh Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental results on the flexural test of concrete containing different proportions of steel fibre (SF and polypropylene fibre (PPF. The flexural test was carried out under 4-point bending load and followed the relevant standards to FRC. Hooked-end deformed SF fibre with 60 mm length and fibrillated virgin PPF fibre with 19 mm length were used in this study. Meanwhile, the concrete was designed for high strength concrete of C60. The mixture included both single SF and PPF, and also the combination of both fibres; Control beam (PC, beam with 75%SF, beam with 75%SF + 25%PPF and beam with 25%PPF. The total fibre volume fraction (Vf was fixed at 1.5%. The experimental results show that the percentage proportion of combined SF-PPF at 75-25% had the best performance for its flexural capacity. Mixture with single PPF was also found not effective in delaying the onset of tension cracks and to increase the tensile strength of the concrete. Experimental result also shows beam with 75%SF +25%PPF had their structural stiffness improved the most as compared with the others. For the compressive strength, beam with 75%SF + 25%PPF also revealed comparable performance with the control for high strength composite concrete.

  5. Flexural and Shear Behavior of RC Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafea Flaih Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study  the effect of using fiber wire mesh on the flexural and shear properties of RC concrete beams. Six reinforced concrete beams (120*180*1220mm were tested under two load points. Fiber wire mesh was applied with two manners, first one is three layers as U shape around the section of the beam, the second one is four layers around overall section of beam. The test results indicated that using of fiber wire mesh as additional reinforcement can increase the ultimate load of about (1.85-3.58% in the case of flexural and (17.7-23.7% in case of shear. Also,  results showed that an increasing in  first cracking  load is obtained from  (42.8-85.7% in case of flexural and from (41.2-76.5% in case of shear. Also the shear behavior of beams becomes more ductile when the fiber wire mesh was used in beams. The cracks of shrinkage was disappeared when the fiber wire mesh surround the section of the beam. 

  6. An Experimental Study on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members using Steel Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Saadi Hamza Salim Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges and contemporary research in the field of structural engineering is strengthening of existing structural elements using readily available materials in the market. Several investigations were conducted on strengthening of various structural components using traditional and advanced materials. Many researchers tried to enhance the reinforced concrete (RC beams strength using steel plate, Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP & CFRP. For the reason that high weight to the strength ratio and compatibility in strength between FRP composites and steel bars, steel plates and GFRP and CFRP composites are not used for strengthening works practically. Hence, in this present work the suitability of using wire mesh for the purpose of strengthening the RC flexural members is studied by conducting experimental works. New technique of strengthening system using wire mesh with a view to improve sectional properties and subsequently flexural strength of RC beams is adopted in this work. The results for experimental and theoretical analysis were compared and found that good correlation exists between them. The experimental results indicate that RC beams strengthened with steel wire mesh are easy technique for strengthening of existing flexural members.

  7. Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: “Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?”, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.

  8. Development of partial safety factors for the design of partially prestressed rectangular sections in biaxial flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Aritra; Bhattacharya, Baidurya; Agrawal, Gunjan; Mondal, Apurba

    2011-01-01

    Partial safety factors (PSFs) used in reliability-based design are intended to account for uncertainties in load, material and mathematical modeling while ensuring that the target reliability is satisfied for the relevant class of structural components in the given load combination and limit state. This paper describes the methodology in detail for developing a set of optimal reliability-based PSFs for the design of rectangular partially prestressed concrete sections subjected to biaxial flexure. The mechanical formulation of the flexural limit state is based on the principle behind prestressed concrete design recommended by IS 1343 and SP16 and failure is defined as tensile cracking of concrete extending beyond the depth of cover. The applied moments are combined according to Wood's criteria. The optimization of the PSFs is based on reliability indices obtained from first order reliability analysis of the structural components; Monte Carlo simulations are performed in each run to determine the capacity statistics and dependence between capacity and applied loads (effected through the axial loads influencing moment capacity corresponding to cracking). Numerical examples involving flexural design of partially prestressed concrete shell elements in nuclear power plant containments under accidental pressure load combination are provided. (author)

  9. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of different types of resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella de; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether the filler composition of resin composites influences their flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were obtained through a three-point bending test. Twelve bar shaped specimens of 5 commercially available composites--Supreme (3M/ESPE), a universal nanofilled composite; Esthet-X (Dentsply), Z-250 (3M/ESPE), Charisma (Heraeus Kulzer), universal hybrid composites; and Helio Fill (Vigodent), a microfine composite--were confectioned according to the ISO 4049/2000 specifications. The test was performed after a 7-days storage time using a universal test machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The filler weight content was determined by the ashing technique. The data obtained on the mechanical properties were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test (p elasticity results were observed among the universal hybrid composites. The nanofilled composite presented intermediary results. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it could be concluded that the filler content significantly interfered in the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of the composites tested.

  10. Flexural-response of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to surface lake filling and drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, A. F.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Goodsell, B.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic ice-shelf instability and break-up, as exhibited by the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002, remains one of the most difficult glaciological processes to observe directly. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have previously been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain. During the austral summer of 2016/2017, we monitored the filling and draining of four surface lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and the effect of these processes on ice-shelf flexure. Water-depth data from pressure sensors reveal that two lakes filled to >2 m in depth and subsequently drained over multiple week timescales, which had a simultaneous effect on vertical ice deflection in the area. Differential GPS data from 12 receivers over three months show that vertical deflection varies as a function of distance from the maximum load change (i.e. at the lake centre). Using remote sensing techniques applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery, we also quantify the meltwater volume in these two lakes through the melt season, which, together with the vertical deflection data, are used to constrain key flexural parameter values in numerical models of ice-shelf flexure.

  11. Effect of the bur grit size on the flexural strength of a glass-ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Kist

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present study was to determine the biaxial flexural strength (BFS of a CAD/CAM leucite reinforced glass-ceramic ground by diamond burs of different grit sizes and the influence of surface roughness on the BFS. For this, 104 plates were obtained from CAD/CAM ceramic blocks and divided into 4 groups (n = 26, according to bur grit size: extra-fine, fine, medium and coarse. Roughness parameters (Ra, RyMax were measured, and plates were kept dry for 7 days. The flexural test was carried out and BFS was calculated. Ra, RyMax and BFS data were subjected to analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Weibull analysis was used to compare characteristic strength and Weibull modulus. Regression analysis was performed for BFS vs. Ra and RyMax. When burs with coarse grit were used, higher surface roughness values were found, causing a negative effect on the ceramic BFS (117 MPa for extra-fine, and 83 MPa for coarse. Correlation (r between surface roughness and BFS was 0.78 for RyMax and 0.73 for Ra. Increases in diamond grit size have a significant negative effect on the BFS of leucite-reinforced glass-ceramics, suggesting that grinding of sintered glass-ceramic should be performed using burs with the finest grit possible in order to minimize internal surface flaws and maximize flexural strength.

  12. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  13. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry

  14. Chemical bond imaging using higher eigenmodes of tuning fork sensors in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Daniel; Zhong, Qigang; Ahles, Sebastian; Chi, Lifeng; Wegner, Hermann A.; Schirmeisen, André

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the ability of resolving the chemical structure of single organic molecules using non-contact atomic force microscopy with higher normal eigenmodes of quartz tuning fork sensors. In order to achieve submolecular resolution, CO-functionalized tips at low temperatures are used. The tuning fork sensors are operated in ultrahigh vacuum in the frequency modulation mode by exciting either their first or second eigenmode. Despite the high effective spring constant of the second eigenmode (on the order of several tens of kN/m), the force sensitivity is sufficiently high to achieve atomic resolution above the organic molecules. This is observed for two different tuning fork sensors with different tip geometries (small tip vs. large tip). These results represent an important step towards resolving the chemical structure of single molecules with multifrequency atomic force microscopy techniques where two or more eigenmodes are driven simultaneously.

  15. Microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.

    1990-01-01

    A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  16. Translucent zirconia in the ceramic scenario for monolithic restorations: A flexural strength and translucency comparison test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrabba, Michele; Keeling, Andrew J; Aziz, Aziz; Vichi, Alessandro; Fabian Fonzar, Riccardo; Wood, David; Ferrari, Marco

    2017-05-01

    To compare three different compositions of Yttria-Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic and a lithium disilicate ceramic in terms of flexural strength and translucency. Three zirconia materials of different composition and translucency, Aadva ST [ST], Aadva EI [EI] and Aadva NT [NT](GC Tech, Leuven, Belgium) were cut with a slow speed diamond saw into beams and tabs in order to obtain, after sintering, dimensions of 1.2×4.0×15.0mm and 15.0×15.0×1.0mm respectively. Blocks of IPS e.max CAD LT were cut and crystallized in the same shapes and dimensions and used as a reference group [LD]. Beams (n=15) were tested in a universal testing machine for three-point bending strength. Critical fracture load was recorded in N, flexural strength (σ in MPa), Weibull modulus (m) and Weibull characteristic strength (σ 0 in MPa) were then calculated. Tabs (n=10) were measured with a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Contrast Ratios were calculated as CR=Yb/Yw. SEM of thermally etched samples coupled with lineal line analysis (n=6) was used to measure the tested zirconia grain size. Data were statistically analyzed. Differences in translucency, flexural strength and grain size were found to be statistically significant. CR increased and flexural strength decreased in the following order ST(σ 1215±190MPa, CR 0.74±0.01)>EI(σ 983±182MPa, CR 0.69±0.01)>NT(σ 539±66MPa, CR 0.65±0.01)>LD (σ 377±39Mpa, CR 0.56±0.02). The average grain size was different for the three zirconia samples with NT(558±38nm)>ST(445±34nm)>EI(284±11nm). The zirconia composition heavily influenced both the flexural strength and the translucency. Different percentages of Yittria and Alumina result in new materials with intermediate properties in between the conventional zirconia and lithium disilicate. Clinical indications for Zirconia Aadva NT should be limited up to three-unit span bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Paleobathymetry from 3-D flexural backstripping: Implementation and application to NW Australia and Liberia passive margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Peter; Chauvin, Benjamin; Brennan, Patrick; Laroche, Matt

    2015-04-01

    Understanding paleobathymetry is important to hydrocarbon explorationists, as it impacts depositional environments, reservoir quality, source rock preservation, hydrocarbon migration pathways, and paleo-stress. At long wavelengths (basin scale), bathymetry is controlled predominantly by isostatic compensation of vertical loads, which include sediment, water and spatial and temporal variations in the thickness and temperature of the crust and lithospheric mantle. Roberts, et al. (2003) present a workflow to account for these loads and derive paleobathymetry by 3-D flexural backstripping. However, to our knowledge, commercially packaged software for flexural backstripping is limited to two dimensions, and 3-D software is limited to Airy isostasy, which does not account for the elastic stiffness of the earth's crust and may, as a result, produce local error of 1km or more. We have developed a 3-D backstripping application that incorporates flexural isostasy, and is implemented in a workflow modeled after Roberts, et al. (2003). The application restores the isostatic components of basin geometry and bathymetry, and may account for the effects of sediment loading (isostasy & compaction), and rift-related subsidence (post- and syn-rift effects of homogeneous or depth-dependent pure-shear stretching models. Effects of dynamic topography, if quantifiable, may be prescribed as a bulk shift after backstripping. Implemented as a plug-in to Gocad, the application is accessible to a broad audience of geoscientists. The flexural isostasy implementation accounts for basin geometry and spatially heterogeneous layer thickness by discretizing each layer as a series of cylindrical loads of varying density and thickness at the nodes of a square grid. The isostatic effect of a single cylindrical load is provided by Brotchie & Silvester (1969) and the effect of multiple loads may be summed linearly. An iterative approach for calculating local water depth accounts for variations in

  18. The effect of zirconia on flexural strength of IPS Empress 2 ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermanshah H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All ceramic, inlay-retained resin bonded fixed partial denture is a conservative method for replacement of missing teeth, because of minimal tooth reduction. The connector between the retainer and the pontic is the weak point of these bridges. Reinforcement of ceramic core will increase the clinical longevity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zirconia on flexural strength of IPS Empress 2 core ceramic.Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, twenty eight bar shape specimens (17´3.1´3.1 mm were made of four different materials: (1 Slip casting in-ceram alumina core (control group (2 Hot-pressed lithium disilicate core ceramic (IPS Empress 2 (3 IPS Empress 2 with cosmopost (zirconia post inserted longitudinally in the center of the bar (4 IPS Empress 2 with cosmopost (zirconia post inserted longitudinally in bottom of the bar. Specimens were subjected to three-point flexure loading with the span of 15mm, at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure loads were recorded and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tomhane Post-hoc tests and p<0.05 was set as the level of significance. Fractured surfaces were then observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Four additional samples were made as the third group, and zirconia-IPS interface was observed by SEM before fracture.Results: Mean values and standard deviations of three point flexural strengths of groups 1 to 4, were: 378.4±44.6, 258.6±27.5, 144.3±51.7, 230±22.3 MPa respectively. All the groups were statistically different from each other (P<0.05, except groups 2 and 4. The flexural strengths of groups 2, 3, 4 were significantly lower than group 1. Group 3 had the lowest flexural strength. SEM analysis showed that the initiated cracks propagated in the interface of zirconia post and IPS Empress 2 ceramic.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, inserting zirconia post (cosmopost in IPS Empress 2 ceramic does not reinforce all

  19. Library of Samples for E-Vehicle Propulsion Drive Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassõlkin Anton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of testing cycles for the vehicle comparison is the long-term cycles and could not be used for the short-term transient mode imitations. Also, all the used nowadays testing cycles were designed for internal combustion engine vehicles and take into account not only energy and mechanical aspects, but also pollution and internal combustion engine characteristics. The paper presents a collection of sample signals developed to explore and simulate multiple system impacts to emulate different reference and load conditions. The study describes the major driving modes, such as the constant-speed cruising, speeding up and braking, typical parking regimes, uphill and downhill motion, and taking a turn. The developed testing equipment and software are described. Responses of the battery vehicle drives to the changeable controls and disturbances were studied in the laboratory test bench. The set of test cycles prepared in the frame of the ABB control arrangement was applied to the system evaluation and assessment. The developed methodology can be recommended to adjust the electric drives for different kinds of testing equipment. Experimental validation of the described approach has demonstrated the broad possibilities for the steady-state and transient modes of vehicle quality evaluation. It suits for recommendations that can be made with regard to the tuning of the drive regulators, control looping, sensor allocation, and feedback arrangements.

  20. RF tuning system for superconducting cyclotron at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Aditya; Som, S.; Pal, Saikat; Seth, S.; Mukherjee, A.K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Prasad, J.S.; Raj, P.R.; Manna, S.K.; Banerjee, M.; Krishnaiah, K.V.; Maskawade, S.; Saha, M.S.; Biswas, S.; Panda, Umashakar

    2009-01-01

    The RF system of Superconducting cyclotron at VECC has operational frequency 9-27 MHz. It has three numbers of tunable rf amplifier cavities as well as six numbers of tunable Main resonant cavities. RF tuning system takes care of movement of nine stepper motor based sliding short movement and hydraulic driven three coupling capacitors and three trimmer capacitors. The PC-based stepper motor controlled sliding short movement system has positional accuracy of around 20 micron and PC-based hydraulically driven couplers and trimmers system has 10 micron positional accuracy. The RF power is capacitively coupled to the dee (accelerating electrode) of the main resonant cavity through Coupler (Coupling capacitor). The coupling capacitor is used to match the impedance of the main resonant cavity to the 50 Ohm output impedance of final RF power amplifier. Trimmer capacitor operates in closed loop for the adjustment of cavity phase variation arising due to temperature variation and beam loading of the cavity. Coupler can travel 100 mm. and trimmer has 20 mm. travels. A PLC based PID control system has been developed for positional control of the coupler and trimmer. One position control mode of trimmer is same as coupling capacitor and another is velocity control mode. Velocity control mode operates in close-loop. The positional data of different frequencies of nine stepper motors and three coupling capacitors are stored in a database. (author)

  1. Nonlinear mode interaction in equal-leg angle struts susceptible to cellular buckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L; Wang, F; Wadee, M A; Yang, J

    2017-11-01

    A variational model that describes the interactive buckling of a thin-walled equal-leg angle strut under pure axial compression is presented. A formulation combining the Rayleigh-Ritz method and continuous displacement functions is used to derive a system of differential and integral equilibrium equations for the structural component. Solving the equations using numerical continuation reveals progressive cellular buckling (or snaking) arising from the nonlinear interaction between the weak-axis flexural buckling mode and the strong-axis flexural-torsional buckling mode for the first time-the resulting behaviour being highly unstable. Physical experiments conducted on 10 cold-formed steel specimens are presented and the results show good agreement with the variational model.

  2. Efficient Thermal Tuning Employing Metallic Microheater With Slow Light Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Chen, Hao; Gao, Shengqian

    2018-01-01

    Thermal tuning acts as one of the most fundamental roles in integrated silicon photonics since it can provide flexibility and reconfigurability. Low tuning power and fast tuning speed are long-term pursuing goals in terms of the performance of the thermal tuning. Here we propose and experimentall...

  3. One of the proposals to estimation of the active fault with the flexure structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2010-12-01

    In general, the recurrent interval investigation that uses the trench excavation survey etc. is done to the active fault survey. However, even if form of the search procedure of the active fault where the surface part is flexure structure is understood, it is difficult to understand the detailed activity situation. The active fault survey is done by the sedimentary environment of the investigation site, and an efficient search procedure is different. However, the recurrent interval of the fault with the flexure structure should devise it more. In the present study, two illustrations of the examination case with the active fault with the flexure structure. Osaka bay fault has the flexure structure, and the latest activity is not understood well though many reflection surveys have done. Then, flexure was stepped over and the drilling survey was carried out. It consists of the alluvium marine clay in the surface part compared the change in the amount of piling up by measuring at magnetostratigraphical measurement and a radio carbon age etc., and correlates between up side and down side homogeneous clay layer. As a result, the appearance with a greatly different inclination was confirmed between the boring of both who seemed that the same environments it though the correlation line was basically compared by the same inclination. When the alluvium piles up, such a change point is three times. The change was seen at the rate once every about 2000-3000 years and about 0.58m/ka when putting it together on the result of the age determination. The Uemachi fault is a fault in the south north that passes as for the central area of Osaka. The up side on the fault is modified by erosion and urban development, and one of the faults that a recurrent interval is cramped. Moreover, the surface part is flexure structure in this fault according to the reflection survey. To forecast a long term for the seismic design when the subway in this part was constructed, the drilling survey of

  4. Vibration modes of a single plate with general boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phamová L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with free flexural vibration modes and natural frequencies of a thin plate with general boundary conditions — a simply supported plate connected to its surroundings with torsional springs. Vibration modes were derived on the basis of the Rajalingham, Bhat and Xistris approach. This approach was originally used for a clamped thin plate, so its adaptation was needed. The plate vibration function was usually expressed as a single partial differential equation. This partial differential equation was transformed into two ordinary differential equations that can be solved in the simpler way. Theoretical background of the computations is briefly described. Vibration modes of the supported plate with torsional springs are presented graphically and numerically for three different values of stiffness of torsional springs.

  5. An algorithm for the design and tuning of RF accelerating structures with variable cell lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the design of a π mode standing wave buncher structure with variable cell lengths. It employs a two-parameter, multi-step approach for the design of the structure with desired resonant frequency and field flatness. The algorithm, along with analytical scaling laws for the design of the RF power coupling slot, makes it possible to accurately design the structure employing a freely available electromagnetic code like SUPERFISH. To compensate for machining errors, a tuning method has been devised to achieve desired RF parameters for the structure, which has been qualified by the successful tuning of a 7-cell buncher to π mode frequency of 2856 MHz with field flatness algorithm and tuning method have demonstrated the feasibility of developing an S-band accelerating structure for desired RF parameters with a relatively relaxed machining tolerance of ∼ 25 μm. This paper discusses the algorithm for the design and tuning of an RF accelerating structure with variable cell lengths.

  6. Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebersdorf, A; Lingk, C; De Giorgi, M; Feldmann, J; Sacher, J; Arzberger, M; Ulbrich, C; Boehm, G; Amann, M-C; Abstreiter, G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate quantum-dot (QD) lasers in an external cavity using Littrow and Littman configurations. Here, we report on a continuously tunable QD laser with a broad tuning range from 1047 to 1130 nm with high stability and efficient side mode suppression. The full-width at half-maximum of the laser line is 0.85 nm determined mainly by the quality of the external grating. This laser can be operated in a dual-mode modus, where the mode-spacing can be tuned continuously between 1.1 and 34 nm. Simultaneous emission of the two laser modes is shown by sum frequency generation experiments

  7. Nonlinear modeling of tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) in rotating wind turbine blades for damping edgewise vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-01-01

    Tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) utilize the sloshing motion of the fluid to suppress structural vibrations and become a natural candidate for damping vibrations in rotating wind turbine blades. The centrifugal acceleration at the tip of a wind turbine blade can reach a magnitude of 7–8g. This facilit......Tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) utilize the sloshing motion of the fluid to suppress structural vibrations and become a natural candidate for damping vibrations in rotating wind turbine blades. The centrifugal acceleration at the tip of a wind turbine blade can reach a magnitude of 7–8g...... free-surface elevation equally well, the one-mode model can still be utilized for the design of TLD. Parametric optimization of the TLD is carried out based on the one-mode model, and the optimized damper effectively improves the dynamic response of wind turbine blades....

  8. Widespread auditory deficits in tune deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness

  9. Discrete PID Tuning Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr DOLEŽEL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PID controllers are widely used in industry these days due to their useful properties such as simple tuning or robustness. While they are applicable to many control problems, they can perform poorly in some applications. Highly nonlinear system control with constrained manipulated variable can be mentioned as an example. The point of the paper is to string together convenient qualities of conventional PID control and progressive techniques based on Artificial Intelligence. Proposed control method should deal with even highly nonlinear systems. To be more specific, there is described new method of discrete PID controller tuning in this paper. This method tunes discrete PID controller parameters online through the use of genetic algorithm and neural model of controlled system in order to control successfully even highly nonlinear systems. After method description and some discussion, there is performed control simulation and comparison to one chosen conventional control method.

  10. Tune measurement in the NSLS booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, E.B.; Nawrocky, R.

    1993-01-01

    The NSLS booster synchrotron can accelerate an electron beam from approximately 80 to 750 MeV in 0.7 sec. The betatron tunes can change during acceleration by as much as 0.1 units, causing beam loss as they cross resonance lines. Precise measurements with a conventional swept spectrum analyzer have always been difficult because of the rapid variation of tune as the magnets are ramped. We are now using a system based on a Tektronix 3052 digital spectrum analyzer that can obtain a complete frequency spectrum over a 10 MHz bandwidth in 200 μsec. Betatron oscillations are stimulated for the measurements by applying white noise to the beam through stripline electrodes. We will describe the instrumentation, our measurements of tune as a function time during the acceleration cycle, and the resulting improvements to the booster operation

  11. Model-independent particle accelerator tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Scheinker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: (1 it has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, (2 it gives known bounds on parameter update rates, (3 we give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and (4 it has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS. Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme for uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multiparticle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of 22 quadrupole magnets and two rf buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and rf phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.

  12. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  13. ATLAS Monte Carlo tunes for MC09

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the ATLAS tunes of underlying event and minimum bias description for the main Monte Carlo generators used in the MC09 production. For the main shower generators, pythia and herwig (with jimmy), the MRST LO* parton distribution functions (PDFs) were used for the first time in ATLAS. Special studies on the performance of these, conceptually new, PDFs for high pt physics processes at LHC energies are presented. In addition, a tune of jimmy for CTEQ6.6 is presented, for use with MC@NLO.

  14. Tuning controllers using the dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers and the dual Youla parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller in connection with tuning of controllers. In the uncertain case, it is shown that the use of the Youla parameteriza......This paper describes the application of the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers and the dual Youla parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller in connection with tuning of controllers. In the uncertain case, it is shown that the use of the Youla...

  15. Java EE 7 performance tuning and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Oransa, Osama

    2014-01-01

    The book adopts a step-by-step approach, starting from building the basics and adding to it gradually by using different tools and examples. The book sequence is easy to follow and all topics are fully illustrated showing you how to make good use of different performance diagnostic tools. If you are an experienced Java developer, architect, team leader, consultant, support engineer, or anyone else who needs performance tuning in your Java applications, and in particular, Java enterprise applications, this book is for you. No prior experience of performance tuning is required.

  16. Incorporation of the stress concentration slots into the flexures for a high-performance microaccelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yulong; Sun Lu; Liu Yan; Wang Weizhong; Tian Bian

    2012-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a development of a high-performance piezoresistive microaccelerometer based on the slot etching in the quad flexures for the vibration detection of high speed spindle. The proposed structure consists of a proof mass supported by four thin flexures with slots etched in the middle. Boron diffused piezoresistors located near the stress concentration regions are used for sensing the localized stress resulting from the incorporation of the slots into the flexures. Theoretical analysis and finite element analysis show satisfactory results of an improved sensitivity and favorable natural frequency higher than 10 kHz, conforming to the initial design requirements. The microfabrication techniques are described to prototype the two accelerometer chips, one with slots and the other one without slots. The tested microaccelerometers with 3 V DC power supply show an average sensitivity of 0.424 mV/g normal to the proof mass plane, increased by 60.6% than the ones without slots. An average transverse sensitivity is found to be 9.2 μV/g along X axis and 14.2 μV/g along Y axis, either of which is less than 3.5% of prime-axis sensitivity. Concerning the resonant frequency, dynamic experiment shows about 12.46 kHz and is available for the proposed design with a tiny loss of 3.5% compared with the quad-beam design. When taking the product of sensitivity and natural frequency as judgment criteria, an inspiring increase by 28.6% of the figure of merit is accomplished for the proposed accelerometer. Overall, the findings of this study confirm the feasibility of incorporating slots into the conventional configurations to improve the sensor sensitivity while maintaining a comparatively high natural frequency.

  17. Stress optimization of leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots for an active Gurney flap mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Gómez, Jon; Booker, Julian D.; Mellor, Phil H.

    2015-04-01

    The EU's Green Rotorcraft programme is pursuing the development of a functional and airworthy Active Gurney Flap (AGF) for a full-scale helicopter rotor blade. Interest in the development of this `smart adaptive rotor blade' technology lies in its potential to provide a number of aerodynamic benefits, which would in turn translate into a reduction in fuel consumption and noise levels. The AGF mechanism selected employs leaf-spring crossed flexure pivots. These provide important advantages over bearings as they are not susceptible to seizing and do not require maintenance (i.e. lubrication or cleaning). A baseline design of this mechanism was successfully tested both in a fatigue rig and in a 2D wind tunnel environment at flight-representative deployment schedules. For full validation, a flight test would also be required. However, the severity of the in-flight loading conditions would likely compromise the mechanical integrity of the pivots' leaf-springs in their current form. This paper investigates the scope for stress reduction through three-dimensional shape optimization of the leaf-springs of a generic crossed flexure pivot. To this end, a procedure combining a linear strain energy formulation, a parametric leaf-spring profile definition and a series of optimization algorithms is employed. The resulting optimized leaf-springs are proven to be not only independent of the angular rotation at which the pivot operates, but also linearly scalable to leaf-springs of any length, minimum thickness and width. Validated using non-linear finite element analysis, the results show very significant stress reductions relative to pivots with constant cross section leaf-springs, of up to as much as 30% for the specific pivot configuration employed in the AGF mechanism. It is concluded that shape optimization offers great potential for reducing stress in crossed flexure pivots and, consequently, for extending their fatigue life and/or rotational range.

  18. Lithospheric flexure beneath the Freyja Montes Foredeep, Venus: Constraints on lithospheric thermal gradient and heat flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.C.; Head, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Venera 15 and 16 radar images and topographic data from the Freyja Montes region on Venus suggest that this mountain belt formed as a result of a sequence of underthrusts of the lithosphere of the North Polar Plains beneath the highlands of Ishtar Terra. The Freyja Montes deformation zone consists, south to north, of a linear orogenic belt, an adjacent plateau, a steep scarp separating the plateau from the North Polar Plains, a linear depression at the base of the scarp, and an outer rise. The topographic profile of the depression and outer rise are remarkably similar to that of a foreland deep and rise formed by the flexure of the underthrusting plate beneath a terrestrial mountain range. The authors test the lithospheric flexure hypothesis and they estimate the effective thickness T e of the elastic lithosphere of the underthrusting portion of the North Polar Plains by fitting individual topographic profiles to deflection curves for a broken elastic plate. The theoretical curves fit the observed topographic profiles to within measurement error for values of flexural rigidity D in the range (0.8-3) x 10 22 N m, equivalent to T e in the range 11-18 km. Under the assumption that the base of the mechanical lithosphere is limited by the creep strength of olivine, the mean lithospheric thermal gradient is 14-23 K/km. That the inferred thermal gradient is similar to the value expected for the global mean gradient on the basis of scaling from Earth provides support for the hypothesis that simple conduction dominates lithospheric heat transport on Venus relative to lithospheric recycling and volcanism

  19. Improvement of cooldown time of LSF9599 flexure-bearing SADA cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullié, Jeroen; vd Groep, Willem; Bruins, Peter; Benschop, Tonny; de Koning, Arjan; Dam, Jacques

    2006-05-01

    Thales Cryogenics has presented the LSF 9599 SADA II flexure cooler in 2005. Based on Thales' well-known moving magnet flexure technology, the LSF 9599 complies with the SADA II specification with respect to performance, envelope and mass. Being the first manufacturer offering a full flexure-bearing supported cooler that fits within the SADA II envelope, Thales Cryogenics has been selected in several new (military) programs with their LSF coolers. For many of these new programs, the cooldown time requirements are more stringent than in the past, whereas at the same time size, complexity and thus thermal mass of the infrared sensor tends to increase. In order to respond to the need created by the combination of these trends, Thales Cryogenics started a development program to optimize cryogenic performance of the LSF 9599 cooler. The main goal for the development program is to reduce the cooldown time, while maintaining the SADA II compatible interface, and maintaining the robustness and proven reliability of the cooler. Within these constraints, the regenerator was further optimized using among others the experience with mixed-gauze regenerators obtained from our pulse tube research. Using the mixed gauze approach, the heat storage capacity of the regenerator is adapted as a function of the temperature profile over the regenerator, thus giving the optimum balance between heat storage capacity and pressure drop. A novel way of constructing the regenerator further decreases shuttle heat losses and other thermal losses in the regenerator. This paper describes the first results of the trade-offs and gives an overview of impact on cooldown times and efficiency figures achieved after the regenerator and displacer optimization.

  20. Three-Dimensional Growth of Flexural Slip Fault-Bend and Fault-Propagation Folds and Their Geomorphic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrúbal Bernal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional growth of fault-related folds is known to be an important process during the development of compressive mountain belts. However, comparatively little is known concerning the manner in which fold growth is expressed in topographic relief and local drainage networks. Here we report results from a coupled kinematic and surface process model of fault-related folding. We consider flexural slip fault-bend and fault-propagation folds that grow in both the transport and strike directions, linked to a surface process model that includes bedrock channel development and hillslope diffusion. We investigate various modes of fold growth under identical surface process conditions and critically analyse their geomorphic expression. Fold growth results in the development of steep forelimbs and gentler, wider backlimbs resulting in asymmetric drainage basin development (smaller basins on forelimbs, larger basins on backlimbs. However, topographies developed above fault-propagation folds are more symmetric than those developed above fault-bend folds as a result of their different forelimb kinematics. In addition, the surface expression of fault-bend and fault-propagation folds depends both on the slip distribution along the fault and on the style of fold growth. When along-strike plunge is a result of slip events with gently decreasing slip towards the fault tips (with or without lateral propagation, large plunge-panel drainage networks are developed at the expense of backpanel (transport-opposing and forepanel (transport-facing drainage basins. In contrast, if the fold grows as a result of slip events with similar displacements along strike, plunge-panel drainage networks are poorly developed (or are transient features of early fold growth and restricted to lateral fold terminations, particularly when the number of propagation events is small. The absence of large-scale plunge-panel drainage networks in natural examples suggests that the

  1. Effect of the bur grit size on the flexural strength of a glass-ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Kist, P. P.; Aurélio, I. L.; Amaral, M.; May, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to determine the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of a CAD/CAM leucite reinforced glass-ceramic ground by diamond burs of different grit sizes and the influence of surface roughness on the BFS. For this, 104 plates were obtained from CAD/CAM ceramic blocks and divided into 4 groups (n = 26), according to bur grit size: extra-fine, fine, medium and coarse. Roughness parameters (Ra, RyMax) were measured, and plates were kept dry for 7 days. The flexu...

  2. Analysis of Flexural Fatigue Strength of Self Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, G.; Sudar Celestina, J. P. Arul; Subhashini, N.; Vigneshwari, M.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the extensive statistical investigation ofvariations in flexural fatigue life of self-compacting Fibrous Concrete (FC) beams. For this purpose, the experimental data of earlier researchers were examined by two parameter Weibull distribution.Two methods namely Graphical and moment wereused to analyse the variations in experimental data and the results have been presented in the form of probability of survival. The Weibull parameters values obtained from graphical and method of moments are precise. At 0.7 stress level, the fatigue life shows 59861 cyclesfor areliability of 90%.

  3. Woven Hybrid Composites - Tensile and Flexural Properties of Jute Mat Fibres with Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, P.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Dhanasekaran, C.

    2017-03-01

    The jute mat fibers are fabricated with several layers of fiber with opposite orientation in addition with coconut shell powder and resins. In current trends, metallic components are replaced by natural fibers because of the inherent properties such as light in weight, easy to fabricate, less cost and easy availability. This material has high strength and withstands the load. In this investigation the plates are made without stitching the fiber. The result of tensile strength and flexural strength are compared with nano material (coconut shell powder).

  4. Strength characterization of tubular ceramic materials by flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Kiesel, Lutz; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical strength at elevated temperatures and operating atmospheres needs to be characterized during development of tubular ceramic components for advanced energy technologies. Typical procedures are time-consuming because a large number of tests are required for a reliable statistical strength...... characterization and every specimen has to be subjected to the process conditions individually. This paper presents an efficient strength characterization methodology for tubular ceramics. The methodology employs flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens as the strength test and implements the tests within a facility...... conducted on oxygen transport membrane materials at room temperature and 850°C....

  5. Extensional Fault Evolution and its Flexural Isostatic Response During Iberia-Newfoundland Rifted Margin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, J.; Kusznir, N.; Manatschal, G.; Roberts, A.

    2017-12-01

    During the formation of magma-poor rifted margins, upper lithosphere thinning and stretching is achieved by extensional faulting, however, there is still debate and uncertainty how faults evolve during rifting leading to breakup. Seismic data provides an image of the present-day structural and stratigraphic configuration and thus initial fault geometry is unknown. To understand the geometric evolution of extensional faults at rifted margins it is extremely important to also consider the flexural response of the lithosphere produced by fault displacement resulting in footwall uplift and hangingwall subsidence. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting controls the structural development of rifted margins. To achieve our aim, we use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) which incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. Inputs for RIFTER are derived from seismic reflection interpretation and outputs of RIFTER are the prediction of the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. Using RIFTER we model the simultaneous tectonic development of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins along the ISE01-SCREECH1 and TGS/LG12-SCREECH2 seismic lines. We quantitatively test and calibrate the model against observed target data restored to breakup time. Two quantitative methods are used to obtain this target data: (i) gravity anomaly inversion which predicts Moho depth and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling to give water and Moho depths at breakup time. We show that extensional faulting occurs on steep ( 60°) normal faults in both proximal and distal parts of rifted margins. Extensional faults together with their flexural isostatic response produce not only sub-horizontal exhumed footwall surfaces (i.e. the rolling hinge model) and highly rotated (60

  6. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  7. Distribution of Subsurface Flexure zone caused by Uemachi Fault, Japan and its activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, N.; Inoue, N.; Takemura, K.; Ito, H.; Mitamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    In Osaka, Uemachi Fault is one of the famous active faults. It across the center of Osaka and lies in N-S direction mainly and is more than 40 km in length. The faults bound sedimentary basins, where thick sedimentary deposits of the Pliocene-Quaternary Osaka Group have accumulated. The deposits consist primarily of sand and marine and non-marine clay, and the clay layers are key markers for the interpretation of glacial and interglacial cycles. In this study, we estimate the width of the flexure zone using a geotechnical borehole database. GI database collects more than 40,000 boreholes and includes both geological information and soil properties around Osaka by the Geo-database Information Committee of Kansai Area. Our results indicate that the deformation associated with the flexure zone is distributed primarily along the splay fault (NE-SW) and not along the main fault, suggesting that the splay fault might be the primary fault at present. We first examined the borehole data along the seismic reflection line and then considered the surrounding area. An Upper Pleistocene marine clay (Ma12) is a good indicator of the flexure zone. We constructed many cross sections in and around the fault zone and classified the deformation form into three categories around the flexure zone. The results of this study allowed us to map the distribution of folding in a zone in the west of the Osaka area. Folding can be classified into three types: (1) Ma12 folding, (2) Ma12 folding that does not continue toward the hanging wall, and (3) folding or displacement of old marine clay. These folding zone trends are N-W strike however these trace are serpentine. These folding zone information are not in worth to estimate the source fault, however these zone will be more serious damaged when the earthquake occurred. Our result agrees well with the average displacement speed of about 0.4 m/ka that was derived by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion of the Ministry of Education

  8. Behaviour of partially composite precast concrete sandwich panels under flexural and axial loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Douglas George

    Precast concrete sandwich panels are commonly used on building exteriors. They are typically composed of two concrete wythes that surround rigid insulation. They are advantageous as they provide both structural and thermal resistance. The structural response of sandwich panels is heavily influenced by shear connectors that link the wythes together. This thesis presents a study on partially composite non-prestressed precast concrete wall panels. Nine flexure tests were conducted on a wall design incorporating 'floating' concrete studs and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) connectors. The studs encapsulate and stiffen the connectors, reducing shear deformations. Ultimate loads increased from 58 to 80% that of a composite section as the connectors' reinforcement ratio increased from 2.6 to 9.8%. This design was optimized by reinforcing the studs and integrating them with the structural wythe; new connectors composed of angled steel or Basalt-FRP (BFRP) were used. The load-slip response of the new connector design was studied through 38 double shear push-through tests using various connector diameters and insertion angles. Larger connectors were stronger but more likely to pull out. Seven flexure tests were conducted on the new wall design reinforced with different combinations of steel and BFRP connectors and reinforcement. Composite action varied from 50 to 90% depending on connector and reinforcement material. Following this study, the axial-bending interaction curves were established for the new wall design using both BFRP and steel connectors and reinforcement. Eight panels were axially loaded to predesignated loads then loaded in flexure to failure. A technique is presented to experimentally determine the effective centroid of partially composite sections. Beyond the tension and compression-controlled failure regions of the interaction curve, a third region was observed in between, governed by connector failure. Theoretical models were developed for the bond

  9. Dynamic force microscopy with quartz tuning forks at high oscillation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labardi, M

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) with the self-oscillator (SO) method allows reasonably high scanning rates even with high Q-factors of the resonant force sensor, typical of cantilevers in ultra-high vacuum and of quartz tuning forks. However, due to simpler interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements, small oscillation amplitudes (sub-nm level) are generally preferred. In applications like 'apertureless' scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), oscillation amplitudes of the order of 5-10 nm are needed to increase optical sensitivity and to apply standard optical artefact suppression methods. This motivates the study of the behaviour of tuning forks driven at such high amplitudes, as compared to usual air-operated cantilevers. Both constant-excitation-amplitude (CE) and constant-oscillation-amplitude (CA) modes of SO-DFM are analysed, since the CA mode is more convenient for SNOM applications, denoting remarkable differences. In particular, possible instability effects, previously found in CE mode, are not anticipated for CA mode. It is shown how resonance and approach ('isophase') curves in both modes can be conveniently described in terms of the usual 'normalized frequency shift' γ and of a 'normalized gain' η, defined as a measurement of surface dissipation

  10. Lamb wave tuning curve calibration for surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hoon; Lee, Sang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Surface-bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been widely used for guided wave generation and measurement. For selective actuation and sensing of Lamb wave modes, the sizes of the transducers and the driving frequency of the input waveform should be tuned. For this purpose, a theoretical Lamb wave tuning curve (LWTC) of a specific transducer size is generally obtained. Here, the LWTC plots each Lamb wave mode' amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. However, a discrepancy between experimental and existing theoretical LWTCs has been observed due to little consideration of the bonding layer and the energy distribution between Lamb wave modes. In this study, calibration techniques for theoretical LWTCs are proposed. First, a theoretical LWTC is developed when circular PZT transducers are used for both Lamb wave excitation and sensing. Then, the LWTC is calibrated by estimating the effective PZT size with PZT admittance measurement. Finally, the energy distributions among symmetric and antisymmetric modes are taken into account for better prediction of the relative amplitudes between Lamb wave modes. The effectiveness of the proposed calibration techniques is examined through numerical simulations and experimental estimation of the LWTC using the circular PZT transducers instrumented on an aluminum plate

  11. Monopoly provision of tune-ins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent

    -, č. 362 (2008), s. 1-31 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : informative advertising * tune-ins * television station Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp362.pdf

  12. Tuning Ice Nucleation with Supercharged Polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huige; Ma, Chao; Li, Kaiyong; Liu, Kai; Loznik, Mark; Teeuwen, Rosalie; van Hest, Jan C. M.; Zhou, Xin; Herrmann, Andreas; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Supercharged unfolded polypeptides (SUPs) are exploited for controlling ice nucleation via tuning the nature of charge and charge density of SUPs. The results show that positively charged SUPs facilitate ice nucleation, while negatively charged ones suppress it. Moreover, the charge density of the

  13. Tune space manipulations in jumping depolarizing resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.; Ahrens, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    In February 1986, the AGS polarized beam reached a momentum of 22 GeV/c with a 45% polarization and an intensity of 1 to 2 x 10 10 polarized protons per pulse at a repetition rate of 2.1 seconds. In order to achieve this, one had to overcome the effect of some 40 depolarizing resonances. In our first commissioning run in 1984, we had reached 16.5 GeV/c using, with suitable modifications, the conventional techniques first used at the Argonne ZGS. This worked well, but we found that the fast tune shifts required to cross the intrinsic depolarizing resonances were causing an increase in beam emittance which led to the need for stronger corrections later in the cycle and to diminished extraction efficiency. For the 1986 run, we were prepared to minimize this emittance growth by the application of slow quadrupole pulses to change the region in tune space in which we operated the first tune quads. In this paper we give a brief description of the conventional corrections, but our main emphasis is on the descriptions of tune space manipulations

  14. Natural tuning: towards a proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Gorbenko, Victor; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2013-09-01

    The cosmological constant problem and the absence of new natural physics at the electroweak scale, if confirmed by the LHC, may either indicate that the nature is fine-tuned or that a refined notion of naturalness is required. We construct a family of toy UV complete quantum theories providing a proof of concept for the second possibility. Low energy physics is described by a tuned effective field theory, which exhibits relevant interactions not protected by any symmetries and separated by an arbitrary large mass gap from the new "gravitational" physics, represented by a set of irrelevant operators. Nevertheless, the only available language to describe dynamics at all energy scales does not require any fine-tuning. The interesting novel feature of this construction is that UV physics is not described by a fixed point, but rather exhibits asymptotic fragility. Observation of additional unprotected scalars at the LHC would be a smoking gun for this scenario. Natural tuning also favors TeV scale unification.

  15. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  16. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  17. Dreams, mnemonics, and tuning for criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Barak A; Houghton, Conor J

    2013-12-01

    According to the tuning-for-criticality theory, the essential role of sleep is to protect the brain from super-critical behaviour. Here we argue that this protective role determines the content of dreams and any apparent relationship to the art of memory is secondary to this.

  18. The Yin and Yang of Tuning History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováky, György

    2017-01-01

    History as a subject area is facing increasing demands from the society to be more profitable and, sometimes, more conformist. The Tuning methodology, developed in cooperation with a large number of Universities worldwide, could offer a viable and sustainable way to take societal needs into account without compromising academic soundness.

  19. Electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser comprising a laser medium, output mirror, retro-reflective grating and an electro-optic diffraction grating beam deflector positioned between the laser medium and the reflective diffraction grating is described. An optional angle multiplier may be used between the electro-optic diffraction grating and the reflective grating. (auth)

  20. Iterative feedback tuning of wind turbine controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solingen, E.; Mulders, S.P.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, wind turbine controllers are designed using first principles or linearized or identified models. The aim of this paper is to show that with an automated, online, and model-free tuning strategy, wind turbine control performance can be significantly increased. For this purpose,

  1. On spacecraft maneuvers control subject to propellant engine modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinan, A H

    2015-09-01

    The paper attempts to address a new control approach to spacecraft maneuvers based upon the modes of propellant engine. A realization of control strategy is now presented in engine on mode (high thrusts as well as further low thrusts), which is related to small angle maneuvers and engine off mode (specified low thrusts), which is also related to large angle maneuvers. There is currently a coarse-fine tuning in engine on mode. It is shown that the process of handling the angular velocities are finalized via rate feedback system in engine modes, where the angular rotations are controlled through quaternion based control (QBCL)strategy in engine off mode and these ones are also controlled through an optimum PID (OPIDH) strategy in engine on mode. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Spectrum Capture by Tuning the Chemical Potential of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to its adjustable electronic properties and effective excitation of surface plasmons in the infrared and terahertz frequency range, research on graphene has attracted a great deal of attention. Here, we demonstrate that plasmon modes in graphene-coated dielectric nanowire (GNW waveguides can be excited by a monolayer graphene ribbon. What is more the transverse resonant frequency spectrum of the GNW can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene, and amplitude of the resonance peak varies linearly with the imaginary part of the analyte permittivity. As a consequence, the GNW works as a probe for capturing the molecular spectrum. Broadband sensing of toluene, ethanol and sulfurous anhydride thin layers is demonstrated by calculating the changes in spectral intensity of the propagating mode and the results show that the intensity spectra correspond exactly to the infrared spectra of these molecules. This may open an effective avenue to design sensors for detecting nanometric-size molecules in the terahertz and infrared regimes.

  3. Analysis and enhancement of flexural wave stop bands in 2D periodic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yubao [Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, KTH – The Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Feng, Leping [The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, KTH – The Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Wen, Jihong, E-mail: wenjihong_nudt1@vip.sina.com [Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen [Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China)

    2015-07-17

    The band structure and enhancement of flexural wave stop bands in a 2D periodic plate are investigated. A unified method for analysing and designing the stop band of the plates with various attached structures is proposed. The effect of attached structures is considered based on their equivalent parameters (added equivalent mass and equivalent moment of inertia). The influences of the equivalent parameters on the band structures are studied. Three cases are considered: adding pure equivalent mass, pure equivalent moment of inertia and the combination of these two. The stop bands are enhanced via the multi interaction between the host plate and the attached structure. The enhancement pattern is determined, and several ways to obtain a wider combined stop band are presented. The frequency response functions of corresponding finite periodic plates are calculated to verify the stop bands and their enhancement in a number of typical cases. - Highlights: • A unified method for studying the stop band of the plates with various simplified attached structures is proposed. • The enhancement of flexural wave stop bands in a 2D phononic plate is investigated. • The stop bands are widened via multi interaction between the host plate and the attached structure. • The enhancement pattern is determined and several ways to get a wider stop band are presented.

  4. Study on Flexural Behaviour of Ternary Blended Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete Beam with Conventional RCC Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshaline Seles, M.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    The conventional concrete when used for structures having dense congested reinforcement, the problems such as external compaction and vibration needs special attention. In such case, the self compacting concrete (SCC) which has the properties like flow ability, passing and filling ability would be an obvious answer. All those SCC flow behavior was governed by EFNARC specifications. In present study, the combination type of SCC was prepared by replacing cement with silica fume (SF) and metakaolin (MK) along with optimum dosages of chemical admixtures. From the fresh property test, cube compressive strength and cylinder split tensile strength, optimum ternary mix was obtained. In order to study the flexural behavior, the optimum ternary mix was taken in which beam specimens of size 1200 mm x 100 mm x 200 mm was designed as singly reinforced section according to IS: 456-2000, Limit state method. Finally the comparative experimental analysis was made between conventional RCC and SCC beams of same grade in terms of flexural strength namely yield load & ultimate load, load- deflection curve, crack size and pattern respectively.

  5. Flexural Behavior of Self-Compacting RC Continuous Beams Strengthened by CFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This search presented an experimental study of the flexural behavior of self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams externally strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP Sheets. The practical study contained eight self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams (with two span, each span had (1500 mm length and (150x250 mm cross sectional dimensions. Seven of these beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets with and without external anchorage. The experimental variables included location of CFRP sheets and anchor type and location. The results, shows that the beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets provided improvement in ultimate loads reached (60.71%. The usage of CFRP in the anchorage zone indicated an effective method in comparison to increasing the CFRP sheets lengths or extending them up to the support or under the loading points. Test results also showed that side strengthening provided an effective tool for increasing the load at the cracking stage and also the load capacity and reducing flexural crack widths.

  6. Exact analytical solution of shear-induced flexural vibration of functionally graded piezoelectric beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: psharma@rtu.ac.in; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar, E-mail: parashar2@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (India)

    2016-05-06

    The priority of this paper is to obtain the exact analytical solution for free flexural vibration of FGPM beam actuated using the d{sub 15} effect. In piezoelectric actuators, the potential use of d{sub 15} effect has been of particular interest for engineering applications since shear piezoelectric coefficient d15 is much higher than the other piezoelectric coupling constants d{sub 31} and d{sub 33}. The applications of shear actuators are to induce and control the flexural vibrations of beams and plates. In this study, a modified Timoshenko beam theory is used where electric potential is assumed to vary sinusoidaly along the thickness direction. The material properties are assumed to be graded across the thickness in accordance with power law distribution. Hamilton's principle is employed to obtain the equations of motion along with the associated boundary conditions for FGPM beams. Exact analytical solution is derived thus obtained equations of motion. Results for clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions are presented. The presented result and method shell serve as benchmark for comparing the results obtained from the other approximate methods.

  7. Force-Sensing Actuator with a Compliant Flexure-Type Joint for a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Grossard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the mechatronic design of a novel self-sensing motor-to-joint transmission to be used for the actuation of robotic dexterous manipulators. Backdrivability, mechanical simplicity and efficient flexure joint structures are key concepts that have guided the mechanical design rationale to provide the actuator with force sensing capabilities. Indeed, a self-sensing characteristic is achieved by the specific design of high-resolution cable-driven actuators based on a DC motor, a ball-screw and a monolithic compliant anti-rotation system together with a novel flexure pivot providing a frictionless mechanical structure. That novel compliant pivot with a large angular range and a small center shift has been conceived of to provide the inter-phalangeal rotational degree of freedom of the fingers’ joints to be used for integration in a multi-fingered robotic gripper. Simultaneously, it helps to remove friction at the joint level of the mechanism. Experimental tests carried out on a prototype show an accurate matching between the model and the real behavior. Overall, this mechatronic design contributes to the improvement of the manipulation skills of robotic grippers, thanks to the combination of high performance mechanics, high sensitivity to external forces and compliance control capability.

  8. Microstructural evaluation and flexural mechanical behavior of pultruded glass fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, Y.G.; Paciornik, S.; D'Almeida, J.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mosaic images fully characterize the microstructure of heterogeneous materials. → Mosaic images have advantages over microscopy techniques using single fields. → UV and water immersion aging are minimized at the fibers' direction. → UV radiation produced marked changes on the composite surface. - Abstract: The microstructure of a pultruded glass fiber-reinforced composite was fully characterized using digital image analysis. A mosaic technique was used to analyze the entire thickness along specimens' cross-sections, enabling the visualization of the fiber, resin and filler spatial distribution. The advantages of this technique over the usual analysis on single fields, is presented and discussed. The fiber spatial distribution was correlated with flexural mechanical properties as a function of the specimens' position along the length and across the cross section of the composite. The influence of aging by immersion in distilled water and by UV radiation on flexural properties was also analyzed. Minor variation due to aging occurred when longitudinal specimens were tested. Transversally to the fibers, the matrix-dominated composite properties were more affected.

  9. Clinical importance of median mandibular flexure in oral rehabilitation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, K; Chopra, A; Venkatesh, S B

    2016-03-01

    The mandible has a property to flex inwards around the mandibular symphysis with change in shape and decrease in mandibular arch width during opening and protrusion of the mandible. The mandibular deformation may range from a few micrometres to more than 1 mm. The movement occurs because of the contraction of lateral pterygoid muscles that pulls mandibular condyles medially and causes a sagittal movement of the posterior segments. This movement of mandible can have a profound influence on prognosis and treatment outcome for various restorative, endodontics, fixed, removable and implant-related prosthesis. The review unfolds the causes, importance and clinical implications of median mandibular flexure in oral rehabilitation. This review also highlights the appropriate preventive measures and techniques that should be adopted by clinicians to minimise the effect of flexural movement of the jaw during oral rehabilitation. This would not only help clinicians to achieve a good prosthesis with accurate fit and longevity but also maintain the health of the surrounding periodontal or periimplant gingival tissues and bone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  11. Current trends and controversies in the management of patients with splenic flexure tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan DS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There exists a variation in practice in the management of tumours around the splenic flexure. We aim to determine the current opinion regarding the management of these tumours. Methods: An anonymised 10-part online questionnaire was sent to all members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI. Results: The response rate was 24% (111/464 with approximately half of respondents performing laparoscopic surgery. Electively, an extended right hemicolectomy is the preferred option by 63% of respondents followed by left hemicolectomy (23% and segmental resection (14%. The upper sigmoid and rectosigmoid is the preferred site of anastomosis by 90% and 10% of respondents respectively. There were no significant differences in the type of operations performed by surgeons who practice laparoscopic or open surgery (p=0.10. A hand-sewn end-to-end anastomosis is most commonly performed (51% followed by a stapled side-to-side (36% and a stapled end-to-end (13% technique. Extended right hemicolectomy is also the preferred option in obstructing tumours. Of surgeons who perform segmental resections, 27% perform an on-table lavage and 9% perform a defunctioning stoma. Internal herniation following laparoscopic resection was only reported by a handful of surgeons. Conclusion: Opinion and practice in the management of patients with tumours around the splenic flexure are divided. Further trials are indicated to determine the best practice.

  12. The Effect of Different Shape and Perforated rHDPE in Concrete Structures on Flexural Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhazri, MY; Hafiz, KM; Myia, YZA; Jia, CP; Sihombing, H.; Sapuan, SM; Badarulzaman, NA

    2017-10-01

    This research was carried out to develop a reinforcing structure from recycled HDPE plastic lubricant containers to be embedded in concrete structure. Different forms and shapes of recycled HDPE plastic are designed as reinforcement incorporate with cement. In this study, the reinforcing structure was prepared by washing, cutting, dimensioning and joining of the waste HDPE containers (direct technique without treatment on plastic surface). Then, the rHDPE reinforced concrete was produced by casting based on standard of procedure in civil engineering technique. Eight different shapes of rHDPE in concrete structure were used to determine the concrete’s ability in terms of flexural strength. Embedded round shape in solid and perforated of rHDPE in concrete system drastically improved flexural strength at 17.78 % and 13.79 %. The result would seem that the concrete with reinforcing rHDPE structure exhibits a more gradual or flexible properties than concrete beams without reinforcement that has the properties of fragile.

  13. Flexural creep of coated SiC-fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, E.Y.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the flexural creep behavior of a fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic and associated changes in microstructure. SiC fibers were coated with a dual layer of SiC/BN to provide a weak interface that was stable at high temperatures. Flexural creep, creep-rupture, and creep-strain recovery experiments were conducted on composite material and barium-magnesium aluminosilicate matrix from 1,000 to 1,200 C. Below 1,130 C, creep rates were extremely low (∼10 -9 s -1 ), preventing accurate measurement of the stress dependence. Above 1,130 C, creep rates were in the 10 -8 s -1 range. The creep-rupture strength of the composite at 1,100 C was about 75--80% of the fast fracture strength. Creep-strain recovery experiments showed recovery of up to 90% under prolonged unloading. Experimental creep results from the composite and the matrix were compared, and microstructural observations by TEM were employed to assess the effectiveness of the fiber coatings and to determine the mechanism(s) of creep deformation and damage

  14. A one-piece 3D printed flexure translation stage for open-source microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, James P.; Foo, Darryl C. W.; Kabla, Alexandre; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Bowman, Richard W.

    2016-02-01

    Open source hardware has the potential to revolutionise the way we build scientific instruments; with the advent of readily available 3D printers, mechanical designs can now be shared, improved, and replicated faster and more easily than ever before. However, printed parts are typically plastic and often perform poorly compared to traditionally machined mechanisms. We have overcome many of the limitations of 3D printed mechanisms by exploiting the compliance of the plastic to produce a monolithic 3D printed flexure translation stage, capable of sub-micron-scale motion over a range of 8 × 8 × 4 mm. This requires minimal post-print clean-up and can be automated with readily available stepper motors. The resulting plastic composite structure is very stiff and exhibits remarkably low drift, moving less than 20 μm over the course of a week, without temperature stabilisation. This enables us to construct a miniature microscope with excellent mechanical stability, perfect for time-lapse measurements in situ in an incubator or fume hood. The ease of manufacture lends itself to use in containment facilities where disposability is advantageous and to experiments requiring many microscopes in parallel. High performance mechanisms based on printed flexures need not be limited to microscopy, and we anticipate their use in other devices both within the laboratory and beyond.

  15. Opto-mechanical design of the G-CLEF flexure control camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Sungho; Nah, Jakyoung; Park, Sung-Joon; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; McMuldroch, Stuart; Norton, Timothy; Podgorski, William; Evans, Ian; Mueller, Mark; Uomoto, Alan; Crane, Jeffrey; Hare, Tyson

    2016-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is the very first light instrument of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The G-CLEF is a fiber feed, optical band echelle spectrograph that is capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurement. KASI (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) is responsible for Flexure Control Camera (FCC) included in the G-CLEF Front End Assembly (GCFEA). The FCC is a kind of guide camera, which monitors the field images focused on a fiber mirror to control the flexure and the focus errors within the GCFEA. The FCC consists of five optical components: a collimator including triple lenses for producing a pupil, neutral density filters allowing us to use much brighter star as a target or a guide, a tent prism as a focus analyzer for measuring the focus offset at the fiber mirror, a reimaging camera with three pair of lenses for focusing the beam on a CCD focal plane, and a CCD detector for capturing the image on the fiber mirror. In this article, we present the optical and mechanical FCC designs which have been modified after the PDR in April 2015.

  16. Flexural Capability of Patterned Transparent Conductive Substrate by Performing Electrical Measurements and Stress Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of stacked thin films for next-generation display technology was analyzed based on their properties and geometrical designs to evaluate the mechanical reliability of transparent conducting thin films utilized in flexural displays. In general, the high bending stress induced by various operation conditions is a major concern regarding the mechanical reliability of indium–tin–oxide (ITO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates; mechanical reliability is commonly used to estimate the flexibility of displays. However, the pattern effect is rarely investigated to estimate the mechanical reliability of ITO/PET films. Thus, this study examined the flexible content of patterned ITO/PET films with two different line widths by conducting bending tests and sheet resistance measurements. Moreover, a stress–strain simulation enabled by finite element analysis was performed on the patterned ITO/PET to explore the stress impact of stacked film structures under various levels of flexural load. Results show that the design of the ITO/PET film can be applied in developing mechanically reliable flexible electronics.

  17. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs with Prestressed CFRP Strips Using Different Anchorage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sena-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR technique has been widely used for flexural strengthening of concrete structures by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP. EBR technique offers several structural advantages when the CFRP material is prestressed. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on reinforced (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with prestressed CFRP strips as a structural strengthening system. The strips are applied as an externally bonded reinforcement (EBR and anchored with either a mechanical or a gradient anchorage. The former foresees metallic anchorage plates fixed to the concrete substrate, while the latter is based on an accelerated epoxy resin curing followed by a segment-wise prestress force decrease at the strip ends. Both anchorage systems, in combination with different CFRP strip geometries, were subjected to static loading tests. It could be demonstrated that the composite strip’s performance is better exploited when prestressing is used, with slightly higher overall load carrying capacities for mechanical anchorages than for the gradient anchorage. The performed investigations by means of a cross-section analysis supported the experimental observation that in case a mechanical anchorage is used, progressive strip debonding changes the fully bonded configuration to an unbonded end-anchored system. The inclusion of defined debonding criteria for both the anchorage zones and free length between the anchorage regions allowed to precisely capture the ultimate loading forces.

  18. Compressive and Flexural Tests on Adobe Samples Reinforced with Wire Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Al-Tawil, Y. M. Y.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Gul, Y.; Ramli, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Adobe is an economical, naturally available, and environment friendly construction material that offers excellent thermal and sound insulations as well as indoor air quality. It is important to understand and enhance the mechanical properties of this material, where a high degree of variation is reported in the literature owing to lack of research and standardization in this field. The present paper focuses first on the understanding of mechanical behaviour of adobe subjected to compressive stresses as well as flexure and then on enhancing the same with the help of steel wire mesh as reinforcement. A total of 22 samples were tested out of which, 12 cube samples were tested for compressive strength, whereas 10 beams samples were tested for modulus of rupture. Half of the samples in each category were control samples i.e. without wire mesh reinforcement, whereas the remaining half were reinforced with a single layer of wire mesh per sample. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. The flexural response of adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement.

  19. Juvenile colon cancer at the splenic flexure with a splenic abscess developing 22 years after irradiation for a neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshihisa; Higure, Aiichiro; Akiyama, Masaki; Nagata, Naoki; Hirata, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman who had an operation and chemo-radiation therapy for a neuroblastoma of the left adrenal gland at the age of five months developed a fever and left hypochondralgia when she was 22 years old. A splenic abscess was noted. Percutaneous drainage was done, but the splenic abscess recurred. There was no recurrence of the neuroblastoma. Conservative therapy was unsuccessful and a laparotomy was performed. Operative findings included a bulky mass at the splenic flexure which involved the spleen, pancreas tail, and jejunum. Colectomy at the splenic flexure was performed with coresection of the spleen, pancreas tail, and jejunum. The surgical specimen showed mucinous carcinoma of the splenic flexure which invaded the spleen. This case was considered to be an radiation-induced secondary colon cancer. (author)

  20. A study on flexural and water absorption of surface modified rice husk flour/E-glass/polypropylene hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassiah, K.; Sin, T. W.; Ismail, M. Z.

    2016-10-01

    This work is to study the effects of rice husk (RH)/E-Glass (EG)/polypropylene (PP) hybrid composites in terms of flexural and water absorption properties. The tests conducted are the flexural test and also the water absorption test using two types of water: distilled and sea water. The hybrid composites are prepared with various ratios of fibre weight fractions and the rice husk is treated using 2% Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to improve interaction and adhesion between the non-polar matrix and the polar lignocellulosic fibres. It was found that the content of rice husk/E-Glass fillers affected the structural integrity and flexural properties of hybrid composites. In addition, a higher ratio of rice husk contributes to higher water absorption in the hybrid composites.

  1. Towards More Sustainable Material Formulations: A Comparative Assessment of PA11-SGW Flexural Performance versus Oil-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Oliver-Ortega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of commodity polyolefin, reinforced with glass fiber (GF, by greener alternatives has been a topic of research in recent years. Cellulose fibers have shown, under certain conditions, enough tensile capacities to replace GF, achieving competitive mechanical properties. However, if the objective is the production of environmentally friendlier composites, it is necessary to replace oil-derived polymer matrices by bio-based or biodegradable ones, depending on the application. Polyamide 11 (PA11 is a totally bio-based polyamide that can be reinforced with cellulosic fibers. Composites based on this polymer have demonstrated enough tensile strength, as well as stiffness, to replace GF-reinforced polypropylene (PP. However, flexural properties are of high interest for engineering applications. Due to the specific character of short-fiber-reinforced composites, significant differences are expected between the tensile and flexural properties. These differences encourage the study of the flexural properties of a material prior to the design or development of a new product. Despite the importance of the flexural strength, there are few works devoted to its study in the case of PA11-based composites. In this work, an in-depth study of the flexural strength of PA11 composites, reinforced with Stoneground wood (SGW from softwood, is presented. Additionally, the results are compared with those of PP-based composites. The results showed that the SGW fibers had lower strengthening capacity reinforcing PA11 than PP. Moreover, the flexural strength of PA11-SGW composites was similar to that of PP-GF composites.

  2. Flexural strength and microstructure of two lithium disilicate glass ceramics for CAD/CAM restoration in the dental clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Ho Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There has been a growing interest in glass ceramic systems with good esthetics, high fracture resistance and bonding durability, and simplified fabrication techniques using CAD/CAM. The aim of this study is to compare flexural strength before and after heat treatment of two lithium disilicate CAD/CAM blocks, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent and Rosetta SM (Hass, and to observe their crystalline structures. Materials and Methods Biaxial flexural strength was tested according to ISO 6872 with 20 disc form specimens sliced from each block before and after heat treatment. Also, the crystalline structures were observed using field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi and x-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku analysis. The mean values of the biaxial flexural strength were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of p = 0.05. Results There were no statistically significant differences in flexural strength between IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM either before heat treatment or after heat treatment. For both ceramics, the initial flexural strength greatly increased after heat treatment, with significant differences (p < 0.05. The FE-SEM images presented similar patterns of crystalline structure in the two ceramics. In the XRD analysis, they also had similar patterns, presenting high peak positions corresponding to the standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate at each stage of heat treatment. Conclusions IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM showed no significant differences in flexural strength. They had a similar crystalline pattern and molecular composition.

  3. Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Characterization of a Graphite Epoxy Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Johnston, William M.; Toland, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and delamination onset and growth characterization data were generated for IM7/8552 graphite epoxy composite materials from two suppliers for use in fracture mechanics analyses. Both the fracture toughness testing and the fatigue testing were conducted using the End-notched Flexure (ENF) test. The ENF test for mode II fracture toughness is currently under review by ASTM as a potential standard test method. This current draft ASTM protocol was used as a guide to conduct the tests on the IM7/8552 material. This report summarizes the test approach, methods, procedures and results of this characterization effort.

  4. Mode II interlaminar fracture of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, L. A.; Gillespie, J. W.; Trethewey, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    The end notched flexure (ENF) specimen is employed in an investigation of the interlaminar fracture toughness in Mode II (skew symmetric shear) loading of unidirectional graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK composites. Important experimental parameters such as the influence of precracking and the data reduction scheme for the Mode II toughness are discussed. Nonlinear load-deflection response is significant for the tough thermoplastic resin composite but is also present for the brittle thermoset composite. The observed nonlinearities, which are highly rate dependent, are attributed to a combination of slow stable crack growth preceding unstable crack growth and material inelastic behavior in the process zone around the crack tip.

  5. Towards automatic parameter tuning of stream processing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bilal, Muhammad; Canini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    for automating parameter tuning for stream-processing systems. Our framework supports standard black-box optimization algorithms as well as a novel gray-box optimization algorithm. We demonstrate the multiple benefits of automated parameter tuning in optimizing

  6. Application of genetic algorithms to tuning fuzzy control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Todd; Vombrack, Endre; Aldridge, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Real number genetic algorithms (GA) were applied for tuning fuzzy membership functions of three controller applications. The first application is our 'Fuzzy Pong' demonstration, a controller that controls a very responsive system. The performance of the automatically tuned membership functions exceeded that of manually tuned membership functions both when the algorithm started with randomly generated functions and with the best manually-tuned functions. The second GA tunes input membership functions to achieve a specified control surface. The third application is a practical one, a motor controller for a printed circuit manufacturing system. The GA alters the positions and overlaps of the membership functions to accomplish the tuning. The applications, the real number GA approach, the fitness function and population parameters, and the performance improvements achieved are discussed. Directions for further research in tuning input and output membership functions and in tuning fuzzy rules are described.

  7. Self-Tuning Speed Regulator for CVC Induction Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.; Rasmussen, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed.......A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed....

  8. Imaging and tuning of coupled photonic crystal cavities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Photonic microcavities (PMC) coupled through their evanescent field are used for a large variety of classical and quantum devices. In such systems, a molecular-like spatial delocalization of the coupled modes is achieved by an evanescent tunnelling. The tunnelling rate depends on the height and depth of the photonic barrier between two adjacent resonators and therefore it is sensitive to the fabrication-induced disorder present in the center of the molecule. In this contribution, we address the problem of developing a post fabrication control of the tunnelling rate in photonic crystal coupled PMCs. The value of the photonic coupling (proportional to the tunnelling rate) is directly measured by the molecular mode splitting at the anticrossing point. By exploiting a combination of tuning techniques such as local infiltration of water, micro-evaporation, and laser induced non thermal micro-oxidation, we are able to either increase or decrease the detuning and the photonic coupling, independently. Near field imaging is also used for mapping the modes and establish delocalization. By water micro-infiltration, we were able to increase the photon coupling by 28%. On the contrary, by laser induced non thermal oxidation, we got a reduction of g by 30%. The combination of the two methods would therefore give a complete control of g with excellent accuracy. This could make possible the realization of array of photonic cavities with on demand tunnelling rate between each pair of coupled resonators. We believe that this peculiar engineering of photonic crystal molecules would open the road to possible progress in the exploitation of coherent interference between coupled optical resonators both for quantum information processing and optical communication.

  9. Multiscale coupling based on quasicontinuum method in nanowires at finite temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esahani, Mohammad Nasr; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems have been developed for ultra-high frequency oscillators because of their small sizeand excellent material properties. Using flexural modes and electrothermal features in nanowires for frequency tuning necessitates a sound modeling approach. The quasicontinuum method...

  10. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of β* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken

  11. I Tune, You Tube, We Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, R. Y.; Gater, W.

    2007-10-01

    The website YouTube was created in 2005 and has rapidly become one of the most popular entertainment websites on the internet. It is riding the online video wave today like few other online companies and is currently more popular than the video sections of either Yahoo or Google. iTunes, a digital media application created by Apple in 2001, where one can download and play music and videos, has had a similar success. There is little doubt that they both represent important communication channels in a world heavily influenced by online media, especially among teenagers and young adults. As science communicators we can use this direct route to a younger audience to our advantage. This article aims to give a taste of these applications with a few selected examples demonstrating that both YouTube and iTunes are excellent tools to teach and inspire the general public.

  12. I Tune, You Tube, We Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shida, R. Y.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The website YouTube was created in 2005 and has rapidly become one ofthe most popular entertainment websites on the internet. It is riding the online video wave today like few other online companies and is currently more popular than the video sections of either Yahoo or Google. iTunes, a digital media application created by Apple in 2001, where one can download and play music and videos, has had a similar success. There is little doubt that they both represent important communication channels in a world heavily influenced by online media, especially among teenagers and young adults. As science communicators we can use this direct route to a younger audience to our advantage. This article aims to give a taste of these applications with a fewselected examples demonstrating that both YouTube and iTunes are excellent tools to teach and inspire the general public.

  13. Tuning of light-graphene interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    — Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through Fermi-level tuning enables electrooptical modulation......, optical-optical switching, and other optoelectronics applications. Except for the statistic gating and chemical doping, the Fermi level of graphene can also be optically tuned. With the aid of external optical pumping, electrons can be excited in the substrate, then move to the graphene layer, leading...... to the electrical doping in graphene. In this talk, I will firstly discuss how the graphene property changes when applying the optical pumping with different incident power. Then I will discuss graphene-silicon microring devices with having a high modulation depth and with a relatively low bias voltage. Finally, I...

  14. Schottky signal analysis: tune and chromaticity computation

    CERN Document Server

    Chanon, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Schottky monitors are used to determine important beam parameters in a non-destructive way. The Schottky signal is due to the internal statistical fluctuations of the particles inside the beam. In this report, after explaining the different components of a Schottky signal, an algorithm to compute the betatron tune is presented, followed by some ideas to compute machine chromaticity. The tests have been performed with offline and/or online LHC data.

  15. Ignition tuning for the National Ignition Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Landen O.; Edwards J.; Haan S.W.; Lindl J.D.; Boehly T.R.; Bradley D.K.; Callahan D.A.; Celliers P.M.; Dewald E.L.; Dixit S.; Doeppner T.; Eggert J.; Farley D.; Frenje J.A.; Glenn S.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion [1] tuning campaigns [2] is to maximize the probability of ignition by experimentally correcting for likely residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics [3] used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models, and by checking for and resolving unexpected shot-to-shot variability in performance [4]. This has been started successfully using a variety of surrogate capsules that set key laser, hohlraum and caps...

  16. Required accuracy of tune measurement and parametrization of chromaticity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, R.

    1991-02-01

    The betatron tunes v x and v y will be measured by Fourier-analyzing a BPM signal generated by a beam which received a fast ( kick /f rev ) equals the fractional part of the tune, a beam blow-up can be observed. In this note the required accuracy of such a tune measurement is discussed. (author). 6 schemes

  17. Features of course definition system control for a mode of preliminary bringing to horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Сущенко

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  The features of course definition system consisting of   platform in gimbal suspension, tuned rotor gyroscopes and pendulous accelerometers for a mode of preliminary bringing to horizon are reviewed. The mathematical description of the mode of preliminary bringing to horizon is derived and the appropriate control moments are determined.

  18. Kepler detected gravity-mode period spacings in a red giant star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, P.G.; Bedding, T.R.; Mosser, B.; Stello, D.; Garcia, R.A.; Kallinger, T.; Hekker, S.; Elsworth, Y.; Frandsen, S.; Carrier, F.; de Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; White, T.R.; Huber, D.; Dupret, M. A.; Montalban, J.; Miglio, A.; Noels, A.; Chaplin, W.J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gilliland, R.L.; Brown, T.M.; Kawaler, S.D.; Mathur, S.; Jenkins, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Stellar interiors are inaccessible through direct observations. For this reason, helioseismologists made use of the Sun’s acoustic oscillation modes to tune models of its structure. The quest to detect modes that probe the solar core has been ongoing for decades. We report the detection of mixed

  19. Reflectors and tuning elements for widely-tunable GaAs-based sampled grating DBR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, O.; Wenzel, H.; Della Case, P.; Tawfieq, M.; Sumpf, B.; Weyers, M.; Knigge, A.

    2018-02-01

    Widely-tunable lasers without moving parts are attractive light sources for sensors in industry and biomedicine. In contrast to InP based sampled grating (SG) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) diode lasers which are commercially available, shorter wavelength GaAs SG-DBR lasers are still under development. One reason is the difficulty to integrate gratings with coupling coefficients that are high enough for functional grating bursts with lengths below 10 μm. Recently we have demonstrated > 20 nm wide quasi-continuous tuning with a GaAs based SG-DBR laser emitting around 975 nm. Wavelength selective reflectors are realized with SGs having different burst periods for the front and back mirrors. Thermal tuning elements (resistors) which are placed on top of the SG allow the control of the spectral positions of the SG reflector combs and hence to adjust the Vernier mode. In this work we characterize subsections of the developed SG-DBR laser to further improve its performance. We study the impact of two different vertical structures (with vertical far field FWHMs of 41° and 24°) and two grating orders on the coupling coefficient. Gratings with coupling coefficients above 350 cm-1 have been integrated into SG-DBR lasers. We also examine electronic tuning elements (a technique which is typically applied in InP based SG-DBR lasers and allows tuning within nanoseconds) and discuss the limitations in the GaAs material system

  20. Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, Donglei; Wang, Yaguo; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2016-05-05

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to the extra degree of freedom it offers in tuning a few important waveguide properties, such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguides have demonstrated impressive performances compared to conventional waveguides. However, the high loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonic circuits. In this work, we propose a geometrical tuning art, which realizes a pre-distorted refractive index profile in SWG waveguide bends. The pre-distorted refractive index profile can effectively reduce the mode mismatch and radiation loss simultaneously, thus significantly reduce the bend loss. This geometry tuning art has been numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated in present study. Through such tuning, the average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend is reduced drastically from 5.43 dB to 1.10 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed scheme will be utilized to enhance performance of a wide range of SWG waveguide based photonics devices.