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Sample records for flexible thiodiacetic acid

  1. Dialkyl 3,3'-thiodipropionate and dialkyl 2,2'-thiodiacetate antioxidants by lipase-catalyzed esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nikolaus; Klein, Erika; Vosmann, Klaus

    2006-04-19

    Medium- and long-chain dialkyl 3,3'-thiodipropionate antioxidants such as dioctyl 3,3'-thiodipropionate, didodecyl 3,3'-thiodipropionate, dihexadecyl 3,3'-thiodipropionate, and di-(cis-9-octadecenyl) 3,3'-thiodipropionate were prepared in high yield by lipase-catalyzed esterification and transesterification of 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid and its dimethyl ester, respectively, with the corresponding medium- or long-chain 1-alkanols, i.e., 1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, 1-hexadecanol, and cis-9-octadecen-1-ol, in vacuo (80 kPa) at moderate temperatures (60-80 degrees C) without solvents. Immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) was the most active biocatalyst for the preparation of medium- and long-chain dialkyl 3,3'-thiodipropionates showing enzyme activities up to 1489 units/g, whereas the immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) were by far less active ( approximately 10 enzyme units/g). Maximum conversions to dialkyl 3,3'-thiodipropionates were as high as 92-98% after 4 h of reaction time. Similarly, dihexadecyl 2,2'-thiodiacetate was prepared in high yield using 2,2'-thiodiacetic acid or diethyl 2,2'-thiodiacetate and 1-hexadecanol as the starting materials and Novozym 435 as the biocatalyst.

  2. Flexibility of nucleic acids: from DNA to RNA

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Lei; Jin, Lei; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The structural flexibility of nucleic acids plays a key role in many fundamental life processes, such as gene replication and expression, DNA-protein recognition, and gene regulation. To obtain a thorough understanding of nucleic acid flexibility, extensive studies have been performed using various experimental methods and theoretical models. In this review, we will introduce the progress that has been made in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids including DNAs and RNAs, and will emphasize the experimental findings and the effects of salt, temperature, and sequence. Finally, we will discuss the major unanswered questions in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids.

  3. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  4. The kinetics of substitution reaction of oxydiacetate and thiodiacetate copper(II) complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2’-bipyridine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna Pranczk; Dagmara Jacewicz; Dariusz Wyrzykowski; Aleksandra Tesmar; Lech Chmurzyński

    2015-10-01

    The kinetics of substitution reactions of the CuODA and CuTDA binary complexes (ODA = oxydiacetate, TDA = thiodiacetate) with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 2,2’-bipyridine (bipy) were studied in aqueous and DMSO solutions. These reactions were monitored spectrometrically using the stopped-flow method in the UV range. The studies were carried out at three temperatures - 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. The concentrations of the binary complexes were kept within the range of 0.2–0.5 mmol L−1, whereas the concentration of phen or bipy was constant = 0.05 mmol L−1. The values of the reaction rate constants were calculated based on the A → B reaction model. A linear relationship of the rate of the substitution reaction versus the concentration of the binary complex as well as temperature was observed. The impact of the type of the primary (ODA and TDA) and auxiliary ligands (phen and bipy) as well as the effect of solvent on the rate of substitution reaction have been discussed.

  5. Is peracetic acid suitable for the cleaning step of reprocessing flexible endoscopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Fliss, Patricia M; Martiny, Heike

    2014-09-16

    The bioburden (blood, protein, pathogens and biofilm) on flexible endoscopes after use is often high and its removal is essential to allow effective disinfection, especially in the case of peracetic acid-based disinfectants, which are easily inactivated by organic material. Cleaning processes using conventional cleaners remove a variable but often sufficient amount of the bioburden. Some formulations based on peracetic acid are recommended by manufacturers for the cleaning step. We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the available evidence to clarify the suitability of peracetic acid-based formulations for cleaning flexible endoscopes. A total of 243 studies were evaluated. No studies have yet demonstrated that peracetic acid-based cleaners are as effective as conventional cleaners. Some peracetic acid-based formulations have demonstrated some biofilm-cleaning effects and no biofilm-fixation potential, while others have a limited cleaning effect and a clear biofilm-fixation potential. All published data demonstrated a limited blood cleaning effect and a substantial blood and nerve tissue fixation potential of peracetic acid. No evidence-based guidelines on reprocessing flexible endoscopes currently recommend using cleaners containing peracetic acid, but some guidelines clearly recommend not using them because of their fixation potential. Evidence from some outbreaks, especially those involving highly multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, indicated that disinfection using peracetic acid may be insufficient if the preceding cleaning step is not performed adequately. Based on this review we conclude that peracetic acid-based formulations should not be used for cleaning flexible endoscopes.

  6. Is peracetic acid suitable for the cleaning step of reprocessing flexible endoscopes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kampf, Günter; Patricia M. Fliss; Martiny, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The bioburden (blood, protein, pathogens and biofilm) on flexible endoscopes after use is often high and its removal is essential to allow effective disinfection, especially in the case of peracetic acid-based disinfectants, which are easily inactivated by organic material. Cleaning processes using conventional cleaners remove a variable but often sufficient amount of the bioburden. Some formulations based on peracetic acid are recommended by manufacturers for the cleaning step. We performed ...

  7. Single crystal EPR study of the dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline): influence of weak interdimeric magnetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Perec, Mireille; González, Pablo J; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2010-12-23

    We report powder and single crystal EPR measurements of [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline) at 9.7 GHz. This compound consists of centrosymmetric copper(II) ion dimers, weakly ferromagnetically exchange-coupled (J = +3.2 cm(-1)), in which the dimeric units are linked by hydrophobic chemical paths involving the phen molecules. EPR revealed that the triplet spectra are collapsed by interdimeric exchange interactions mediated by that chemical path. Analysis and simulation of the single crystal EPR spectra were performed using Anderson's exchange narrowing model, together with statistical arguments. This approach allowed us to interpret the spectra modulated by the interdimeric interactions in situations of weak, intermediate, and strong exchange. We evaluated an interdimeric exchange constant J' = 0.0070(3) cm(-1), indicating that hydrophobic paths can transmit weak exchange interactions between centers at relatively long distances of the order of ∼10 Å.

  8. Quantitative prediction of 3D solution shape and flexibility of nucleic acid nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Nyun; Kilchherr, Fabian; Dietz, Hendrik; Bathe, Mark

    2012-04-01

    DNA nanotechnology enables the programmed synthesis of intricate nanometer-scale structures for diverse applications in materials and biological science. Precise control over the 3D solution shape and mechanical flexibility of target designs is important to achieve desired functionality. Because experimental validation of designed nanostructures is time-consuming and cost-intensive, predictive physical models of nanostructure shape and flexibility have the capacity to enhance dramatically the design process. Here, we significantly extend and experimentally validate a computational modeling framework for DNA origami previously presented as CanDo [Castro,C.E., Kilchherr,F., Kim,D.-N., Shiao,E.L., Wauer,T., Wortmann,P., Bathe,M., Dietz,H. (2011) A primer to scaffolded DNA origami. Nat. Meth., 8, 221-229.]. 3D solution shape and flexibility are predicted from basepair connectivity maps now accounting for nicks in the DNA double helix, entropic elasticity of single-stranded DNA, and distant crossovers required to model wireframe structures, in addition to previous modeling (Castro,C.E., et al.) that accounted only for the canonical twist, bend and stretch stiffness of double-helical DNA domains. Systematic experimental validation of nanostructure flexibility mediated by internal crossover density probed using a 32-helix DNA bundle demonstrates for the first time that our model not only predicts the 3D solution shape of complex DNA nanostructures but also their mechanical flexibility. Thus, our model represents an important advance in the quantitative understanding of DNA-based nanostructure shape and flexibility, and we anticipate that this model will increase significantly the number and variety of synthetic nanostructures designed using nucleic acids.

  9. Prediction of flexible/rigid regions from protein sequences using k-spaced amino acid pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Jishou

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, it is believed that the native structure of a protein corresponds to a global minimum of its free energy. However, with the growing number of known tertiary (3D protein structures, researchers have discovered that some proteins can alter their structures in response to a change in their surroundings or with the help of other proteins or ligands. Such structural shifts play a crucial role with respect to the protein function. To this end, we propose a machine learning method for the prediction of the flexible/rigid regions of proteins (referred to as FlexRP; the method is based on a novel sequence representation and feature selection. Knowledge of the flexible/rigid regions may provide insights into the protein folding process and the 3D structure prediction. Results The flexible/rigid regions were defined based on a dataset, which includes protein sequences that have multiple experimental structures, and which was previously used to study the structural conservation of proteins. Sequences drawn from this dataset were represented based on feature sets that were proposed in prior research, such as PSI-BLAST profiles, composition vector and binary sequence encoding, and a newly proposed representation based on frequencies of k-spaced amino acid pairs. These representations were processed by feature selection to reduce the dimensionality. Several machine learning methods for the prediction of flexible/rigid regions and two recently proposed methods for the prediction of conformational changes and unstructured regions were compared with the proposed method. The FlexRP method, which applies Logistic Regression and collocation-based representation with 95 features, obtained 79.5% accuracy. The two runner-up methods, which apply the same sequence representation and Support Vector Machines (SVM and Naïve Bayes classifiers, obtained 79.2% and 78.4% accuracy, respectively. The remaining considered methods are

  10. Obtaining a Flexible Film Elaborated from Cassava Thermoplastic Starch and Polylactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. Arboleda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible film was obtained from a blend of cassava thermoplastic starch and polylactic acid, using maleic anhydride as coupling agent. For this, an experimental design with three factors was used: polylactic acid content, coupling agent content, and temperature profile of the blown extrusion. It was found that the three factors generated significant differences on the response variables of tensile mechanical properties individually as in their triple interaction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used by understanding the behavior of thermal properties of TPS/PLA blends with and without coupling agent, finding similar results between both. From this, the combination with 28% polylactic acid, 0.87% coupling agent, and 155.75°C temperature profile permitted the obtaining of a material with outstanding mechanical properties and offered advantages from the economic point of view.

  11. Salt Contribution to the Flexibility of Single-stranded Nucleic Acid of Finite Length

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids are negatively charged macromolecules and their structure properties are strongly coupled to metal ions in solutions. In this paper, the salt effects on the flexibility of single stranded (ss) nucleic acid chain ranging from 12 to 120 nucleotides are investigated systematically by the coarse grained Monte Carlo simulations where the salt ions are considered explicitly and the ss chain is modeled with the virtual bond structural model. Our calculations show that, the increase of ion concentration causes the structural collapse of ss chain and multivalent ions are much more efficient in causing such collapse, and trivalent and small divalent ions can both induce more compact state than a random relaxation state. We found that monovalent, divalent and trivalent ions can all overcharge ss chain, and the dominating source for such overcharging changes from ion exclusion volume effect to ion Coulomb correlations. In addition, the predicted Na and Mg dependent persistence length lp of ss nucleic acid a...

  12. Miniaturized ascorbic acid fuel cells with flexible electrodes made of graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisato; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2016-04-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is a biologically friendly compound and exists in many products such as sports drinks, fruit, and even in human blood. Thus, a miniaturized and flexible ascorbic acid fuel cell (AAFC) is expected be a power source for portable or implantable electric devices. In this study, we fabricated an AAFC with anode and cathode dimensions of 3 × 10 mm2 made of a graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth (GCFC) and found that GCFC electrodes significantly improve the power generated by the AAFC. This is because the GCFC has more than two times the effective surface area of a conventional carbon fiber cloth and it can contain more enzymes. The power density of the AAFC in a phosphate buffer solution containing 100 mM AA at room temperature was 34.1 µW/cm2 at 0.46 V. Technical issues in applying the AAFC to portable devices are also discussed.

  13. A safer and flexible method for the oxygen functionalization of carbon nanotubes by nitric acid vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santangelo, Saveria, E-mail: saveria.santangelo@unirc.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, dell’Energia, dell’Ambiente e dei Materiali (DICEAM), Università “Mediterranea”, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Piperopoulos, Elpida [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Eletronica, Chimica ed Ingegneria Industriale (DIECII), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Fazio, Enza [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra (DFST), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Faggio, Giuliana [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea”, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Ansari, Shabana [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Eletronica, Chimica ed Ingegneria Industriale (DIECII), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Lanza, Maurizio [Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici (IPCF) del CNR, 98158 Messina (Italy); Neri, Fortunato [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra (DFST), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Messina, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Università “Mediterranea”, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Milone, Candida [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Eletronica, Chimica ed Ingegneria Industriale (DIECII), Università di Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The functionalization by nitric acid vapors at azeotropic concentration has been recently proposed to eliminate drawbacks of the widely utilized liquid phase functionalization method. This work suggests to exploit the so-called “salt effect” to improve the vapor phase oxidation method in terms of safety and flexibility. Increasing the relative volatility of acid, the addition of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt to the HNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O solution allows (i) obtaining vapors with HNO{sub 3} at the azeotropic concentration from a more diluted liquid solution (i.e. operating under safer conditions), and (ii) varying the concentration of HNO{sub 3} in the vapor phase even above the azeotropic concentration limit (with improved process flexibility). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetry, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy systematic analyses are carried out on pristine and oxidized nanotubes in order to assess their functionalization degree, surface chemistry and structural evolution. The most relevant finding of this preliminary study is that the nanotube functionalization extent increases linearly with the HNO{sub 3} vapor concentration.

  14. DDQ-promoted dehydrogenation from natural rigid polycyclic acids or flexible alkyl acids to generate lactones by a radical ion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ye; Huang, Zhangjian; Yin, Jian; Lai, Yisheng; Zhang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Fang, Lei; Peng, Sixun; Zhang, Yihua

    2011-09-07

    A novel and facile DDQ-mediated dehydrogenation from natural rigid polycyclic acids or flexible alkyl acids to generate lactones is described. The formation of lactones proceeds by a radical ion mechanism, which has been established by DPPH˙-mediated chemical identification, ESR spectroscopy and an enol intermediate trapping.

  15. Flexible, all-organic ammonia sensor based on dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Arena, A.; Donato, N.; Latino, M.; Saitta, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Bonavita, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Neri, G., E-mail: neri@ingegneria.unime.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy)

    2010-09-30

    A stable chlorobenzene dispersion of conducting polyaniline (PANI) has been obtained by doping emeraldine base with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and studied by spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-vis-IR range. The electrical properties of PANI: DBSA films obtained from the above dispersion have been investigated under different temperature and relative humidity conditions. All-organic chemoresistive devices have been developed by spin-coating the PANI: DBSA dispersion on flexible substrates, and then by depositing electrodes on the top, from a carbon nanotube conducting ink. Sensing tests performed under exposition to calibrated amounts of ammonia reveal that these simple and inexpensive sensors are able to detect ammonia at room temperature in a reliable way, with a sensitivity linearly related to concentration in the range between 5 ppm and 70 ppm.

  16. Impact property enhancement of poly (lactic acid) with different flexible copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likittanaprasong, N.; Seadan, M.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to improve the impact property of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by blending with different copolymers. Six flexible copolymers, namely, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) powder, Biomax, polybutyrate adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT), polyether block amide (PEBAX), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene acrylic elastomer (EAE), with loading less than 20wt% were used and compared. The rheological, mechanical and morphological properties of samples were investigated by melt flow index, tensile testing, impact testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. It was found that PLA added 20wt% EAE showed the highest impact strength (59.5 kJ/m2), which was 22 times higher than neat PLA. The elongation at break was also increased by 12 folds compared to neat PLA. The SEM images showed good interface and distribution for PLA containing 20wt% EAE, 15 phr Biomax and 20 wt% PEBAX.

  17. Regarding the torsional flexibility of the dihydrolipoic acid's pharmacophore: 1,3-propanedithiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Annalisa; Calabrese, Camilla; Paltanin, Ettore; Melandri, Sonia; Maris, Assimo

    2016-12-21

    The conformational space of antioxidant dihydrolipoic acid has been explored through the investigation of its pharmacophore, 1,3-propanedithiol. Five of the possible 25 non-equivalent isomers (namely: gGGg', gGGg, g'AGg, gAGg and g'AGg') were observed in the 59.6-74.4 GHz frequency region using free-jet absorption rotational spectroscopy. Furthermore, for three of them, the (34)S mono-substituted isotopologues were also detected in natural abundance. Theoretical simulations show that the balance of steric and electronic intramolecular interactions arises on a shallow conformational potential energy surface and suggest that in polar solvents the flexibility of the dithiol chain is greater than that in the isolated phase.

  18. Relationship between structure, conformational flexibility, and biological activity of agonists and antagonists at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Brehm, L; Schaumburg, Kjeld;

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between conformational flexibility and agonist or antagonist actions at the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype of central L-glutamic acid (GLU) receptors of a series of racemic piperidinedicarboxylic acids (PDAs) was studied. The conformational analyses were based on 1H NMR...... receptors. Each of the three cyclic acidic amino acids showing NMDA agonist activities was found to exist as an equilibrium mixture of two conformers in aqueous solution. In contrast, the NMDA antagonists cis-2,3-PDA and cis-2,4-PDA as well as the inactive compounds trans-2,5-PDA and cis-2,6-PDA were shown...

  19. Flexible tension sensor based on poly(l-lactic acid) film with coaxial structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsunobu; Onishi, Katsuki; Tanimoto, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Shigeo

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a tension sensor with a coaxial structure using a narrow slit ribbon made of a uniaxially stretched poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) film for application to a wearable device. The tension sensor is produced as follows. We used tinsel wire as the center conductor of the sensor. The tinsel wire consists of a yarn of synthetic fibers arranged at the center, with a spirally wound rolled copper foil ribbon on the side surface. Next, slit ribbons obtained from a uniaxially oriented film of PLLA are wound helically on the side surface of the center conductor in the direction of a left-handed screw, at an angle of 45° to the central axis. The rolled copper foil is used as an outer conductor and covers the yarn without a gap. The prototype of the fabricated tension sensor has good flexibility, since the sensor is in the form of a filament and consists of a highly flexible material. For the 1 mm tension sensor, it was found that for a tension of 1 N, a charge of 14 pC was output. It was also found that the sensor maintained its room-temperature sensitivity up to 60 °C. Compared with an existing coaxial line sensor using poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), the sensor using PLLA does not exhibit pyroelectricity, meaning that no undesirable voltage is generated when in contact with body heat, which is a significant advantage as wearable sensors. The result has demonstrated the potential application of the PLLA film to wearable devices for detecting heartbeat and respiration.

  20. Softened and flexible biodegradable poly(lactic acid) and its electromechanical properties for actuator application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummarungsan, Natlita; Pattavarakorn, Datchanee; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-12-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high stiffness presenting a limitation for using in actuator applications. Adding a plasticizer is one way to solve this problem to enhance flexibility and improve electromechanical properties of pristine PLA. In this work, the PLA films were prepared via a simple solvent casting method. The influences of plasticizer type and electric field strength on electromechanical behavior of PLA films were investigated by the melt rheometer and bending measurement. For the PLA films filled with dibutyl phthalate (DBP), the storage modulus, G', immediately increased towards its steady state and rapidly recovered to its original value with and without electric field, respectively, which can be referred to a reversible system. On the other hand, the PLA film with Tween 20 processed the highest ∆G׳/G׳0 of 1.34 due to the available amount of polarized groups. In the bending measurement, the dielectrophoresis forces of plasticized PLA films were found to increase with increasing electric field where the deflections occurred towards anode side as the polarized groups generated negative charges. The DBP_PLA1.5D film exhibited the greatest bending and dielectrophoresis force. Thus, the biodegradable PLA along with DBP combine to have a great potential towards actuator application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immobilization of pyrene on quartz plate surface via a flexible long spacer and its sensing properties to dicarboxylic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lining; FANG Yu; Lü Fengting; DING Liping

    2004-01-01

    A novel photo-induced luminescence film has been prepared by immobilizing pyrene on quartz plate surface via a flexible long spacer, 1,3-diaminopropane and 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane. The film shows combined monomer and excimer emission of pyrene in both wet and dry states. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence emission measurements demonstrated that the excimer emission mainly came from direct excitation of ground state dimers, and/or monomers in aggregated state. Classical Birks' scheme plays little role in the formation of the excimers. The structures of the excimers formed during the excitation are complex. Both "standard excimer" of sandwich-like fully overlapped structure and "distorted excimer" of partially overlapped structure exist in the excited state of the fluorophore. The emission of the film is sensitive to the presence of dicarboxylic acids, including ethanedioic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, etc. The emission in the monomer and excimer region increases along with increasing the concentration of the dicarboxylic acids. The time needed for the emission to reach equilibrium depends on the nature of the acids. It has been shown that the longer the chain length of the acids, the more the time needed. This observation is explained by considering the conformational reorganization of the immobilized pyrene due to insertion of the dicarboxylic acids into the space between neighboring spacers. Experimental results from similar studies using formic acid and acetic acid are in support of this explanation. Furthermore, the response of the film to dicarboxylic acids is reversible.

  2. A resistive-type sensor based on flexible multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyacrylic acid composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongah; Cho, Daehwan; Jeong, Youngjin

    2013-09-01

    A humidity sensor film was fabricated by loading high numbers of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer matrix containing poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) to enhance the MWCNT dispersion. Cross-section images demonstrate that the MWCNTs distribute evenly throughout the matrix. The fabrication processes and sensing mechanisms of the film are explained to investigate the flexible properties and humidity-sensing characteristics of the film. The film loaded with 33 wt% MWCNTs is much more flexible than an overhead projector (OHP) film and shows similar electrical resistance to pure CNT Bucky paper. The sensor film composed of 1:2 MWCNTs:PAA is highly sensitive to humidity (0.069/%RH) and displays good linearity (0.99).

  3. A C2-symmetric chiral pool-based flexible strategy: synthesis of (+)- and (-)-shikimic acids, (+)- and (-)-4-epi-shikimic acids, and (+)- and (-)-pinitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, Bakthavachalam; Chang, Wan-Chun; Lin, Jhe-Sain; Li, Pin-Hui; Yan, Tu-Hsin

    2014-04-04

    Via combination of a novel acid-promoted rearrangement of acetal functionality with the controlled installation of the epoxide unit to create the pivotal epoxide intermediates in enantiomerically pure form, a simple, concise, flexible, and readily scalable enantiodivergent synthesis of (+)- and (-)-shikimic acids and (+)- and (-)-4-epi-shikimic acids has emerged. This simple strategy not only provides an efficient approach to shikimic acids but also can readily be adopted for the synthesis of (+)- and (-)-pinitols. These concise total syntheses exemplify the use of pivotal allylic epoxide 14 and its enantiomer ent-14. A readily available inexpensive C2-symmetric L-tartaric acid (7) served as key precursor. In general, the strategy here provides a neat example of the use of a four-carbon chiron and offers a good account of the synthesis of functionalized cyclohexane targets.

  4. Structure and Mutagenesis of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Domains Evidence for Flexibility in the Placement of Polysialic Acid Attachment Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Deirdre A.; Swartzentruber, Kristin G.; Lavie, Arnon; Colley, Karen J. (UICM)

    2010-11-09

    The addition of {alpha}2,8-polysialic acid to the N-glycans of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is critical for brain development and plays roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, neuronal regeneration, and the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. Our previous work indicates that the polysialylation of two N-glycans located on the fifth immunoglobulin domain (Ig5) of NCAM requires the presence of specific sequences in the adjacent fibronectin type III repeat (FN1). To understand the relationship of these two domains, we have solved the crystal structure of the NCAM Ig5-FN1 tandem. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals that the sites of Ig5 polysialylation are on the opposite face from the FN1 residues previously found to be critical for N-glycan polysialylation, suggesting that the Ig5-FN1 domain relationship may be flexible and/or that there is flexibility in the placement of Ig5 glycosylation sites for polysialylation. To test the latter possibility, new Ig5 glycosylation sites were engineered and their polysialylation tested. We observed some flexibility in glycosylation site location for polysialylation and demonstrate that the lack of polysialylation of a glycan attached to Asn-423 may be in part related to a lack of terminal processing. The data also suggest that, although the polysialyltransferases do not require the Ig5 domain for NCAM recognition, their ability to engage with this domain is necessary for polysialylation to occur on Ig5 N-glycans.

  5. Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications.

  6. Flexible porous coordination polymer of Ni(II) for developing nanoparticles through acid formation and redox activity of the framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.

    2017-10-01

    Immobilization of the nanoparticles (NPs) in a two dimensional porous coordination polymer (PCP) is currently an emerging field for a number of applications. But still it is a great challenge to fabricate any specified metal NPs in a single network. Herein the synthesis of Au, Pd, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg, Li, Fe/Cu, Zn/Mg etc, NPs in a highly flexible PCP of Ni(II); {[Ni3(TBIB)2(BTC)2(H2O)6]·5C2H5OH·9H2O}n [TBIB = 1,3,5-tri(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)benzene, H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid] have been reported. This universal host is able to grow mixed metal NPs from mixed metal precursors. Monodentate carboxylate groups of BTC linker act as anchoring sites for the metal ions of the metal precursors. This is the main driving force to grow NPs within the cavities along with the high flexibility of this polymer at room temperature. Mechanism involves acid formation followed by redox reaction to synthesize metal NPs explained by EPR and FTIR. Paramagnetic properties have been shown by as-synthesized Fe NPs integrated framework at room temperature under applied magnetic field up to 17,500 Oe.

  7. General Acid Catalysis: A Flexible Experiment, Adaptable to Student Ability and Various Teaching Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, R. S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-vinyl pyrrolidone provides a simple spectrophotometric kinetic experiment to introduce general acid catalysis, solvent isotope effects, and other aspects of ionic reactions in solution in advanced courses. The Bronsted equation and concept of linear free-energy changes is also covered. (SK)

  8. Design of a flexible organometallic tecton: host-guest chemistry with picric acid and self-assembly of platinum macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Achintya; Bhowmick, Sourav; Kaur, Supreet; Kashyap, Hemant K; Das, Neeladri

    2017-02-14

    The synthesis and characterization of a new pyrazine-based "flexible" and ditopic platinum(ii) organometallic molecule (3) is being reported. Flexibility in this molecule is due to the presence of ether functional groups that bridge the rigid core and periphery. Due to the presence of square planar Pt(ii) centers at the two ends, the molecule's potential to act as an acceptor building block in the construction of metallamacrocycles was tested. Upon reaction of 3 with various dicarboxylates in a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio, [2 + 2] self-assembled neutral metallacycles (M1-M3) were obtained in high yields. M1-M3 were characterized using multinuclear NMR, high resolution mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The shape and dimensions of these supramolecular structures were also confirmed by optimizing the geometry using the density functional theory (DFT) approach. Computational studies suggest that M1-M3 are nanoscalar macrocyles. Furthermore, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), it was shown that 3 can bind with picric acid (PA) to yield a 3·(PA)2 host-guest complex. The magnitude of the binding constant indicates that 3 has significant affinity for PA.

  9. Dietary supplementation with docosahexanoic acid (DHA) increases red blood cell membrane flexibility in mice with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, Nancy J; Maciaszek, Jamie L; Giger, Katie M; Hanson, Madelyn S; Zheng, Suilan; Guo, YiHe; Mickelson, Barbara; Hillery, Cheryl A; Lykotrafitis, George; Low, Philip S; Hogg, Neil

    2015-02-01

    Humans and mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) have rigid red blood cells (RBCs). Omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may influence RBC deformability via incorporation into the RBC membrane. In this study, sickle cell (SS) mice were fed natural ingredient rodent diets supplemented with 3% DHA (DHA diet) or a control diet matched in total fat (CTRL diet). After 8weeks of feeding, we examined the RBCs for: 1) stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy; 2) deformability, as measured by ektacytometry; and 3) percent irreversibly sickled RBCs on peripheral blood smears. Using atomic force microscopy, it is found that stiffness is increased and deformability decreased in RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, RBCs from SS mice fed DHA diet had markedly decreased stiffness and increased deformability compared to RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet. Furthermore, examination of peripheral blood smears revealed less irreversibly sickled RBCs in SS mice fed DHA diet as compared to CTRL diet. In summary, our findings indicate that DHA supplementation improves RBC flexibility and reduces irreversibly sickled cells by 40% in SS mice. These results point to potential therapeutic benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in SCD.

  10. An anionic two-dimensional indium carboxylate framework derived from a pseudo 3-symmetric semi-flexible tricarboxylic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pratap Vishnoi; Alok Ch Kalita; Ramaswamy Murugavel

    2014-09-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of indium(III) nitrate with a flexible pseudo 3-symmetric tricarboxylic acid at 115°C for 5 days in DMF yields a new layered anionic indium carboxylate framework, [(CH3)2 NH2)][In(L)(HCOO)(DMF)] (1) (L = 2,4,6-tris[(4′-carboxyphenoxy)methyl]-1,3,5-trimethylbenzene), existing as two-dimensional sheets. The framework solid has been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. DMF undergoes cleavage to dimethyl ammonium and formate ions, which are incorporated in the framework. A slipped stacking of the two dimensional sheets along -axis in 1 results in a drastic decrease in the anticipated large porosity of the framework.

  11. Stepping towards highly flexible aptamers: enzymatic recognition studies of unlocked nucleic acid nucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Camille; Campbell, Meghan A; Edwards, Stacey L

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic recognition of unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) nucleotides was successfully accomplished. Therminator DNA polymerase was found to be an efficient enzyme in primer extension reactions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 81 mer UNA-modified DNA library was efficiently achieved...

  12. Biological Evaluation of Flexible Polyurethane/Poly l-Lactic Acid Composite Scaffold as a Potential Filler for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Fai Lui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers within the field such as PLA or PCL, elastomers such as polyurethane offer some unique advantages in terms of flexibility. In cases of bone defect treatments, a flexible soft filler can help to establish an intimate contact with surrounding bones to provide a stable bone-material interface for cell proliferation and ingrowth of tissue. In this study, a porous filler based on segmented polyurethane incorporated with poly l-lactic acid was synthesized by a phase inverse salt leaching method. The filler was put through in vitro and in vivo tests to evaluate its potential in acting as a bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defects. In vitro results indicated there was a major improvement in biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression for osteoblast-like cells when seeded on the composite material compared to unmodified polyurethane. In vivo evaluation on a critical-sized defect model of New Zealand White (NZW rabbit indicated there was bone ingrowth along the defect area with the introduction of the new filler. A tight interface formed between bone and filler, with osteogenic cells proliferating on the surface. The result suggested polyurethane/poly l-lactic acid composite is a material with the potential to act as a bone graft substitute for orthopedics application.

  13. Two new Zn(II) coordination polymers based on mixed pipemidic acid and flexible aromatic dicarboxylic acid ligands: Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanxia; Zhou, Pingping

    2016-09-01

    Two new Zn(II) coordination polymers, namely [Zn(4,4‧-sdb) (HPPA)]n (1) and [Zn(2,2‧-bpdc)0.5(PPA)]n (2) (4,4‧-H2sdb = 4,4‧-sulfonyldibenzoate, 2,2‧-H2bpdc = 2,2‧-biphenyldicarboxylic acid, HPPA = pipemidic acid) were successfully obtained under hydrothermal conditions. These two compounds were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analyses and IR spectra. Compound 1 features a 1D chain structure, which further extended into a 3D supramolecular framework via intermolecular hydrogen bonds and weak van der Waals interactions, and compound 2 features a 3D framework with 6-connected α-Po-type topology. The structural regulation for these two compounds was successfully achieved by changing the flexible aromatic dicarboxylic acid ligand. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties for these two compounds were also investigated.

  14. Peptide conformer acidity analysis of protein flexibility monitored by hydrogen exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, David M; Anderson, Janet S; Hernández, Griselda

    2009-10-06

    The amide hydrogens that are exposed to solvent in the high-resolution X-ray structures of ubiquitin, FK506-binding protein, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, and rubredoxin span a billion-fold range in hydroxide-catalyzed exchange rates which are predictable by continuum dielectric methods. To facilitate analysis of transiently accessible amides, the hydroxide-catalyzed rate constants for every backbone amide of ubiquitin were determined under near physiological conditions. With the previously reported NMR-restrained molecular dynamics ensembles of ubiquitin (PDB codes 2NR2 and 2K39 ) used as representations of the Boltzmann-weighted conformational distribution, nearly all of the exchange rates for the highly exposed amides were more accurately predicted than by use of the high-resolution X-ray structure. More strikingly, predictions for the amide hydrogens of the NMR relaxation-restrained ensemble that become exposed to solvent in more than one but less than half of the 144 protein conformations in this ensemble were almost as accurate. In marked contrast, the exchange rates for many of the analogous amides in the residual dipolar coupling-restrained ubiquitin ensemble are substantially overestimated, as was particularly evident for the Ile 44 to Lys 48 segment which constitutes the primary interaction site for the proteasome targeting enzymes involved in polyubiquitylation. For both ensembles, "excited state" conformers in this active site region having markedly elevated peptide acidities are represented at a population level that is 10(2) to 10(3) above what can exist in the Boltzmann distribution of protein conformations. These results indicate how a chemically consistent interpretation of amide hydrogen exchange can provide insight into both the population and the detailed structure of transient protein conformations.

  15. Assessment of myocardial metabolic flexibility and work efficiency in human type 2 diabetes using 16-[18F]fluoro-4-thiapalmitate, a novel PET fatty acid tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, K J; Hutchins, G D; Perry, K; Territo, W; Chisholm, R; Acton, A; Glick-Wilson, B; Considine, R V; Moberly, S; DeGrado, T R

    2016-03-15

    Altered myocardial fuel selection likely underlies cardiac disease risk in diabetes, affecting oxygen demand and myocardial metabolic flexibility. We investigated myocardial fuel selection and metabolic flexibility in human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using positron emission tomography to measure rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation {16-[(18)F]fluoro-4-thia-palmitate (FTP)} and myocardial perfusion and total oxidation ([(11)C]acetate). Participants underwent paired studies under fasting conditions, comparing 3-h insulin + glucose euglycemic clamp conditions (120 mU·m(-2)·min(-1)) to 3-h saline infusion. Lean controls (n = 10) were compared with glycemically controlled volunteers with T2DM (n = 8). Insulin augmented heart rate, blood pressure, and stroke index in both groups (all P efficiency was lower in T2DM (P = 0.006) and decreased in both groups with the insulin-induced increase in work and shift in fuel utilization (P = 0.01). Augmented fatty acid oxidation is present under baseline and insulin-treated conditions in T2DM, with impaired insulin-induced shifts away from fatty acid oxidation. This is accompanied by reduced work efficiency, possibly due to greater oxygen consumption with fatty acid metabolism. These observations suggest that improved fatty acid suppression, or reductions in myocardial fatty acid uptake and retention, could be therapeutic targets to improve myocardial ischemia tolerance in T2DM.

  16. Flexible Flatfoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Flexible Flatfoot What Is Flatfoot? Flatfoot is often a ... may develop as a result of a flatfoot. Flexible Flatfoot Flexible flatfoot is one of the most ...

  17. Influence of the steric effect of flexible isomeric phenylenediacetic acids on the resultant lead(II) coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunlong; Zhao, Yanqing; Yang, Guo-Ping, E-mail: ygp@nwu.edu.cn; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Yao-Yu, E-mail: wyaoyu@nwu.edu.cn; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2015-03-15

    To study the steric effect of the flexible dicarboxylate ligands on the resultant formations of coordination polymers (CPs), four new Pb{sup II} CPs [Pb(1,2-pda)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Pb(1,3-pda)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Pb{sub 2}(1,4-pda){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (3a and 3b) have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The X-ray crystallography study reveals that CP 1 is a two-dimensional (2D) 4-connected sql (4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}) network via the weak Pb···O interactions built on 1D chain-like structure. CP 2 crystallizes in orthorhombic system with chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, showing a 4-connected sra (4{sup 2}.6{sup 3}.8) framework where a left-handed helical motif is formed by Pb{sup II} ions and trans-1,3-pda ligands. More interestingly, CPs 3a and 3b are two true 3D polymorphs and have the different morphology. Topologically, the framework of 3a exhibits a 4-connected lon 6{sup 6} motif, while that of 3b is a (4,6)-connected fsh (4{sup 3}.6{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6}.6{sup 6}.8{sup 3}) net. It is found that the three isomeric pda anions display the various coordination fashions in four CPs. The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four new Pb{sup II}-based CPs have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Highlights: • Four Pb{sup II}-based coordination polymers were produced by phenylenediacetic acids. • The crystal and topological structures of the

  18. Discovery of Flexible Naphthyltriazolylmethane-based Thioacetic Acids as Highly Active Uric Acid Transporter 1 (URAT1) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Hyperuricemia of Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiansheng; Wu, Jingwei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yafei; Shang, Qian; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Weiren; Tang, Lida; Wang, Jianwu; Zhao, Guilong

    2017-01-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis, which, if left untreated or inadequately treated, will lead to joint destruction, bone erosion and disability due to the crystal deposition. Uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) was the promising therapeutic target for urate-lowering therapy. The goal of this work is to understand the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a potent lesinurad-based hit, sodium 2-((5-bromo-4-((4-cyclopropyl-naphth-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3- yl)thio)acetate (1c), and based on that discover a more potent URAT1 inhibitor. The SAR of 1c was systematically explored and the in vitro URAT1 inhibitory activity of synthesized compounds 1a-1t was determined by the inhibition of URAT1-mediated [8-14C]uric acid uptake by human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing human URAT1. Twenty compounds 1a-1t were synthesized. SAR analysis was performed. Two highly active URAT1 inhibitors, sodium 2-((5-bromo-4-((4-n-propylnaphth-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3- yl)thio)acetate (1j) and sodium 2-((5-bromo-4-((4-bromonaphth-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3- yl)thio)acetate (1m), were identified, which were 78- and 76-fold more active than parent lesinurad in in vitro URAT1 inhibitory assay, respectively (IC50 values for 1j and 1m were 0.092 μM and 0.094 μM, respectively, against human URAT1 vs 7.18 μM for lesinurad). Two highly active URAT1 inhibitors were discovered. The SAR exploration also identified more flexible naphthyltriazolylmethane as a novel molecular skeleton that will be valuable for the design of URAT1 inhibitors, as indicated by the observation that many of the synthesized naphthyltriazolylmethane- bearing derivatives (1b-1d, 1g, 1j and 1m) showed significantly improved UART1 inhibitory activity (sub-micromolar IC50 values) as compared with lesinurad which has the rigid naphthyltriazole skeleton. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Flexible supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Shi; Chengjun Xu; Cheng Yang; Jia Li; Hongda Du; Baohua Li; Feiyu Kang

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors show a great potential for applications in wearable,miniaturized,portable,largescale transparent and flexible consumer electronics due to their significant,inherent advantages,such as being flexible,lightweight,low cost and environmentally friendly in comparison with the current energy storage devices.In this report,recent progress on flexible supercapacitors,flexible electrodes and electrolytes is reviewed.In addition,the future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  20. Strategic flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, KiHyung

    2014-01-01

    A flexible system is defined as one that can change the entity's stance, capability or status reacting to a change of the entity's environment. Flexibility has gathered the attention of academic researchers and industry practitioners as an efficient approach to cope with today's volatile environment. As the environments become more unpredictable and volatile, it is imperative for a flexible system to respond quickly to a change in its circumstance. How much flexibility is embedded into the sy...

  1. Flexible Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  2. Flexible Software for Flexible Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Frossie; Jenness, Tim; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Hirst, Paul; Adamson, Andy J.; Rippa, Mathew; Delorey, Kynan K.; Isaak, Kate G.

    The JAC Observation Management Project (OMP) provides software for the James Clerk Maxwell (JCMT) and the United Kingdom Infrared (UKIRT) telescopes that manages the life-cycle of flexibly scheduled observations. Its aim is to increase observatory efficiency under flexible (queue) scheduled observing, without depriving the principal investigator (PI) of the flexibility associated with classical scheduling.

  3. Forgiveness Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Seda Çolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness flexibility is the skill to minimize the negative effect of an event by using cognitive, affective and behavioral skills while taking a stand at the end of an injurious process. A number of studies were conducted to test the flexibility of the structure of forgiveness. The theoretical structure, structural validity and the confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical structure of forgiveness flexibility. The criterion validity evaluated in similar manners was found high. Forgiveness flexibility designed as a three dimensional structure and its sub-dimensions was confirmed theoretically as the recognition of forgivenessand the internalization of forgiveness through insight and its practice.

  4. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  5. Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties of halogenated isophthalic acid-directed frameworks in virtue of flexible and semiflexible N-containing ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Mei; Dong, Bao-Xia; Tang, Meng; Wu, Yi-Chen; Bu, Fan-Yan; Liu, Wen-Long; Teng, Yun-Lei

    2017-07-01

    Four three-dimensional (3D) coordination complexes on the basis of 4-halogenated isophthalic acid and two types of flexible and semiflexible N-donor ligands, formulated as {[Zn(bix)(4-Br-ip)]·H2O}n (1), {[Co(bix)(4-Br-ip)]·0.5H2O}n (2), [Zn(bbi)(4-Br-ip)]n (3) and [Co(bbi)(4-Cl-ip)]n (4), (4-Br-H2ip = 4-bromoisophthalic acid, 4-Cl-H2ip = 4-chloroisophthalic acid, bix = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl-methyl)benzene, bbi = 1,1‧-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 possess the same 4-connected 66 net. Compounds 3 and 4 are isostructural and exhibit the 4-connected 412 topology. The thermal stabilities for 1-4 and photoluminescence properties for the d10 metal centers were discussed in detail.

  6. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Task Force (USPSTF). Most doctors recommend colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer because colonoscopy shows the entire colon and can remove colon polyps. However, preparing for and performing a flexible sigmoidoscopy may take less time and you may ...

  7. Flexibility of the metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262, a glutamic acid-producing bacterium, in response to temperature upshocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, S; Lapujade, P; Engasser, J M; Goergen, J L

    2002-06-01

    In order to test the temperature sensitivity of glutamate production metabolism, several temperature shifts, from 33 to 37, 38, 39, 40 or 41 degrees C, were applied to the temperature-sensitive strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262, cultivated in a 24-h fed-batch process. Whereas glucose was entirely dedicated to biomass synthesis when cells were grown at 33 degrees C, applying temperature upshocks, whatever their range, triggered a redistribution of the carbon utilisation between glutamate, biomass and lactate production. Although increasing the culture temperature from 33 to 37, 38, 39 or 40 degrees C resulted in final glutamate titers superior to 80 g/l, temperatures resulting in the best chanelling of the carbon flow towards glutamic acid synthesis were 39 and 40 degrees C. Moreover, this study showed that the higher the temperature, the slower the growth rate and the higher the lactate accumulation.

  8. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of silver(I) complexes based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands with different flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Jie; Feng, Qi; Song, Hui-Hua

    2016-05-01

    By changing the N-donor ancillary ligand, three novel silver (I) complexes {[Ag(HbzgluO) (4,4‧-bipy)]·H2O}n (1), {[Ag2(HbzgluO)2 (bpe)2]·2H2O}n (2) and {[Ag(HbzgluO)(bpp)]·2H2O}n (3) (H2bzgluO = N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid, 4,4‧-bipy = 4,4ˊ-bipyridine, bpe = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane, bpp = 1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane) were synthesized. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). In this study, the N-donor ligands are changed from rigidity (4,4‧-bipy), quasi-flexibility (bpe) to flexibility (bpp), the structures of complexes also change. Complex 1 features a 1D chain structure which is further linked together to construct a 2D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 is a 1D double-chains configuration which eventually forms a 3D supramolecular network via hydrogen bonding interactions. Whereas, complex 3 exhibits a 2D pleated grid structure which is linked by hydrogen bonding interactions into a 3D supramolecular network. The present observations demonstrate that the modulation of coordination polymers with different structures can accomplish by changing the spacer length of N-donor ligands. In addition, the solid-state circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that compound 2 exhibited negative cotton effect which originated from the chiral ligands H2bzgluO and the solid-state fluorescence spectra of the three complexes demonstrated the auxiliary ligands have influence on the photoluminescence properties of the complexes.

  9. Summer-to-Winter Phenotypic Flexibility of Fatty Acid Transport and Catabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Heart of Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin; Swanson, David L

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged shivering in birds is mainly fueled by lipids. Consequently, lipid transport and catabolism are vital for thermogenic performance and could be upregulated along with thermogenic capacity as part of the winter phenotype. We investigated summer-to-winter variation in lipid transport and catabolism by measuring mRNA expression, protein levels, and enzyme activities for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolic pathways in pectoralis muscle and heart in two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Cytosolic fatty acid binding protein (FABPc; a key component of intramyocyte lipid transport) mRNA and/or protein levels were generally higher in winter for pectoralis muscle and heart for both species. However, seasonal variation in plasma membrane lipid transporters, fatty acyl translocase, and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein in pectoralis and heart differed between the two species, with winter increases for chickadees and seasonal stability or summer increases for goldfinches. Catabolic enzyme activities generally showed limited seasonal differences for both tissues and both species. These data suggest that FABPc is an important target of upregulation for the winter phenotype in pectoralis and heart of both species. Plasma membrane lipid transporters and lipid catabolic capacity were also elevated in winter for chickadees but not for goldfinches. Because the two species show differential regulation of distinct aspects of lipid transport and catabolism, these data are consistent with other recent studies documenting that different bird species or populations employ a variety of strategies to promote elevated winter thermogenic capacity.

  10. Piping Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  11. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  12. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  13. Innovative micro-textured hydroxyapatite and poly(l-lactic)-acid polymer composite film as a flexible, corrosion resistant, biocompatible, and bioactive coating for Mg implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Mi; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lim, Ho-Kyung; Byun, Soo-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Sung-Mi

    2017-12-01

    The utility of a novel ceramic/polymer-composite coating with a micro-textured microstructure that would significantly enhance the functions of biodegradable Mg implants is demonstrated here. To accomplish this, bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) micro-dots can be created by immersing a Mg implant with a micro-patterned photoresist surface in an aqueous solution containing calcium and phosphate ions. The HA micro-dots can then be surrounded by a flexible poly(l-lactic)-acid (PLLA) polymer using spin coating to form a HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer. The HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer showed an excellent corrosion resistance when it was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and good biocompatibility, which was assessed by in vitro cell tests. In addition, the HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer had high deformation ability, where no apparent changes in the coating layer were observed even after a 5% elongation, which would be unobtainable using HA and PLLA coating layers; furthermore, this allowed the mechanically-strained Mg implant with the HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer to preserve its excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flexible isotopy classification of flexible links

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we define and study flexible links and flexible isotopy in projective space. Flexible links are meant to capture the topological properties of real algebraic links. We classify all flexible links up to flexible isotopy using Ekholms interpretation of Viros encomplexed writhe.

  15. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  16. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions....... The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed...

  17. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  18. The effect of glycine replacement with flexible ω-amino acids on the antimicrobial and haemolytic activity of an amphipathic cyclic heptapeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Nyberg, Nils; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Although cyclic peptide structures are usually investigated as highly constrained scaffolds, cyclic antimicrobial peptides of natural origin often feature flexible residues. Hereby we report our findings concerning a structure-activity study conducted on a model sequence by replacing a glycine re...... to study changes in conformation. Increments as high as 16-fold in antimicrobial activity (as effective as lipidation) and >2-fold in haemolytic EC50 values were observed. Interestingly, secondary structures can be stabilized by increasing, rather than decreasing, ring flexibility....

  19. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  20. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  1. Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis: evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks and particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Hu, Jinguang; Sun, Fubao; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-08-01

    In order to seek a high-efficient pretreatment path for converting lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentrated H₃PO₄ plus H₂O₂ (PHP) was attempted to pretreat different lignocellulosic biomass for evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks. Meanwhile, the responses of pretreatment to particle sizes were also evaluated. When the PHP-pretreatment was employed (final H₂O₂ and H₃PO₄ concentration of 1.77% and 80.0%), 71-96% lignin and more than 95% hemicellulose in various feedstocks (agricultural residues, hardwood, softwood, bamboo, and their mixture, and garden wastes mixture) can be removed. Consequently, more than 90% glucose conversion was uniformly achieved indicating PHP greatly improved the pretreatment flexibility to different feedstocks. Moreover, when wheat straw and oak chips were PHP-pretreated with different sizes, the average glucose conversion reached 94.9% and 100% with lower coefficient of variation (7.9% and 0.0%), which implied PHP-pretreatment can significantly weaken the negative effects of feedstock sizes on subsequent conversion.

  2. Improved Efficiency of Molecular-Gel Formation by Adjusting Preorganization of Amino-Acid-Derived Flexible Molecules: A NMR and Thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Pachón, César A; Gascó-Catalán, Carolina; Ojeda-Flores, Juan J; Miravet, Juan F

    2016-07-04

    The efficiency of the formation of molecular gels of simple derivatives of l-valine and l-isoleucine is greatly improved in different organic solvents when a hexyl fragment is replaced by a bulkier cyclohexyl one. A study using NMR and IR spectroscopy provides information on the preferred conformations of the molecules, indicating that the cyclohexyl moiety precludes intramolecular H bonding and preorganises the system for intermolecular interactions, which are responsible for fiber formation. NMR data of the gels provides thermodynamic data on fibrillization, revealing that the origin of this effect is mainly entropic. Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) images show fibrillar and tape-like objects, which are observed commonly in molecular gels. Rheological measurements reveal significant differences between cyclohexyl and hexyl appended gelators. These findings could contribute to the rational design of small, flexible, building blocks for self-assembly.

  3. Effect of maleic anhydride-aniline derivative buffer layer on the properties of flexible substrate heterostructures: Indium tin oxide/nucleic acid base/metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, A., E-mail: sanca@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, Universite d' Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045, Angers (France); Preda, N. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Albu, A.-M. [Department of Polymer Science, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 (Romania)

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the properties of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) based heterostructures deposited on flexible substrates. The effects of two types of maleic anhydride-aniline derivatives (maleic anhydride-cyano aniline or maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline) buffer layer, deposited between indium tin oxide and (G) or (C) layer, on the optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures have been identified. The heterostructures containing a film of maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline have shown a good transparency and low photoluminescence in visible range. This buffer layer has determined an increase in the conductance only in the heterostructures based on (G) and (C) deposited on biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate substrate.

  4. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  5. Flexible C2-symmetric bis-sulfoxides as ligands in enantioselective 1,4-addition of boronic acids to electron-deficient alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, Noureddine; Salvador, Álvaro; Valdivia, Victoria; Chelouan, Ahmed; Alcudia, Ana; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández, Inmaculada

    2013-07-05

    The application of acyclic C2-symmetric chelating bis-sulfoxide ligands in the Rh(I)-catalyzed enantioselective 1,4-addition of boronic acids to electron-deficient alkenes is reported. Among the acyclic ethane-bridged bis-sulfoxides tested, the ligand Ferbisox (11), bearing ferrocenyl moieties as substituents at the sulfinyl sulfurs, has exhibited the best results in terms of chemical yield (up to 96%) and enantioselectivity (up to 97% ee). The conjugate addition takes place smoothly in toluene at room temperature in short reaction times (typically 2 h). The reaction scope, including the use of different boronic acids, five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic enones, an unsaturated lactone, and the most challenging acyclic ketones, is reported. An X-ray diffraction study of the [Ferbisox·RhCl]2 precatalyst clearly exhibits a dimeric structure with an S coordination of the sulfoxide to rhodium. On the basis of the X-ray data and on structural studies conducted in solution by (1)H NMR, a model explaining the high enantioselection observed is proposed.

  6. Lead(II) coordination polymers based on rigid-flexible 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid: Structural transition driven by temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Qiang; Tian, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Three Pb(II) complexes {[Pb3(BOABA)2(H2O)]·H2O}n (1), {[Pb4(BOABA)2(μ4-O)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), and [Pb3(BOABA)2(H2O)]n (3) (H3BOABA=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid) were obtained under the same reaction systems with different temperatures. Complexes 1 and 2 are two dimensional (2D) networks based on Pb-BOABA chains and Pb4(μ4-O)(COO)6 SBUs, respectively. Complex 3 presents an interesting three dimensional (3D) framework, was obtained by increasing the reaction temperature. Structural transition of the crystallization products is largely dependent on the reaction temperature. Moreover, the fluorescence properties of complexes 1-3 have been investigated.

  7. A family of entangled coordination polymers constructed from a flexible V-shaped long bicarboxylic acid and auxiliary N-donor ligands: Luminescent sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bai, Chao; Hu, Huai-Ming; Yuan, Fei; Xue, Gang-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Eight Zn(II)-based coordination polymers, namely, [Zn2L2(2,2'-bipy)]n·nH2O (1), [Zn2L2(phen)]n·nH2O (2), [ZnL(phen)(H2O)]n (3), [Zn3L3(4,4'-bipy)]n (4), [Zn2L2(4,4'-bipy)2]n [Zn2L2(H2O)2]n·2nH2O (5), [Zn4L4(bpp)2]n (6), [ZnL(bbi)0.5]n (7), [ZnL(bpz)]n (8) (H2L=4,4'-{[1,2-phenylenebis-(methylene)]bis(oxy)}dibenzoic acid, 2,2'-bipy =2,2'-bipyridine, phen =1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine, bpp =1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, bbi=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)butane, bpz=3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethyl-4,4‧-bipyrazole), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1-8 display various coordination motifs with different entangled forms and conformations due to the effect of the assistant N-donor ligands. The photoluminescent properties of compounds 1-8 in solid state were studied. Interestingly, 3 exhibits highly efficient luminescent sensing for Cu2+ cations and CrO42- anions, as well as detection ability for the different organic solvents and nitro explosives. These results indicated that it could be utilized as a multi-responsive luminescent sensor. Furthermore, compound 3 also shows good chemical resistance to both acidity and alkalinity solutions with pH ranging from 2 to 13. Thus, multi-photofunctionality and fluorescent response to pH have been combined in the 3, which is the first example in the Zn-based hybrid materials.

  8. Invertible flexible matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Júlia

    2017-06-01

    Matrices with coefficients having uncertainties of type o (.) or O (.), called flexible matrices, are studied from the point of view of nonstandard analysis. The uncertainties of the afore-mentioned kind will be given in the form of the so-called neutrices, for instance the set of all infinitesimals. Since flexible matrices have uncertainties in their coefficients, it is not possible to define the identity matrix in an unique way and so the notion of spectral identity matrix arises. Not all nonsingular flexible matrices can be turned into a spectral identity matrix using Gauss-Jordan elimination method, implying that that not all nonsingular flexible matrices have the inverse matrix. Under certain conditions upon the size of the uncertainties appearing in a nonsingular flexible matrix, a general theorem concerning the boundaries of its minors is presented which guarantees the existence of the inverse matrix of a nonsingular flexible matrix.

  9. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy......Recent studies show that flexibility is a key concern for firms that engage in the global sourcing of services. In this conceptual paper, we seek to explore two central aspects of global sourcing flexibility: In the first part of the paper, we provide a definition of the construct of global...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  10. Call centres: constructing flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Arzbächer, Sandra; Holtgrewe, Ursula; Kerst, Christian

    2002-01-01

    "The development of call centres as a flexible interface between firms and their environments has been seen as exemplary or even symptomatic of flexible capitalism (Sennett 1998). We are going to point out that they do not just stand for organisational change but also for changes of institutions towards deregulation. Employers and managers hoped for gains of flexibility, decreasing labour costs, and market gains by an expanded 24-hour-service. Surveillance and control by flexib...

  11. Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Main effort of every design engineer is reduction of torsional oscillation in any mechanical system. At present this problem can be solved by means of a suitable modification of dynamic properties of flexible shaft couplings according to dynamics in the given systems. But the dynamic properties of nowadays-applied flexible couplings arenot unchangeable because of aging and fatigue processes occurring in flexible coupling elements. Result of this fact causes detuning of mechanical system. Taki...

  12. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  13. Organizational flexibility estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Komarynets, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    By the help of parametric estimation the evaluation scale of organizational flexibility and its parameters was formed. Definite degrees of organizational flexibility and its parameters for the Lviv region enterprises were determined. Grouping of the enterprises under the existing scale was carried out. Special recommendations to correct the enterprises behaviour were given.

  14. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  15. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  16. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  17. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  18. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  19. Combining pharmacophore search, automated docking, and molecular dynamics simulations as a novel strategy for flexible docking. Proof of concept: docking of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-like compounds into the alphavbeta3 binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitessier, Nicolas; Henry, Christophe; Maigret, Bernard; Chapleur, Yves

    2004-08-12

    A novel and highly efficient flexible docking approach is presented where the conformations (internal degrees of freedom) and orientations (external degrees of freedom) of the ligands are successively considered. This hybrid method takes advantage of the synergistic effects of structure-based and ligand-based drug design techniques. Preliminary antagonist-derived pharmacophore determination provides the postulated bioactive conformation. Subsequent docking of this pharmacophore to the receptor crystal structure results in a postulated pharmacophore/receptor binding mode. Pharmacophore-oriented docking of antagonists is subsequently achieved by matching ligand interacting groups with pharmacophore points. Molecular dynamics in water refines the proposed complexes. To validate the method, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) containing peptides, pseudopeptides, and RGD-like antagonists were docked to the crystal structure of alphavbeta3 holoprotein and apoprotein. The proposed directed docking was found to be more accurate, faster, and less biased with respect to the protein structure (holo and apoprotein) than DOCK, Autodock, and FlexX docking methods. The successful docking of an antagonist recently cocrystallized with the receptor to both apo and holoprotein is particularly appealing. The results summarized in this report illustrated the efficiency of our light CoMFA/rigid body docking hybrid method.

  20. Signal enhancement for gene detection based on a redox reaction of [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) mediated by ferrocene at the terminal of a peptide nucleic acid as a probe with hybridization-amenable conformational flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroshi; Tao, Hiroaki

    2008-07-01

    Electrochemically enhanced DNA detection was demonstrated by utilizing the couple of a synthesized ferrocene-terminated peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with a cysteine anchor and a sacrificial electron donor [Fe(CN)(6)](4-). DNA detection sensors were prepared by modifying a gold electrode surface with a mixed monolayer of the probe PNA and 11-hydroxy-1-undecanethiol (11-HUT), protecting [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) from any unexpected redox reaction. Before hybridization, the terminal ferrocene moiety of the probe was subject to a redox reaction due to the flexible probe structure and, in the presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](4-), the observed current was amplified based on regeneration of the ferrocene moiety. Hybridization decreased the redox current of the ferrocene. This occurred because hybridization rigidified the probe structure: the ferrocene moiety was then removed from the electrode surface, and the redox reaction of [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) was again prevented. The change in the anodic current before and after hybridization was enhanced 1.75-fold by using the electron donor [Fe(CN)(6)](4-). Sequence-specific detection of the complementary target DNA was also demonstrated.

  1. Painful Flexible Flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Taha, Abdel Majid; Feldman, David S

    2015-12-01

    Flatfoot is commonly encountered by pediatric orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians. A paucity of literature exists on how to define a flatfoot. The absence of the medial arch with a valgus hindfoot is the hallmark of this pathology. Flatfoot can be flexible or rigid. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the flexible flatfoot. Most flatfeet are flexible and clinically asymptomatic, and warrant little intervention. If feet are symptomatic, treatment is needed. Most patients who require treatment improve with foot orthotics and exercises. Only feet resistant to conservative modalities are deemed surgical candidates. The presence of a tight heel cord is often found in patients who fail conservative management.

  2. Flexible Support Stanchion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-05-11

    Figure 1 shows the assembly drawing of the Central Calorimeter Cryostat Flexible Support Stanchion. Figures 2 and 3 show the Flexible Support STanchion in detail. These Stanchions support the cryostat safely, reduce the heat load to the cryostat from the ambient by a factor of more than ten, provide a spring like action that reduce the loads created by thermal contraction of the cryostat and position the cryostate accurately. Table 1 shows all of the details of the Flexible Support system for the C.C. Cryostat.

  3. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  4. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  5. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  6. COUPLING EFFECT OF FLEXIBLE JOINT AND FLEXIBLE LINK ON DYNAMIC SINGULARITY OF FLEXIBLE MANIPULATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhihui; YUN Chao; BIAN Yushu

    2008-01-01

    The coupling effect of the flexible joint and the flexible link on the dynamic singularity of the flexible manipulator is addressed. Firstly, the dynamic equations of a flexible manipulator with a flexible joint and a flexible link are derived. Secondly, the relationship and property between the flexible joint and the flexible link are analyzed. It shows that the flexible joint's amplitude will increase abruptly, thereby the dynamic singularity occurs if the frequency of a flexible joint is near or equal to some natural frequency of a flexible link. Finally, some numerical simulations which will verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, are carried out. The results are fundamental for the design of a flexible manipulator and for the avoidance of the dynamic singularity.

  7. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen, E-mail: jurgen.kosel@kaust.edu.sa

    2015-03-15

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications. - Highlights: • A flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor is developed. • Studies are carried out using a flexible microstrip transmission line. • An MI ratio of up to 90% is obtained. • The effect of magnetostriction is studied.

  8. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  9. Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav HOMIŠIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Main effort of every design engineer is reduction of torsional oscillation in any mechanical system. At present this problem can be solved by means of a suitable modification of dynamic properties of flexible shaft couplings according to dynamics in the given systems. But the dynamic properties of nowadays-applied flexible couplings arenot unchangeable because of aging and fatigue processes occurring in flexible coupling elements. Result of this fact causes detuning of mechanical system. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned situation, we suggest for mechanical systems application of a newly developed pneumatic couplings that have constant characteristicfeatures during the whole current operation and thus they have a positive influence on the system running.

  10. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus on structural flexibility due to scarcity of previous research in that area. The purpose of the research is to answer a question: how can companies design structural supply chain flexibility? In a...

  11. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  12. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  13. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  14. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...

  15. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  16. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  17. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  18. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  19. Adding flexibility to physician training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E

    2011-05-02

    Demographic changes among junior doctors are driving demand for increased flexibility in advanced physician training, but flexible training posts are lacking. Suitable flexible training models include flexible full-time, job-share and part-time positions. Major barriers to establishing flexible training positions include difficulty in finding job-share partners, lack of funding for creating supernumerary positions, and concern over equivalence of educational quality compared with full-time training. Pilot flexible training positions should be introduced across the medical specialties and educational outcomes examined prospectively.

  20. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...

  1. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  2. Flexible Metasurface Holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James; Chen, Xianzhong; Di Falco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Metasurface holograms are typically fabricated on rigid substrates. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband, flexible, conformable, helicity multiplexed metasurface holograms operating in the visible range, offering increased potential for real life out-of-the-lab applications. Two symmetrically distributed holographic images are obtained when circularly polarized light impinges on the reflective-type metasurface positioned on non- planar targets. The two off-axis images with high fidelity are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of incident light. Our metasurface features the arrangement of spatially varying gold nanorods on a flexible, conformable epoxy resist membrane to realize a Pancharatnam- Berry phase profile. These results pave the way to practical applications including polarization manipulation, beam steering, novel lenses, and holographic displays.

  3. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  4. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  5. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  6. More flexibility for DESY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the future, budgeting at DESY will be more efficient. The 16 associated research centers are to be granted a wider margin in matters of finance and human resources. The Budget Committee of the German Bundestag has agreed to abstain from mandatory staff appointments. The current pre-determined "job pyramid" will be replaced by a more flexible mechanism, so that the conclusion of fixed labor contracts can more closely follow the needs of research (1 page).

  7. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  8. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  9. Flexible Data Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    reconfiguring the waveform characteristics (on-the-fly) based on the engagement environment. Therefore, flexibility was the highest priority in the design of...the aircraft to a ground antenna . Utilizing the threshold system requirements (100 km range), we calculate the multipath of the aircraft as it...approaches the ground antenna . Figure 3: Multipath scenario #1 The calculation of the reflected path (denoted as A + C in Figure 3) is found through the

  10. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  11. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  12. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  13. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in energy supply and demand becomes more and more important with increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) production and the emergence of the Smart Grid. So-called prosumers, i.e., entities that produce and/or consume energy, can offer their inherent flexibilities through so......-called demand response and thus help stabilize the energy markets. Thus, prosumer flexibility becomes valuable and the ongoing Danish project TotalFlex [1] explores the use of prosumer flexibility in the energy market using the concept of a flex-offer [2], which captures energy flexibilities in time and...... induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  14. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  15. Flexible composite radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  16. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  17. Flexible plasma linear antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiansen; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Chang, Yongmeng; Chen, Xinqiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we introduce a type of plasma antenna that was fabricated using flexible materials and excited using a 5-20 kHz alternating current (ac) power supply. The results showed that the antenna characteristics, including the impedance, the reflection coefficient (S11), the radiation pattern, and the gain, can be controlled rapidly and easily by varying both the discharge parameters and the antenna shapes. The scope for reconfiguration is greatly enhanced when the antenna shape is changed from a monopole to a helix configuration. Additionally, the antenna polarization can also be adjusted by varying the antenna shapes.

  18. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  19. The Flexibility Hypothesis of Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2017-03-01

    Theories of healing have attempted to identify general mechanisms that may work across different modalities. These include altering expectations, remoralization, and instilling hope. In this paper, we argue that many forms of healing and psychotherapy may work by inducing positive psychological states marked by flexibility or an enhanced ability to shift cognitive sets. Healing practices may induce these states of cognitive and emotional flexibility through specific symbolic interventions we term "flexibility primers" that can include images, metaphors, music, and other media. The flexibility hypothesis suggests that cognitive and emotional flexibility is represented, elicited, and enacted through multiple modalities in healing rituals. Identifying psychological processes and cultural forms that evoke and support cognitive and emotional flexibility provides a way to understand the cultural specificity and potential efficacy of particular healing practices and can guide the design of interventions that promote resilience and well-being.

  20. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... varying cultural repertoires, in particularly heterogeneous flexible repertoires, influence offending and victimization patterns among young men in high-risk settings....... independently of the authors in neighbouring township areas of Cape Town, we offer insights into patterns of victimization among young men not involved in crime who live and attend school in the townships. Young men who perform decent cultural repertoires are highly exposed to victimization due to their moral...

  1. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  2. Metabolic flexibility is conserved in diabetic myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that metabolic inflexibility is an intrinsic defect. Glucose and lipid oxidation were studied in human myotubes established from healthy lean and obese subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In lean myotubes, glucose oxidation...... inflexibility described in obese and diabetic patients is not an intrinsic defect; rather, it is based on an extramuscular mechanism (i.e., the inability to vary extracellular fatty acid concentrations during insulin stimulation). Thus, skeletal muscles are metabolic-flexible per se....

  3. Building Highly Flexible Polyelectrolyte Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Flexibility of polyelectrolyte nanotubes is necessary if they are to be exploited in applications such as developing photoelectric devices with strong mechanical properties. In a recent attempt, high flexibility has been observed from such nanotubes prepared by a research team headed by Prof. Li Junbai of the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS).

  4. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...

  5. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...

  6. Function Machines & Flexible Algebraic Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary E.; McGowen, Mercedes A.

    This paper explores how college students understand ideas of functions, and which representations are productive for them in promoting their ability to work flexibly across representations. The study used pre- and post-test scores, and triangulations via student self evaluations, to generate a hypothesis related to flexible thinking and success in…

  7. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  8. Retirement Flexibility and Portfolio Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Y.; Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between retirement flexibility and portfolio choice in an overlapping-generations model. We analyse this interaction both in a partial-equilibrium and general-equilibrium setting. Retirement flexibility is often seen as a hedge against capital-market risks which

  9. Flexible Coupling Corrects Shaft Misalinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed flexible coupling provides nearly error free measurements of shaft rotation in presence of misalinements between shaft and position sensing transducer. Intended to be used in situations in which input or output shaft is mounted on flexible joint. Its function is to insure equal input and output angular velocities by forcing input and output shafts to remain parallel.

  10. [Flexible root posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh

    2009-02-01

    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  11. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  12. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J M

    2015-01-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable non-adiabatic effects. A joint exciton/motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of non-adiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K.~Leonhardt {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett. {\\bf 113} 223001 (2014)]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterise the ...

  13. Flexible Proteins at the Origin of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A; Shannon, Gareth

    2017-06-05

    Almost all modern proteins possess well-defined, relatively rigid scaffolds that provide structural preorganization for desired functions. Such scaffolds require the sufficient length of a polypeptide chain and extensive evolutionary optimization. How ancestral proteins attained functionality, even though they were most likely markedly smaller than their contemporary descendants, remains a major, unresolved question in the origin of life. On the basis of evidence from experiments and computer simulations, we argue that at least some of the earliest water-soluble and membrane proteins were markedly more flexible than their modern counterparts. As an example, we consider a small, evolved in vitro ligase, based on a novel architecture that may be the archetype of primordial enzymes. The protein does not contain a hydrophobic core or conventional elements of the secondary structure characteristic of modern water-soluble proteins, but instead is built of a flexible, catalytic loop supported by a small hydrophilic core containing zinc atoms. It appears that disorder in the polypeptide chain imparts robustness to mutations in the protein core. Simple ion channels, likely the earliest membrane protein assemblies, could also be quite flexible, but still retain their functionality, again in contrast to their modern descendants. This is demonstrated in the example of antiamoebin, which can serve as a useful model of small peptides forming ancestral ion channels. Common features of the earliest, functional protein architectures discussed here include not only their flexibility, but also a low level of evolutionary optimization and heterogeneity in amino acid composition and, possibly, the type of peptide bonds in the protein backbone.

  14. Flexible Blades for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  15. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior.

  16. Flexible armored blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.S.

    1978-05-01

    An exploratory development contract was undertaken on December 23, 1977 which had as its purpose the development and demonstration of a flexible armored blanket design suitable for providing ballistic protection to nuclear weapons during shipment. Objectives were to design and fabricate a prototype blanket which will conform to the weapon shape, is troop-handleable in the field, and which, singly or in multiple layers, can defeat a range of kinetic energy armor piercing (AP) ammunition potentially capable of damaging the critical portion of the nuclear weapon. Following empirical testing, including the firing of threat ammunition under controlled laboratory and field test conditions, materials were selected and assembled into two blanket designs, each weighing approximately 54 kg/m{sup 2} (11 lbs/ft{sup 2}) and estimated to cost from $111 to $180 per ft{sup 2} in production. A firing demonstration to evidence blanket performance against terrorist/light infantry weapons, heavy infantry weapons, and aircraft cannon was conducted for representatives of the DOD and interested Sandia employees on April 12, 1978. The blankets performed better than anticipated defeating bullets up to 7.62 mm x 51 mm AP with one layer and projectiles up to 23 mm HEI with two layers. Based on these preliminary tests it is recommended that development work be continued with the following objectives: (1) the selection by the DOD of priority applications, (2) the specific design and fabrication of sufficient quantities of armored blankets for field testing, (3) the evaluation of the blankets by DOD operational units, with reports to Sandia Laboratories to enable final design.

  17. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  18. Flexible Learning in a Digital World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Moonen, Jef

    2002-01-01

    Defines flexible learning and describes components of flexible learning in higher education, including technology, pedagogy or instructional approach, implementation strategies, and institutional framework. Considers factors constraining learning flexibility; changing student characteristics; and the need for lifelong learning, particularly in the…

  19. A positive mood, a flexible brain

    OpenAIRE

    Betzel, Richard F.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Gold, Joshua I.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible reconfiguration of human brain networks supports cognitive flexibility and learning. However, modulating flexibility to enhance learning requires an understanding of the relationship between flexibility and brain state. In an unprecedented longitudinal data set, we investigate the relationship between flexibility and mood, demonstrating that flexibility is positively correlated with emotional state. Our results inform the modulation of brain state to enhance response to training in h...

  20. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  1. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-01-01

    .... With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched...

  2. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas.

  3. Flexible sensors based on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev-Bar, Meital; Haick, Hossam

    2013-10-22

    Flexible sensors can be envisioned as promising components for smart sensing applications, including consumer electronics, robotics, prosthetics, health care, safety equipment, environmental monitoring, homeland security and space flight. The current review presents a concise, although admittedly nonexhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in flexible sensors. The review attempts to pull together different views and terminologies used in the NP-based sensors, mainly those established via electrical transduction approaches, including, but, not confined to: (i) strain-gauges, (ii) flexible multiparametric sensors, and (iii) sensors that are unaffected by mechanical deformation. For each category, the review presents and discusses the common fabrication approaches and state-of-the-art results. The advantages, weak points, and possible routes for future research, highlighting the challenges for NP-based flexible sensors, are presented and discussed as well.

  4. Flexible protection for metal bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, K. G.

    1970-01-01

    RTV silicone is used with a braided wire sheath surrounding the metal bellows in fluid transfer systems. It demonstrated best overall performance in flexibility and shock absorbing tests, high temperature, low temperature, and salt spray.

  5. FLEXIBLE FLATFOOT IN CHILDREN (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Маркович Кенис; Юрий Алексеевич Лапкин; Руслан Халилович Хусаинов; Андрей Викторович Сапоговский

    2014-01-01

    Flatfoot is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in the daily practice of pediatric orthopedists. Despite of numerous studies, diagnostic criteria and principles of management remain controversial. Flexible flatfoot - is visually detectable decrease in the height of the longitudinal arch of the foot, which can be spontaneously corrected by active or passive motion and not accompanied by any contracture of foot and ankle. Flexible flatfoot is a benign condition which is normal for...

  6. Value of Flexibility - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-25

    flexibility could also change the calculus of how we determine when to start a new program vice modifying an existing one. Flexibility could even help...decades ago by Steward as a ‖framework for formally identifying and tracking relationships between design variables‖ [ Steward , 1981]. Keese [2007...Paper presented at the 6th Conference on Systems Engineering Research, Los Angeles, CA. Shreve, S. E. (2004). Stochastic calculus for finance. New

  7. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  8. Flexible solar-array mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    One of the key elements of the flexible rolled-up solar array system is a mechanism to deploy, retract, and store the flexible solar-cell arrays. The selection of components, the design of the mechanism assembly, and the tests that were performed are discussed. During 6 months in orbit, all mission objectives were satisfied, and inflight performance has shown good correlation with preflight analyses and tests.

  9. Flexible Learning Spaces Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bullimore, A.; Reader, K.; Sultany, A

    2013-01-01

    City University, London is tackling the challenge of ensuring the learning spaces provided are able to meet the anticipated increase in technology usage and prevalent pedagogies. There is no longer a standard classroom design that will achieve this goal and therefore it is imperative to pilot and explore a variety of flexible learning spaces. This report feeds back on an\\ud evaluation of two flexible learning space approaches piloted in the autumn term of 2012 as alternatives to traditional c...

  10. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  11. Oxide Heteroepitaxy for Flexible Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitla, Yugandhar; Chen, Ching; Lee, Hsien-Chang; Do, Thi Hien; Ma, Chun-Hao; Qui, Le Van; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chang, Li; Chiu, Po-Wen; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-11-30

    The emerging technological demands for flexible and transparent electronic devices have compelled researchers to look beyond the current silicon-based electronics. However, fabrication of devices on conventional flexible substrates with superior performance are constrained by the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose an alternative strategy to circumvent this issue via the heteroepitaxial growth of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) on the flexible mica substrate with performance comparable to that of their rigid counterparts. With the examples of ITO and AZO as a case study, a strong emphasis is laid upon the growth of flexible yet epitaxial TCO relying muscovite's superior properties compared to those of conventional flexible substrates and its compatibility with the present fabrication methods. Besides excellent optoelectro-mechanical properties, an additional functionality of high-temperature stability, normally lacking in the current state-of-the-art transparent flexitronics, is provided by these heterostructures. These epitaxial TCO electrodes with good chemical and thermal stabilities as well as mechanical durability can significantly contribute to the field of flexible, light-weight, and portable smart electronics.

  12. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  13. Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Illinois

    2007-08-03

    This article reviews several classes of inorganic semiconductor materials that can be used to form high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) for large area, flexible electronics. Examples ranging from thin films of various forms of silicon to nanoparticles and nanowires of compound semiconductors are presented, with an emphasis on methods of depositing and integrating thin films of these materials into devices. Performance characteristics, including both electrical and mechanical behavior, for isolated transistors as well as circuits with various levels of complexity are reviewed. Collectively, the results suggest that flexible or printable inorganic materials may be attractive for a range of applications not only in flexible but also in large-area electronics, from existing devices such as flat-panel displays to more challenging (in terms of both cost and performance requirements) systems such as large area radiofrequency communication devices, structural health monitors, and conformal X-ray imagers.

  14. Global Flexibility, synecdoche of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Selva Olid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the flexibility, its uses, types and new concepts to address and empower the global flexibility as an integral tool to facilitate change, adapt to the environment in an advantageous manner and innovate. In times of economic, social, technological and global chances, like today, partners and organizations are claimed to increase their polyvalence and versatility, in order to move towards new organizational and dedication models. In this context and given the need to have a construct that broadly and inherently meets and baste transversely to the different stakeholders of the organization, its structures and forms and mediation between them emerges global flexibility. Despite the challenge of proposing and permeabilising a new construct, no less what it provides, as it is presented as a natural tool to empower wellbeing within organizational and social life.

  15. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-05-18

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  16. Studies Of Residual Flexibility And Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    Collection of reports presents theoretical and experimental studies in which concept of residual flexibility applied to modal vibration testing and verification of mathematical models of vibrations of flexible structure constrained by another structure. "Residual flexibility" denotes that part of interface flexibility due to mode shapes out of frequency range of test. Studies directed toward assessing residual-flexibility approach as substitute for fixed-base vibrational testing of payloads installed in spacecraft.

  17. Polymer electronics a flexible technology

    CERN Document Server

    Technology, Rapra

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide market for polymer electronic products has been estimated to be worth up to £15 billion by 2015 and the opportunity for new markets could be as high as £125 billion by 2025.'The rapid development of polymer electronics has revealed the possibility for transforming the electronics market by offering lighter, flexible and more cost effective alternatives to conventional materials and products. With applications ranging from printed, flexible conductors and novel semiconductor components to intelligent labels and large area displays and solar panels, products that were previously un

  18. Lost and Found in Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    'New work' is characterized by mobility and flexibility and a growing need to facilitate social awareness. The paper discusses how to augment the environment with social awareness and suggest 'awareness-in-transition' as a lable for awareness in mobile work in flexible work environments......, and as locus for building social awareness in the 'new work'. A transition (e.g. taking information from a whiteboard in a meeting room to the desktop of a personal computer)--besides the immediate implications at the functional level--has important interpersonal, intra-personal, and organizational...

  19. Flexible Stamp for Nanoimprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Theodor; Pedersen, Rasmus H.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a flexible silicon stamp for homogenous large area nanoimprint lithography (NIL) are presented. The flexible stamp is fabricated by bulk semiconductor micro machining of a 4-inch silicon wafer and consists of thick anchor like imprint areas connected...... by membranes. The bending stiffness difference between the imprint areas and the membranes ensures that the deformation of the stamp during the imprint process mainly takes place in the membranes, leaving the imprint structures unaffected. By this design the strong demand to the parallelism between stamp...

  20. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...

  1. Global Analysis of Flexible Risers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    and thus resists the loading from the environment in a more suitable way.A flexible pipe is a composite structure, built up of several layers each having a specific function. Due to the flexibility, the response of the pipe in wave induced motions are governed by a complex hydroelastic set of differential...... parameters.The idea is to divide the riser system of riser and end fitting system into a global system including the riser and a local system of the bending stiffener and the end fitting. The forces at top of the riser shall be used as input for the design of the local system.This report introduces a non...

  2. Four 3D "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks with a flexible ligand of (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid: crystal structures, luminescent and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Luan, Xin-Jun; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Kang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Wang, Yao-Yu; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the conformation of cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid, four new "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized from hydrothermal reactions with different metal salts, (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (H(4)cptc) and auxiliary N-donor ligands, namely, Cu(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (1), Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (2), Cd(4)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(2)(bpa)(2)(H(2)O)(5)·2H(2)O (3) and Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpy)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2(H(2)O) (4) (bpe = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)vinyl)pyridine, bpa = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)ethyl)pyridine, bpy = 4-(pyridine-4-yl)pyridine). The complexes were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectra, fluorescent measurements and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results of the structural investigations show that 1 is a charming (3,3,4)-trinodal architecture, 3 is an interesting trinodal (3,4,5)-connected architecture, and 2 and 4 are isostructural, which are both (4,5)-connected networks. In addition, the magnetic measurements indicate that 2 and 4 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions, and the fluorescent measurement shows the strong solid-state fluorescent emission at room temperature for 3.

  3. Hippocampus-dependent place learning enables spatial flexibility in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl R. Kleinknecht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (i place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (ii response learning that leads to a more rigid ‘route following’. Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice’ flexibility in spatial navigation tasks.Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze that only place learning enables spatial flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability depends on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ≥ 60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits.In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-dependent place learning for spatial flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on spatial flexibility in mice.

  4. Robotic steering of flexible endoscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozeboom, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes were originally designed for non-invasive inspection of body cavities and hollow organs. Today, they are also used for complex minimal invasive interventions. Control of the endoscope is difficult and complexity rises with interventional procedures. Endoscopists suffer from long

  5. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  6. Lifelong Open and Flexible Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and Flexible (LOF) learning embracing characteristics as: open learning, distance learning, e-learning, online learning, open accessibility, multimedia support, virtual mobility, learning communities, dual mode (earn & learn) approaches, and the like.In my presentation I will focus on the EADTU strategies...

  7. Flexible Learning: A Luddite View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the flexible learning concept through the eyes of the 19th-century industrial activists known as the Luddites. During a period of economic uncertainty, the Luddite perspective provides a sensitive justification for a change-free educational environment, and for a backlash in favour of "inflexible learning" (IL). The…

  8. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words…

  9. Creep behaviour of flexible adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.; Berg, A. van den; Beers, P. van

    2004-01-01

    Since flexible adhesives are used more and more in structural applications, designers should have a better understanding of its behaviour under various conditions as ultimate load, fatigue load, long-term load and environmental conditions. This paper focuses on long-term load conditions and its effe

  10. Flexible working motivates all staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    A recent survey has demolished the myth that work-life balance is only of interest to women with children. The survey, commissioned by Lloyds TSB on behalf of the Employers for Work Life Balance organisation, shows that young workers and men are equally interested in flexible working arrangements that allow them to pursue interests outside of work.

  11. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    to the bone surface than external fixator bars. External fixators have the advantage of being less expensive, highly flexible, and technically less demanding. They remain an integral part of orthopaedic surgery for emergent stabilization, for pediatric fractures, for definitive osteosynthesis in certain...

  12. Drops spreading on flexible fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somszor, Katarzyna; Boulogne, François; Sauret, Alban; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are encountered in many engineered systems such as textile, paper and insulating materials. In most of these materials, fibers are randomly oriented and form a complex network in which drops of wetting liquid tend to accumulate at the nodes of the network. Here we investigate the role of the fiber flexibility on the spreading of a small volume of liquid on a pair of crossed flexible fibers. A drop of silicone oil is dispensed at the point of contact of the fibers and we characterize the liquid morphologies as we vary the volume of liquid, the angle between the fibers, and the length and bending modulus of the fibers. Drop morphologies previously reported for rigid fibers, i.e. a drop, a column and a mixed morphology, are also observed on flexible fibers with modified domains of existence. Moreover, at small inclination angles of the fibers, a new behavior is observed: the fibers bend and collapse. Depending on the volume, the liquid can adopt a column or a mixed morphology on the collapsed fibers. We rationalize our observations with a model based on energetic considerations. Our study suggests that the fiber flexibility adds a rich variety of behaviors that can be crucial for industrial applications.

  13. FLEXIBLE FLATFOOT IN CHILDREN (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Маркович Кенис

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Flatfoot is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in the daily practice of pediatric orthopedists. Despite of numerous studies, diagnostic criteria and principles of management remain controversial. Flexible flatfoot - is visually detectable decrease in the height of the longitudinal arch of the foot, which can be spontaneously corrected by active or passive motion and not accompanied by any contracture of foot and ankle. Flexible flatfoot is a benign condition which is normal for childhood. But this term is also used to describe a painful deformity with marked limitation of dorsiflection and “not physiological” flatfoot with unfavorable course and prognosis. Despite of the awareness of the parents, flexible flatfoot does not lead to pain and should not be followed by any kind of treatment. Special shoe modifications and orthopedic insoles are useless in the attempt to improve the foot, but can influence negatively psychological condition and self-estimation. Proper diagnosis of flexible flatfoot is necessary in order to avoid unnecessary treatment and to reveal patients with adverse prognosis and rigid forms of flatfoot which need special approach.

  14. Functional flexibility and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E.; Slomp, J.

    1999-01-01

    This study deals with workforce flexibility defined in terms of 'multifunctionality' and 'redundancy'. These concepts refer, respectively, to the number of different tasks a worker has mastered and the number of workers that are qualified to do a specific task. A third factor to be considered is wor

  15. Taming Time with Flexible Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, David

    1995-01-01

    Because of increasing incidence of burnout among midlevel managers, many companies are reducing workload schedules, an arrangement that would have been unthinkable 10 years ago. Surveys have made the case that flexible work arrangements increase employee happiness and, therefore, productivity. (JOW)

  16. Protein stability, flexibility and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2011-01-01

    Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests for a de......Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests...... for a delineation of the molecular details of their function. Several of these mutations interfered with the binding of a specific ligand with a concomitant effect on the stability of the protein scaffold. It has been ambiguous and not straightforward to recognize if any relationships exist between the stability...... of a protein and the affinity for its ligand. In this review, we present examples of proteins where changes in stability results in changes in affinity and of proteins where stability and affinity are uncorrelated. We discuss the possibility for a relationship between stability and binding. From the data...

  17. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  18. Syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of Zn(Ⅱ)/Co(Ⅱ) coordination polymers based on flexible tetracarboxylate ligand of 5,5‧-(butane-1,4-diyl)-bis(oxy)-di isophthalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan-Peng; Guo, Le; Dong, Wei; Jia, Min; Zhang, Jing-Xue; Sun, Zhong; Chang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Three new mixed-ligand metal-organic frameworks based on 5,5‧-(butane-1,4- diyl)-bis(oxy)-diisophthalic acid and transitional metal cations with the help of two ancillary bridging N-donor pyridyl and imidazole linkers, [Zn(L)0.5(4,4‧-bpy)]·2(H2O) (1), [M(L)0.5(bib)]·4(H2O) (M = Zn (2), Co (3)), (4,4‧-bpy=4,4‧-bipyridine, bib=1,4-bis (1H-imidazol-1-yl)-butane), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Their structures and properties were determined by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, IR spectra, elemental analyses and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Compounds 1-3 display a 3D 3-fold interpenetrated frameworks linked by the L4- ligands, ancillary N-donor linkers and the free water molecules in the crystal lattice. Topological analysis reveals that 1-3 are a (4,4)-connected bbf topology net with the (64·82)(66) topology. The effects of the L4- anions, the N-donor ligands, and the metal ions on the structures of the coordination polymers have been discussed. Furthermore, luminescence properties and thermogravimetric properties of these compounds were investigated.

  19. Syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of Zn(Ⅱ)/Co(Ⅱ) coordination polymers based on flexible tetracarboxylate ligand of 5,5′-(butane-1,4-diyl)-bis(oxy)-di isophthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yan-Peng [Inner Mongolia Key Lab Chem & Phys Rare Earth Mat, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos College of Inner Mongolia University, Ordos 017000 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos Applied Technology College, Ordos 017000 (China); Guo, Le [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos College of Inner Mongolia University, Ordos 017000 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ordos Applied Technology College, Ordos 017000 (China); Dong, Wei; Jia, Min; Zhang, Jing-Xue; Sun, Zhong [Inner Mongolia Key Lab Chem & Phys Rare Earth Mat, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Chang, Fei, E-mail: ndchfei@imu.edu.cn [Inner Mongolia Key Lab Chem & Phys Rare Earth Mat, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Three new mixed-ligand metal-organic frameworks based on 5,5′-(butane-1,4- diyl)-bis(oxy)-diisophthalic acid and transitional metal cations with the help of two ancillary bridging N-donor pyridyl and imidazole linkers, [Zn(L){sub 0.5}(4,4′-bpy)]·2(H{sub 2}O) (1), [M(L){sub 0.5}(bib)]·4(H{sub 2}O) (M = Zn (2), Co (3)), (4,4′-bpy=4,4′–bipyridine, bib=1,4-bis (1H-imidazol-1-yl)-butane), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Their structures and properties were determined by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, IR spectra, elemental analyses and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Compounds 1–3 display a 3D 3-fold interpenetrated frameworks linked by the L{sup 4−} ligands, ancillary N-donor linkers and the free water molecules in the crystal lattice. Topological analysis reveals that 1–3 are a (4,4)-connected bbf topology net with the (6{sup 4}·8{sup 2})(6{sup 6}) topology. The effects of the L{sup 4−} anions, the N-donor ligands, and the metal ions on the structures of the coordination polymers have been discussed. Furthermore, luminescence properties and thermogravimetric properties of these compounds were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new compounds of MOFs have been prepared and characterized. The luminescence properties and thermogravimetric properties of compounds were investigated. Display Omitted.

  20. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  1. WAGE FLEXIBILITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECULESCU Silviu Alexandru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows to offer the most efficient solutions for the attainment by Romania of the economic development level associated to the Western European countries. It proposes the division of the flexibility of labour market in three components, namely: internal flexibility, external flexibility and wage flexibility. The analysis performed within the present study will emphasize the wage flexibility. Wage flexibility can be classified in four components: a plans of individual and group incentives; b plans of assigning wages out of productivity; c plans of distribution of profits and, respectively, d plans of suggestions. The labour market flexibility, in general, and especially the wage flexibility contributes to the increase of employee motivation at the workplace, aspect which leeds to the growth of labour productivity, through this one being put the bases of the medium- and long-term economic development.

  2. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  3. Understanding flexible and distributed software development processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development

  4. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sloma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes.

  5. Flexible spintronic devices on Kapton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Donolato, Marco; Gobbi, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    of bending angle (r = 5 mm) have been achieved without degradation of the device performance, reaching room-temperature tunneling magnetoresistance ratios of 12% in bended Co/Al2O3/NiFe junctions. In addition, a suitable route to pattern high-quality nanostructures directly on the polyimide surface......Magnetic tunnel junctions and nano-sized domain-wall conduits have been fabricated on the flexible substrate Kapton. Despite the delicate nature of tunneling barriers and zig-zag shaped nanowires, the devices show an outstanding integrity and robustness upon mechanical bending. High values...... is established. These results demonstrate that Kapton is a promising platform for low-cost, flexible spintronic applications involving tunnel junction elements and nanostructurization. ...

  6. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  7. The evolution of flexible parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Nick J; Russell, Andrew F; Wilson, Alastair J

    2014-08-15

    Parenting behaviors, such as the provisioning of food by parents to offspring, are known to be highly responsive to changes in environment. However, we currently know little about how such flexibility affects the ways in which parenting is adapted and evolves in response to environmental variation. This is because few studies quantify how individuals vary in their response to changing environments, especially social environments created by other individuals with which parents interact. Social environmental factors differ from nonsocial factors, such as food availability, because parents and offspring both contribute and respond to the social environment they experience. This interdependence leads to the coevolution of flexible behaviors involved in parenting, which could, paradoxically, constrain the ability of individuals to rapidly adapt to changes in their nonsocial environment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Advanced solderless flexible thermal link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian G.; Jensen, Scott M.; Batty, J. Clair

    1996-10-01

    Flexible thermal links play an important role int he thermal management of cryogenically cooled components. The purpose of these links is to provide a means of transferring heat from a cooled component to a cooler reservoir with little increase in temperature. The standard soldered approach although effective proves to be time consuming and contributes to added thermal impedances which degrade the performance of the link. For system with little tolerance for temperature differences between cooled components and a cooling source this is undesirable. The authors of this paper have developed a technique by which thin metal foil or braided wire can be attached to metal end blocks without any solder using the swaging process. Swaging provides a fast, simple method for providing a low thermal impedance between the foils and blocks. This paper describes the characteristics of these thermal links in terms of length, mass, thermal resistance, flexibility, and survivability.

  9. Lost and Found in Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    'New work' is characterized by mobility and flexibility and a growing need to facilitate social awareness. The paper discusses how to augment the environment with social awareness and suggest 'awareness-in-transition' as a lable for awareness in mobile work in flexible work environments, and as l...... studies, the authors develop a requirements specification framework and a revised list of challenges for developers of Information Systems that support social awareness in 'New work'......., and as locus for building social awareness in the 'new work'. A transition (e.g. taking information from a whiteboard in a meeting room to the desktop of a personal computer)--besides the immediate implications at the functional level--has important interpersonal, intra-personal, and organizational...

  10. Superhydrophobicity enhancement through substrate flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Thomas; Gerber, Julia; Prautzsch, Jana; Schutzius, Thomas M; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-11-22

    Inspired by manifestations in nature, microengineering and nanoengineering of synthetic materials to achieve superhydrophobicity has been the focus of much work. Generally, hydrophobicity is enhanced through the combined effects of surface texturing and chemistry; being durable, rigid materials are the norm. However, many natural and technical surfaces are flexible, and the resulting effect on hydrophobicity has been largely ignored. Here, we show that the rational tuning of flexibility can work synergistically with the surface microtexture or nanotexture to enhance liquid repellency performance, characterized by impalement and breakup resistance, contact time reduction, and restitution coefficient increase. Reduction in substrate areal density and stiffness imparts immediate acceleration and intrinsic responsiveness to impacting droplets (∼350 × g), mitigating the collision and lowering the impalement probability by ∼60% without the need for active actuation. Furthermore, we exemplify the above discoveries with materials ranging from man-made (thin steel or polymer sheets) to nature-made (butterfly wings).

  11. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  12. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  13. CRISIS FOCUS Uncertainty and Flexibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As the world continued to watch the unfolding financial and economic crises this month, Robert Zoellick, President of the World Bank, arrived in China for discussions on how the country can help support the global economy and the efforts it has taken to strengthen its own recovery. Zoellick, who had seen many uncertainties in 2009, called for China to be flexible with its macroeconomic policy. He made the following comments at a press conference in Beijing on December 15. Edited excerpts follow:

  14. Organisationsprinzipien zielgerichteter Bewegungen flexibler Greiforgane

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    Flexible grasping organs like the trunk of elephants and the grasping tail of spider monkeys have to deal with a high degree of movement freedom in their goal-directed movements. The aim of this study was to find the basic organisation principles they apply in order to lower the coordination expense of their movements. Therefore, in hypothesis I a reduction of the degree of movement freedom was postulated whereas hypothesis II assumed a specialization of movements towards one side. Since trun...

  15. Flexible Photonic Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Guidetti, G.; Atifi, S; Vignolini, S; Hamad, WY

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of self-assembled cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films of tunable photonic and mechanical properties using a facile, green approach is demonstrated. The combination of tunable flexibility and iridescence can dramatically expand CNC coating and film barrier capabilities for paints and coating applications, sustainable consumer packaging products, as well as effective templates for photonic and optoelectronic materials and structures. CelluForce Inc., Biotechnology and Biologica...

  16. Flexible Execution of Cognitive Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-30

    Rosenbloom. P. (1988). Symbolic Architectures. In Posner, M. (Ed.), FoundatiCns of Cogniive Science . Cambridge. MKA MIT Press. In preparation. Nii. P. , 1986...Procedures 00 Technical Report PCG-5 14 Kurt VanLehn and William Ball Departments of Psychology and Computer Science Carnegie-Mellon University...Psychology and Computer Science Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 U.S.A 30 June 1987 Running head: Flexible Execution of Cognitive

  17. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  18. UNITY OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS FLEXIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    George MOLDOVEANU; Cosmin DOBRIN

    2012-01-01

    The paper has the goal to analyse the correlation of the flexibility of all organizational functions. Based upon theoretical and practical studies, the decrease of flexibility into an "activity area" of organizations implies a diminution on a large scale of the flexibility of the processing system as a law expression of the decreasing outputs within economy. Therefore, at the level of each organizational function there are several major directions ensuring the flexibility of the "ensemble".

  19. Design of satellite flexibility experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. H.; Hillard, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to begin development of a flight experiment to measure spacecraft control/flexible structure interaction. The work reported consists of two phases: identification of appropriate structural parameters which can be associated with flexibility phenomena, and suggestions for the development of an experiment for a satellite configuration typical of near-future vehicles which are sensitive to such effects. Recommendations are made with respect to the type of data to be collected and instrumentation associated with these data. The approach consists of developing the equations of motion for a vehicle possessing a flexible solar array, then linearizing about some nominal motion of the craft. A set of solutions are assumed for array deflection using a continuous normal mode method and important parameters are exposed. Inflight and ground based measurements are distinguished. Interrelationships between these parameters, measurement techniques, and input requirements are discussed which assure minimization of special vehicle maneuvers and optimization of data to be obtained during the normal flight sequence.

  20. [Flexibility and safety in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; Barni, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the reasons according to which the newly-planned hospitals must adopt the concept of advanced flexibility (structural, technological, organizational, diagnostic and therapeutic), in order to avoid the risk of being already obsolete at the moment of their opening, and this due to the fact that too much time elapses in this Country between the moment of planning a new hospital and the moment of the start of its activity. Flexibility is needed at different levels: at low or medium levels for what concerns administrative spaces and also patient rooms (except, in this latter case, when differential intensity of care is adopted); at advanced levelfor what concerns diagnostic and therapeutic areas, which must be rapidly adaptable to new solutions offered by advances in technology and organization. From a different standpoint, flexibility applies also to the fact that hospital must increasingly become a node of a large net including territorial health services: the latter devoted to take care of chronicity, while hospitals should concentrate on acute pathology. Of course the territory surrounding the hospital, through its outpatient service and consultories, is in charge also for first level diagnosy and therapy, leaving the hospital to more sophisticated activities.

  1. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Loher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL, skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL. Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass, insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  2. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-09-14

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  3. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  4. Shaft-Guidance for Flexible Endoscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes (long, slender, flexible instruments with a camera and light at the distal end, having working channels to introduce flexible instruments) are used for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions inside the human digestive system and inside the abdomen. Though used for their flexibi

  5. Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

  6. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-11-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  7. Increase in flexibility with latest technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuebi, Michael; Krull, Florian Felix [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany); Ladwig, Michael [Alstom (Switzerland) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Flexibility demands on conventional power plants rise to ensure grid stability within a power generation mix with drastically increasing capacities of renewable power generation sources such as wind farms and photovoltaics. In this paper flexibility requirements for a power plant portfolio are discussed. Through selected examples of projects from RWE's current investment programme, comprising around 13 GW of efficient and flexible power plant capacity in Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey and the UK, application of the latest technologies to fulfil flexibility requirements is presented. Further, the potential of smart retrofits in terms of combined flexibility and efficiency gains is illustrated by means of an existing power plant unit retrofit project. (orig.)

  8. Designing for Flexibility in the Traditional University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Collis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Instructors in traditional universities are expected to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse student body by making more flexibility available in their courses. Based on a systematic analysis of flexibility options, various tools to help instructors in the design of their course Web environments for more flexibility have been built into the CMS (Course Management System used at the University of Twente since 1997. It is our experience that instructors use the tools to increase course flexibility with regard to the efficiency and logistics of participation but do relatively less with respect to increasing course flexibility when this involves new pedagogies.

  9. Protein flexibility in the light of structural alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick eCraveur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein structures are valuable tools to understand protein function. Nonetheless, proteins are often considered as rigid macromolecules while their structures exhibit specific flexibility, which is essential to complete their functions. Analyses of protein structures and dynamics are often performed with a simplified three-state description, i.e. the classical secondary structures. . More precise and complete description of protein backbone conformation can be obtained using libraries of small protein fragments that are able to approximate every part of protein structures. These libraries, called structural alphabets (SAs, have been widely used in structure analysis field, from definition of ligand binding sites to superimposition of protein structures. SAs are also well suited to analyze the dynamics of protein structures.Here, we review innovative approaches that investigate protein flexibility based on SAs description. Coupled to various sources of experimental data (e.g. B-factor and computational methodology (e.g. Molecular Dynamic simulation, SAs turn out to be powerful tools to analyze protein dynamics, e.g. to examine allosteric mechanisms in large set of structures in complexes, to identify order/disorder transition. SAs were also shown to be quite efficient to predict protein flexibility from amino-acid sequence. Finally, in this review, we exemplify the interest of SAs for studying flexibility with different cases of proteins implicated in pathologies and diseases.

  10. Transparent, flexible, and solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, graphene-based supercapacitors with optical transparency and mechanical flexibility have been achieved using a combination of poly(vinyl alcohol/phosphoric acid gel electrolyte and graphene electrodes. An optical transmittance of ∼67% in a wavelength range of 500-800 nm and a 92.4% remnant capacitance under a bending angle of 80° have been achieved for the supercapacitors. The decrease in capacitance under bending is ascribed to the buckling of the graphene electrode in compression. The supercapacitors with high optical transparency, electrochemical stability, and mechanical flexibility hold promises for transparent and flexible electronics.

  11. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... the adoption of the flexibility solutions, such as flexible electricity generation, demand-response, and electricity storage. This paper tries to analyze the current energy flexibility solutions and the factors that can influence the energy flexibility adoption. This paper takes Philippines as case study...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  12. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  13. International Expansion through Flexible Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Anna; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    to local environments and under the impact of new learning. To illuminate these issues, we draw on a longitudinal in-depth study of Swedish home furnishing giant IKEA, involving more than 70 interviews. We find that IKEA has developed organizational mechanisms that support an ongoing learning process aimed......, etc.) are replicated in a uniform manner across stores, and change only very slowly (if at all) in response to learning (“flexible replication”). We conclude by discussing the factors that influence the approach to replication adopted by an international replicator....

  14. Mundari as a flexible language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeveld, Kees; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2005-01-01

    by a critical evaluation of the three criteria Evans & Osada (E&O - this volume) use to establish the lack of word class distinctions in a language (section 3). In section 4 we present evidence to support our claim that Mundari has ‘flexible’ basic lexemes (i.e. there is no fundamental distinction between nouns...... and verbs), thus disputing E&O’s claim that Mundari has clearly definable classes of verbs and nouns. The last section is concerned with a set of grammatical features which correlate with the presence of flexible lexemes in a language. It is concluded that Mundari displays all of the predicted features...

  15. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  16. Flexible high-speed CODEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segallis, Greg P.; Wernlund, Jim V.; Corry, Glen

    1993-08-01

    This report is prepared by Harris Government Communication Systems Division for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract NAS3-25087. It is written in accordance with SOW section 4.0 (d) as detailed in section 2.6. The purpose of this document is to provide a summary of the program, performance results and analysis, and a technical assessment. The purpose of this program was to develop a flexible, high-speed CODEC that provides substantial coding gain while maintaining bandwidth efficiency for use in both continuous and bursted data environments for a variety of applications.

  17. Versatile Flexible Graphene Multielectrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Dmitry; Seyock, Silke; Ernst, Mathis; Maybeck, Vanessa; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2016-12-23

    Graphene is a promising material possessing features relevant to bioelectronics applications. Graphene microelectrodes (GMEAs), which are fabricated in a dense array on a flexible polyimide substrate, were investigated in this work for their performance via electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biocompatibility and suitability of the GMEAs for extracellular recordings were tested by measuring electrical activities from acute heart tissue and cardiac muscle cells. The recordings show encouraging signal-to-noise ratios of 65 ± 15 for heart tissue recordings and 20 ± 10 for HL-1 cells. Considering the low noise and excellent robustness of the devices, the sensor arrays are suitable for diverse and biologically relevant applications.

  18. The flexibility of optical metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; Smolyaninov, Igor; Smolyaninova, Vera N

    2015-01-01

    We firstly revisit the importance, naturalness and limitations of the so-called optical metrics for describing the propagation of light rays in the limit of geometric optics. We then exemplify their flexibility and nontriviality in some nonlinear material media and in the context of nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism, both underlain by curved backgrounds, where optical metrics could be flat and impermeable membranes only to photons could be conceived, respectively. Finally, we underline and discuss the relevance and potential applications of our analyses in a broad sense, ranging from material media to compact astrophysical systems.

  19. Versatile Flexible Graphene Multielectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kireev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a promising material possessing features relevant to bioelectronics applications. Graphene microelectrodes (GMEAs, which are fabricated in a dense array on a flexible polyimide substrate, were investigated in this work for their performance via electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biocompatibility and suitability of the GMEAs for extracellular recordings were tested by measuring electrical activities from acute heart tissue and cardiac muscle cells. The recordings show encouraging signal-to-noise ratios of 65 ± 15 for heart tissue recordings and 20 ± 10 for HL-1 cells. Considering the low noise and excellent robustness of the devices, the sensor arrays are suitable for diverse and biologically relevant applications.

  20. Fully Integral, Flexible Composite Driveshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    An all-composite driveshaft incorporating integral flexible diaphragms was developed for prime contractor testing. This new approach makes obsolete the split lines required to attach metallic flex elements and either metallic or composite spacing tubes in current solutions. Subcritical driveshaft weights can be achieved that are half that of incumbent technology for typical rotary wing shaft lengths. Spacing tubes compose an integral part of the initial tooling but remain part of the finished shaft and control natural frequencies and torsional stability. A concurrently engineered manufacturing process and design for performance competes with incumbent solutions at significantly lower weight and with the probability of improved damage tolerance and fatigue life.

  1. On the concept of flexibility: A dual control perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.J. de Leeuw (A. C J); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational flexibility has recently received much attention from researchers, management consultants and practitioners. In general, the term 'flexibility' has a positive connotation: flexible organizations are the better ones. However, the meaning of flexibility as well as its

  2. On the concept of flexibility : A dual control perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, A.C.J.; Volberda, H.W.

    Organizational flexibility has recently received much attention from researchers, management consultants and practitioners, In general, the term 'flexibility' has a positive connotation: flexible organizations are the better ones. However, the meaning of flexibility as well as its relation to the

  3. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Emre O; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-10-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics.

  4. Wetting of flexible fibre arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, C; Protière, S; Beebe, A Y; Stone, H A

    2012-02-23

    Fibrous media are functional and versatile materials, as demonstrated by their ubiquity both in natural systems such as feathers and adhesive pads and in engineered systems from nanotextured surfaces to textile products, where they offer benefits in filtration, insulation, wetting and colouring. The elasticity and high aspect ratios of the fibres allow deformation under capillary forces, which cause mechanical damage, matting self-assembly or colour changes, with many industrial and ecological consequences. Attempts to understand these systems have mostly focused on the wetting of rigid fibres or on elastocapillary effects in planar geometries and on a fibre brush withdrawn from an infinite bath. Here we consider the frequently encountered case of a liquid drop deposited on a flexible fibre array and show that flexibility, fibre geometry and drop volume are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations referred to above. We identify the conditions required for a drop to remain compact with minimal spreading or to cause a pair of elastic fibres to coalesce. We find that there is a critical volume of liquid, and, hence, a critical drop size, above which this coalescence does not occur. We also identify a drop size that maximizes liquid capture. For both wetting and deformation of the substrates, we present rules that are deduced from the geometric and material properties of the fibres and the volume of the drop. These ideas are applicable to a wide range of fibrous materials, as we illustrate with examples for feathers, beetle tarsi, sprays and microfabricated systems.

  5. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  6. A Rational Approach to Ring Flexibility in Internal Coordinate Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, A K

    1998-01-01

    Internal coordinate molecular dynamics (ICMD) is an efficient method for studying biopolymers, but it is readily applicable only to molecules with tree topologies, that is with no internal flexible rings. Common examples violating this condition are prolines and loops closed by S-S bridges in proteins. The most important such case, however, is nucleic acids because the flexibility of the furanose rings always plays an essential role in conformational transitions both in DNA and RNA. There are a few long-known theoretical approaches to this problem, but, in practice, rings with fixed bond lengths are closed by adding appropriate harmonic distance restraints, which is not always acceptable especially in dynamics. This paper tries to overcome this handicap of ICMD and proposes a rational strategy which results in practical numerical algorithms. It gives a unified analytical treatment which shows that this problem is very close to the difficulties encountered by the method of constraints in Cartesian coordinate d...

  7. Pyvolve: A Flexible Python Module for Simulating Sequences along Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Stephanie J; Wilke, Claus O

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Pyvolve, a flexible Python module for simulating genetic data along a phylogeny using continuous-time Markov models of sequence evolution. Easily incorporated into Python bioinformatics pipelines, Pyvolve can simulate sequences according to most standard models of nucleotide, amino-acid, and codon sequence evolution. All model parameters are fully customizable. Users can additionally specify custom evolutionary models, with custom rate matrices and/or states to evolve. This flexibility makes Pyvolve a convenient framework not only for simulating sequences under a wide variety of conditions, but also for developing and testing new evolutionary models. Pyvolve is an open-source project under a FreeBSD license, and it is available for download, along with a detailed user-manual and example scripts, from http://github.com/sjspielman/pyvolve.

  8. Flexible organic memory devices with multilayer graphene electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Sangchul; Cho, Byungjin; Song, Sunghoon; Lee, Takhee

    2011-07-26

    We fabricated 8 × 8 cross-bar array-type flexible organic resistive memory devices with transparent multilayer graphene (MLG) electrodes on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. The active layer of the memory devices is a composite of polyimide and 6-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester. The sheet resistance of the MLG film on memory device was found to be ∼270 Ω/◻, and the transmittance of separated MLG film from memory device was ∼92%. The memory devices showed typical write-once-read-many (WORM) characteristics and an ON/OFF ratio of over ∼10(6). The memory devices also exhibited outstanding cell-to-cell uniformity with flexibility. There was no substantial variation observed in the current levels of the WORM memory devices upon bending and bending cycling up to 10 000 times. A retention time of over 10(4) s was observed without fluctuation under bending.

  9. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  10. Simulation and analysis of flexibly jointed manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George M.

    1990-01-01

    Modeling, simulation, and analysis of robot manipulators with non-negligible joint flexibility are studied. A recursive Newton-Euler model of the flexibly jointed manipulator is developed with many advantages over the traditional Lagrange-Euler methods. The Newton-Euler approach leads to a method for the simulation of a flexibly jointed manipulator in which the number of computations grows linearly with the number of links. Additionally, any function for the flexibility between the motor and link may be used permitting the simulation of nonlinear effects, such as backlash, in a uniform manner for all joints. An analysis of the control problems for flexibly jointed manipulators is presented by converting the Newton-Euler model to a Lagrange-Euler form. The detailed structure available in the model is used to examine linearizing controllers and shows the dependency of the control on the choice of flexible model and structure of the manipulator.

  11. Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, M

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between lower-extremity strength and flexibility and maturational status as measured by Tanner staging (TS) was assessed in 84 male high school athletes. The sum of one-repetition maximum lifts for knee extension and flexion was determined and flexibility was measured with the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance sit-and-reach test. Chronologic age, body weight, and percent fat were also recorded. Strength and flexibility were compared for each maturational and chronologic age category. Maturational age was better correlated with strength and flexibility than was chronologic age. All correlations were significant. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations of TS and age with strength and flexibility. Tanner staging had greater predictive value than age for strength and flexibility. After adjusting for age, the relationship between TS and strength remained significant.

  12. Thiodiacetate-manganese chemistry with N ligands: unique control of the supramolecular arrangement over the metal coordination mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grirrane, Abdessamad; Pastor, Antonio; Galindo, Agustín; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Mealli, Carlo; Ienco, Andrea; Orlandini, Annabella; Rosa, Patrick; Caneschi, Andrea; Barra, Anne-Laure; Sanz, Javier Fernández

    2011-09-12

    Compounds based on the Mn-tda unit (tda=S(CH(2)COO)(2)(-2) ) and N co-ligands have been analyzed in terms of structural, spectroscopic, magnetic properties and DFT calculations. The precursors [Mn(tda)(H(2)O)](n) (1) and [Mn(tda)(H(2)O)(3)]·H(2)O (2) have been characterized by powder and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Their derivatives with bipyridyl-type ligands have formulas [Mn(tda)(bipy)](n) (3), [{Mn(N-N)}(2)(μ-H(2)O)(μ-tda)(2)](n) (N-N=4,4'-Me(2)bipy (4), 5,5'-Me(2)bipy, (5)) and [Mn(tda){(MeO)(2)bipy}·2H(2)O](n) (6). Depending on the presence/position of substituents at bipy, the supramolecular arrangement can affect the metal coordination type. While all the complexes consist of 1D coordination polymers, only 3 has a copper-acetate core with local trigonal prismatic metal coordination. The presence of substituents in 4-6, together with water co-ligands, reduces the supramolecular interactions and typical octahedral Mn(II) ions are observed. The unicity of 3 is also supported by magnetic studies and by DFT calculations, which confirm that the unusual Mn coordination is a consequence of extended noncovalent interactions (π-π stacking) between bipy ligands. Moreover, 3 is an example of broken paradigm for supramolecular chemistry. In fact, the desired stereochemical properties are achieved by using rigid metal building blocks, whereas in 3 the accumulation of weak noncovalent interactions controls the metal geometry. Other N co-ligands have also been reacted with 1 to give the compounds [Mn(tda)(phen)](2)·6H(2)O (7) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline), [Mn(tda)(terpy)](n) (8) (terpy=2,2':6,2''-terpyridine), [Mn(tda)(pyterpy)](n) (9) (pyterpy=4'-(4-pyridyl)-2,2':6,2''-terpyridine), [Mn(tda)(tpt)(H(2)O)]·2H(2)O (10) and [Mn(tda)(tpt)(H(2)O)](2)·2H(2)O (11) (tpt=2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine). Their identified mono-, bi- or polynuclear structures clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding is variously competitive with π-π stacking.

  13. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  14. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  15. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how...... stakeholders in the Danish home care sector (government bodies, vendors, consultants, interest organizations, and managers) helped initiate and energize the change process, and government funding supported quick and widespread technology adoption. However, although supported by the same government-sponsored...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  16. Flexible polymer waveguide tunable lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Kim, Jun-Whee; Oh, Min-Cheol; Noh, Young-Ouk; Lee, Hyung-Jong

    2010-04-12

    A flexible polymeric Bragg reflector is fabricated for the purpose of demonstrating widely tunable lasers with a compact simple structure. The external feedback of the Bragg reflected light into a superluminescent laser diode produces the lasing of a certain resonance wavelength. The highly elastic polymer device enables the direct tuning of the Bragg wavelength by controlling the imposed strain and provides a much wider tuning range than silica fiber Bragg gratings or thermo-optic tuned polymer devices. Both compressive and tensile strains are applied within the range from -36000 microepsilon to 35000 microepsilon, so as to accomplish the continuous tuning of the Bragg reflection wavelength over a range of up to 100 nm. The external feedback laser with the tunable Bragg reflector exhibits a repetitive wavelength tuning range of 80 nm with a side mode suppression ratio of 35 dB.

  17. Mundari as a flexible language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeveld, Kees; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we intend to show that Mundari is one of the languages without distinct classes of verbs and nouns as far as its basic, non-derived vocabulary is concerned. Our contribution is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly presents a typology of parts-of-speech (PoS) systems, followed...... and verbs), thus disputing E&O’s claim that Mundari has clearly definable classes of verbs and nouns. The last section is concerned with a set of grammatical features which correlate with the presence of flexible lexemes in a language. It is concluded that Mundari displays all of the predicted features...... of a language that does not clearly distinguish between separate classes of nouns and verbs....

  18. Alignment of flexible protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatsky, M; Fligelman, Z Y; Nussinov, R; Wolfson, H J

    2000-01-01

    We present two algorithms which align flexible protein structures. Both apply efficient structural pattern detection and graph theoretic techniques. The FlexProt algorithm simultaneously detects the hinge regions and aligns the rigid subparts of the molecules. It does it by efficiently detecting maximal congruent rigid fragments in both molecules and calculating their optimal arrangement which does not violate the protein sequence order. The FlexMol algorithm is sequence order independent, yet requires as input the hypothesized hinge positions. Due its sequence order independence it can also be applied to protein-protein interface matching and drug molecule alignment. It aligns the rigid parts of the molecule using the Geometric Hashing method and calculates optimal connectivity among these parts by graph-theoretic techniques. Both algorithms are highly efficient even compared with rigid structure alignment algorithms. Typical running times on a standard desktop PC (400 MHz) are about 7 seconds for FlexProt and about 1 minute for FlexMol.

  19. Adhesion Transition of Flexible Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

    2009-03-01

    As forays into fabrication and self-assembly venture to increasingly small length scales, the role of adhesion events between material elements of the system must be closely scrutinized. This area of study is typically dominated by investigations into capillary adhesion, but relatively recent interest in carbon nanotubes and biomimetic devices have spurred interest in intermolecular forces as another source of micro- and nano-scale adhesion. We present here a far-field model for ``dry'' adhesion. We consider a small number N of flexible beams interacting with each other via a typical Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, and describe the behavior of the system as the ratio of bending rigidity to beam-beam attraction is reduced. Applications ranging from fibrillar systems to the comparatively stiff carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  20. Lifelong Open and Flexible Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and Flexible (LOF) learning embracing characteristics as: open learning, distance learning, e-learning, online learning, open accessibility, multimedia support, virtual mobility, learning communities, dual mode (earn & learn) approaches, and the like.In my presentation I will focus on the EADTU strategies......EADTU members are universities that are dedicated to off-campus target groups using distance teaching methods as well as associations consisting of universities with mainly mainstream on-campus students but also offering education for off-campus students. Consequently our focus is on Lifelong Open...... for creating a synergy network in e-learning – eventually leading to a European Learning Space that supports virtual mobility of students, staff and courses, adds an e-dimension to the Bologa process and facilitates collaboration between universities and the corporate sector....

  1. Genetic flexibility of regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Alexander; Tuboly, Csaba; Horváth, Péter; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2010-07-20

    Gene regulatory networks are based on simple building blocks such as promoters, transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites on DNA. But how diverse are the functions that can be obtained by different arrangements of promoters and TF binding sites? In this work we constructed synthetic regulatory regions using promoter elements and binding sites of two noninteracting TFs, each sensing a single environmental input signal. We show that simply by combining these three kinds of elements, we can obtain 11 of the 16 Boolean logic gates that integrate two environmental signals in vivo. Further, we demonstrate how combination of logic gates can result in new logic functions. Our results suggest that simple elements of transcription regulation form a highly flexible toolbox that can generate diverse functions under natural selection.

  2. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mobile technologies have emerged as important tools that health care personnel can use to gain easy access to client data anywhere. This is particularly useful for nurses and care workers in home health care as they provide services to clients in many different settings. Although...... a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how......-sponsored program, mobile technology proved to have considerable interpretive flexibility with variation in perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between agencies. What was first seen as a very promising innovation across the Danish home care sector subsequently became the topic...

  3. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  4. Business Models for Power System Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    -enabling business models, adding new activities to the existing supply chain. Ranging from technological to market-based innovation, this chapter reviews the latest developments in these emerging models. The main conclusion is that when flexibility becomes scarce in the system, new players with their innovative......As intermittent, renewable resources gain more share in the generation mix, the need for power system flexibility increases more than ever. Parallel to this, technological change and the emergence of new players bringing about innovative solutions are boosting the development of flexibility...... business models will play an important role in ensuring sufficiency and efficiency of flexibility services....

  5. Material challenge for flexible organic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lewis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Outside of the active device layers, there are a variety of requisite functional layers in flexible organic electronic devices. Whether the application is in displays, lighting, integrated circuits, or photovoltaics, there are materials challenges in implementing flexible and/or organic devices into practical applications. We highlight two topics that are common to most flexible electronic technologies. First, we describe the difficulty in developing suitable permeation barriers on polymer substrates, the approaches being taken to solve this problem, and their current status. Second, we highlight the limited mechanical ruggedness of brittle inorganic films and present approaches for improving overall device flexibility.

  6. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  7. THE FLEXIBILITY-AUTOMATION CORRESPONDENCE TO A VIRTUAL COMMERCIAL SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Doble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and operation of FMS is based on system requirement can be as productive and flexible as necessary, i.e. obtaining controlled correspondence between the degree of flexibility and automation of system.The flexibility of a FMS (Flexible Manufacturing Systems is determined by two important criteria: Flexible hardware structure of the system; Flexible software structure. Flexible hardware structure of the CS system (calculation system is determined to its turn according to three components: Flexibility of technological subsystem; Flexibility subsystem of storage, transport and handling;Flexibility of informational subsystem.

  8. Tuning the flexibility in MOFs by SBU functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Volodymyr; Kavoosi, Negar; Senkovska, Irena; Müller, Philipp; Schaber, Jana; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M; Mueller, Uwe; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-03-14

    A new approach for the fine tuning of flexibility in MOFs, involving functionalization of the secondary building unit, is presented. The "gate pressure" MOF [Zn3(bpydc)2(HCOO)2] was used as a model material and SBU functionalization was performed by using monocarboxylic acids such as acetic, benzoic or cinnamic acids instead of formic acid in the synthesis. The resulting materials are isomorphous to [Zn3(bpydc)2(HCOO)2] in the "as made" form, but show different structural dynamics during the guest removal. The activated materials have entirely different properties in the nitrogen physisorption experiments clearly showing the tunability of the gate pressure, at which the structural transformation occurs, by using monocarboxylic acids with varying backbone structure in the synthesis. Thus, increasing the number of carbon atoms in the backbone leads to the decreasing gate pressure required to initiate the structural transition. Moreover, in situ adsorption/PXRD data suggest differences in the mechanism of the structural transformations: from "gate opening" in the case of formic acid to "breathing" if benzoic acid is used.

  9. The impact of enterprise systems on process flexibility and organisational flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen Guang; Ding, Yajing; Shou, Yongyi; Zhou, Honggeng; Du, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In light of the current dynamic business environment, companies nowadays need to respond rapidly to changes. Companies often invest heavily in enterprise systems in the hope that these can improve their flexibility in coping with such changes. However, previous studies have shown that the impact of enterprise systems on flexibility can be either positive or negative. To resolve this inconsistency in the existing research, this paper suggests that a company's flexibility should be distinguished between process level and organisational level. Specifically, this paper proposes that enterprise systems will affect process flexibility negatively but affect organisational flexibility positively. The analysis results show that enterprise systems have different effects on process and organisational flexibility. Furthermore, industry clockspeed sets a boundary for the effect on process flexibility but not for that on organisational flexibility. Research and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  10. Dynamic Model of a Rotating Flexible Arm-Flexible Root Mechanism Driven by a Shaft Flexible in Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model of a rotating flexible beam carrying a payload at its tip. The model accounts for the driving shaft and the arm root flexibilities. The finite element method and the Lagrangian dynamics are used in deriving the equations of motion with the small deformation theory assumptions and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The obtained model is a nonlinear-coupled system of differential equations. The model is simulated for different combinations of shaft and root flexibilities and arm properties. The simulation results showed that the root flexibility is an important factor that should be considered in association with the arm and shaft flexibilities, as its dynamics influence the motor motion. Moreover, the effect of system non-linearity on the dynamic behavior is investigated by simulating the equivalent linearized system and it was found to be an important factor that should be considered, particularly when designing a control strategy for practical implementation.

  11. Studies of a flexible heliac configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hender, T.C.; Cantrell, J.L.; Harris, J.H.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Fabregas, J.A.; Guasp, J.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Navarro, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    This paper documents a detailed study of the Flexible Heliac configuration. The remarkable flexibility of this device - which allows variation of the rotational transform, shear, and magnetic well depth over a relatively wide range - is described. Engineering considerations of error fields, finite cross-section conductors, and plasma coil clearances are also discussed.

  12. Flexible benefit plans in Dutch organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrink, C.

    2006-01-01

    Flexible benefit plans give employees a greater say over the composition of their benefits than traditional Dutch benefit plans. These arrangements developed in a time of further individualisation, increasing flexibility in the workplace, and a tight labour market in the Netherlands. By giving

  13. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  14. Designing Flexible Software for the "Electronic Board."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira

    1984-01-01

    Argues that software for electronic boards should address a variety of teaching styles, student abilities and ages, class textbooks, teaching objectives, and learning environments for flexibility of use. The software features that contribute to flexibility include frequent stops, options for going backwards, inter- and intra-unit jumps, and…

  15. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible Learning in an Information Society uses a flexible learning framework to explain the best ways of creating a meaningful learning environment. This framework consists of eight factors--institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation--and a systematic understanding of these…

  16. Quality and workflow integration in flexible manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, ten D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In recognising the relevance of production networks and flexible manufacturing, CNC Worknet aims to be a company that approaches the new era of flexible manufacturing by developing a novel business model that combines the technologies of e-Business with production networks. This business model is ba

  17. New business model of flexible housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zairul, Z.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Open Building (OB) and the concept of flexible housing has alwaysassociated with user’s ability to respond to changing demand. It is necessary that housing can adap to changing market conditions and different users’ requirements. Flexibility makes a crucial concept that one cannot ignore. Howeve

  18. Scheduling parameters in flexible manufacturing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.; Ahmad, M.M.; Sullivan, W.G.; Migliore, H.; Randhawa, S.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of a well-designed scheduling procedure is a major condition for an effective integration of a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in the material flow of a firm. This paper shows the presence and relative importance of three parameter types in the scheduling of operations on a flexible

  19. Harnessing Flexibility from Hot and Cold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Heinen, Steve; Qazi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    As has been often reported, electricity systems with high levels of variable wind and solar power generation would benefit from demand flexibility. What is not as often mentioned is that electrification of the transport and heat sectors could exacerbate the need for flexibility, if they are imple...

  20. Scheduling parameters in flexible manufacturing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.; Ahmad, M.M.; Sullivan, W.G.; Migliore, H.; Randhawa, S.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of a well-designed scheduling procedure is a major condition for an effective integration of a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in the material flow of a firm. This paper shows the presence and relative importance of three parameter types in the scheduling of operations on a flexible

  1. CHANGE MANAGEMENT ESSENTIALS TO MANAGE BUSINESS FLEXIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cãtãlin Cristian BABALÂC; Mihaela UDÃ

    2014-01-01

    The present paper has as objective to introduce essential concepts that stand as basis for change and risk management, having a direct influence on flexibility. The competitive advantage represented by the company flexibility either if it is achieved by technology or with the help of human factor follows a path characterized by risk and possible resistance to what is the normal state.

  2. New business model of flexible housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zairul, Z.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Open Building (OB) and the concept of flexible housing has alwaysassociated with user’s ability to respond to changing demand. It is necessary that housing can adap to changing market conditions and different users’ requirements. Flexibility makes a crucial concept that one cannot ignore. Howeve

  3. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, van der N.; Heijden, van der F.; Broeders, I.A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now

  4. Role of Flexibility in Sustainable Port Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taneja, P.; Vellinga, T.; Ros, R.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has become a high profile objective in all aspects of our lives, including the development of our infrastructures. Flexibility can enhance sustainability endeavors, yet its contribution is not clear to most. In this paper we investigate the role of flexibility in sustainable port deve

  5. Alternative lithography strategies for flexible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Main aim of the research has been the development of alternative lithography strategies for the fabrication of complex, flexible electronic devices. Flexible bottom-contact, bottom-gate thin-film transistors were solely patterned with UV nanoimprint lithography on poly(ethylene naphthalate) foil. Pa

  6. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...

  7. Quality and workflow integration in flexible manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Dam, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In recognising the relevance of production networks and flexible manufacturing, CNC Worknet aims to be a company that approaches the new era of flexible manufacturing by developing a novel business model that combines the technologies of e-Business with production networks. This business model is

  8. 76 FR 40208 - Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Comment Period End 04/04/05 Next Action Undetermined ......... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required... FR 10521 NPRM Comment Period End 04/04/05 Next Action Undetermined ......... Regulatory Flexibility... 70 FR 10521 NPRM Comment Period End 04/04/05 Next Action Undetermined ............

  9. Quality and workflow integration in flexible manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Dam, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In recognising the relevance of production networks and flexible manufacturing, CNC Worknet aims to be a company that approaches the new era of flexible manufacturing by developing a novel business model that combines the technologies of e-Business with production networks. This business model is ba

  10. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  11. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  12. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several

  13. Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.

    2015-09-01

    Flexibility, low cost, versatility, miniaturization and multi-functionality are key aspects driving research and innovation in many branches of the electronics industry. With many anticipated emerging applications, like wearable, transparent and biocompatible devices, interest among the research community in pursuit for novel multifunctional miniaturized materials have been amplified. In this context, multiferroic polymer-based nanocomposites, possessing both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, are highly appealing. Most importantly, these nanocomposites possess tunable ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties based on the parameters of their constituent materials as well as the magnetoelectric effect, which is the coupling between electric and magnetic properties. This tunability and interaction is a fascinating fundamental research field promising tremendous potential applications in sensors, actuators, data storage and energy harvesting. This dissertation work is devoted to the investigation of a new class of multiferroic polymer-based flexible nanocomposites, which exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature, with the goal of understanding and optimizing the origin of their magnetoelectric coupling. The nanocomposites consist of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer, poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. First, electrochemical deposition of ferromagnetic NWs inside anodic aluminum oxide membranes is discussed. Characterization of electrodeposited iron, nickel and highly magnetostrictive iron-gallium alloy NWs was done using XRD, electron and magnetic force microscopy. Second, different nanocomposite films have been fabricated by means of spin coating and drop casting techniques. The effect of incorporation of NWs inside the ferroelectric polymer on its electroactive phase is discussed. The remanent and saturation polarization as well

  14. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-10-09

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices.

  15. A Superhydrophobic Smart Coating for Flexible and Wearable Sensing Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianhui; Bai, Yuanyuan; Li, Lili; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Ting

    2017-09-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown versatile applications in waterproofing, self-cleaning, drag reduction, selective absorption, etc. The most convenient and universally applicable approach to forming superhydrophobic surfaces is by coating; however, currently, superhydrophobic, smart coatings with flexibility and multiple functions for wearable sensing electronics are not yet reported. Here, a highly flexible multifunctional smart coating is fabricated by spray-coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in a thermoplastic elastomer solution, followed by treatment with ethanol. The coatings not only endow various substrate materials with superhydrophobic surfaces, but can also respond to stretching, bending, and torsion-a property useful for flexible sensor applications. The coatings show superior sensitivity (gauge factor of 5.4-80), high resolution (1° of bending), a fast response time (<8 ms), a stable response over 5000 stretching-relaxing cycles, and wide sensing ranges (stretching: over 76%, bending: 0°-140°, torsion: 0-350 rad m(-1) ). Moreover, multifunctional coatings with thicknesses of only 1 µm can be directly applied to clothing for full-range and real-time detection of human motions, which also show extreme repellency to water, acid, and alkali, which helps the sensors to work under wet and corrosive conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Probabilistic Quantification of Potentially Flexible Residential Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    of residential consumers. The procedure is based on non-flexible consumer clustering and subsequent statistical analysis. Consequently, the power consumption pattern of a flexible consumer is compared to a 3D probability distribution created by the previously referred methodology. The results show a strong......The balancing of power systems with high penetration of renewable energy is a serious challenge to be faced in the near future. One of the possible solutions, recently capturing a lot of attention, is demand response. Demand response can only be achieved by power consumers holding loads which allow...... them to modify their normal power consumption pattern, namely flexible consumers. However flexibility, despite being constantly mentioned, is usually not properly defined and even rarer quantified. This manuscript introduces a methodology to identify and quantify potentially flexible demand...

  17. Flexible Ultrasonic Phased-Array Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施克仁; 阙开良; 郭大勇

    2004-01-01

    In ultrasonic phased-array testing, most probes are rigid with fixed elements. However, when testing a cambered piece, a rigid probe cannot be used directly, but an ultrasonic chock or coupling media must be used, which adds cost and reduces the accuracy. The objective of this research was to improve the tests of cambered pieces. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe was developed to do the flexible phased-array testing. The key technologies in the flexible phased-array probe include the probe design and the phased-array control. A new method was developed to design the flexible probe according to the curvature of the piece and the test depth. The method includes the calculation of the element's height (he), the relative rotation angle ((e), the distance between the adjoining elements (de), and the element's effective testing range. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe has been developed using this method.

  18. Smart Tendon Actuated Flexible Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masum Billah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the kinematic feasibility of a tendon-based flexible parallel platform actuator. Much of the research on tendon-driven Stewart platforms is devoted either to the completely restrained positioning mechanism (CRPM or to one particular type of the incompletely restrained positioning mechanism (IRPM where the external force is provided by the gravitational pull on the platform such as in cable-suspended Stewart platforms. An IRPM-based platform is proposed which uses the external force provided by a compliant member. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve n DOFs with n tendons. In particular, this investigation focuses on the angular deflection of the upper platform with respect to the lower platform. The application here is aimed at developing a linkable module that can be connected to one another so as to form a “snake robot” of sorts. Since locomotion takes precedence over positioning in this application, a 3-DOF Stewart platform is adopted. For an arbitrary angular displace of the end-effector, the corresponding length of each tendon can be determined through inverse kinematics. Mathematical singularities are investigated using the traditional analytical method of defining the Jacobian.

  19. Flexible resources for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Nicolai; Orsucci, Davide; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Sekatski, Pavel; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J.; Dür, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilising entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement.

  20. GROMACS: fast, flexible, and free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Spoel, David; Lindahl, Erik; Hess, Berk; Groenhof, Gerrit; Mark, Alan E; Berendsen, Herman J C

    2005-12-01

    This article describes the software suite GROMACS (Groningen MAchine for Chemical Simulation) that was developed at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in the early 1990s. The software, written in ANSI C, originates from a parallel hardware project, and is well suited for parallelization on processor clusters. By careful optimization of neighbor searching and of inner loop performance, GROMACS is a very fast program for molecular dynamics simulation. It does not have a force field of its own, but is compatible with GROMOS, OPLS, AMBER, and ENCAD force fields. In addition, it can handle polarizable shell models and flexible constraints. The program is versatile, as force routines can be added by the user, tabulated functions can be specified, and analyses can be easily customized. Nonequilibrium dynamics and free energy determinations are incorporated. Interfaces with popular quantum-chemical packages (MOPAC, GAMES-UK, GAUSSIAN) are provided to perform mixed MM/QM simulations. The package includes about 100 utility and analysis programs. GROMACS is in the public domain and distributed (with source code and documentation) under the GNU General Public License. It is maintained by a group of developers from the Universities of Groningen, Uppsala, and Stockholm, and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz. Its Web site is http://www.gromacs.org.

  1. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  2. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  3. Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2014-12-15

    The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals.

  4. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  5. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edited by Badrul H. Khan and Reviewed by Dr. Adile Aşkım Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Badrul H. Khan, Director of the Educational Technology Leadership graduate cohort program at The George Washington University, and published by Information Science Publishing an imprint of Idea Group Inc.The information age has brought about many ways for educators to help their students learn, creating an atmosphere where the learners desire flexibility in the way they learn. With the increasing use of variety of approaches for learning, students’ preferences are changing from wanting to be taught mostly in lectures or direct training sessions to wanting increased flexibility. Students expect on demand anytime/anywhere high-quality learning environments with good support services. They want increased flexibility.This book uses a flexible learning framework to create meaningful flexible learning environments. This framework consists of eight factors; institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation. This book presents a broad understanding of the emerging field of flexible learning and provides guidance in creating these environments. The book has thirty chapters, encompass various critical issues dealing with one or more categories of the flexible learning framework and offer a variety of points of view on these issues.

  6. Graphene-cellulose paper flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Zhe; Su, Yang; Li, Feng; Du, Jinhong; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Da-Wei [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A simple and scalable method to fabricate graphene-cellulose paper (GCP) membranes is reported; these membranes exhibit great advantages as freestanding and binder-free electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. The GCP electrode consists of a unique three-dimensional interwoven structure of graphene nanosheets and cellulose fibers and has excellent mechanical flexibility, good specific capacitance and power performance, and excellent cyclic stability. The electrical conductivity of the GCP membrane shows high stability with a decrease of only 6% after being bent 1000 times. This flexible GCP electrode has a high capacitance per geometric area of 81 mF cm{sup -2}, which is equivalent to a gravimetric capacitance of 120 F g{sup -1} of graphene, and retains >99% capacitance over 5000 cycles. Several types of flexible GCP-based polymer supercapacitors with various architectures are assembled to meet the power-energy requirements of typical flexible or printable electronics. Under highly flexible conditions, the supercapacitors show a high capacitance per geometric area of 46 mF cm{sup -2} for the complete devices. All the results demonstrate that polymer supercapacitors made using GCP membranes are versatile and may be used for flexible and portable micropower devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Flexible, transparent, and conductive defrosting glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Hongli; Gao, Binyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garner, Sean; Cimo, Pat [Corning Incorporated, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Barcikowski, Zachary [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mignerey, Alice [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hu, Liangbing, E-mail: binghu@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Flexible and transparent electronics play a predominant role in the next-generation electrical devices. In this study, a printable aqueous graphene oxide (GO) ink that enables direct deposition of GO onto flexible glass substrates is demonstrated and its application on fabricating a transparent, conductive, and flexible glass device by solution coating process is investigated as well. A uniform GO layer is formed on the flexible glass through Meyer-rod coating followed by an annealing process to reduce GO into graphene. The obtained thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible glass has a transmittance of over 40%, as well as a sheet resistance of ∼ 5 × 10{sup 3} Ω/sq. In addition, a defrosting window fabricated from the RGO coated flexible glass is demonstrated, which shows excellent defrosting performance. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of aqueous graphene oxide (GO) suspension is demonstrated. • Scalable printing of GO suspension is achieved with Meyer-rod coating technique. • A flexible glass is utilized as a substrate for the deposition of GO suspension. • Reduced graphene oxide films show improved conductivity with great transmittance. • Its potential to be applied in window defrosting is demonstrated and illustrated.

  8. Implementation of Flexible Access System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Hsiang; Peng, Jan-Wen; Shao, Shou-Kuo; Chen, Tzooming E.; Chen, Shih Chang; Lee, Meng-Shu; Yen, K.-Y.; Chen, Tsung-Mao; Wang, Ching Sheu; Tu, Yuan-Kuang

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we present the architecture, operation, and the implementation of a prototype system, flexible access system (FAS), developed by CHT T.L. for FITL applications. FAS adopts fiber to the curb (FTTC) topology and provides POTS, ISDN BRA, and T1 services. The system consists of three main parts, namely, fiber central office terminal (FCOT) at switch side, fiber nodes (FN) at customer side, and a monitor station. FCOT and FNs are connected through an STM-1 fiber distribution ring. The hardware structure and the operation principle for each module are described. FAS contains the mux-demux module, POTS, ISDN, and T1 central office/customer service modules, operation modules, and power module. In the design, each central office service module in FCOT simulates as a CPE to terminate signals from switch, and will separate the data and signaling and map them into DS1 format. Mux/demux module will add/drop these DS1, put the operation information in data communication channel (DCC), and convert them to STM-1 optical link. Each customer service module in FN simulates switch line cart to regenerate the signal for customers. The prototype system implementation confirms the benefits of introducing SDH add/drop technologies to FITL system to provide basic telecommunication services. The design experience reveals that the clock synchronization method and noise reduction technique can significantly influence the performance in such a system. The test results that demonstrate and verify the designed functionality and the service quality of the prototype system will be presented.

  9. Ovarian tumor-initiating cells display a flexible metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Angela S. [Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Roberts, Paul C. [Biomedical Science and Pathobiology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Frisard, Madlyn I. [Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Hulver, Matthew W., E-mail: hulvermw@vt.edu [Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Schmelz, Eva M., E-mail: eschmelz@vt.edu [Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    An altered metabolism during ovarian cancer progression allows for increased macromolecular synthesis and unrestrained growth. However, the metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor, has not been well characterized. In the present study, we compared the metabolic phenotype of the stem cell enriched cell variant, MOSE-L{sub FFLv} (TIC), derived from mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, to their parental (MOSE-L) and benign precursor (MOSE-E) cells. TICs exhibit a decrease in glucose and fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in lactate secretion. In contrast to MOSE-L cells, TICs can increase their rate of glycolysis to overcome the inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin and can increase their oxygen consumption rate to maintain proton motive force when uncoupled, similar to the benign MOSE-E cells. TICs have an increased survival rate under limiting conditions as well as an increased survival rate when treated with AICAR, but exhibit a higher sensitivity to metformin than MOSE-E and MOSE-L cells. Together, our data show that TICs have a distinct metabolic profile that may render them flexible to adapt to the specific conditions of their microenvironment. By better understanding their metabolic phenotype and external environmental conditions that support their survival, treatment interventions can be designed to extend current therapy regimens to eradicate TICs. - Highlights: • Ovarian cancer TICs exhibit a decreased glucose and fatty acid oxidation. • TICs are more glycolytic and have highly active mitochondria. • TICs are more resistant to AICAR but not metformin. • A flexible metabolism allows TICs to adapt to their microenvironment. • This flexibility requires development of specific drugs targeting TIC-specific changes to prevent recurrent TIC outgrowth.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Molecular Dynamics Sampling for Flexible Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Mike; Hoffmann, Daniel

    2017-02-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a natural method for the study of flexible molecules but at the same time is limited by the large size of the conformational space of these molecules. We ask by how much the MD sampling quality for flexible molecules can be improved by two means: the use of diverse sets of trajectories starting from different initial conformations to detect deviations between samples and sampling with enhanced methods such as accelerated MD (aMD) or scaled MD (sMD) that distort the energy landscape in controlled ways. To this end, we test the effects of these approaches on MD simulations of two flexible biomolecules in aqueous solution, Met-Enkephalin (5 amino acids) and HIV-1 gp120 V3 (a cycle of 35 amino acids). We assess the convergence of the sampling quantitatively with known, extensive measures of cluster number Nc and cluster distribution entropy Sc and with two new quantities, conformational overlap Oconf and density overlap Odens, both conveniently ranging from 0 to 1. These new overlap measures quantify self-consistency of sampling in multitrajectory MD experiments, a necessary condition for converged sampling. A comprehensive assessment of sampling quality of MD experiments identifies the combination of diverse trajectory sets and aMD as the most efficient approach among those tested. However, analysis of Odens between conventional and aMD trajectories also reveals that we have not completely corrected aMD sampling for the distorted energy landscape. Moreover, for V3, the courses of Nc and Odens indicate that much higher resources than those generally invested today will probably be needed to achieve convergence. The comparative analysis also shows that conventional MD simulations with insufficient sampling can be easily misinterpreted as being converged.

  11. Flexible flatfoot in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Vincent S.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a normal foot shape that is present in most infants and many adults. The arch elevates spontaneously in most children during the first decade of life. There is no evidence that a longitudinal arch can be created in a child’s foot by any external forces or devices. Flexible flatfoot with a short Achilles tendon, in contrast to simple flexible flatfoot, is known to cause pain and disability in some adolescents and adults. Joint-preserving, deformity-correcting surgery is in...

  12. Rigidity and flexibility of biological networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Merse E

    2012-01-01

    The network approach became a widely used tool to understand the behaviour of complex systems in the last decade. We start from a short description of structural rigidity theory. A detailed account on the combinatorial rigidity analysis of protein structures, as well as local flexibility measures of proteins and their applications in explaining allostery and thermostability is given. We also briefly discuss the network aspects of cytoskeletal tensegrity. Finally, we show the importance of the balance between functional flexibility and rigidity in protein-protein interaction, metabolic, gene regulatory and neuronal networks. Our summary raises the possibility that the concepts of flexibility and rigidity can be generalized to all networks.

  13. On the flexibility of Kokotsakis meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenkov, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study geometric, algebraic, and computational aspects of flexibility and infinitesimal flexibility of Kokotsakis meshes. A Kokotsakis mesh is a mesh that consists of a face in the middle and a certain band of faces attached to the middle face by its perimeter. In particular any 3x3-mesh made of quadrangles is a Kokotsakis mesh. We express the infinitesimal flexibility condition in terms of Ceva and Menelaus theorems. Further we study semi-algebraic properties of the set of fl...

  14. A flexible infrared sensor for tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl; Thyssen, Anders; Engholm, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    We present a flexible infrared sensor for use in tissue oximetry with the aim of treating prematurely born infants. The sensor will detect the oxygen saturation in brain tissue through near infrared spectroscopy. The sensor itself consists of several individual silicon photo detectors fully...... integrated in a flexible array. The flexibility is achieved by combining silicon with Polydimethylsiloxane and polyimide using standard IC manufacturing. This ensures that the electrical interconnects on the sensor can withstand being bent in order for the sensor to confine to the curved surface of the head...

  15. Global added value of flexible benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Rosaline Chow

    2011-01-01

    Flexible benefits, or "flex," is a strategic human resources solution that can give companies a truly competitive edge in winning the global war for talent and containing costs. Several companies in Asia plan to implement flex in the next few years, and a number of emerging best practices in flexible benefits design are being developed. This article discusses the many advantages of flex, flex best practices emerging across Asia, and important considerations for employers when designing flexible benefits. Finally, the author shows how one global company in Singapore found flex to be an effective differentiator for attracting and retaining talent as well as helping manage employee health care costs.

  16. Damping Properties of Flexible Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; LIU Hanxing; OUYANG Shixi

    2008-01-01

    Amino-terminated polyethers and amino-terminated polyurethane were used as curing agent to cure the epoxy resin together and get a series of cured products. The damping properties of the composites were studied by DMA test at different measurement frequencies. Damping mechanical tests show that the flexible epoxy resin has higher loss factor than common epoxy. The highest loss factor reaches 1.57. Also the height and position of loss factor peak of the flexible epoxy resin varies by changing the content of amino-terminated polyethers. Results shows that the flexible epoxy resin can be used as damping polymer materials at room temperature or in common frequency range.

  17. Flexible Personnel Scheduling in the Parallel Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ben-zhu; ZHANG Xing-ling

    2014-01-01

    In the view of staff shortages and the huge inventory of products in the current market, we put forward a personnel scheduling model in the target of closing to the delivery date considering the parallelism. Then we designed a scheduling algorithm based on genetic algorithm and proposed a flexible parallel decoding method which take full use of the personal capacity. Case study results indicate that the flexible personnel scheduling considering the order-shop scheduling, machine automatic capabilities and personnel flexible in the target of closing to the delivery date optimize the allocation of human resources, then maximize the efficiency.

  18. Exchange Rate Policy and Endogenous Price Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    A fixed exchange rate limits the ability of the real exchange rate to adjust to shocks, and tends to raise the volatility of real GDP. But adjustment may be enhanced if internal prices are more flexible under a fixed exchange rate. This Paper develops a model in which price setters incur a cost to retain the option of ex-post price flexibility. The benefit of flexibility is increasing in the variance of demand facing price-setters. We ask whether fixing the exchange rate is likely to increase...

  19. Strain Monitoring of Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteken, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing NASA's deep space exploration goals is structural mass. A long duration transit vehicle on a journey to Mars, for example, requires a large internal volume for cargo, supplies and crew support. As with all space structures, a large pressure vessel is not enough. The vehicle also requires thermal, micro-meteoroid, and radiation protection, a navigation and control system, a propulsion system, and a power system, etc. As vehicles get larger, their associated systems also get larger and more complex. These vehicles require larger lift capacities and force the mission to become extremely costly. In order to build large volume habitable vehicles, with only minimal increases in launch volume and mass, NASA is developing lightweight structures. Lightweight structures are made from non-metallic materials including graphite composites and high strength fabrics and could provide similar or better structural capability than metals, but with significant launch volume and mass savings. Fabric structures specifically, have been worked by NASA off and on since its inception, but most notably in the 1990's with the TransHAB program. These TransHAB developed structures use a layered material approach to form a pressure vessel with integrated thermal and micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) protection. The flexible fabrics allow the vessel to be packed in a small volume during launch and expand into a much larger volume once in orbit. NASA and Bigelow Aerospace recently installed the first human-rated inflatable module on the International Space Station (ISS), known as the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) in May of 2016. The module provides a similar internal volume to that of an Orbital ATK Cygnus cargo vehicle, but with a 77% launch volume savings. As lightweight structures are developed, testing methods are vital to understanding their behavior and validating analytical models. Common techniques can be applied to fabric materials

  20. Graphene-Based Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Houk; Park, Yong Ju; Chen, Xiang; Das, Tanmoy; Kim, Min-Seok; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Graphene provides outstanding properties that can be integrated into various flexible and stretchable electronic devices in a conventional, scalable fashion. The mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of graphene make it an attractive candidate for applications in electronics, energy-harvesting devices, sensors, and other systems. Recent research progress on graphene-based flexible and stretchable electronics is reviewed here. The production and fabrication methods used for target device applications are first briefly discussed. Then, the various types of flexible and stretchable electronic devices that are enabled by graphene are discussed, including logic devices, energy-harvesting devices, sensors, and bioinspired devices. The results represent important steps in the development of graphene-based electronics that could find applications in the area of flexible and stretchable electronics.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  2. Flexibility-enabling Contracts in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    As the share of intermittent renewable energy increases in the generation mix, power systems are exposed to greater levels of uncertainty and risk, which requires planners, policy and business decision makers to incentivise flexibility, that is: their adaptability to unforeseen variations....... Additionally, along with traditional sources, which already enable flexibility, a number of business models, such as thermostat-based demand response, aggregators and small storage providers, are emerging in electricity markets and expected to constitute important sources of flexibility in future decentralised...... power systems. However, due to presence of high transaction costs, relative to the size of resource, the emerging small resources cannot directly participate in an organised electricity market and/or compete. This paper asks the fundamental question of how should the provision of flexibility, as a multi...

  3. Resonant Electromagnetic Shunt Damping of Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic transducers convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Effective passive vibration damping of flexible structures can therefore be introduced by shunting with an accurately calibrated resonant electrical network thatcontains a capacitor to create the desired...

  4. On Quantification of Flexibility in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, Matthias A.; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Heussen, Kai;

    2015-01-01

    Large scale integration of fluctuating and nondispatchablegeneration and variable transmission patterns inducehigh uncertainty in power system operation. In turn,transmission system operators (TSOs) need explicit informationabout available flexibility to maintain a desired reliability level ata r...

  5. Flexibility-enabling Contracts in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    As the share of intermittent renewable energy increases in the generation mix, power systems are exposed to greater levels of uncertainty and risk, which requires planners, policy and business decision makers to incentivise flexibility, that is: their adaptability to unforeseen variations....... Additionally, along with traditional sources, which already enable flexibility, a number of business models, such as thermostat-based demand response, aggregators and small storage providers, are emerging in electricity markets and expected to constitute important sources of flexibility in future decentralised...... power systems. However, due to presence of high transaction costs, relative to the size of resource, the emerging small resources cannot directly participate in an organised electricity market and/or compete. This paper asks the fundamental question of how should the provision of flexibility, as a multi...

  6. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...... and load control and thereby demand response based on the requirements of the surrounding grids. Currently there is, however, no overview or insight into how much Energy Flexibility different building types and their usage may be able to offer to future energy systems. Three is thus a need for increasing...

  7. Piezoelectric RL shunt damping of flexible structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Resonant RL shunt circuits represent a robust and effective approach to piezoelectric damping, provided that the individual shunt circuit components are calibrated accurately with respect to the dynamic properties of the corresponding flexible structure. The balanced calibration procedure applied...

  8. Topology optimization with flexible void area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for including fixed-area flexible void domains into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. As opposed to the standard passive elements approach of rigidly specifying void areas within the design domain, the suggested approach allows these areas...... to be flexibly reshaped and repositioned subject to penalization on their moments of inertia, the positions of their centers of mass, and their shapes. The flexible void areas are introduced through a second, discrete design variable field, using the same discretization as the standard field of continuous...... density variables. The formulation is based on a combined approach: The primary sub-problem is to minimize compliance, subject to a volume constraint, with a secondary sub-problem of minimizing the disturbance from the flexible void areas. The design update is performed iteratively between the two...

  9. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...... and load control and thereby demand response based on the requirements of the surrounding grids. Currently there is, however, no overview or insight into how much Energy Flexibility different building types and their usage may be able to offer to future energy systems. Three is thus a need for increasing...

  10. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  11. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells have achieved high efficiency at very low mass, but integration of the thin crystalline photovoltaic device into a flexible...

  12. Workplace Flexibility: From Research to Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellen Galinsky; Kelly Sakai; Tyler Wigton

    2011-01-01

    .... Noting that large shares of U. S. employees report feeling the need for greater workplace flexibility to enable them to take better care of family responsibilities, the authors examine a large-scale community-engagement initiative...

  13. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  14. High-Performance Flexible Waveguiding Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chun-Hsien; Chuang, Jui-Kang; Chen, Fang-Chung

    2013-07-01

    The use of flat-plane solar concentrators is an effective approach toward collecting sunlight economically and without sun trackers. The optical concentrators are, however, usually made of rigid glass or plastics having limited flexibility, potentially restricting their applicability. In this communication, we describe flexible waveguiding photovoltaics (FWPVs) that exhibit high optical efficiencies and great mechanical flexibility. We constructed these FWPVs by integrating poly-Si solar cells, a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) waveguide, and a TiO2-doped backside reflector. Optical microstructures that increase the light harvesting ability of the FWPVs can be fabricated readily, through soft lithography, on the top surface of the PDMS waveguide. Our optimized structure displayed an optical efficiency of greater than 42% and a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.57%, with a projected PCE as high as approximately 18%. This approach might open new avenues for the harvesting of solar energy at low cost with efficient, mechanically flexible photovoltaics.

  15. On semiflexible, flexible and pie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bourke, John

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the notion of pie algebra for a 2-monad, these bearing the same relationship to the flexible and semiflexible algebras as pie limits do to flexible and semiflexible ones. We see that in many cases, the pie algebras are precisely those "free at the level of objects" in a suitable sense; so that, for instance, a strict monoidal category is pie just when its underlying monoid of objects is free. Pie algebras are contrasted with flexible and semiflexible algebras via a series of characterisations of each class; particular attention is paid to the case of pie, flexible and semiflexible weights, these being characterised in terms of the behaviour of the corresponding weighted limit functors.

  16. Multisensory integration : flexible use of general operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Murray, Micah M; Thut, Gregor; Schroeder, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Research into the anatomical substrates and "principles" for integrating inputs from separate sensory surfaces has yielded divergent findings. This suggests that multisensory integration is flexible and context dependent and underlines the need for dynamically adaptive neuronal integration mechanism

  17. Policy analysis of electricity demand flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    include a clear commitment to develop an "intelligent" energy system that utilises the flexibility potential of the demand side, a coherent policy strategy covering all aspects of the flexibility challenge has not yet been defined. By use of economic models and concepts of policy analysis, this thesis...... failures in the classic economic sense or systemic failures founded in market design, rules and regulations. The analysis covers impacts of failures stemming from incomplete markets for flexibility and inappropriate regulation that distort the observed value or risks of demand flexibility. Furthermore......, it considers various types of transaction costs related to adopting a demand response contract (switching costs) and to activation (monitoring and decision costs). The thesis develops methods to quantify the impacts of these failures and applies them in relation to the Danish case. Switching costs...

  18. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  19. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  20. Fully Integral, Flexible Composite Driveshaft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-composite driveshaft incorporating integral flexible diaphragms is described and proposed for phase II prime conractor testing. The approach obsoletes the...

  1. Sources of Operational Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Milligan, Michael; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-01

    Changes in electricity demand and generation must be constantly balanced to maintain power system stability and reliability. Operational flexibility refers to the ability of a power system to respond to these changes. Power systems are designed and operated to efficiently manage variability and uncertainty in electricity demand and resource availability. Variable renewable energy (VRE) increases this inherent variability and uncertainty, and thus increases the need for flexibility. Systems with significant variability and uncertainty require flexible generators that can rapidly change output, operate efficiently at lower outputs, and operate for short durations. This flexibility in turn can reduce the need to curtail (decrease the output of) solar and wind generation; improve investor confidence in VRE and revenue streams; decrease the risk of negative market pricing (which results when conventional generators cannot turn down to low outputs during times of high VRE output); and reduce environmental impacts by increasing system efficiency and maximizing the utilization of VRE.

  2. Fully Integral, Flexible Composite Driveshaft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-composite driveshaft incorporating integral flexible diaphragms is described and proposed for further refinement. An approach is explored which obsoletes the...

  3. Flexible ERP: Enterprise Information System Under the Agile Manufacture Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xuanliang; CHENG Guoping; WANG Mingquan

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility is the demand of management revolution, and also the milestone of management development. The flexible ERP system is the information system to orientate variety and handle uncertainties. The market with rapid change and agile manufacture need a flexible ERP system.The article elaborates the meanings and characteristics about flexibility, the flexibility of ERP and the flexible ERP system; it discussed the necessity, the possibility and the related condition of setting up the flexible ERP system; and puts forward the strategy and the approaches of setting up the flexible ERP system.

  4. Enabling Technologies for Fabrication of Large Area Flexible Antennas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible, foldable, and/or inflatable antenna systems open up a wealth of opportunities. Integrating antenna elements and related electronics onto flexible...

  5. Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Hongkyu; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Kwanghee

    2015-01-01

    Despite nearly two decades of research, the absence of ideal flexible and transparent electrodes has been the largest obstacle in realizing flexible and printable electronics for future technologies...

  6. Estimation of Residential Heat Pump Consumption for Flexibility Market Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    devices’ consumption data are theoretically recorded, elaborated and their upcoming flexibility is bid to flexibility markets. However, there are many cases where explicit flexible device consumption data are absent. This paper presents a way to circumvent this problem and extract the potentially flexible...... load of a flexible device, namely a Heat Pump (HP), out of the aggregated energy consumption of a house. The main idea for accomplishing this, is a comparison of the flexible consumer with electrically similar non-flexible consumers. The methodology is based on machine learning techniques, probability...... for bidding flexibility in intra-day markets even in the absence of explicit device measurements....

  7. 21 CFR 874.4710 - Esophagoscope (flexible or rigid) and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the flexible foreign body claw, flexible biopsy forceps, rigid biopsy curette, flexible biopsy brush, rigid biopsy forceps and flexible biopsy curette, but excludes...

  8. Efficient flexible inverted small-bandgap organic solar cells with low-temperature zinc oxide interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hailong; Zhang, Junchi; Zhang, Chunfu; Lin, Zhenhua; Chen, Dazheng; Chang, Jingjing; Zhang, Jincheng

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we employ an aqueous solution-processed ZnO layer on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as an electron-selective layer in a flexible inverted organic solar cell (OSC) based on poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexy)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB-7:PC71BM) blends. The electron-selective ZnO layer is prepared in a low-temperature process so that it can be compatible with a flexible substrate. An efficient flexible OSC with the configuration PET/ITO/ZnO/PTB7:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) above 7.6% is obtained. The flexible device could maintain 85% of its initial PCE after 240 h when exposed under air ambient condition without any encapsulation and with a humidity of around 40%. This flexible device shows superior mechanical properties and could keep 93% of its original efficiency after 1000 bending cycles with a curvature radius of 0.8 cm. The results show that the ZnO layer deposited as the electron-selective layer through the aqueous solution is suitable for flexible OSCs.

  9. Spacecraft Dynamic Characteristics While Deploying Flexible Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程绪铎; 李俊峰; 樊勇; 王照林

    2002-01-01

    The attitude dynamic equations of a spacecraft while deploying two flexible beams and the beam equations were developed from momentum theory. The dynamic equations were solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method to calculate the vibration amplitudes of the flexible beams and the attitude angular velocity. The results show that the vibration amplitudes increase as the beam length increases or as the initial attitude angular velocity increases. The results also show that the vibration amplitudes decrease as the deployment velocity increases.

  10. Flexible Employment Arrangements and Workplace Performance

    OpenAIRE

    GIOVANIS, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity that is witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. However, the effects of the employment flexible types on workplace performance has not been explored in Britain. In this study the relationship between two employment arrangements and the workplace performance is examined. More specifically, teleworking and compress hours are two main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee R...

  11. Regulation of flexible arms under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, A. [Univ. di Roma, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica; Siciliano, B. [Univ. di Napoli Federico, Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

    1993-08-01

    A simple controller is presented for the regulation problem of robot arms with flexible links under gravity. It consists of a joint PD feedback plus a constant feedforward. Global asymptotic stability of the reference equilibrium state is shown under a structural assumption about link elasticity and a mild condition on the proportional gain. The result holds also in the absence of internal damping of the flexible arm. A numerical case study is presented.

  12. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-06-13

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  13. RT-18: Value of Flexibility. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-25

    to design systems to achieve flexibility could also change the calculus of how we determine when to start a new program vice modifying an existing...DSM was introduced three decades ago by Steward as a ‖framework for formally identifying and tracking relationships between design variables... Steward , 1981]. Keese [2007] and Qureshi [2006] use DSMs for interdependence analysis as part of their patent study work on flexibility. Since ―a

  14. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  15. Simulating Flexible-Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Versatile program applies to many types of spacecraft and dynamical problems. Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) developed to aid in simulation of large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. Extremely versatile and used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. Applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth-oriented, or gravity-gradient-stabilized spacecraft. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Electrorheological fluid-actuated flexible platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Niu, Xize; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping

    2006-04-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of an electrorheological (ER) fluid-actuated flexible platform integrated on a microfluidic chip are reported in this letter. The digitally regulated ER microvalves control the four diaphragms on which a platform is sustained. With electrical input signals, the platform can perform vibrations at tunable frequencies as well as generate complex leveling modes. The flexible platform can potentially act as a microdamper when its inputs are generated from a sensor, in combination with a feedback control system.

  17. Finite element analysis of flexible, rotating blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, Oliver G.

    1987-01-01

    A reference guide that can be used when using the finite element method to approximate the static and dynamic behavior of flexible, rotating blades is given. Important parameters such as twist, sweep, camber, co-planar shell elements, centrifugal loads, and inertia properties are studied. Comparisons are made between NASTRAN elements through published benchmark tests. The main purpose is to summarize blade modeling strategies and to document capabilities and limitations (for flexible, rotating blades) of various NASTRAN elements.

  18. Flexible joints in structural and multibody dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Bauchau; Han, S.

    2013-01-01

    Flexible joints, sometimes called bushing elements or force elements, are found in all structural and multibody dynamics codes. In their simplest form, flexible joints simply consist of sets of three linear and three torsional springs placed between two nodes of the model. For infinitesimal deformations, the selection of the lumped spring constants is an easy task, which can be based on a numerical simulation of the joint or on experimental measurements. If the joint undergoes finite deformat...

  19. Ageing characterization of exhaust flexible couplings

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanical strength of automotive exhaust flexible couplings subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigue and corrosion. Five different types of flexible coupling have been considered, realised by four different king of materials: three stainless steels (AISI 309, AISI 321, AISI 321 Ti) and a nickel alloy (Incoloy 825). These components have been tested by a dedicated procedure consisting of different cycles of fatigue, heating and corrosion. Performances ...

  20. NMR studies of nucleic acid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2013-12-01

    Nucleic acid structures have to satisfy two diametrically opposite requirements; on one hand they have to adopt well-defined 3D structures that can be specifically recognized by proteins; on the other hand, their structures must be sufficiently flexible to undergo very large conformational changes that are required during key biochemical processes, including replication, transcription, and translation. How do nucleic acids introduce flexibility into their 3D structure without losing biological specificity? Here, I describe the development and application of NMR spectroscopic techniques in my laboratory for characterizing the dynamic properties of nucleic acids that tightly integrate a broad set of NMR measurements, including residual dipolar couplings, spin relaxation, and relaxation dispersion with sample engineering and computational approaches. This approach allowed us to obtain fundamental new insights into directional flexibility in nucleic acids that enable their structures to change in a very specific functional manner.

  1. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  2. Flexible Thermoelectric Generators on Silicon Fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the development of a Thermoelectric Generator on Flexible Silicon Fabric is explored to extend silicon electronics for flexible platforms. Low cost, easily deployable plastic based flexible electronics are of great interest for smart textile, wearable electronics and many other exciting applications. However, low thermal budget processing and fundamentally limited electron mobility hinders its potential to be competitive with well established and highly developed silicon technology. The use of silicon in flexible electronics involve expensive and abrasive materials and processes. In this work, high performance flexible thermoelectric energy harvesters are demonstrated from low cost bulk silicon (100) wafers. The fabrication of the micro- harvesters was done using existing silicon processes on silicon (100) and then peeled them off from the original substrate leaving it for reuse. Peeled off silicon has 3.6% thickness of bulk silicon reducing the thermal loss significantly and generating nearly 30% more output power than unpeeled harvesters. The demonstrated generic batch processing shows a pragmatic way of peeling off a whole silicon circuitry after conventional fabrication on bulk silicon wafers for extremely deformable high performance integrated electronics. In summary, by using a novel, low cost process, this work has successfully integrated existing and highly developed fabrication techniques to introduce a flexible energy harvester for sustainable applications.

  3. Fast Flexible Transistors with a Nanotrench Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Ling, Tao; Gong, Shaoqin; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Alice L.; Guo, L. Jay; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-04-01

    The simplification of fabrication processes that can define very fine patterns for large-area flexible radio-frequency (RF) applications is very desirable because it is generally very challenging to realize submicron scale patterns on flexible substrates. Conventional nanoscale patterning methods, such as e-beam lithography, cannot be easily applied to such applications. On the other hand, recent advances in nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) may enable the fabrication of large-area nanoelectronics, especially flexible RF electronics with finely defined patterns, thereby significantly broadening RF applications. Here we report a generic strategy for fabricating high-performance flexible Si nanomembrane (NM)-based RF thin-film transistors (TFTs), capable of over 100 GHz operation in theory, with NIL patterned deep-submicron-scale channel lengths. A unique 3-dimensional etched-trench-channel configuration was used to allow for TFT fabrication compatible with flexible substrates. Optimal device parameters were obtained through device simulation to understand the underlying device physics and to enhance device controllability. Experimentally, a record-breaking 38 GHz maximum oscillation frequency fmax value has been successfully demonstrated from TFTs with a 2 μm gate length built with flexible Si NM on plastic substrates.

  4. Fast Flexible Transistors with a Nanotrench Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Ling, Tao; Gong, Shaoqin; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Alice L; Guo, L Jay; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-04-20

    The simplification of fabrication processes that can define very fine patterns for large-area flexible radio-frequency (RF) applications is very desirable because it is generally very challenging to realize submicron scale patterns on flexible substrates. Conventional nanoscale patterning methods, such as e-beam lithography, cannot be easily applied to such applications. On the other hand, recent advances in nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) may enable the fabrication of large-area nanoelectronics, especially flexible RF electronics with finely defined patterns, thereby significantly broadening RF applications. Here we report a generic strategy for fabricating high-performance flexible Si nanomembrane (NM)-based RF thin-film transistors (TFTs), capable of over 100 GHz operation in theory, with NIL patterned deep-submicron-scale channel lengths. A unique 3-dimensional etched-trench-channel configuration was used to allow for TFT fabrication compatible with flexible substrates. Optimal device parameters were obtained through device simulation to understand the underlying device physics and to enhance device controllability. Experimentally, a record-breaking 38 GHz maximum oscillation frequency fmax value has been successfully demonstrated from TFTs with a 2 μm gate length built with flexible Si NM on plastic substrates.

  5. Comparative void-volume analysis of psychrophilic and mesophilic enzymes: Structural bioinformatics of psychrophilic enzymes reveals sources of core flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bystroff Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychrophiles, cold-adapted organisms, have adapted to live at low temperatures by using a variety of mechanisms. Their enzymes are active at cold temperatures by being structurally more flexible than mesophilic enzymes. Even though, there are some indications of the possible structural mechanisms by which psychrophilic enzymes are catalytic active at cold temperatures, there is not a generalized structural property common to all psychrophilic enzymes. Results We examine twenty homologous enzyme pairs from psychrophiles and mesophiles to investigate flexibility as a key characteristic for cold adaptation. B-factors in protein X-ray structures are one way to measure flexibility. Comparing psychrophilic to mesophilic protein B-factors reveals that psychrophilic enzymes are more flexible in 5-turn and strand secondary structures. Enzyme cavities, identified using CASTp at various probe sizes, indicate that psychrophilic enzymes have larger average cavity sizes at probe radii of 1.4-1.5 Å, sufficient for water molecules. Furthermore, amino acid side chains lining these cavities show an increased frequency of acidic groups in psychrophilic enzymes. Conclusions These findings suggest that embedded water molecules may play a significant role in cavity flexibility, and therefore, overall protein flexibility. Thus, our results point to the important role enzyme flexibility plays in adaptation to cold environments.

  6. Moscow Black Markets and Official Markets for Foreign Exchange: How Much Flexiblity in Flexible Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, L S

    1992-01-01

    Flexible exchange-rate systems often are not recommended for countries undergoing economic transition. In late 1989, the former Soviet Union instituted exchange-rate flexibility on the limited share of enterprise international transactions channelled through the auction and. later, interbank markets for foreign-currency trade. This paper details the regulatory evolution of this system and analyses the impact of announced and implemented policy initiatives on two sets of flexible exchange rate...

  7. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE-LINK AND FLEXIBLE-JOINT ROBOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ding-guo; ZHOU Sheng-feng

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic modeling and simulation of an N-flexible-link and N-flexiblejoint robot is reported. Each flexible joint is modeled as a linearly elastic torsional spring and the approach of assumed modes is adopted to describe the deformation of the flexiblelink. The complete governing equations of motion of the flexible-link-joint robots are derived via Kane's method. An illustrative example is given to validate the algorithm presented and to show the effects of flexibility on the dynamics of robots.

  8. Increasing flexibility of assets. Transition to flexible assets; Die steigende Bedeutung der Kraftwerksparkflexibilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumueller, Adolf; Moik, Albert [EVN AG, Maria Enzersdorf (Austria); Rall, Hueseyin [STEAG GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For the Energiewende flexibility is the key for the security of supply during the transition to an energy system based on renewables as well as for balancing the volatile generation in a renewable energy system. Storage is an integral module for delivering the flexibility needed by the future power system. Remaining R and D for storages and significant concession and building time for pump storage power plants lead to a time gap until storage is able to bear the brunt of delivering flexibility. The efficient and effective during the transition phase is the use of existing flexible power plants.

  9. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  10. Influence of membrane composition on its flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbelli, B.B.; Teixeira da Silva, E.R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Oliveira, E.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Lamellar phases and vesicles composed of lipids have been used as model systems to investigate biological process related to cell membrane as well as promising carriers for drugs and gene therapy. The composition of the membrane determines its three dimensional shape and its properties such as rigidity and compressibility which play an important role on membrane fusion, protein adhesion, interactions between proteins, etc. We present systematic study of a lamellar system composed mainly of lecithin which is a biocompatible phospholipid and simusol, which is a mixture of fatty acids that acts as a cosurfactant introducing flexibility to the membrane. Using X ray scattering we determine the lamellar periodicity as a function of the hydration for different formulations of the membrane; ranging from 100 % to 50 % mass fraction of lecithin. The X-ray spectra are fitted using a 4 Gaussian model [1]that allows us to determine the lamellar periodicity and the Caille parameter [2]. The ideal swelling law relating the membrane volume fraction ({phi}{sub m}) to the lamellar periodicity (D) is given by {phi}{sub m} ={delta}{sub m}/D, where {delta}{sub m} is the thickness membrane, however, when steric interactions are dominant with respect to electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, deviations from this behavior are expected [3]. We present experimental data illustrating the swelling behavior for the membrane compositions and the respective behavior of the hydration limit, membrane Luzzati [4], of the Caille parameter and qualitative interpretation of the interaction forces the systems studying the parameter membrane square amplitude fluctuation[5]. [1] Private communication with Prof. Dr. Cristiano Luis Pinto de Oliveira. [2] Caille A. et all, Acad. Sci. Paris B274 (1972) 891. [3] E. Kurtisovski et all, PRL 98, 258103 (2007). [4] Nagle et all, Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2000 Aug;10(4):474-80. [5] H. I. Petrache. Structure and interactions of fluid phospholipids

  11. The Measurement of Internal (Intra-Article) Reading Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Earl F.; Hess, Allen K.

    The effects of training on internal reading flexibility (intra-article flexibility) and the relationships between such flexibility and overall reading speed, reading comprehension, anxiety level, and introversion-extraversion were investigated. Flexibility coefficients were computed before and after training for the total group of 255 college…

  12. Organizing for Flexibility: Addressing Dynamic Capabilities and Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Weerdt, Niels; Volberda, Henk; Verwaal, Ernst; Stienstra, Marten

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly dynamic nature of organizational environments has led the research community to study organizational flexibility. Although the research literature stresses the complexity of the organizational flexibility construct, it lacks a comprehensive empirical study addressing the relationships among various dimensions of organizational flexibility. This chapter develops a theoretical framework specifying the linkages between types of flexibility and organization design characteristics...

  13. Skill Flexibility among Schoolteachers: Operationalization and Organizational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Zehava; Inbal, Batia

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of skill flexibility on Israeli secondary teachers' work attitudes and job performance. Both role and functional flexibility were associated with improved teachers' work performance; role flexibility is linked to high organizational commitment and low powerlessness. Principals appreciate skill flexibility, but organizational…

  14. Becoming more systematic about flexible learning: Beyond time and distance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Wim; Collis, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Changes in higher education frequently involve the need for more flexibility in course design and delivery. Flexibility is a concept that can be operationalized in many ways. One approach to conceptualizing flexibility within courses is to distinguish planning-type flexibility, which the instructor

  15. Flexible Labour Strategy in the Dutch Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Maarten; Leede, de Jan

    2001-01-01

    Labour flexibility is a major way for companies to become more flexible. Why companies use flexible labour relations varies widely per industry. We assess the development of labour flexibility within the Dutch automotive industry. Four cases, together representing the production chain, are presented

  16. Becoming More Systematic about Flexible Learning: Beyond Time and Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Wim; Collis, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Changes in higher education frequently involve the need for more flexibility in course design and delivery. Flexibility is a concept that can be operationalized in many ways. One approach to conceptualizing flexibility within courses is to distinguish planning-type flexibility, which the instructor can designate before the course begins and which…

  17. Flexible labour strategy in the Dutch automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riemsdijk, Maarten; de Leede, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Labour flexibility is a major way for companies to become more flexible. Why companies use flexible labour relations varies widely per industry. We assess the development of labour flexibility within the Dutch automotive industry. Four cases, together representing the production chain, are

  18. Fault-based analysis of flexible ciphers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I.Korjik

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider security of some flexible ciphers against differential fault analysis (DFA. We present a description of the fault-based attack on two kinds of the flexible ciphers. The first kind is represented by the fast software-oriented cipher based on data-dependent subkey selection (DDSS, in which flexibility corresponds to the use of key-dependent operations. The second kind is represented by a DES-like cryptosystem GOST with secrete S-boxes. In general, the use of some secrete operations and procedures contributes to the security of the cryptosystem, however degree of this contribution depends significantly on the structure of the encryption mechanism. It is shown how to attack the DDSS-based flexible cipher using DFA though this cipher is secure against standard variants of the differential and linear cryptanalysis. We also give an outline of ciphers RC5 and GOST showing that they are also insecure against DFA-based attack. We suggest also a modification of the DDSS mechanism and a variant of the advanced DDSS-based flexible cipher that is secure against attacks based on random hardware faults.

  19. The value of flexibility in conservation financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Gareth D; Fargione, Joseph; Spector, Sacha; Williams, Gwyn; Armsworth, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Land-acquisition strategies employed by conservation organizations vary in their flexibility. Conservation-planning theory largely fails to reflect this by presenting models that are either extremely inflexible-parcel acquisitions are irreversible and budgets are fixed-or extremely flexible-previously acquired parcels can readily be sold. This latter approach, the selling of protected areas, is infeasible or problematic in many situations. We considered the value to conservation organizations of increasing the flexibility of their land-acquisition strategies through their approach to financing deals. Specifically, we modeled 2 acquisition-financing methods commonly used by conservation organizations: borrowing and budget carry-over. Using simulated data, we compared results from these models with those from an inflexible fixed-budget model and an extremely flexible selling model in which previous acquisitions could be sold to fund new acquisitions. We then examined 3 case studies of how conservation organizations use borrowing and budget carry-over in practice. Model comparisons showed that borrowing and budget carry-over always returned considerably higher rewards than the fixed-budget model. How they performed relative to the selling model depended on the relative conservation value of past acquisitions. Both the models and case studies showed that incorporating flexibility through borrowing or budget carry-over gives conservation organizations the ability to purchase parcels of higher conservation value than when budgets are fixed without the problems associated with the selling of protected areas. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Global Analysis of a Flexible Riser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Sun; Bo Qi

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical performance of a flexible riser is more outstanding than other risers in violent environmental conditions.Based on the lumped mass method,a steep wave flexible riser configuration attached to a Floating Production Storage and Offloading(FPSO)has been applied to a global analysis in order to acquire the static and dynamic behavior of the flexible riser.The riser was divided into a series of straight massless line segments with a node at each end.Only the axial and torsional properties of the line were modeled,while the mass,weight,and buoyancy were all lumped to the nodes.Four different buoyancy module lengths have been made to demonstrate the importance of mode selection,so as to confirm the optimum buoyancy module length.The results in the sensitivity study show that the flexible riser is not very sensitive to the ocean current,and the buoyancy module can reduce the Von Mises stress and improve the mechanical performance of the flexible riser.Shorter buoyancy module length can reduce the riser effective tension in a specific range of the buoyancy module length when other parameters are constant,but it can also increase the maximum curvature of the riser.As a result,all kinds of the riser performances should be taken into account in order to select the most appropriate buoyancy module length.

  1. Laser patterning of highly conductive flexible circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Seok Young; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Kim, Taehun; Chang, Won Seok; Baik, Seunghyun

    2017-04-01

    There has been considerable attention paid to highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) materials as electrodes and interconnectors for future flexible electronic devices. However, the patterning technology still needs to be developed to construct micro-scale electrodes and circuits. Here we developed the selective laser sintering technology where the pattering and curing were accomplished simultaneously without making additional masks. The CFA was composed of micro-scale Ag flakes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and a nitrile-butadiene-rubber matrix. The Teflon-coated polyethylene terephthalate film was used as a flexible substrate. The width of lines (50-500 μm) and circuit patterns were controlled by the programmable scanning of a focused laser beam (power = 50 mW, scanning speed = 1 mm s-1). The laser irradiation removed solvent and induced effective coalescence among fillers providing a conductivity as high as 25 012 S cm-1. The conductivity stability was excellent under the ambient air and humid environments. The normalized resistance change of the pattern was smaller than 1.2 at the bending radius of 5 mm. The cyclability and adhesion of the laser-sintered line pattern on the substrate was excellent. A flexible circuit was fabricated sequentially for operating light emitting diodes during the bending motion, demonstrating excellent feasibility for practical applications in flexible electronics.

  2. Intermittent Swimming with a Flexible Propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoz, Emre; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Some animals propel themselves by using an intermittent swimming gait known as a burst-and-glide or a burst-and-coast motion. These swimmers tend to have a more pronounced pitching of their caudal fins than heaving leading to low non-dimensional heave-to-pitch ratios. Recent work has shown that when this ratio is sufficiently low the efficiency of an intermittently heaving/pitching airfoil can be significantly improved over a continuously oscillating airfoil. However, fish that swim with an intermittent gait, such as cod and saithe, do not have rigid fins, but instead have highly flexible fins. To examine the performance and flow structures of an intermittent swimmer with a flexible propulsor, a fast boundary element method solver strongly coupled with a torsional-spring structural model was developed. A self-propelled virtual body combined with a flexible-hinged pitching airfoil is used to model a free-swimming animal and its flexible caudal fin. The duty cycle of the active to the coasting phase of motion, the torsional spring flexibility and the forcing frequency are all varied. The cost-of-transport and the swimming speed are measured and connected to the observed wake patterns. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  3. Flexible barrier technology for enabling rollable AMOLED displays and upscaling flexible OLED lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.M.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Weijer, P. van de; Assche, F. van; Shen, J.; Ellis, T.; Manders, W.; Akkerman, H.; Bouten, P.; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a high performance thin-film barrier is the most critical challenge in upscaling and commercializing flexible OLED products. We report a flexible thin-film-barrier technology that meets lifetime specifications for OLED lighting, and demonstrate it in rollable QVGA a-IGZO AMOLED

  4. Mechanistic modelling of weak interlayers in flexible and semi-flexible road pavements: Part 2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper (Part 2 of a two-part set of papers) discusses models and illustrates the adverse effects of weak layers, interlayers, laminations and/or weak interfaces in flexible and semi-flexible pavements, also incorporating lightly cemented layers...

  5. Flexible Pedagogies: Employer Engagement and Work-Based Learning. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of work-based learners and the types of flexibility that may well enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the…

  6. Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model…

  7. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  8. Acidic deposition ("acid rain")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R. Kent; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Acidic deposition, or "acid rain," describes any form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, with a pH of 5.5 or below (Note: pH values below 7 are acidic; vinegar has a pH of 3). It often results when the acidity of normal precipitation is increased by sulfates and nitrates that are emitted into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. This form of airborne contamination is considered harmful, both directly and indirectly, to a host of plant and animal species.Although acid rain can fall virtually anywhere, ecological damages in environmentally sensitive areas downwind of industrial and urban emissions are a major concern. This includes areas that have a reduced capacity to neutralize acid inputs because of low alkalinity soils and areas that contain species with a low tolerance to acid conditions. To determine the distribution of acidic deposition and evaluate its biological effects, research and monitoring are being conducted by the federal government with support from states, universities, and private industry.            The national extent of the acid rain problem has been estimated by sampling water from 3,000 lakes and 500 streams (Irving 1991), representing more than 28,000 lakes and 56,000 stream reaches with a total of 200,000 km (125,000 mi). Some particularly sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountain region, have been more intensively sampled and the biota examined in detail for effects from acidity.         To identify trends in aquatic ecosystems, present and historical survey data on water chemistry and associated biota are compared. In lakes, the chemical and biological history and pH trends may be inferred or reconstructed in some cases by examining assemblages of fossil diatoms and aquatic invertebrates in the sediment layers. In terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation damage is surveyed and effects of acidic deposition to plants and animals are determined from laboratory and field exposure experiments. Natural

  9. Metal-Phenolic Carbon Nanocomposites for Robust and Flexible Energy-Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun Young; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Young Shik; Choi, Jaeyoo; Youk, Ji Ho; Fechler, Nina; Yang, Seung Jae; Park, Chong Rae

    2017-01-05

    Future electronics applications such as wearable electronics depend on the successful construction of energy-storage devices with superior flexibility and high electrochemical performance. However, these prerequisites are challenging to combine: External forces often cause performance degradation, whereas the trade-off between the required nanostructures for strength and electrochemical performance only results in diminished energy storage. Herein, a flexible supercapacitor based on tannic acid (TA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a unique nanostructure is presented. TA was self-assembled on the surface of the CNTs by metal-phenolic coordination bonds, which provides the hybrid film with both high strength and high pseudocapacitance. Besides 17-fold increased mechanical strength of the final composite, the hybrid film simultaneously exhibits excellent flexibility and volumetric capacitance.

  10. Inkjet printing of flexible high-performance carbon nanotube transparent conductive films by ``coffee ring effect''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Allon; Azoubel, Suzanna; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-09-01

    Transparent and flexible conductors are a major component in many modern optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens for smart phones, displays, and solar cells. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a good alternative to commonly used conductive materials, such as metal oxides (e.g. ITO) for flexible electronics. The production of transparent conductive patterns, and arrays composed of connected CNT ``coffee rings'' on a flexible substrate poly(ethylene terephthalate), has been reported. Direct patterning is achieved by inkjet printing of an aqueous dispersion of CNTs, which self-assemble at the rim of evaporating droplets. After post-printing treatment with hot nitric acid, the obtained TCFs are characterized by a sheet resistance of 156 Ω sq-1 and transparency of 81% (at 600 nm), which are the best reported values obtained by inkjet printing of conductive CNTs. This makes such films very promising as transparent conductors for various electronic devices, as demonstrated by using an electroluminescent device.

  11. Design Space of Flexible Multigigabit LDPC Decoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schläfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multigigabit LDPC decoders are demanded by standards like IEEE 802.15.3c and IEEE 802.11ad. To achieve the high throughput while supporting the needed flexibility, sophisticated architectures are mandatory. This paper comprehensively presents the design space for flexible multigigabit LDPC applications for the first time. The influence of various design parameters on the hardware is investigated in depth. Two new decoder architectures in a 65 nm CMOS technology are presented to further explore the design space. In the past, the memory domination was the bottleneck for throughputs of up to 1 Gbit/s. Our systematic investigation of column- versus row-based partially parallel decoders shows that this is no more a bottleneck for multigigabit architectures. The evolutionary progress in flexible multigigabit LDPC decoder design is highlighted in an extensive comparison of state-of-the-art decoders.

  12. Subsea flexible flowline installation issues and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Flexible flowlines and risers have been increasingly used for deepwater and ultra-deepwater field applications,partially because of its low submerged weight and better dynamic characteristics comparing to rigid pipelines.The offshore installation of flowline may have advantages as well.However,it has special needs for the installation aids,and it is challenging to install tie-in structures due to its low bending stiffness.This paper is to present some of the challenges during a recent flexible installation project with a total of more than 100 km flexible flowlines,and 24 in-line sleds/pipeline end termination(PLET) in water depth up to 1 300 m.

  13. Flexible Electronics Development Supported by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The commercial electronics industry is leading development in most areas of electronics for NASA applications; however, working in partnership with industry and the academic community, results from NASA research could lead to better understanding and utilization of electronic materials by the flexible electronics industry. Innovative ideas explored by our partners in industry and the broader U.S. research community help NASA execute our missions and bring new American products and services to the global technology marketplace. [Mike Gazarik, associate administrator for Space Technology, NASA Headquarters, Washington DC] This presentation provides information on NASA needs in electronics looking towards the future, some of the work being supported by NASA in flexible electronics, and the capabilities of the Glenn Research Center supporting the development of flexible electronics.

  14. Dynamic Scheduling of Flexible Job Shops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAHID Ikramullah Butt; SUN Hou-fang

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this research is to minimize makespan in the flexible job shop environment by the use of genetic algorithms and scheduling rules.Software is developed using genetic algorithms and scheduling rules based on certain constraints such as non-preemption of jobs,recirculation,set up times,non-breakdown of machines etc.Purpose of the software is to develop a schedule for flexible job shop environment,which is a special case of job shop scheduling problem.Scheduling algorithm used in the software is verified and tested by using MT10 as benchmark problem,presented in the flexible job shop environment at the end.LEKIN(R) software results are also compared with results of the developed software by the use of MT10 benchmark problem to show that the latter is a practical software and can be used successfully at BIT Training Workshop.

  15. 3-D Integrated Flexible Glass Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lan; Qiao, Shutao; Zou, Yi; Danto, Sylvain; Richardson, Kathleen; Musgraves, J David; Lu, Nanshu; Hu, Juejun

    2013-01-01

    Photonic integration on plastic substrates enables emerging applications ranging from flexible interconnects to conformal sensors on biological tissues. Such devices are traditionally fabricated using pattern transfer, which is complicated and has limited integration capacity. Here we pioneered a monolithic approach to realize flexible, high-index-contrast glass photonics with significantly improved processing throughput and yield. Noting that the conventional multilayer bending theory fails when laminates have large elastic mismatch, we derived a mechanics theory accounting for multiple neutral axes in one laminated structure to accurately predict its strain-optical coupling behavior. Through combining monolithic fabrication and local neutral axis designs, we fabricated devices that boast record optical performance (Q=460,000) and excellent mechanical flexibility enabling repeated bending down to sub-millimeter radius without measurable performance degradation, both of which represent major improvements over...

  16. Implications of resistance exercise practice to flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Eri Shiromoto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the degrees of flexibility in resistance exercise practitioners before and after a period of six months and verify the relationship between the data and the individuals’ life style. A descriptive method was used for a sample of 46 individuals from Action Academia de Maringá – Pr. The data were collected in Sptember / 2000 and March / 2001 through their frequency and evaluation files and also a goniometer to check the ischia extention. Through the ‘t’ test a significant increase in both male and female flexibility was observed. The style of life and profession may interfere in a negative way although the regular and simultaneous practice of resistance and stretching exercises seem to be a predominant factor in developing flexibility and in physical aptitude favourable degrees for health and life quality.

  17. Controllability and observability for flexible spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. C.; Skelton, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Current interest in extended sensing and actuation for the control of flexible spacecraft has led to the use of modern multivariable control theory and the associated concepts of controllability and observability. This paper shows how to evaluate these properties on a mode-by-mode basis for flexible spacecraft control analysis. Relatively simple criteria are derived which indicate the degree of controllability (observability) of each mode in simple literal terms. These criteria provide physical insight and practical guidance on the type, number, and positioning of sensors and actuators. The results are interpreted for force and torque actuators, and for attitude and deformation measurements. To illustrate these ideas, sample controllability and observability 'surfaces' are presented for the Purdue generic flexible spacecraft model.

  18. Plasma jet printing for flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Singh, Eric; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Nordlund, Dennis; Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics and wearable devices has created a demand for fast and highly repeatable printing processes suitable for device manufacturing. Robust printing technology is critical for the integration of sensors and other devices on flexible substrates such as paper and textile. An atmospheric pressure plasma-based printing process has been developed to deposit different types of nanomaterials on flexible substrates. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were deposited on paper to demonstrate site-selective deposition as well as direct printing without any type of patterning. Plasma-printed nanotubes were compared with non-plasma-printed samples under similar gas flow and other experimental conditions and found to be denser with higher conductivity. The utility of the nanotubes on the paper substrate as a biosensor and chemical sensor was demonstrated by the detection of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and ammonia, respectively.

  19. Analytical and Numerical Modeling for Flexible Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; CHEN Geng

    2011-01-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers,in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties,has been analyzed.Specifically,the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics.The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness.With consideration of the effective elastic moduli,the structure can be properly analyzed.Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated.A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque.Further,the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered.Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed,which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  20. Progress on control experiments of flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    1990-01-01

    Progress at the NASA Langley Research Center in the area of control experiments for flexible structures is described. First the author presents the experimental results for a linear model which represents slewing maneuvers of a generic space station solar panel carried out to evaluate experimentally some control technologies. Then the status of the rotational/translational maneuvering experiment of a flexible steel panel carried by a translation cart is presented. Finally, experimental results of the NASA minimast testbed using velocity command stepper motors as reaction mass reactors are shown. All the test configurations are briefly described, including actuator and sensor, test setup, and test software. The status of some research activities oriented primarily to the experimental methods for control of flexible structures is presented.

  1. Plasma jet printing for flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Singh, Eric; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M. [Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Recent interest in flexible electronics and wearable devices has created a demand for fast and highly repeatable printing processes suitable for device manufacturing. Robust printing technology is critical for the integration of sensors and other devices on flexible substrates such as paper and textile. An atmospheric pressure plasma-based printing process has been developed to deposit different types of nanomaterials on flexible substrates. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were deposited on paper to demonstrate site-selective deposition as well as direct printing without any type of patterning. Plasma-printed nanotubes were compared with non-plasma-printed samples under similar gas flow and other experimental conditions and found to be denser with higher conductivity. The utility of the nanotubes on the paper substrate as a biosensor and chemical sensor was demonstrated by the detection of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and ammonia, respectively.

  2. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  3. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either.

  4. Printed electronic on flexible and glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, Konrad; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kozioł, Grażyna

    2010-09-01

    Organic electronics is a platform technology that enables multiple applications based on organic electronics but varied in specifications. Organic electronics is based on the combination of new materials and cost-effective, large area production processes that provide new fields of application. Organic electronic by its size, weight, flexibility and environmental friendliness electronics enables low cost production of numerous electrical components and provides for such promising fields of application as: intelligent packaging, low cost RFID, flexible solar cells, disposable diagnostic devices or games, and printed batteries [1]. The paper presents results of inkjetted electronics elements on flexible and glass substrates. The investigations was target on characterizing shape, surface and geometry of printed structures. Variety of substrates were investigated, within some, low cost, non specialized substrate, design for other purposes than organic electronic.

  5. Flexible Developing System for Modern Instrument Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The modern instrument manufacturing has many features, such as high technologies, multiple varieties and small quantities. Aiming at those features, an instrumentation flexible developing system (IFDS) is presented. It constitutes a kind of opening, compatible, extensible and upgradeable flexible developing system, and it will offer a kind of technology equipment for the research and development of new modern instrument products. Its flexible mechanism is able to be suited for different and special requirements of many instrument systems, and its system integrated mechanism is able to adapt to common technological features of most instrument systems. It is IFDS that makes it easy to accomplish a quick system integration of instrument products. IFDS solves key technological problems related to modern instruments development, develops multiple systems for modern instrument development and accomplishes rapid development of series of new products.

  6. The influence of strength, flexibility, and simultaneous training on flexibility and strength gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Roberto; Lemos, Adriana; Salles, Belmiro; Leite, Thalita; Oliveira, Élida; Rhea, Matthew; Reis, Victor Machado

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and flexibility gains after isolated or simultaneous strength and flexibility training after 16 weeks. Eighty sedentary women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength training (ST; n = 20), flexibility training (FLEX) (n = 20), combination of both (ST + FLEX; n = 20) and control group (CG; n = 20). All the groups performed pre and posttraining sit and reach test to verify the flexibility level and 10RM test for leg press and bench press exercises. The training protocol for all groups, except for the CG, included 3 weekly sessions, in alternated days, totaling 48 sessions. Strength training was composed of 8 exercises for upper and lower body, executed in 3 sets of periodized training. The flexibility training was composed of static stretching exercises that involved upper and lower body. Results showed that ST (30 ± 2.0 to 36 ± 3.0 cm), ST + FLEX (31 ± 1.0 to 42 ± 4.0 cm), and FLEX (32 ± 3.0 to 43 ± 2.0 cm) significantly increased in flexibility in relation to baseline and to CG (30 ± 2.0 to 30 ± 2.0 cm); however, no significant differences were observed between the treatment conditions. Strength tests demonstrated that ST and ST + FLEX significantly increased 10RM when compared to baseline, FLEX, and the CG. In conclusion, short-term strength training increases flexibility and strength in sedentary adult women. Strength training may contribute to the development and maintenance of flexibility even without the inclusion of additional stretching, but strength and flexibility can be prescribed together to get optimal improvements in flexibility.

  7. On the concept of flexibility: A dual control perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuw, T; Volberda, Henk

    1996-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational flexibility has recently received much attention from researchers, management consultants and practitioners. In general, the term 'flexibility' has a positive connotation: flexible organizations are the better ones. However, the meaning of flexibility as well as its relation to the functioning of an organization is still ambiguous. This article develops a systematic and multidimensional picture of flexibility on the basis of views taken from the systems theory of co...

  8. Influence of temperature on characteristics properties of flexible coupling

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The presented article deals with issue of characteristics changes of flexible shaft couplings used in drive systems of transport devices (dynamic torsional stiffness and damping coefficient) which is caused by influence of increase or decrease of flexible elements temperature. The influence is presented on a unit and percentage change of dynamic characteristics of four selected flexible couplings with rubber, plastic and pneumatic flexible elements. Identification of influence of flexible ele...

  9. Human resource flexibility and job satisfaction: empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Administració d’Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 Flexibility is every day more important for organizations due to the environmental changes. One way for organization to get that flexibility is through human resources flexibility, so this is becoming essential for organizations. The main aim of this study is to examine the effects of flexible human resources practices, specifically quantitative flexibility, on job satisfaction. We will do ...

  10. Movable MEMS Devices on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sally

    2013-05-05

    Flexible electronics have gained great attention recently. Applications such as flexible displays, artificial skin and health monitoring devices are a few examples of this technology. Looking closely at the components of these devices, although MEMS actuators and sensors can play critical role to extend the application areas of flexible electronics, fabricating movable MEMS devices on flexible substrates is highly challenging. Therefore, this thesis reports a process for fabricating free standing and movable MEMS devices on flexible silicon substrates; MEMS flexure thermal actuators have been fabricated to illustrate the viability of the process. Flexure thermal actuators consist of two arms: a thin hot arm and a wide cold arm separated by a small air gap; the arms are anchored to the substrate from one end and connected to each other from the other end. The actuator design has been modified by adding etch holes in the anchors to suit the process of releasing a thin layer of silicon from the bulk silicon substrate. Selecting materials that are compatible with the release process was challenging. Moreover, difficulties were faced in the fabrication process development; for example, the structural layer of the devices was partially etched during silicon release although it was protected by aluminum oxide which is not attacked by the releasing gas . Furthermore, the thin arm of the thermal actuator was thinned during the fabrication process but optimizing the patterning and etching steps of the structural layer successfully solved this problem. Simulation was carried out to compare the performance of the original and the modified designs for the thermal actuators and to study stress and temperature distribution across a device. A fabricated thermal actuator with a 250 μm long hot arm and a 225 μm long cold arm separated by a 3 μm gap produced a deflection of 3 μm before silicon release, however, the fabrication process must be optimized to obtain fully functioning

  11. Control of nonlinear flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjun

    With the advances made in computer technology and efficiency of numerical algorithms over last decade, the MPC strategies have become quite popular among control community. However, application of MPC or GPC to flexible space structure control has not been explored adequately in the literature. The work presented in this thesis primarily focuses on application of GPC to control of nonlinear flexible space structures. This thesis is particularly devoted to the development of various approximate dynamic models, design and assessment of candidate controllers, and extensive numerical simulations for a realistic multibody flexible spacecraft, namely, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)---a Prometheus class of spacecraft proposed by NASA for deep space exploratory missions. A stable GPC algorithm is developed for Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. An end-point weighting (penalty) is used in the GPC cost function to guarantee the nominal stability of the closed-loop system. A method is given to compute the desired end-point state from the desired output trajectory. The methodologies based on Fake Algebraic Riccati Equation (FARE) and constrained nonlinear optimization, are developed for synthesis of state weighting matrix. This makes this formulation more practical. A stable reconfigurable GPC architecture is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated on both aircraft as well as spacecraft model. A representative in-orbit maneuver is used for assessing the performance of various control strategies using various design models. Different approximate dynamic models used for analysis include linear single body flexible structure, nonlinear single body flexible structure, and nonlinear multibody flexible structure. The control laws evaluated include traditional GPC, feedback linearization-based GPC (FLGPC), reconfigurable GPC, and nonlinear dissipative control. These various control schemes are evaluated for robust stability and robust performance in the presence of

  12. Flexible method for Boolean information retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salton, G.; Wu, H.

    1983-01-01

    A new flexible retrieval system is described which makes it possible to relax the strict conditions of Boolean query logic thereby retrieving useful items that are rejected in a conventional retrieval situation. The query structure inherent in the Boolean system is preserved, while at the same time weighted terms may be incorporated into both queries and stored documents; the retrieved output can also be ranked in strict similarity order with the user queries. A conventional retrieval system can be modified to make use of the flexible metric system. Laboratory tests indicate that the extended system produces better retrieval output than either the Boolean or the vector processing systems. 11 references.

  13. Fabrication of SWCNT based flexible chemiresistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Mayank; Kaur, Rajvinder; Das, S.; Kumar, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Carboxyl (-COOH) functionalized SWCNT chemiresistors have been realized on Kapton substrate patterned with Au microelectrodes by the drop casting of functionalized SWCNT dispersion in DI water. I-V measurements on fabricated chemiresistor showed ohmic behavior at different temperatures (25°C-120°C). The effect of bending on flexible functionalized SWCNT chemiresistor for different diameter has been measured. It has been found that bending at different radius of curvature doesn't change the ohmic behavior of fabricated chemiresistor. Achieved results are promising for cheap flexible electronic devices.

  14. ANFIS Modelling of Flexible Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. M. Al-Khafaji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an investigation into the performance of system identification using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS technique for the dynamic modelling of a twodimensional flexible plate structure. It is confirmed experimentally, using National Instrumentation (NI Data Acquisition System (DAQ and flexible plate test rig that ANFIS can be effectively used for modelling the system with highly accurate results. The accuracy of the modelling results is demonstrated through validation tests including training and test validation and correlation tests.

  15. Adaptive Fuzzy Attitude Control of Flexible Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Ping; LIU Xiang-dong; CHEN Jia-bin

    2005-01-01

    The adaptive fuzzy control is applied in the attitude stabilization of flexible satellite. The detailed design procedure of the adaptive fuzzy control system is presented. Two T-S models are used as both controller and identifier. The parameters of the controller could be modified according to the information of the identifier. Simulation results show that the method can effectively cope with the uncertainty of flexible satellite by on-line learning and thus posses the good robustness. With the proposed method, the precise attitude control is accomplished.

  16. Flexible input, dazzling output with IBM i

    CERN Document Server

    Victória-Pereira, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Link your IBM i system to the modern business server world! This book presents easier and more flexible ways to get data into your IBM i system, along with rather surprising methods to export and present the vital business data it contains. You'll learn how to automate file transfers, seamlessly connect PC applications with your RPG programs, and much more. Input operations will become more flexible and user-proof, with self-correcting import processes and direct file transfers that require a minimum of user intervention. Also learn novel ways to present information: your DB2 data will look gr

  17. Innovation in wearable and flexible antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleel, Haider

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the design, numerical simulation, state of the art fabrication processes and methods, qualitative and quantitative tests, and measurement techniques of wearable and flexible antennas of different topologies, such as: Planar Inverted F, Printed Monopoles, Micropoles and Microstrips. Novel trends, materials, and fabrication and measurement techniques used in this vital field of antenna systems are also discussed.To the best of the editor's knowledge, at the time of publication, there are no published books targeting the vital topic of flexible antennas specifically and/or se

  18. System Reduction and Damping of Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of flexible structures such as cable-stayed bridges, pedestrian bridges and high-rise buildings are fitted with local dampers to mitigate vibration problems. In principle the effect of local dampers can be analyzed by use of complex modes, e.g. in conjunction with an averaging...... frequency - containing the resulting modal damping via the imaginary part - is given by an explicit formula. For very flexible structures, e.g. cables, only moderate damping is involved, and the explicit approximation is very accurate. However, even for stiffer structures the explicit form gives a quite...

  19. Flexible robotics applications to multiscale manipulations

    CERN Document Server

    Grossard , Mathieu; Regnier, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide those interested in the field of flexible robotics with an overview of several scientific and technological advances in the practical field of robotic manipulation. The different chapters examine various stages that involve a number of robotic devices, particularly those designed for manipulation tasks characterized by mechanical flexibility. Chapter 1 deals with the general context surrounding the design of functionally integrated microgripping systems. Chapter 2 focuses on the dual notations of modal commandability and observability, which play a sig

  20. Flexible alternatives to constant frequency systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Wilson, John

    The use of hybrid systems in which variable frequency is used as generated, with a proportion being converted to constant frequency by electronic conversion, is examined as a flexible alternative to constant frequency systems. Here, some practical solutions to the technical issues raised by adopting the more flexible approach to electrical system generation are presented. In particular, attention is given to the frequency ranges used, impact on aircraft equipment, motor-driven equipment, transformer rectifier units, lighting, and avionics. The discussion also covers fan-assisted galley ovens, system architecture, special airworthiness requirements, and power quality.

  1. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  2. Flexibility of the genetic code with respect to DNA structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baisnée, P. F.; Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    Motivation. The primary function of DNA is to carry genetic information through the genetic code. DNA, however, contains a variety of other signals related, for instance, to reading frame, codon bias, pairwise codon bias, splice sites and transcription regulation, nucleosome positioning and DNA...... structure. Here we study the relationship between the genetic code and DNA structure and address two questions. First, to which degree does the degeneracy of the genetic code and the acceptable amino acid substitution patterns allow for the superimposition of DNA structural signals to protein coding...... sequences? Second, is the origin or evolution of the genetic code likely to have been constrained by DNA structure? Results. We develop an index for code flexibility with respect to DNA structure. Using five different di- or tri-nucleotide models of sequence-dependent DNA structure, we show...

  3. Drag Coefficient of Thin Flexible Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Gurram, Harika

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of drag coefficients of thin flexible cylindrical wires are described for the Reynolds number range between 250 - 1000. Results indicate that the coefficient values are about 20 to 30 percent lower than the reported laminar flow values for rigid cylinders. Possible fluid dynamics mechanism causing the reduction in drag will be discussed.

  4. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices.

  5. Stiffness Formulation of Flexible Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Larsen, Kim André

    The response of offshore wind turbines e.g. static, eigen frequencies and eigen modes, are affected by elastic properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The Elastic Macro Model is developed to evaluate the soil-structure interaction of flexible bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines so...

  6. II Conferencia internacional de pavimentos flexibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn la semana del 7 al 12 de agosto pasado tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Ann Arbor, Estado de Michigan (EE. UU., la II Conferencia Internacional de Pavimentos Flexibles, dedicada especialmente a los métodos teóricos y experimentales de dimensionamiento y refuerzo de este tipo de pavimentos.

  7. FAME - A Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    applications within medicine and describes a public domain implementation, namely the Flexible Appearance Modelling Environment (FAME). We give guidelines for the use of this research platform, and show that the optimisation techniques used renders it applicable to interactive medical applications. To increase....... Source code and annotated data sets needed to reproduce the results are put in the public domain for further investigation....

  8. Flexible robot control: Modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Irving J.; Shimoyama, Isao

    1989-01-01

    Described here is a model and its use in experimental studies of flexible manipulators. The analytical model uses the equivalent of Rayleigh's method to approximate the displaced shape of a flexible link as the static elastic displacement which would occur under end rotations as applied at the joints. The generalized coordinates are thereby expressly compatible with joint motions and rotations in serial link manipulators, because the amplitude variables are simply the end rotations between the flexible link and the chord connecting the end points. The equations for the system dynamics are quite simple and can readily be formulated for the multi-link, three-dimensional case. When the flexible links possess mass and (polar moment of) inertia which are small compared to the concentrated mass and inertia at the joints, the analytical model is exact and displays the additional advantage of reduction in system dimension for the governing equations. Four series of pilot tests have been completed. Studies on a planar single-link system were conducted at Carnegie-Mellon University, and tests conducted at Toshiba Corporation on a planar two-link system were then incorporated into the study. A single link system under three-dimensional motion, displaying biaxial flexure, was then tested at Carnegie-Mellon.

  9. Simulation of Flexible Objects in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Andreas Rune; Petersen, Henrik Gordon; Willatzen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present what appears to be the first simulation model for grasping of flexible bodies based on the three-dimensional elastic constitutive relations and Newton's Second Law for solids known as the Navier-Cauchy equations. We give an overview of the most important equations for st...

  10. Passivity Motivated Controller Design for Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-18

    theoretical approach to the control of systems containing lumped joint flexibility is based on the exact linearization method. for a summary see [4...feedforward compensation (for the exact linearization ) and the feedback stabilization are intertwined and errors in the feedforward may affect the closed loop

  11. Flexible Interior-Impression-Molding Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1991-01-01

    Device used inside combustion chamber of complicated shape for nondestructive evaluation of qualities of welds, including such features as offset, warping, misalignment of parts, and dropthrough. Includes flexible polypropylene tray trimmed to fit desired interior surface contour. Two neodymium boron magnets and inflatable bladder attached to tray. Tray and putty inserted in cavity to make mold of interior surface.

  12. On Quantification of Flexibility in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, Matthias A.; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Heussen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    reasonable cost. In this paper, locational flexibility is defined anda unified framework to compare it against forecast uncertaintyis introduced. Both metrics are expressed in terms of rampingrate, power and energy and consider the network constraints.This framework is integrated into the operational...

  13. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...

  14. Cognitive Flexibility in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Salkovskis, Paul M.

    BT for problems such as OCD requires a level of cognitive flexibility (that is the ability to take a different perspective on ones problems). It could be argued that problems in set shifting (by neuropsychological tests) might underpin problems in this area. Two assessments were used (1: percepti...

  15. FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE WITH INTEGRATED SENSOR/ACTUATOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A polymer-based flexible structure with integrated sensing/actuator means is presented. Conventionally, silicon has been used as a piezo-resistive material due to its high gauge factor and thereby high sensitivity to strain changes in a sensor. By using the fact that e.g. an SU-8 based polymer...

  16. Flexible Ligand Docking Using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, René

    2003-01-01

    the most favorable energetic conformation among the large space of possible protein-ligand complexes. Stochastic search methods, such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), can be used to sample large search spaces effectively and is one of the preferred methods for flexible ligand docking. The differential...

  17. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Tomasia, Antoni P

    2013-10-08

    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  18. Creating Genuine Readers with Flexible Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nancy Jo

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how Nancy Jo Lambert, a school librarian, implemented a flexible library schedule at elementary schools in which she worked collaboratively with classroom teachers. After observing students removing bookmarks from the middle of their books in order to turn the books in by the due date or because their fixed library schedule…

  19. Fast flexible electronics with strained silicon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Seo, Jung-Hun; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Zhu, Ye; Celler, George K; Voyles, Paul M; Zhou, Weidong; Lagally, Max G; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fast flexible electronics operating at radio frequencies (>1 GHz) are more attractive than traditional flexible electronics because of their versatile capabilities, dramatic power savings when operating at reduced speed and broader spectrum of applications. Transferrable single-crystalline Si nanomembranes (SiNMs) are preferred to other materials for flexible electronics owing to their unique advantages. Further improvement of Si-based device speed implies significant technical and economic advantages. While the mobility of bulk Si can be enhanced using strain techniques, implementing these techniques into transferrable single-crystalline SiNMs has been challenging and not demonstrated. The past approach presents severe challenges to achieve effective doping and desired material topology. Here we demonstrate the combination of strained- NM-compatible doping techniques with self-sustained-strain sharing by applying a strain-sharing scheme between Si and SiGe multiple epitaxial layers, to create strained print-transferrable SiNMs. We demonstrate a new speed record of Si-based flexible electronics without using aggressively scaled critical device dimensions.

  20. NextFlex Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    and innovators, along with a robust U.S. network of manufacturing nodes, to advance a national flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) manufacturing...methods to scale up today’s FHE laboratory experiments into smart , affordable products. FHE manufacturing en- compasses innovative electronic...The software design tools will encompass multiphysics simulation (e.g., electrical , thermal, mechanical, etc., interactions based on first principles

  1. The flexible nature of unconsicous cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, M.E.; van Gaal, S.; Scholte, H.S.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive signature of unconscious processes is hotly debated recently. Generally, consciousness is thought to mediate flexible, adaptive and goal-directed behavior, but in the last decade unconscious processing has rapidly gained ground on traditional conscious territory. In this study we

  2. Increases in rewards promote flexible behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y Jeremy; Chun, Marvin M

    2011-04-01

    Offering reward for performance can motivate people to perform a task better, but better preparation for one task usually means decreased flexibility to perform different tasks. In six experiments in which reward varied between low and high levels, we found that reward can encourage people to prepare more flexibly for different tasks, but only as it increased from the level on the previous trial. When the same high rewards were offered continuously trial after trial, people were more inclined to simply stick with doing what had worked previously. We demonstrated such enhancements in flexibility in task switching, a difficult visual search task, and an easier priming of pop-out search task, which shows that this effect generalizes from executive tasks to perceptual processes that require relatively little executive control. These findings suggest that relative, transient changes in reward can exert more potent effects on behavioral flexibility than can the absolute amount of reward, whether it consists of money or points in a social competition.

  3. Trajectory Control for Very Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    total airspeed and the classic aircraft longitudinal , lateral, and vertical velocity components are u positive out the nose, v positive out the right...wing flexibility is a secondary and minimal contribution to aircraft longitudinal motion. Using this assumption and the previous assumptions of

  4. Flexible Sensor Network Reprogramming for Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Havinga, P.J.M.; Kuper, J.

    2007-01-01

    Besides the currently realized applications, Wireless Sensor Networks can be put to use in logistics processes. However, doing so requires a level of flexibility and safety not provided by the current WSN software platforms. This paper discusses a logistics scenario, and presents SensorScheme, a run

  5. Higher Education--The Flexible Employment Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill; Ridgley, Clare; Spurgeon, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explored the extent to which policies and practices promoting work-life balance (family friendly policies) have been taken up within the English higher education sector. Responses from 50 higher education institutions show that flexible working practices are more widespread than the formal policies of institutions would suggest. (SLD)

  6. Functional flexibility good for skills development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Functional flexibility, making optimal use of the employee’s capacity to perform different tasks, is positively related to skills development and involvement in decision-making. It may lead to emotional exhaustion, however, if an imbalance exists, such as high job demands combined with a lack of

  7. Flexible biochips for detection of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Schüler, T.; Furthner, F.; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Schoo, H.F.M.; Möllier, R.; Fritzsche, W.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization of biosensors is envisaged by the development of biochips consisting of parallel microarray patterns of binding sites on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon. Thin plastic substrates are promising flexible alternatives because of the possibility for large-area roll-to-roll manu

  8. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance char

  9. Flexible Twin Open Ring Metro WDM Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Kinoshita; Cechan Tian; Satoru Ohdate; Koji Takeguchi; Yasuhiko Aoki

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated a flexible twin open ring WDM network for metro applications. A pair of optical switches in the network keeps the fiber rings open to prevent signal circulation. Traffics are broadcast to every node and selected at the receiving side. Superior transmission and protection switching are proved.

  10. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goclowska; R.J. Crisp; K. Labuschagne

    2012-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of count

  11. End-Point Control of Flexible Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    to develop a universal robot end effector, capable of performing generic manipulation functions. This research focuses on the following advances toward...Tncrease the speed and precision of performing "slew arid touch" tasks by a flexible robot arri and second, to develop a universal robot end effector

  12. Transputer control of a flexible robot link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenuiter, A.C.J.; Reehorst, ter G.; Bakkers, A.W.P.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of transputers in control systems is investigated. This is done by implementing a controller for a flexible robot arm with one degree of freedom on a system consisting of an IBM-AT and four transputers. It is found that a control system with transputers offers a great improvement c

  13. RMB Reform: Flexible, Yet True to Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Signs of a stable recovery are becoming more noticeable in China, especially after the People’s Bank of China, the central bank, decided to proceed with efforts to reform the renminbi (yuan) exchange rate regime and improve the currency’s flexibility.

  14. Flexible Thinking in Foreign Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    オフナー, マーク

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrates the idea of flexible thinking which enables the foreign language student to better cope with communicating in the target language. This type of thinking allows the student to make better use of the foreign language regardless of fluency level, enhancing the learning process.

  15. Framework for Flexible Security in Group Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patrick; Prakash, Atul

    2006-01-01

    The Antigone software system defines a framework for the flexible definition and implementation of security policies in group communication systems. Antigone does not dictate the available security policies, but provides high-level mechanisms for implementing them. A central element of the Antigone architecture is a suite of such mechanisms comprising micro-protocols that provide the basic services needed by secure groups.

  16. Prevention of pulsations caused by flexible risers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid S.P.C; Golliard, J.; Korst, H.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, flexible risers have increasingly been used in the offshore oil and gas industry. In gas applications these risers can generate high amplitude tonal pressure fluctuations when the gas velocity reaches a threshold value. The resulting pressure fluctuations can then cause high

  17. Valuing Flexibility in Career Training Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahanpath, Noel; Neal, Mark; McCormack, Shane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and significance of flexibility in decisions about education and training options. This is done through an examination of the relevance of real options valuation (ROV) to our understanding of educational and training choices. Through this examination, the paper aims to contribute to the…

  18. Movement and stretching imagery during flexibility training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Ineke; Roberts, Jenny

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of movement and stretching imagery on increases in flexibility. Thirty volunteers took part in a 4 week flexibility training programme. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) movement imagery, where participants imagined moving the limb they were stretching; (2) stretching imagery, where participants imagined the physiological processes involved in stretching the muscle; and (3) control, where participants did not engage in mental imagery. Active and passive range of motion around the hip was assessed before and after the programme. Participants provided specific ratings of vividness and comfort throughout the programme. Results showed significant increases in flexibility over time, but no differences between the three groups. A significant relationship was found, however, between improved flexibility and vividness ratings in the movement imagery group. Furthermore, both imagery groups scored significantly higher than the control group on levels of comfort, with the movement imagery group also scoring significantly higher than the stretching imagery group. We conclude that the imagery had stronger psychological than physiological effects, but that there is potential for enhancing physiological effects by maximizing imagery vividness, particularly for movement imagery.

  19. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of count

  20. Flexible spin-orbit torque devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Salahuddin, Sayeef [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10{sup 6} successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Flexible Processes in Project-Centred Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceri, Stefano; Matera, Maristella; Raffio, Alessandro; Spoelstra, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Ceri, S., Matera, M., Raffio, A. & Spoelstra, H. (2007). Flexible Processes in Project-Centred Learning. In E. Duval, R. Klamma, and M. Wolpers (Eds.), European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4753, pp. 463-468. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag

  2. Internationalization:The Key to RMB Flexibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recently,the fast appreciation of the Chinese currency has become a major concern both at home and abroad.Ba Shusong,a researcher with the Development Research Center of the State Council,in a recent article for the 21st Century Business Herald,suggested that the renminbi exchange rate can become more flexible if it is fully internationalized.

  3. Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Krause, Daniel; Herder, Eelco

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Krause, D., & Herder, E. (2008). Flexible Adaptivity in AEHS Using Policies. In W. Nejdl, J. Kay, P. Pu & E. Herder (Eds.), Proceedings Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems 5th International Conference, AH 2008 (pp. 410-415). July 29-August, 1, 2008, Hannover, Germany: Le

  4. Offshore flexibility: marine engineering with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, A.

    1996-12-01

    An overview of the use of polymers for a wide range of applications in the marine environment is presented. The use of polymers in offshore structures, flexible and rigid pipes, in composites (eg fibre reinforced plastic) for pipes and high pressure seawater injection lines, and in wellhead and downhole sealings is described. (UK)

  5. Balancing organization and flexibility in foraging dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Michaelangelo; Ermentrout, Bard; Doiron, Brent

    2010-10-07

    Proper pattern organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. However, in many cases the mechanisms that organize system activity oppose those that support behavioral flexibility. Thus, a balance between pattern organization and pattern flexibility is critically important for overall biological fitness. We study this balance in the foraging strategies of ant colonies exploiting food in dynamic environments. We present discrete time and space simulations of colony activity that uses a pheromone-based recruitment strategy biasing foraging towards a food source. After food relocation, the pheromone must evaporate sufficiently before foraging can shift colony attention to a new food source. The amount of food consumed within the dynamic environment depends non-monotonically on the pheromone evaporation time constant-with maximal consumption occurring at a time constant which balances trail formation and trail flexibility. A deterministic, 'mean field' model of pheromone and foragers on trails mimics our colony simulations. This reduced framework captures the essence of the flexibility-organization balance, and relates optimal pheromone evaporation to the timescale of the dynamic environment. We expect that the principles exposed in our study will generalize and motivate novel analysis across a broad range systems biology.

  6. Flexible neuroendoscopy with laser and microsystem technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huewel, Norbert M.; Urban, Volker; Perneczky, A.

    1994-05-01

    The use of flexible neuroendoscopic techniques in neurosurgical procedures is routinely performed in the spinal canal and in the intracranial subdural space. Treated entities are syringomyelia, tumors with concomitant syrinxes in spinal cord, cystic legions in the subdural and subarachnoid space in the spinal canal as myelomeningoceles.

  7. Flexible biochips for detection of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Schüler, T.; Furthner, F.; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Schoo, H.F.M.; Möllier, R.; Fritzsche, W.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization of biosensors is envisaged by the development of biochips consisting of parallel microarray patterns of binding sites on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon. Thin plastic substrates are promising flexible alternatives because of the possibility for large-area roll-to-roll manu

  8. Flexible frontiers for text division into rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan L. Lacrămă

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original solution for flexible hand-written text division into rows. Unlike the standard procedure, the proposed method avoids the isolated characters extensions amputation and reduces the recognition error rate in the final stage.

  9. Decision models in designing flexible production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florescu Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible production system is a complex whole that raise some issues in terms of its design and in relation to the conditions for implementing it. To implement a flexible production system configuration must be found that satisfies both economic and system performance requirements. The configuration which best meet the objectives of introducing a flexible production system must be sought in the set of alternatives defined and evaluated. In this paper we present a methodology of realising the configuration and complex evaluation of the analyzed system. It will be developed models which generate new alternative configurations, optimization and evaluation models of the performance of the flexible production system. This will create a framework for interactive decision support, user-oriented that can be used by management to solve this selection problem. The applicative character of the study consist in tracking of the technological process in real time using the developed software package on the designed system, based on mathematical models for configuration and optimization of the system.

  10. Cognitive Flexibility in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Salkovskis, Paul M.

    BT for problems such as OCD requires a level of cognitive flexibility (that is the ability to take a different perspective on ones problems). It could be argued that problems in set shifting (by neuropsychological tests) might underpin problems in this area. Two assessments were used (1: percepti...

  11. Tuned mass absorber on a flexible structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2014-01-01

    The classic design of a tuned mass absorber is based on a simple two-mass analogy in which the tuned mass is connected to the structural mass with a spring and a viscous damper. In a flexible multi-degree-of-freedom structure the tuned mass absorber is typically introduced to provide damping of a...

  12. Switch Detection in Preschoolers' Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Huber, Kristina L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    The current study addressed the role of switch detection in cognitive flexibility by testing the effect of transition cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the need to switch or maintain a given task goal) in a cued set-shifting paradigm at 5 years of age. Children performed better, especially on switch trials, when transition cues were combined…

  13. Flexible biochips for detection of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Schüler, T.; Furthner, F.; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Schoo, H.F.M.; Möllier, R.; Fritzsche, W.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization of biosensors is envisaged by the development of biochips consisting of parallel microarray patterns of binding sites on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon. Thin plastic substrates are promising flexible alternatives because of the possibility for large-area roll-to-roll

  14. Probing the microscopic flexibility of DNA from melting temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerald; Essex, Jonathan W.; Neylon, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    The microscopic flexibility of DNA is a key ingredient for understanding its interaction with proteins and drugs but is still poorly understood and technically challenging to measure. Several experimental methods probe very long DNA samples, but these miss local flexibility details. Others mechanically disturb or modify short molecules and therefore do not obtain flexibility properties of unperturbed and pristine DNA. Here, we show that it is possible to extract very detailed flexibility information about unmodified DNA from melting temperatures with statistical physics models. We were able to retrieve, from published melting temperatures, several established flexibility properties such as the presence of highly flexible TATA regions of genomic DNA and support recent findings that DNA is very flexible at short length scales. New information about the nanoscale Na+ concentration dependence of DNA flexibility was determined and we show the key role of ApT and TpA steps when it comes to ion-dependent flexibility and melting temperatures.

  15. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  16. Flexible, transparent electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We prepare thin single-walled carbon nanotube networks on a transparent and flexible substrate with different densities, using a very simple spray method. We measure the electric impedance at different frequencies Z(f) in the frequency range of 40 Hz to 20 GHz using two different methods: a two-probe method in the range up to 110 MHz and a coaxial (Corbino) method in the range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz. We measure the optical absorption and electrical conductivity in order to optimize the conditions for obtaining optimum performance films with both high electrical conductivity and transparency. We observe a square resistance of 1 to 8.5 kΩ for samples showing 65% to 85% optical transmittance, respectively. For some applications, we need flexibility and not transparency: for this purpose, we deposit a thick film of single-walled carbon nanotubes on a flexible silicone substrate by spray method from an aqueous suspension of carbon nanotubes in a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate), thereby obtaining a flexible conducting electrode showing an electrical resistance as low as 200 Ω/sq. When stretching up to 10% and 20%, the electrical resistance increases slightly, recovering the initial value for small elongations up to 10%. We analyze the stretched and unstretched samples by Raman spectroscopy and observe that the breathing mode on the Raman spectra is highly sensitive to stretching. The high-energy Raman modes do not change, which indicates that no defects are introduced when stretching. Using this method, flexible conducting films that may be transparent are obtained just by employing a very simple spray method and can be deposited on any type or shape of surface. PMID:23074999

  17. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2013-10-01

    The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.

  18. Flexible Enantioselectivity of Tryptophanase Attributable to Benzene Ring in Heterocyclic Moiety of D-Tryptophan

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Shimada; Haruka Ozaki

    2012-01-01

    The invariance principle of enzyme enantioselectivity must be absolute because it is absolutely essential to the homochiral biological world. Most enzymes are strictly enantioselective, and tryptophanase is one of the enzymes with extreme absolute enantioselectivity for L-tryptophan. Contrary to conventional knowledge about the principle, tryptophanase becomes flexible to catalyze D-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Since D-amino acids are ordinarily inert or functio...

  19. The effect of flexible spacers on the h-shaped dimesogenic liquid crystalline compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hoon; Lee, Hwan Myoung; Choi, Ok Byung; Lee, Chang Joon [Hoseo Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); So, Bong Keun; Lee, Soo Min [Hannam Univ., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    A homologous series of new H-shaped twin liquid crystal molecules (PPPA-n) with flexible spacers, oxypolymethyleneoxy, has been prepared by esterification of acid chloride of {alpha}, {omega}-bis(2,5-dicar-boxyphenoxy)alkanes with p-phenylphenol. The length of spacer was varied from oxyethyleneoxy (n=2) to oxydecamethyleneoxy (n=10). Their thermodynamic data were measured by differential scanning calorimetry and liquid crystalline properties were investigated by a hot-stage polarizing microscope.

  20. A facile micropatterning method for a highly flexible PEDOT:PSS on SU-8

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-04-17

    We report the micropatterning of conducting polymer on the epoxy-based photoresist to demonstrate fully organic, conducting and flexible electrodes. We show that polystyrene sulfonic acid can be covalently linked to the surface of the photoresist (SU-8) by forming sulfonyl ester at the interfaces. We also present an application of the patterned PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate)/SU-8 to the electroplating of metal electrodes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Flexible MEMS: A novel technology to fabricate flexible sensors and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hongen

    This dissertation presents the design and fabrication techniques used to fabricate flexible MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices. MEMS devices and CMOS(Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) circuits are traditionally fabricated on rigid substrates with inorganic semiconductor materials such as Silicon. However, it is highly desirable that functional elements like sensors, actuators or micro fluidic components to be fabricated on flexible substrates for a wide variety of applications. Due to the fact that flexible substrate is temperature sensitive, typically only low temperature materials, such as polymers, metals, and organic semiconductor materials, can be directly fabricated on flexible substrates. A novel technology based on XeF2(xenon difluoride) isotropic silicon etching and parylene conformal coating, which is able to monolithically incorporate high temperature materials and fluidic channels, was developed at Wayne State University. The technology was first implemented in the development of out-of-plane parylene microneedle arrays that can be individually addressed by integrated flexible micro-channels. These devices enable the delivery of chemicals with controlled temporal and spatial patterns and allow us to study neurotransmitter-based retinal prosthesis. The technology was further explored by adopting the conventional SOI-CMOS processes. High performance and high density CMOS circuits can be first fabricated on SOI wafers, and then be integrated into flexible substrates. Flexible p-channel MOSFETs (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors) were successfully integrated and tested. Integration of pressure sensors and flow sensors based on single crystal silicon has also been demonstrated. A novel smart yarn technology that enables the invisible integration of sensors and electronics into fabrics has been developed. The most significant advantage of this technology is its post-MEMS and post-CMOS compatibility. Various high

  2. Flexible Enantioselectivity of Tryptophanase Attributable to Benzene Ring in Heterocyclic Moiety of D-Tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Shimada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The invariance principle of enzyme enantioselectivity must be absolute because it is absolutely essential to the homochiral biological world. Most enzymes are strictly enantioselective, and tryptophanase is one of the enzymes with extreme absolute enantioselectivity for L-tryptophan. Contrary to conventional knowledge about the principle, tryptophanase becomes flexible to catalyze D-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Since D-amino acids are ordinarily inert or function as inhibitors even though they are bound to the active site, the inhibition behavior of D-tryptophan and several inhibitors involved in this process was examined in terms of kinetics to explain the reason for this flexible enantioselectivity in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate gave tryptophanase a small conformational change so that D-tryptophan could work as a substrate. As opposed to other D-amino acids, D-tryptophan is a very bulky amino acid with a benzene ring in its heterocyclic moiety, and so we suggest that this structural feature makes the catalysis of D-tryptophan degradation possible, consequently leading to the flexible enantioselectivity. The present results not only help to understand the mechanism of enzyme enantioselectivity, but also shed light on the origin of homochirality.

  3. Flexible enantioselectivity of tryptophanase attributable to benzene ring in heterocyclic moiety of d-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    The invariance principle of enzyme enantioselectivity must be absolute because it is absolutely essential to the homochiral biological world. Most enzymes are strictly enantioselective, and tryptophanase is one of the enzymes with extreme absolute enantioselectivity for L-tryptophan. Contrary to conventional knowledge about the principle, tryptophanase becomes flexible to catalyze D-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Since D-amino acids are ordinarily inert or function as inhibitors even though they are bound to the active site, the inhibition behavior of D-tryptophan and several inhibitors involved in this process was examined in terms of kinetics to explain the reason for this flexible enantioselectivity in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate gave tryptophanase a small conformational change so that D-tryptophan could work as a substrate. As opposed to other D-amino acids, D-tryptophan is a very bulky amino acid with a benzene ring in its heterocyclic moiety, and so we suggest that this structural feature makes the catalysis of D-tryptophan degradation possible, consequently leading to the flexible enantioselectivity. The present results not only help to understand the mechanism of enzyme enantioselectivity, but also shed light on the origin of homochirality.

  4. Metabolic Flexibility of Yarrowia lipolytica Growing on Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermeier, Michael; Russmayer, Hannes; Sauer, Michael; Marx, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a fascinating microorganism with an amazing metabolic flexibility. This yeast grows very well on a wide variety of carbon sources from alkanes over lipids, to sugars and glycerol. Y. lipolytica accumulates a wide array of industrially relevant metabolites. It is very tolerant to many environmental factors, above all the pH value. It grows perfectly well over a wide pH range, but it has been described, that the pH has a decisive influence on the metabolite pattern accumulated by this yeast. Here, we set out to characterize the metabolism of different Y. lipolytica strains, isolated from various environments, growing on glycerol at different pH values. The conditions applied for strain characterization are of utmost importance. Shake flask cultures lead to very different results, when compared to controlled conditions in bioreactors regarding pH and aeration. Only one of the tested strains was able to accumulate high amounts of citric acid in shake flask experiments, whereas a group of six strains turned out to accumulate citric acid efficiently under controlled conditions. The present study shows that strains isolated from dairy products predominantly accumulate sugar alcohols at any given pH, when grown on glycerol under nitrogen-limitation. PMID:28174563

  5. Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, Julia; Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

    Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by

  6. Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, Julia; Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by

  7. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance leve

  8. Inertial Vibration Damping of a Flexible Base Manipulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GEORGE, Lynnane E; BOOK, Wayne J

    2003-01-01

    A rigid (micro) robot mounted serially to the tip of a long, flexible (macro) manipulator is often used to increase reach capability, but flexibility in the macromanipulator can make it susceptible to vibration...

  9. Becoming more systematic about flexible learning: beyond time and distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim De Boer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in higher education frequently involve the need for more flexibility in course design and delivery. Flexibility is a concept that can be operationalized in many ways. One approach to conceptualizing flexibility within courses is to distinguish planning-type flexibility, which the instructor can designate before the course begins and which needs to be managed when the course is offered, for interpersonal flexibility, which relates more to the dynamics of the course as it is experienced by the learners. Course management systems (CMSs offer options that can support both of these sorts of flexibility, if instructors use the CMSs with a systematic frame of reference. The instructor faces challenges in managing both types of flexibility, but the experience at one institution shows that being systematic about flexibility choices and ways to support those choices in the institutional CMS can help in meeting these challenges.

  10. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  11. Flexible Modular Scheduling: Results of Evaluations in its Second Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jeri J.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the literature on flexible scheduling (FS), with particular emphasis on flexible modular schedules (FMS), in secondary schools. Analyzes problems with FMS that might have contributed to its declining popularity in the 1970s. An extensive bibliography is appended. (AOS)

  12. Taming molecular flexibility to tackle rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubellis, Maria Vittoria; Baaden, Marc; Andreotti, Giuseppina

    2015-06-01

    Many mutations responsible of Fabry disease destabilize lysosomal alpha-galactosidase, but retain the enzymatic activity. These mutations are associated to a milder phenotype and are potentially curable with a pharmacological therapy either with chaperones or with drugs that modulate proteostasis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of molecular dynamics simulations to correlate the genotype to the severity of the disease. We studied the relation between protein flexibility and residual enzymatic activity of pathological missense mutants in the cell. We found that mutations occurring at flexible sites are likely to retain activity in vivo. The usefulness of molecular dynamics for diagnostic purposes is not limited to lysosomal galactosidase because destabilizing mutations are widely encountered in other proteins, too, and represent a large share of all the ones associated to human diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Flexibility of The Commercial Greenhouse Growers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    The commercial greenhouses can provide energy flexibility with the artificial lighting usage. Therefore, the commercial greenhouse growers can potentially play an important role in the electricity market as providers of flexibility services with the technology and software readiness. This paper...... takes Danish commercial growers and the Nordic regulating market as an example, to investigate the market potential with two business models. One business model is that commercial greenhouse growers directly participate in the regulating market. Another model is rescuing the BRPs’ (Balance Responsible...... Parties) imbalance error. Two calculations are formulated to evaluate the monetary benefits for the commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in both business models. The positive results indicate potential and benefits for the Danish commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in the electricity...

  14. Procedural Optimization Models for Multiobjective Flexible JSSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simona NICOARA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most challenging issues related to manufacturing efficiency occur if the jobs to be sched-uled are structurally different, if these jobs allow flexible routings on the equipments and mul-tiple objectives are required. This framework, called Multi-objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems (MOFJSSP, applicable to many real processes, has been less reported in the literature than the JSSP framework, which has been extensively formalized, modeled and analyzed from many perspectives. The MOFJSSP lie, as many other NP-hard problems, in a tedious place where the vast optimization theory meets the real world context. The paper brings to discussion the most optimization models suited to MOFJSSP and analyzes in detail the genetic algorithms and agent-based models as the most appropriate procedural models.

  15. Flexible parylene-film optical waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, S.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.

    2015-08-01

    Modulation of neuronal activities by light [e.g., laser or light-emitting diode] using optogenetics is a powerful tool for studies on neuronal functions in a brain. Herein, flexible thin-film optical waveguide arrays based on a highly biocompatible material of parylene are reported. Parylene-C and -N thin layers with the different refractive indices form the clad and the core of the waveguide, respectively, and neural recording microelectrodes are integrated to record optical stimuli and electrical recordings simultaneously using the same alignment. Both theoretical and experimental investigations confirm that light intensities of more than 90% can propagate in a bent waveguide with a curvature radius of >5 mm. The proposed flexible thin-film waveguide arrays with microelectrodes can be used for numerous spherical bio-tissues, including brain and spinal cord samples.

  16. Balancing Flexibility and Security in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Helen; Leschke, Janine; Smith, Mark

    ) and 5 (2010) of the European Social Survey (ESS). The study asks how flexibility, security and welfare state configurations interact to influence overall levels of objective security (for example fixed-term contracts, unemployment), subjective job and employment security (employability) among various......This paper examines the relationship between so-called “flexicurity” systems and outcomes on insecurity and well-being for young people (15-34 years) in Europe during the great recession. A key tenet of this approach is that greater flexibility of labour supply is underpinned by a welfare system......, there is a risk that young people tend to experience greater job insecurity – objectively and subjectively – without the benefit of income security or employment security. We focus on objective and subjective insecurity and well-being drawing on data from the work, family and well-being modules in rounds 2 (2004...

  17. Flexible energy harvesting from hard piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents design, multiphysics finite element modeling and experimental validation of a new miniaturized PZT generator that integrates a bulk piezoelectric ceramic onto a flexible platform for energy harvesting from the human body pressing force. In spite of its flexibility, the mechanical structure of the proposed device is simple to fabricate and efficient for the energy conversion. The finite element model involves both mechanical and piezoelectric parts of the device coupled with the electrical circuit model. The energy harvester prototype was fabricated and tested under the low frequency periodic pressing force during 10 seconds. The experimental results show that several nano joules of electrical energy is stored in a capacitor that is quite significant given the size of the device. The finite element model is validated by observing a good agreement between experimental and simulation results. the validated model could be used for optimizing the device for energy harvesting from earcanal deformations.

  18. Supporting Flexible Data Distribution in Software DSMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪锦伟; 陈国良; 张兆庆

    2000-01-01

    Page-based software DSM systems suffer from false sharing caused by the large sharing granularity, and only support one-dimension Block or Cyclic block data distribution schemes. Thus applications running on them will suffer from poor data locality and will be able to exploit parallelism only when using a large number of processors. In this paper, a way towards supporting flexible data distribu tion (FDD) on software DSM system is presented. Small granularity-tunable blocks, the size of which can be set by compiler or programmer, are used to overlap the working data sets distributed among processors. The FDD was implemented on a software DSM system called JIAJiA. Compared with Block/Cyclic-block distribution schemes used by most DSM systems now, experiments show that the proposed way of flexible data distribution is more effective. The performance of the applications used in the experiments is significantly improved.

  19. Drop impact on a flexible fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Dressaire, Emilie; Boulogne, François; Stone, Howard A

    2015-01-01

    When droplets impact fibrous media, the liquid can be captured by the fibers or contact then break away. Previous studies have shown that the efficiency of drop capture by a rigid fiber depends on the impact velocity and defined a threshold velocity below which the drop is captured. However, it is necessary to consider the coupling of elastic and capillary effects to achieve a greater understanding of the capture process for soft substrates. Here, we study experimentally the dynamics of a single drop impacting on a thin flexible fiber. Our results demonstrate that the threshold capture velocity depends on the flexibility of fibers in a non-monotonic way. We conclude that tuning the mechanical properties of fibers can optimize the efficiency of droplet capture.

  20. Flexible Ablators Char Depths LHMEL Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Qu, Vince; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Char and pyrolysis zone depths give physical evidence of peak temperature reached in depth: The pyrolyzing material acts as a temperature indicator within its characteristic thermal decomposition range. A matrix of novel flexible ablators were laser tested in one component of material screening for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing research for future Mars missions. LHMEL tests were run both on virgin materials, and on previously charred materials for a dual pulse simulation of the heating due to aerocapture followed by atmospheric entry. The test models were machined to expose the cross-sections. Char measurements were made at three locations near the center of the exposed area. Data are presented showing the char depths developed in these flexible materials, grouped by reinforcing fiber and pyrolyzing material type.

  1. Is adapting to others codependency or flexibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R; Shearer, R A

    1994-01-01

    1. Many people use the word codependency without understanding its meaning. Codependency should be used to describe behaviors that have developed in a dysfunctional family in which priorities have become unbalanced, and energy is focused on ensuring that everything seems normal from the outside rather than focusing on the needs of individual family members. 2. Codependency may continue into a professional role and result in a manager who has low feelings of self-worth and a strong need for approval from others. 3. Flexibility is different from codependency. A flexible individual has strong and positive feelings of self-worth and is able to listen to opposing points of view and actively listen to others. Change and compromise are possible for this person.

  2. Screen printed UHF antennas on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczek, Kamil; Młożniak, Anna; Kozioł, Grażyna; Araźna, Aneta; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Bajurko, Paweł

    2010-09-01

    Printed electronics belongs to the most important developing electronics technologies. It provides new possibilities to produce low cost and large area devices. In its range several applications can be distinguished like printed batteries, OLED, biosensors, photovoltaic cells or RFID tags. In the presented investigation, antennas working in UHF frequency range were elaborated. It can be applied in the future for flexible RFID tags. To produce these antennas polymer paste with silver flakes was used. It was deposited on two flexible substrates (foil and photo paper) with screen printing techniques. After printing process surface profile, electrical and microwave parameters of performed antennas were measured using digital multimeter and network analyzer, relatively. Furthermore, a thickness of printed layers was measured.

  3. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Joseph R; Flynn, Anita M; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D; Shin, Peter J; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C

    2016-03-10

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners.

  4. Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years of the project. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed. A theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modelling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide a embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  5. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, D. F. [Paul C. Kizzo and Associates Inc., Seismic Structural Group, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Razavi, H. [AREVA Inc., Civil Seismic Group, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  6. Energy Flexibility of The Commercial Greenhouse Growers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    The commercial greenhouses can provide energy flexibility with the artificial lighting usage. Therefore, the commercial greenhouse growers can potentially play an important role in the electricity market as providers of flexibility services with the technology and software readiness. This paper...... Parties) imbalance error. Two calculations are formulated to evaluate the monetary benefits for the commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in both business models. The positive results indicate potential and benefits for the Danish commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in the electricity...... takes Danish commercial growers and the Nordic regulating market as an example, to investigate the market potential with two business models. One business model is that commercial greenhouse growers directly participate in the regulating market. Another model is rescuing the BRPs’ (Balance Responsible...

  7. Flexible tube lattice fibers for terahertz applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, V; Vincetti, L; Argyros, A

    2013-02-11

    In this paper a flexible hollow core waveguide for the terahertz spectral range is demonstrated. Its cladding is composed of a circular arrangement of dielectric tubes surrounded by a heat-shrink jacket that allows the fiber to be flexible. Characterization of straight samples shows that the hollow core allows the absorption caused by the polymethylmethacrylate tubes of the cladding to be reduced by 31 times at 0.375 THz and 272 times at 0.828 THz with respect to the bulk material, achieving losses of 0.3 and 0.16 dB/cm respectively. Bending loss is also experimentally measured and compared to numerical results. For large bending radii bending loss scales as Rb-2, whereas for small bending radii additional resonances between core and cladding appear. The transmission window bandwidth is also shown to shrink as the bending radius is reduced. An analytical model is proposed to predict and quantify both of these bending effects.

  8. Flexible Hardware-Based Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To enable adaptive stereo vision for hardware-based embedded stereo vision systems, we propose a novel technique for implementing a flexible block size, disparity range, and frame rate. By reusing existing resources of a static architecture, rather than dynamic reconfiguration, our technique is compatible with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC as well as field programmable gate array (FPGA implementations. We present the corresponding block diagrams and their implementation in our hardware-based stereo matching architecture. Furthermore, we show the impact of flexible stereo matching on the generated disparity maps for the sum of absolute differences (SADs, rank, and census transform algorithms. Finally, we discuss the resource usage and achievable performance when synthesized for an Altera Stratix II FPGA.

  9. Flexible Hardware-Based Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steininger Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To enable adaptive stereo vision for hardware-based embedded stereo vision systems, we propose a novel technique for implementing a flexible block size, disparity range, and frame rate. By reusing existing resources of a static architecture, rather than dynamic reconfiguration, our technique is compatible with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC as well as field programmable gate array (FPGA implementations. We present the corresponding block diagrams and their implementation in our hardware-based stereo matching architecture. Furthermore, we show the impact of flexible stereo matching on the generated disparity maps for the sum of absolute differences (SADs, rank, and census transform algorithms. Finally, we discuss the resource usage and achievable performance when synthesized for an Altera Stratix II FPGA.

  10. A screen-printed flexible flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, A.; Syrovy, T.; Syrova, L.; Kaltsas, G.

    2017-04-01

    A thermal flow sensor was printed on a flexible plastic substrate using exclusively screen-printing techniques. The presented device was implemented with custom made screen-printed thermistors, which allows simple, cost-efficient production on a variety of flexible substrates while maintaining the typical advantages of thermal flow sensors. Evaluation was performed for both static (zero flow) and dynamic conditions using a combination of electrical measurements and IR imaging techniques in order to determine important characteristics, such as temperature response, output repeatability, etc. The flow sensor was characterized utilizing the hot-wire and calorimetric principles of operation, while the preliminary results appear to be very promising, since the sensor was successfully evaluated and displayed adequate sensitivity in a relatively wide flow range.

  11. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  12. Flexible Software Process Lines in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Ternité, Thomas; Friedrich, Jan

    2016-01-01

    and manage variable software processes, by combining pre-defined and standardized process assets that can be reused, modified, and extended using a well-defined customization approach. Hence, process engineers can ground context-specific process variants in a standardized or domain-specific reference model...... that can be adapted to the respective context. In this article, we present an approach to construct flexible software process lines and show its practical application in the German V-Modell XT. The presented approach emerges from a 10-year research endeavor and was used to enhance the metamodel of the V-Modell......Process flexibility and adaptability is a frequently discussed topic in literature, and several approaches propose techniques to improve and optimize software processes for a given organization- or project context. A software process line (SPrL) is an instrument to systematically construct...

  13. Light trapping for flexible organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonseok; Berger, Jana; Will, Paul-Anton; Soldera, Marcos; Glatz, Bernhard; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Taretto, Kurt; Fery, Andreas; Lasagni, Andrés. Fabián.; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Here we investigate light trapping substrates and electrodes for enhancing the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Their power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be improved by a factor of 1.16 using laser patterned PET substrates and by a factor of 1.13 using commercial, structured display films. Furthermore, we prepare light trapping electrodes using as flexible conductive polymer with embedded TiO2 nanoparticles, improving the PCE by a factor of 1.08 as compared to a neat polymer electrode. However, nano-imprinted conductive polymer electrodes does not provide light trapping effect due to the small size (50 nm) of the structures. Moreover flexible OPV devices, integrating the above light trapping elements, show non-degraded performance after bending tests.

  14. Wave-induced dynamics of flexible blades

    CERN Document Server

    Luhar, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study that describes the motion of flexible blades, scaled to be dynamically similar to natural aquatic vegetation, forced by wave-induced oscillatory flows. For the conditions tested, blade motion is governed primarily by two dimensionless variables: (i) the Cauchy number, $Ca$, which represents the ratio of the hydrodynamic forcing to the restoring force due to blade stiffness, and (ii) the ratio of the blade length to the wave orbital excursion, $L$. For flexible blades with $Ca \\gg 1$, the relationship between drag and velocity can be described by two different scaling laws at the large- and small-excursion limits. For large excursions ($L \\ll 1$), the flow resembles a unidirectional current and the scaling laws developed for steady-flow reconfiguration studies hold. For small excursions ($L \\gg 1$), the beam equations may be linearized and a different scaling law for drag applies. The experimental force measurements suggest that the small-excursion scaling applies...

  15. Multimode FPGA with Flexible Embedded FPUS

    OpenAIRE

    G.Murugaboopathi; S.Hariharasitaraman; Sankar, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Performance of field-programmable gate arrays used for Floating-point applications are poor due to complexity of floating-point arithmetic. Implementing floating-point units on FPGAs consume a large amount of resources. This makes FPGAs less attractive for use in floating-point intensive applications. There is a need for embedded FPUs in FPGAs. We proposed a flexible multimode embedded FPU for FPGAs that can be configured to perform a wide range of operations. The floatingpoint adder and ...

  16. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  17. The Effect of Nonlinearities on Flexible Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    No. 87- 0777-CP, 1987. 4. Nayfeh, A. H. and Sanchez, N. E., ’Global Bifurcations Including Escape for a Softening Duffing Oscillator ", submitted for...biock number FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. _ ?onlinear Oscillations , Flexible structures, Resonances, Attractors, Bifurcations 19. 4 TACT jnt nue on r,.erse it...Excitation of Two Internally Resonant Oscillators ", Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 119, No. 2, 1987. 3 4 2. Zavodney, L D. and Nayfeh, A. H., NThe

  18. Increasing flexibility in rangeland management during drought

    OpenAIRE

    Kachergis, E; Derner, JD; Cutts, BB; Roche, LM; Eviner, VT; Lubell, MN; Tate, KW

    2014-01-01

    Extreme droughts like the recent 2011-2013 drought impacting the central and western United States present a challenge to sustaining livestock ranching operations and the ecosystem goods and services they produce. Wyoming ranchers manage half of this drought-prone state and are at the forefront of this challenge. We examined Wyoming ranchers' drought management strategies and how ranch characteristics affect drought management flexibility, a key component of resilience, through a mail survey....

  19. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  20. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.